Wanneer kon sendingpriesters in Kalifornië bevestig word?

Wanneer kon sendingpriesters in Kalifornië bevestig word?

Die Franciskaanse priesters by die sending in Kalifornië is by die fakulteite bemagtig om sakramente soos die doop en die huwelik uit te voer. 'N Strenger standaard geld in die geval van die fakulteit van bevestiging - dat dit deur biskoppe uitgevoer word. Die biskop van Kalifornië was ontoeganklik ver in Sonora.

In die era van Serra en Lasuen het die priesters 'n bevestigingsfakulteit geniet wat op een of ander manier in 1795 verstryk het. Payeras het gekla oor sy vyf-en-twintig jaar afwesigheid in 1820. Is die fakulteit ooit weer toegestaan ​​voordat die bisdom Monterey in 1840 gestig is?


Volgens Zephyrin Engelhardt het Lasuén geskryf dat 'die fakulteit om die sakrament van bevestiging te bedien' vir tien jaar aan sommige van die padres toegestaan ​​is en daarna nog tien keer hernu is (maar dat meer as die helfte van die verloopte tyd vermors is om op dokumente te wag) . Lasuén stem saam met Payeras saam dat die fakulteit in 1795 verval het, sodat dit moontlik in 1775 begin het. Volgens Bolton se Gids vir materiaal vir die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, in 1787 is die fakulteit aan Lasuén toegeken.

In 1820 was bevestiging volgens Payeras nog steeds onmoontlik. Vanaf 1835 het die "vice-comisario" ds. Moreno kon mense bevestig. Kalifornië kry sy eerste biskop (inherent in staat om bevestiging uit te voer), Garcia Diego, in 1840. Hy toer deur die staat om die bevestiging uit te voer, en besoek nie Baja California nie, maar stel 'n paar van die laaste sendelinge daar aan, sodat hulle ook die sakrament.

Daar was dus 'n gaping van veertig jaar sonder bevestiging in Kalifornië; die gaping het minstens vyf en twintig jaar geduur. Die gebrek aan geldige heilige olies was nog 'n groot struikelblok vir die bevestiging.


Die Spaanse koning het die missies gesien as die maklikste, vinnigste en goedkoopste manier om die grens te vestig. In plaas daarvan om baie geld te betaal vir soldate en setlaars uit Spanje en Mexiko, wou die regering met die missies die Indiërs omskep in getroue Spaanse onderdane wat Kalifornië na Spanje kon hou. Die Katolieke Kerk en die sendelinge het dit egter as die hoofdoel beskou om die Indiane tot die Christendom te bekeer.

Die Spaanse het die Indiane wat hulle teëgekom het, gedwing om na die missies te gaan waar die priesters hulle tot die Christendom bekeer het, hulle Spaans geleer het en hulle opgelei het in Europese landbou en handwerk. Die lewe op die missie was moeilik. Die priesters stel streng roetines op om te werk, na die kerk te gaan en om maaltye te eet. Hulle het ook streng dissipline aangewend om die reëls te oortree. Volgens die California Missions Resource Center het 10 tot 15 persent van die Indiërs weggehardloop. Die priesters het die Indiane gesien as kinders wat leiding nodig het in die maniere van beskaafde gedrag. Gewoonlik was die soldate wat by die missies gestaan ​​het, die Indiërs wreed behandel, probeer om hul vroue te steel en hulle te slaan.


Adres

500 E. Camino Real
Santa Clara, CA 95053
Verenigde State

Webwerf (s)
Foon
Ure
Toere

Selfgelei. Die missie se vyfde kerk, gebou in 1825, is heeltemal vernietig in 'n brand in 1926. Die huidige kerk is in 1929 voltooi en dien die universiteitsgemeenskap.

Kerkdienste

Sondag 10:00 tot Maandag tot Vrydag 12:05

Troues en ander spesiale dienste

Saterdae
10:00 12:30.
15:00. 18:00

Sondae
13:00 nm.

Troues moet geskeduleer word deur die sendingkantoor te skakel by 408-554-4023.

'N Jaar en 'n half jaar kennisgewing word sterk aanbeveel. Dit is 'n gewilde plek vir troues deur diegene wat die Santa Clara -universiteit bygewoon het, en dit geniet voorkeur.

Unieke besienswaardighede

Santa Clara is die oudste universiteit in Kalifornië, en dit het ontwikkel uit die missie wat in 1777 gestig is.

Die kerk is 'n aantreklike 'moderne interpretasie' van die kerk uit 1825.

Daar is 'n aantreklike, goed onderhoude roostuin regs van die kerk. Dit was 'n begraafplaas van 1820-1846.

Daar is 'n klein gedeelte van een van die oorspronklike adobe -mure van die sending naby die kerk. 'N Insiggewende teken gee besonderhede.

'N Lang kruis, opgerig in 1777, en nou in 'n beskermende omhulsel, staan ​​oorkant die ingang van die kerk.

Wenke vir besoekers

Geniet Santa Clara vir sy unieke geskiedenis, goed aangelegde terrein en die lewendige gees van 'n groot Katolieke universiteit waar 'n sendingkerk 'n middelpunt van die kampuslewe is.

Hierdie missie kan interessant wees om te besoek gedurende Kersfeesweek, ander godsdienstige vakansiedae en spesiale herinneringe soos All Souls Day.

Die kampusboekwinkel het 'n klein versameling materiaal oor die missie. Dit is geen sendinggeskenkwinkel nie.

Alhoewel u die missie en die goed aangelegde terrein binne 'n uur kan besoek, kan dit baie langer neem om hierdie groot universiteit te verken. Die de Saisset -museum naby die kerk is die moeite werd om te besoek.

Ander historiese besienswaardighede

Dit is moontlik om die missies Santa Clara, San Jose en Santa Cruz in 'n volle dag te besoek as u vroeg begin.


Wanneer kon sendingpriesters in Kalifornië bevestig word? - Geskiedenis

Inleiding

Die California Missions Foundation is verbind tot die volledige en akkurate uitbeelding van die geskiedenis in die vroeë Kalifornië. CMF sal voortgaan om saam met Indiese geleerdes, leiers en kultuurkundiges in Kalifornië saam te werk om hierdie webwerf te ontwikkel tot 'n robuuste bron van inligting oor Kalifornië -Indiese ervarings. In die toekoms sal hierdie webwerf skakels na historiese bronne bevat en besoekers aan kontemporêre Indiese gemeenskappe in Kalifornië verbind. Hierna volg 'n kort inleiding tot die Indiese ervarings in Kalifornië voor, tydens en na die sending -era.

Kalifornië Indiane Voor Kolonisasie

Kalifornië was nog altyd een van die kultureel mees uiteenlopende gebiede ter wêreld. Die term California Indian is 'n oorvereenvoudiging. Die stamgroepe wat sedert antieke tye in Kalifornië gewoon het, het hulself nie Kalifornië -Indiërs genoem nie. In plaas daarvan het hulle hulself geken deur talle dorps- en familieverband.

Vroeë Europese ontdekkingsreisigers het Kalifornië beskryf as 'n aardse paradys waar inheemse inwoners eenvoudig "oorleef" het van die natuur. Maar Kalifornië -Indiane het nooit hul lewensonderhoud aan die noodlot oorgelaat nie. In die hele staat het inheemse Kaliforniërs hul omgewings versigtig bestuur. Deur gekontroleerde verbranding het hulle die borsel skoongemaak en nuwe groei van belangrike plante bevorder. Hulle het grond omgekeer deur bolplante te oes, wat veroorsaak het dat sulke plantegroei vermeerder het. Hulle het sade uit grasse geoes en sodoende het hulle onbedoeld, en soms met opset, plantsoorte na nuwe gebiede versprei. Sulke praktyke verseker nie net 'n oorvloed voedsel nie, maar verskaf ook die grondstowwe vir nuts- en kunsinstrumente, soos regalia, mandjies en huishoudelike items.

Ondanks die Europese standpunte van die teendeel, het Kalifornië -Indiane al duisende jare komplekse kulture en tradisies ontwikkel voor die aankoms van die Spaanse sendelinge.

Missies: 'n Tyd van min keuse

Alhoewel Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Kalifornië in 1542 vir Spanje geëis het, het Spanje eers in die laat 1700's probeer om die grond te beset. Die besetting van Nieu -Spanje het na Mexiko -stad na buite gestraal. Die primêre strategie van die Spaanse kolonisasie was om inheemse volke in getroue Spaanse burgers te verander. Missionering, die daad om die inheemse Amerikaners te bekeer deur middel van kulturele en godsdienstige onderrig, was sentraal in die Spaanse koloniale strategie.

Teen die middel van die 1700's het Spanje reeds missies in Baja California gestig. Onder druk van mededingende ryke, soos Rusland en Groot -Brittanje, was Spanje bekommerd oor die behoud van sy aanspraak op grond in die noordelike dele van Nieu -Spanje. Russiese trapvangers het suid langs die Stille Oseaan -kus gewerk en Britse skepe het Alta California herken. In 1769 het Spanje 'n militêre ekspedisie beveel om Alta California te verken en te beset. Onder leiding van kaptein Gaspar Portola en vader Junipero Serra sou hierdie aanvanklike verkenning bekend staan ​​as die Heilige Ekspedisie. Die ekspedisie het gelei tot die stigting van Mission San Diego, die eerste in die ketting van 21 missies wat uiteindelik tot by Sonoma sou strek.

Behalwe die padres en militêre personeel, was die missies geslote inheemse Amerikaanse gemeenskappe. Padres was oor die algemeen naby die bestaande inheemse Amerikaanse gemeenskappe. Inheemse Amerikaners het om verskillende redes na hierdie gemeenskappe gekom. Onlangse historiese geleerdheid dui daarop dat Spaanse siektes en vinnige agteruitgang van die omgewing, veroorsaak deur indringerspesies wat deur die Spaanse gebring is, die omgewing en tradisionele samelewingstrukture dramaties verander het. Namate voedselbronne minder betroubaar geword het en die siekte in Kalifornië die Indiese gemeenskappe verwoes het, het die missies 'n opsie gebied in 'n tyd van groot omwenteling.

Die missies het nuwe soorte gemeenskappe geskep, hoewel dit dikwels ongemaklik was. Dit was 'n lewe wat deur die padres beheer is. In die missies het inheemse Amerikaners godsdiensonderrig ontvang en daar word van hulle verwag om arbeid te verrig, soos bou en boerdery vir die instandhouding van die gemeenskap. Dit was 'n lewe wat dramaties anders was as die lewe wat hulle voor die Sending -era geken het. Die sendingstelsel was hoogs dwingend en sodra die Indiese bevolking van Kalifornië die gemeenskap binnegekom het, sou daar van hulle verwag word om op 'n manier te leef wat die padres en militêre amptenare as aanvaarbaar geag het. Sendelinge het aspekte van inheemse godsdiens en kultuur ontmoedig. Inheemse Amerikaners wat deur die doop die sendinggemeenskappe betree het, mag nie sonder toestemming vertrek nie. Lyfstraf, soos gebrek, vir inheemse Amerikaners wat die reëls nie gehoorsaam het nie, was gereeld en soms ernstig. Alhoewel sulke strawwe in die hedendaagse Spaanse samelewing nie ongewoon was nie, was dit nogal 'n afwyking van tradisionele inheemse Amerikaanse gebruike.

Nie alle inboorlinge in Alta California het na die missies gekom nie, en nie almal wat die sendinglewe op dieselfde manier beleef het nie. Die Spaanse het die missies oor 'n groot geografiese afstand en oor 'n lang tydperk gevestig. Junipero Serra het die eerste sending in 1769 in San Diego gestig. Vader Jose Altimira het die laaste sending in Alta California, San Francisco de Solano, in 1823 gestig. baie streeksvariasie. Hierdie variasie weerspieël die inheemse Amerikaners wat die sendinggemeenskappe en die persoonlikhede van die sendelinge uitgemaak het.

Wat ook al die moderne siening van die missies is, een ding is duidelik: Kalifornië -Indiane het elke missie gebou, en dit was Kalifornië -Indiërs wat daarin geleef, gewerk en gesterf het. Dit is duidelik dat die lewe by die missies dikwels moeilik was. Sendinggemeenskappe het siektes gereeld geteister. Maar selfs in hierdie tye van groot ontberings, het Kalifornië -Indiërs die beste lewens gemaak. Hulle het getrou en kinders gehad, tradisies en kulturele kennis oorgedra en oomblikke van groot vreugde beleef, hoe kort ook al. Bowenal was dit nie 'mission indians' nie, dit was mense.

Indiese kulturele kontinuïteit in Kalifornië

Alhoewel missionering die Indiese kulture in Kalifornië vir ewig verander het, kon dit dit nie uitvee nie. Indiese mense in Kalifornië staan ​​sentraal in die hedendaagse lewe. Hulle besit ondernemings, werk as staatsamptenare en beklee politieke ampte regdeur die staat. Maar baie sit ook aspekte van hul voor-kolonisasie kulturele tradisies voort. Ouderlinge leer jonger geslagte hoe plante geneig is om tradisionele voedsel en mandjieweefmateriaal te produseer. Verskeie geslagte gesinne dans en sing steeds op maniere wat lank voor die Spaanse kolonisasie was. Waar die draad van die geheue gebreek het, herleef Indiërs van Kalifornië tradisies deur middel van navorsing en praktyk. Die Indiese kulture in Kalifornië is inderdaad onuitwisbaar.

Geselekteerde bibliografie

Anderson, M. Kat, Tending the Wild (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

Hackel, Steven, Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769-1850 (Williamsburg, Virginia: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2005).

Jackson, Robert H. en Edward Castillo, Indiane, Franciskane en Spaanse kolonisasie: Die impak van die missiesisteem op Kalifornië -Indiane (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1995).

Margolin, Malcolm, "Inleiding," in Lewe in 'n Kaliforniese sending (Berkeley: Heyday Press, 1989).

Milliken, Randall, A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1810 (Banning, CA: Ballena Press, 1995).


Aantal Franciskaanse priesters wat deur nege beskuldig word van mishandeling

Hier is 'n dosyn van die priesters wat voorheen as beweerde mishandelaars bekend was. (Links na regs, van bo na onder) Bernard Connelly, Gus Krumm, Owen Da Silva, Gerald Chumik, Robert Van Handel, Marty Gates, Josef Prochnow, Mario Cimmarrusti, David Johnson, Sam Cabot, Stephen Kain, Tom Thing

Deel dit:

Vir die eerste keer in die openbaar het die Franciskaanse broeders van die provinsie St. Barbara 50 priesters geïdentifiseer wat beskuldig is van seksuele misbruik van kinders in sy bedienings sedert 1950. Meer as die helfte - 26 - is by die St. Anthony's Seminary of Old Mission Santa Barbara by op 'n stadium in hul loopbane, dikwels nadat hulle beskuldig is van molestering in 'n ander bediening, en daarna na die Santa Barbara -omgewing oorgeplaas is.

Terwyl baie van die 26 priesters voorheen bekend was by prokureurs, wetstoepassers en advokate vir slagoffers, was nege name nog nooit aangemeld nie, volgens prokureur Tim Hale, wat in 2006 'n belangrike saak teen die Franciskane gewen het en die daaropvolgende sake fyn gevolg het, sowel as onlangse onthullings deur die Katolieke Kerk. Al nege priesters is dood. Hulle name en die plekke en datums van hul Santa Barbara -plasings is soos volg:

Let wel: Hierdie datums weerspieël nie noodwendig wanneer die beweerde mishandeling plaasgevind het nie, slegs toe die beskuldigde priesters hier aangestel is.

Camillus Cavagnaro-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 2005-2006

Philip Colloty-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1973-1975

Adrian Furman-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1989-2001

Martin Gates-St. Anthony's Seminary, 1965-1966

Gus Hootka-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1993-2006

Mark Liening-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1941-1942, 1985

Finbar Kenneally-Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1939-1940 St Anthony's Seminary, 1977-1991

Felix “Raymond” Calonge - St. Anthony’s Seminary, 1965

Felipe Baldonado-Meervoudige CA-missies (Oakland, Stockton, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles en San Francisco), 1953-1964

Vader David Gaa, die leier van die provinsie St. Barbara, het langs die volledige lys 'n verklaring uitgereik wat laat verlede Vrydag rustig op die webwerf van die bestelling geplaas is. 'Die lys word gepubliseer as deel van ons voortdurende verbintenis tot deursigtigheid en aanspreeklikheid,' het hy geskryf. 'Ons is vasbeslote om deur hierdie aksie te demonstreer dat ons ons daartoe verbind om oorlewendes en hul gesinne te help genees.'

Hale voer onder meer aan dat die vrylating eintlik 'n selfbedieningsstrategie van die Franciskane is om die bevel voorkomend te beskerm teen moontlike strafregtelike aanspreeklikheid nadat 'n groot jurie in Pennsylvania 'n verskriklike verslag teen die Katolieke Kerk verlede Augustus gepubliseer het. Dit was die grootste ondersoek nog deur 'n Amerikaanse regeringsagentskap na mishandeling binne die organisasie. 'Elke Rooms -Katolieke bisdom regoor die land vrees dat die verslag van die Grand Jury en wat dit vir hulle kan beteken,' het Hale gesê.

Verlede Desember het die aartsbisdom van Los Angeles en die katolieke kerk in die westelike Jesuïet-provinsie op dieselfde manier as die Franciskane 'n lys gepubliseer van 200 geestelikes wat beskuldig word van kindermishandeling, waarvan 12 lang posisies in Santa Barbara dateer uit die 1950's .

Gaa het gesê dat die toenemende openbare bewustheid van kriminele aktiwiteite in sy bevel 'in die vroeë 1990's kom van St. Anthony's, ons klein kweekskool in Santa Barbara. Sedert die vroeë dae het die broeders gewerk om te help met die genesingsproses vir diegene wat mishandel is en vir die beskerming van kinders. ” Die bevel hou tans toesig oor 136 priesters in bedienings in die staat Kalifornië, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon en Washington. Dit het sy hoofkwartier in Oakland.

Ek is vol vertroue dat dit nie die volledige verhaal is nie. ” - Advokaat Tim Hale

Die bevel, wat nie oproepe tot kommentaar gelewer het nie, het 'n bewering as geloofwaardig geag as daar ''n oorvloed van bewyse was dat die bewering [waarskynlik] waar is as nie' na 'n interne ondersoek, volgens sy webwerf. Priesters wat in die hof skuldig bevind is of tot die misdade erken is, is ook genoem. Meer as 120 slagoffers is geïdentifiseer, het die broeders gesê. In baie gevalle, beweer hulle, is die beskuldigings 'n paar jaar of dekades nadat die beweerde mishandeling plaasgevind het, dikwels nadat die priester gesterf het.

Die lys, wat in sy geheel hieronder verskyn, word belig wanneer sekere priesters daarvan beskuldig word dat hulle minderjariges gemolesteer het en wanneer hulle in Santa Barbara geplaas is. Gerald Chumik, byvoorbeeld, is in 2003 na die Santa Barbara -sending gestuur, ondanks die feit dat hy in 1990 daarvan beskuldig is dat hy 'n seun gedwing het om orale seks met hom te doen. Die Franciskane erken dat hulle eers in 1980 'n verslag ontvang het van Gus Krumm se wangedrag, maar hulle het hom toegelaat om tot 1982 in Santa Barbara te dien, en weer van 1985 tot 1988.

Van die 50 totale genoemde priesters leef nog net vier. Drie van hulle - Chumik, Stephen Kain en Josef Prochnow - beklee posisies in Santa Barbara. Kain is genoem in 'n regsgeding in 2004 omdat hy ten minste een student aangerand het terwyl hy in die middel van die 1980's by die St. Anthony's Seminary gewerk het. Hy is weer genoem in Los Altos in 2001. Prochnow word daarvan beskuldig dat hy minderjariges by die St. Anthony's Seminary van 1971-1978 misbruik het. Volgens die bevel woon hulle al drie in 'ouer sorgfasiliteite' onder 'n veiligheidsplan, 'n soort proeftydperk onder toesig van priesters wat aanstoot neem deur die interne beoordelingsraad van die bevel. Die bevel het nie gesê waar hierdie fasiliteite geleë is nie.

Hale het gesê dat hy rede het om te glo dat ten minste een van hulle in 'n woonbuurt in Kalifornië geleë is "met gesinne in die omgewing wat nie kan weet wie hierdie mans is of die risiko wat dit vir kinders inhou nie." Hale het gesê: 'Die enigste rede waarom die Franciskane hiermee kan wegkom, is omdat hulle nooit die oortreders by die wetstoepassing aangemeld het nie, of as hulle dit wel gedoen het, dit was lank nadat die kriminele verjaring verstryk het.' As gevolg hiervan, het hy gesê, het die mans vervolging vrygespring en hulle as seksuele oortreders moes registreer. Die beskrywing van 'n 'bejaardesorgfasiliteit' kan ook misleidend wees, het Hale gesê. 'Dit wek die wanindruk dat hierdie mans 'n gebrek aan gesondheid het en miskien minder bedreig word.' Maar net verlede maand, het hy verneem, bedien Prochnow oorkant die straat van 'n skool. "Ek sou graag wou sien dat die staatsprokureur -generaal inspring en kyk of die Franciskane hul pligte as verpligte verslaggewers oortree het," het Hale gesê. 'Dit is dalk te laat, maar dit is die moeite werd om te ondersoek.'

Hale het gesê hoewel die nuwe name die publiek sal help om die omvang van die mishandeling wat deur die Franciskane gepleeg is, beter te verstaan, sal dit waarskynlik enige inligting weglaat wat dit tot regsaanspreeklikheid kan lei. 'Dit is die Franciskane wat hul eie beskerm,' het hy gesê. 'Hulle voete word teen die vuur gehou, en dit is die enigste rede waarom hulle hierdie inligting bekend maak. Maar ek is vol vertroue dat dit nie die volledige verhaal is nie. ” Volgens sy telling, het Hale gesê: "37 Franciskaanse roofdiere is herhaaldelik in Santa Barbara toegewys of bedien." Die Franciskane betwis die getal, het hy gesê.


Hoe kies ek 'n borg?

Dink mooi na oor iemand wat u aan die bogenoemde kriteria voldoen. Die Kerk moedig ons aan om ons peetouers as borg te beskou vir bevestiging. Die sterk verband tussen die bevestiging en die doop maak dat die peetouer 'n natuurlike keuse is as hierdie persoon aan die vereistes hierbo voldoen. As u nie iemand ken wat aan die bogenoemde kriteria voldoen nie, of as u u nie kan borg nie, bespreek dan u opsies met die bevestigingskoördineerder by u gemeente om te sien of hulle 'n geskikte persoon kan vind. Lede van die gemeente bied dikwels aan as hulle nie 'n geskikte borg kan vind nie.

Die sakrament van bevestiging is die manier waarop 'n Katoliek volle lidmaatskap van die Katolieke Kerk kan verkry. Dit is 'n pragtige sakrament wat God se genade in jou sal inboesem om jou te versterk en te onderhou in jou geloofsreis.


Die sakramente van doop en bevestiging

Sedert die begin van die Christelike geskiedenis is die doop en bevestiging baie nou verbind.

Tot vandag toe ontvang katolieke wat deel uitmaak van die oostelike rite beide sakramente as babas. Pous St. Leo I maak hierdie verhouding baie duidelik. Hy vergelyk die natuurlike lewe van ons liggame met die bonatuurlike lewe van ons siele. Die doop stem ooreen met ons liggaamlike geboorte, sê hy. Bevestiging stem ooreen met ons liggaamlike groei.

Om elkeen van hierdie twee sakramente reg te laat geskied en uit te vind hoe dit met mekaar verband hou, behandel ons dit in volgorde, eers die doop en dan bevestiging. Hou altyd in gedagte dat ons twee gelowige lewens as gelowige Christene en Katolieke het. Ons het die natuurlike lewe van die liggaam, wanneer God 'n onsterflike siel skep en hierdie siel in die liggaam inbring wat ons van ons vader en moeder ontvang. Ons het die bonatuurlike lewe van die siel, wanneer God by die doop heilige genade skep en hierdie siel van die siel, in die Sint Augustinese taal, die anima animae, in die onsterflike gees bring wat op die oomblik van ons liggaamlike bevrugting in ons moederskoot ontvang is.

Maar hierdie bonatuurlike lewe van die siel moet versterk word om die beproewinge wat God ons stuur om te kan groei in Sy genade, tydens ons verblyf in hierdie tranedal, die hoof te bied.

Doop, die sakrament van bonatuurlike wedergeboorte

Daar is meer as deurlopende waarde om op te let dat daar 'n toenemende verspreiding van foute in beweerde Katolieke kringe is oor die betekenis van die sakrament van die doop. Op grond daarvan dat daar 'n leerontwikkeling in die Kerk was, bevestig die skrywer van Doors to the Sacred dat hedendaagse teologie- en godsdiensopvoedingstekste nou praat van die doop as 'n integrasie van 'n persoon in die lewe van Christus wat in die kerk voortgesit word , en praat daaroor dat dit die vergifnis van erfsonde veroorsaak dat dit stadig verdwyn.

Terwyl ons deur ons besinning oor die doop gaan, sal ons sien hoe ons hierdie huislike en uitheemse kritici moet hanteer van wat ons glo die sakrament van wedergeboorte en die bonatuurlike lewe is.

Die doop is nie net die eerste van die sewe sakramente nie, maar ook die basiese sakrament. Hoe? Tensy iemand gedoop word, kan nie een van die ander ses sakramente ontvang word nie. Slegs 'n gedoopte persoon kan bevestig word. Slegs 'n gedoopte persoon kan absolusie in die sakrament van belydenis ontvang. Slegs 'n gedoopte kan die sakrament van die huwelik ontvang. Slegs 'n gedoopte man kan 'n geldige priester word.

Die doop gee eers 'n persoon die bonatuurlike lewe, terwyl die ander sakramente sorg vir die herstel, groei, genesing of kommunikasie van die bonatuurlike lewe. Soos ons sal sien, ontvang ons op die oomblik dat ons verwek word in ons moederskoot die beginsel van die natuurlike lewe van ons liggaam, die siel genoem. As ons gedoop word, ontvang ons siel die beginsel van die bonatuurlike lewe. Die grondslag van bonatuurlike bestaan ​​word verleen deur die Sakrament van die Doop.

Die doop toon duidelik wat die Katolieke Kerk onder die sakramente verstaan. Hulle gee eintlik, as u wil, die genade wat hulle beteken. Daar hoef geen doelbewuste bydrae van 'n pasgebore kind te wees nie. Die sakrament self verleen genade van God net omdat die baba gedoop is.

Die doop kan gedefinieer word as die sakrament van bonatuurlike wedergeboorte of wedergeboorte. Ons moet die voorvoegsel re beklemtoon wanneer ons praat van die doop as 'n wedergeboorte of wedergeboorte. Dit bring die verstommende feit na vore, dat alhoewel ons inderdaad uit ons menslike ouers ontstaan ​​of gebore word, die doop ons 'n nuwe lewe gee. Dit is 'n hoër lewe, die bonatuurlike lewe wat ons nodig het bo ons natuurlike bestaan. Waarom het ons hierdie lewe nodig? Omdat ons hoop om die hemel te bereik nadat ons natuurlike lewe verstryk het as ons sterf. Absoluut gesproke sal niemand van ons ooit sterf nie. Wat ons gewoonlik dood noem, is bloot die skeiding van ons onsterflike siel van ons liggaam. Maar die siel is bedoel om twee keer te lewe. As 'n geestelike werklikheid sal ons siel nooit ophou bestaan ​​nie. Maar as ons siel nie opgewek word deur die genade wat ons tydens die doop ontvang het nie, sterf ons die dubbele dood van liggaam en siel.

Jesus Christus het ons tydens die gesprek met Nikodemus oor die doop vertel. Hierdie Fariseër het Jesus pas gekomplimenteer. Die Verlosser antwoord en sê: Niemand kan die koninkryk van God sien as hy nie van bo verwek is nie. Waarteen Nikodemus beswaar gemaak het: Hoe kan 'n mens wedergebore word? Kan hy teruggaan in die moederskoot en wedergebore word? Dit was 'n perfekte vraag om Christus se geopenbaarde lering oor die doop bekend te stel. Hy het gesê: Ek verseker jou plegtig dat niemand die koninkryk van God kan binnegaan sonder om uit water en die Gees gebore te word nie.

Vir nie minder nie as vyftien verse verduidelik Jesus die betekenis van wat Hy pas vir Nikodemus gesê het. Onderliggend aan die leer van Christus is die feit dat die doop nodig is. So waar is dit dat die Katolieke Kerk die dooprit erken wat deur ander Christelike kerke beoefen word, op voorwaarde dat die sakrament gegee word deur onderdompeling in water of giet of besproeiing van water, terwyl dieselfde persoon die woorde uitspreek, ek doop u in die naam van die Vader, die Seun en die Heilige Gees.

Hoe nodig is die doop? Dit is absoluut noodsaaklik om die doop van water of ten minste van begeerte, wat implisiet kan wees, te ontvang, mits iemand ten minste in God en sy goedheid glo en getrou is aan die genade wat God hom gee.

Volgens die Kategismus van die Katolieke Kerk, wat betref babas wat sonder die doop gesterf het, kan die Kerk hulle net aan die genade van God toevertrou, soos sy doen in haar begrafnisrituele vir hulle. Inderdaad, die groot barmhartigheid van God wat wil dat alle mense gered word, en Jesus se teerheid teenoor babas wat hom laat sê het: Laat die kleintjies na my toe kom, verhinder hulle nie, laat ons hoop dat daar 'n manier is om redding vir babas wat gesterf het sonder die doop. Des te dringender is die kerke se oproep om nie te keer dat babas na Christus kom deur die gawe van die heilige doop nie.

Al die gevolge van die doop is bonatuurlik, soos ons moet verwag. Hierdie effekte is hoofsaaklik vyf en kan in vyf woorde saamgevat word: sonde, lewe, krag, kerk en karakter.

Verwydering van skuld en straf vir sonde]

Die eerste en mees praktiese uitwerking van die doop is om die skuld van erfsonde te verwyder en die ooreenstemmende titel tot hemelse heerlikheid te herstel. Wat beteken dit? Dit beteken dat alle skuld van al die sonde wat 'n persoon op sy siel kan hê, weggeneem word. 'N Gedoopte kind wat nie die ouderdom van die rede bereik het nie, as dit sterf, het onmiddellik die titel van die saligsprekende visioen. Na die ouderdom van die rede word 'n gedoopte persoon nie net bevry van die erfsonde nie, maar van al die gepleegde sondes en van al die straf as gevolg van selfs 'n leeftyd van persoonlike sondes.

Ons moet egter onmiddellik byvoeg dat twee boetes vir erfsonde nie deur die doop verwyder word nie. Ons eerste ouers het die geskenk van liggaamlike onsterflikheid en die vryheid van irrasionele begeertes vir hulleself en hul nageslag verloor. Die doop herstel nie een van hierdie, wat ons noem nie, voornatuurlike gawes wat ons sou geërf het as ons nie 'n gevalle menslike natuur geërf het nie.

Deur die sonde van Adam het die mensdom sy aandeel in die goddelike lewe verloor. Deur die dood van Christus, die tweede Adam, kan hierdie lewe nou herstel word. Die doop herstel wat ons ons bonatuurlike lewe noem.

Dit is die nuwe geboorte waarvan Christus met Nikodemus gepraat het, toe Hy gesê het dat ons wedergebore moet word uit water en die Heilige Gees.

Dit is die lewe waarvan Johannes skryf in die eerste hoofstuk van sy Evangelie, as hy sê dat ons kinders van God is, wat nie deur bloed of deur vleeslike begeerte of deur mense gewillig is nie, maar deur God verwek is (Johannes 1 : 13). Omdat ons hierdie lewe van God in ons siel het, word ons erfgename van die hemel.

Die enigste voorwaarde wat God vereis, is dat ons geestelik lewe as ons liggame sterf. Mits ons in die genade van God is, as ons sterf, soos ons sê, ons siel nie net sal oorleef nie, maar ook die reg op hemelse heerlikheid sal hê. Met ander woorde, hierdie bonatuurlike lewe wat by die doop ontvang is, is bestem om verder te gaan, buite ons liggaamlike dood, tot in 'n hemelse ewigheid.

Ons het 'n naam vir die bron van hierdie bonatuurlike lewe. Ons noem dit heiligmakende genade. Sint Augustinus noem dit die siel van die siel. Wat ons siel vir ons liggaam is, wat dit natuurlike lewe gee, genade heilig, is vir die siel, wat dit bonatuurlike lewe gee.

Daar moet egter op gelet word dat heiligmaking van genade reeds die geskape effek is van die inwoning van die Heilige Drie -eenheid. Ons kan dus sê dat die belangrikste uitwerking van die sakrament van die doop is dat die Heilige Drie -eenheid, Vader, Seun en Heilige Gees in ons siele moet woon. Hierdie inwoning word die ongeskape genade genoem wat ons ontvang het toe ons gedoop is en moet behou word wanneer die Here ons tot ons ewige bestemming roep.

Die doop gee nie net die siel bonatuurlike lewe nie, dit gee die siel ook bonatuurlike kragte, instinkte en vreugdes wat ons algemeen identifiseer as die deugde, gawes en vrugte van die Heilige Gees.

'N Ander naam vir die deugde wat tydens die doop toegedien word, is bonatuurlike kragte om te doen wat onmoontlik is vir die menslike natuur alleen. Die drie belangrikste van hierdie magte is die deugde van geloof, hoop en liefde.

Deur geloof is ons bevoeg om alles te glo wat God geopenbaar het: dat God die ewige gemeenskap is van die Heilige Drie -eenheid, Vader, Seun en Heilige Gees dat God mens geword het in die persoon van Jesus Christus, die Seun van Maria, wat Jesus Christus, die Godman, gely en gesterf vir ons sondes dat Jesus Christus nou, werklik en werklik, eintlik en liggaamlik op aarde teenwoordig is in die Heilige Nagmaal wat die Kerk wat Christus gestig het, ons pad na verlossing is, en dat die sigbare hoof van hierdie Kerk die Biskop van Rome, opvolger van Sint Petrus, deur wie Christus die rots gemaak het, sodat dit wat die pous die universele kerk leer, die leer van Christus self is.

Deur die hoop is ons bevoeg om vol vertroue te vertrou dat al die goeie dinge wat God ons beloof het, sal verkry dat ons nooit sal wees sonder die lig en krag wat ons nodig het om die wil van God te vervul dat geen beproewings wat God ons stuur groter is as, met Sy genade kan ons aanvaar dat, mits ons saamwerk met die genade van God, die hemel ons s'n is. Ons is vol vertroue in Sy genade, hoe sondig ons lewens ook al was. Die enigste voorwaarde is dat ons ons bekeer, 'n goeie belydenis doen en besluit om ons lewens te verander.

By charity we are empowered to love God above all things to love Him more than ourselves to love Him even, or especially when He sends us sufferings and the cross to love Him in all the circumstances of life, no matter how demanding His love may be.

By charity we are empowered to love others not only as much as we love ourselves. We are enabled to love others more than ourselves to love others even as Christ has loved us, by suffering and dying on our cross out of love for others to love others out of love for God constantly, patiently and generously beyond all human power and expectation.

Membership in the Church

The Sacrament of Baptism incorporates a person into the Church founded by Christ. What does this mean? In the words of the Second Vatican Council, it means that All who have been justified by faith in Baptism are incorporated into Christ they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church.

Here we must distinguish. Every validly baptized person belongs to the Catholic Church no matter how unaware the person may be of belonging to the Mystical Body of Christ, which is the Church militant here on earth. However, we distinguish between belonging to the Church and being a member of the Church founded by Jesus Christ. To be an actual member of the Catholic Church, the baptized person must also be ready to profess what the Catholic Church teaches, and accept her laws and obligations with an open heart.

To belong to the Catholic Church further means that Baptism is the door to obtaining such graces as only baptized persons have a claim to. Certainly the Church is the universal sacrament of salvation and sanctification. All the graces that anyone receives from God are channeled through the Catholic Church. Those who are baptized have a special right to these graces to which no one else has a claim.

The final and most mysterious effect of Baptism is to receive a permanent, irremovable character or seal. Baptism imparts a likeness to Christ, especially to Christ the priest. The seal will remain throughout our lives on earth and into the endless reaches of eternity. The baptismal character grafts a person into Christ the

Vine so that all the baptized share in a unique way in the graces of Christs humanity. As a result, Jesus Christ has a claim on the baptized that no one else enjoys and they have a claim on Him that no one else on earth can share.

The baptismal character is permanent because it is timeless it is indelible because nothing, not even the loss of faith can remove it. Therefore a baptized person always remains a Christian. Hoekom? Because the baptismal seal confers a permanent relationship with Christ.

How to Grow in the Gifts of Baptism

Gone is the day when a Catholic can simply possess the gifts of grace received at Baptism. These gifts must grow and develop at the risk of losing the divine blessings which Baptism confers. I would single out especially the need for growing in the most fundamental gift we received when we were baptized, namely the gift of faith. Either we grow in our faith or we risk losing not only the virtue of believing in Gods revealed truth, but even the prospect of eternal salvation.

We are living in the most critical century of Christian history. Only firm believers who have grown in their faith will survive. Only firm believers will be used by Christ as channels of His grace to others.

How do we grow in our faith? We grow in our faith by studying our faith, by praying our faith and by putting what we believe into generous, even heroic practice.

By studying the faith, I mean that no Catholic today, no matter what his age or state in life or previous education, can be excused from learning more and more deeply what Christ has revealed and what the Church He founded teaches about the faith.

A word of warning, however make absolutely sure that in studying the faith you read authors who support the faith, and consult people who themselves are staunchly Catholic, and listen to speakers and attend conferences and discuss with those who will fortify what you believe. Let their faith nourish yours and your faith nourish theirs. Never has it been more necessary to choose your close friends and companions. Studying the faith must be done with faithful persons, using faithful sources, and its purpose should be to acquire a clearer understanding, a deeper certitude and a greater appreciation of what the Holy Spirit has revealed. He wants the seed of His Word to grow. The first means for assuring that growth is study.

Study has to be joined with prayer. This can be meditation on the mysteries of faith, or petition for more light on the meaning of faith. It should always be a humble recourse to God if only with a moments aspiration whenever a difficulty in the faith arises or when, as so often happens these days, we are faced with malicious attacks against our beliefs or forced to witness some conduct or read some writing or hear some statement that betrays the true faith.

In order to grow in the faith, we must use it. The duty is that simple, but also that necessary. Let me illustrate we believe that nothing happens by chance, but that everything that occurs is part of the mysterious Providence of God. If we believe it, and we do, let us act on our belief no matter how painful the things God sends us ah, but we must believe that God sends it or (how painfully) He takes pleasant things away. And no matter how unwelcome a duty, we do it doing it infallibly strengthens the faith. We believe that Christ is really, truly and entirely present in the Holy Eucharist. We should act accordingly by visiting Him often in the Blessed Sacrament where we adore Him, telling Him how much we love Him and asking Him for whatever we need. That is why He is there, the same Jesus who raised the dead.

If He worked miracles then, trust Him, He will work miracles now.

Confirmation, the Sacrament of Spiritual Strengthening

When the Roman Catechism was published in 1566, the faithful were warned regarding the Sacrament of Confirmation, There are found in the holy Church of God many by whom this sacrament is altogether omitted while very few seek to obtain from it the fruit of divine grace which they should derive from its participation.

The same could be said today. Only the Lord really knows, but in my judgment, Confirmation is the most ignored sacrament of our faith.

The biblical grounds for our faith in Confirmation are Christs promise to send the Holy Spirit on the apostles. Not surprisingly, it is the evangelist St. Luke who records the Saviors promise. Just before His ascension, Jesus told His disciples, I am sending down to you what the Father has promised. Stay in the city, then, until you are clothed with the power from on high (Lk 24:49). On the same occasion, the Lord promised His followers, You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and then you will be my witnesses, not only in Jerusalem, but throughout Judea and Samaria, and indeed to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8).

In the same context, we are told that converts to the faith were first baptized, and then the Apostles laid hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:17).

Immediately we see that the basic reason why Christ instituted the Sacrament of Confirmation was that His followers would witness to Him, even to the ends of the earth. The original revealed Greek term for witnesses, as quoted by St. Luke, is martyrs. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit on Pentecost Sunday to enable His disciples to be His martyrs until the end of time.

Divinely Conferred Effects

There is a mountain of implications hidden in this precious sacrament. We shall therefore concentrate on the effects of Confirmation and our responsibility to live as not only baptized, but confirmed Christians in our day.

We define Confirmation as the sacrament of spiritual strengthening, in Latin, roboratio spiritualis. Our English word robust comes from the Latin robur, which means oak wood or hardwood.

More concretely, Confirmation strengthens the supernatural life we receive in Baptism. Confirmation increases our sanctifying grace in every way, but mainly in deepening our capacity to remain spiritually alive. It gives us the power of resistance, the ability to resist dangers, and the strength to become more Christ?like until the dawn of eternity.

Confirmation gives us, even before the age of reason, the title to such fortitude as no one else except confirmed believers can claim. It does nothing less than provide us with superhuman strength against hostile forces from within our own fallen nature and from the world and the evil spirit who is literally hell-bent to destroy us.

There are three sacraments that give a person what we call an indelible character. They are Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders. Confirmation confers the character of assimilation to Jesus Christ, the priest, teacher, and king.

On each of these levels, the assimilation is associated with Christs role as Savior. As we know, the priesthood of Jesus is the mission that He came into the world to fulfill by offering Himself in sacrifice on the cross. We cannot repeat too often what sacrifice means. Sacrifice is the voluntary surrender of something precious to God. On Calvary, Jesus offered His human life for our salvation. But the heart of His bloody sacrifice was in His human will, freely surrendering Himself to the Father.

On this first level of assimilation to Jesus Christ the priest, Confirmation gives us the strength to bear suffering (passively) in union with Him and the courage to sacrifice pleasant things (actively) out of love for the One who died on the first Good Friday out of love for us.

Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the teacher. We acquire a strong will in adhering to the faith in the face of obstacles, a strong mind in not doubting the truths of faith, a strong humility of spirit in professing the faith, and a strong wisdom that knows how to communicate the faith to others effectively.

Finally, Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the King. It gives us a quality of leadership that can direct others on the path of salvation. It gives us a strong character that can withstand the ravages of bad example or the snares of seduction, and a strong personality that will attract even the enemies of Christ to His standard.

We might describe the sacramental character of Confirmation by calling it the sacrament of witness to Christ, in the Church and before the world.

In other words, Confirmation is the sacrament of fearless apostolic zeal. Having said this, we are ready to spell out in as clear words as possible what this sacrament gives us the grace to do. In the words of the new canon of law, issued by Pope Jolu1 Paul II on the first Sunday of Advent in 1983, we are told that by the sacrament of Confirmation, the baptized are made strong and more firmly obliged by word and deed to witness to Christ and to spread and defend the faith.

Immediately we see that Confirmation is exactly what its name implies. It is the supernatural, which means superhuman, courage we receive to be apostles of Jesus Christ.

To witness means to testify to others of what we are absolutely sure is true. It is no mere cliché to say that not every believing Catholic is unqualifyingly sure of what he believes. To be sure of the faith means to be certain that what God has revealed is unchangeably true. Certitude of faith is in the mind, convinced that the mysteries of our faith cannot be questioned because they are revealed by the all?wise and truthful God.

We get some idea of what Confirmation does by what happened on Pentecost Sunday. In the Churchs tradition, it was on Pentecost that the disciples received the graces of their Confirmation when the Holy Spirit descended on the disciples, gathered with Mary, awaiting the coming of the power that Jesus had promised to send them.

Remember, it was just over fifty days before that Peter, the coward, three times denied that he even knew Jesus Christ. Yet now he stood before several thousand people in Jerusalem and spoke to them with such courageous conviction as he never had before.

Men of Israel, listen to what I am going to say: Jesus the Nazarene was a man sent to you by God. Miracles and portents and signs God worked through Him when He was among you, as you all know. This man, who was put into your power by the deliberate intention and foreknowledge of God, you took and had Him crucified by men outside the law. You killed Him, but God raised Him to life (Acts 2:22-24).

The result was that some three thousand Jews were baptized that very day.

The lesson is obvious. No less than what the Holy Spirit did to Peter on Pentecost Sunday, the same Spirit has done to us when we were confirmed on our Pentecost day. We have received nothing less than miraculous power to witness to Jesus Christ.

Confirmation develops our sense of mission and inflames our desire to share with others what others had so generously shared with us.

According to St. John Chrysostom, on the Last Day, we shall be judged mainly on our practice of charity in spreading the faith. The number of ways of spreading the faith is beyond human reckoning. But the one way that has been most effective from the dawn of Christian history has been by living a life of selfless charity. The charity of which we are speaking is not only, or even mainly, the charity of the corporal works of mercy. Certainly, as Christ tells us, we are to do everything we can to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, clothe the naked, visit the sick, and care for those who are in physical need. However, the principal form of charity, which is nothing less than a miraculous means of spreading the faith, is the interior charity of selfless love for others. No one has improved on the description of charity of Pope Clement I, writing in 90 AD. Charity, he says, bears all things. Charity is longsuffering in all things. There is nothing mean in charity, nothing arrogant. Charity knows no schism, does not rebel, does all things in concord. In charity, all the elect of God have been made perfect.

Is it any wonder that by the end of the first century of Christianity, over one hundred dioceses were established along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea? Without exception, the Church spread because Christians were confirmed by the Holy Spirit to love others with heroic charity. They loved those who hated them. They loved those who persecuted them. Like Jesus, they even loved those who crucified them.

We are talking about spreading the Faith as one of the gifts of the sacrament of Confirmation. It is especially by our love of others that we communicate our Faith to them. This spreading of the Faith is not only evangelizing unbelievers or converting sinners estranged from God. Confirmation so deepens the faith of a sincerely believing Catholic that he is the conduit for deepening and strengthening the faith of others in the measure of his own practice of self-sacrificing love.

How misguided we can be! We see all around us millions who either do not believe in Christ at all, or whose Christianity is confused, or whose faith in the Churchs teaching is shallow at best and make?believe at worst.

How to bring to this ocean of souls the fullness of the true faith? Surely, our understanding of the faith is important. Our ability to prove the truth of our faith is imperative. But, the infallible talisman for spreading the faith, far beyond our wildest dreams, is living a life of loving surrender to the will of God and of selfless generosity in our dealings with everyone who enters our lives.

In one sentence, the key to putting the gift of our Confirmation into practice is to share with others the treasure of our Catholic Faith.

Here we could begin all over again. The Sacrament of Confirmation provides us with nothing less than miraculous power to defend the faith that we profess.

We cannot defend what we do not understand. Nor can we defend what we are not ourselves convinced is true. On this basic level of defending the Catholic Faith, there is no substitute for knowing what we believe.

But, to know what we believe means more than just understanding what God has revealed. Strange to say, we must also know how to cope with the prevalence of so much erroneous teaching that pervades our society like the air we breathe.

In an age like our own, when heresy is so pervasive and error has been elevated as master of human thought, we confirmed Catholics had better know why God permits heresy in the first place and how we are to benefit from the prevalent errors in faith and morals.

There are two statements of St. Cyprian, bishop and martyr of the third century, that deserve to be memorized. The first statement is his description of heretics. Says Cyprian: Whoever has been separated from the Church is yoked with an adulteress, is separated from the promises made to the Church. Nor shall he who leaves Christs Church arrive at Christs rewards. He is a stranger, he is sacrilegious, he is an enemy. He who has not the Church for mother can no longer have God for his Father.

But then Cyprian goes on. Nevertheless, he explains, the Lord allows and suffers these (errors and evils) to be, while each .mans will remains free. Hoekom? So that while our minds and hearts are tested in the crucible of truth, the sound faith of those who are approved may shine forth more clear and undimmed (On the Unity of the Catholic Church, 6, 10).

What are we being told? We are being told that heretics and enemies of the Church, dare I say it, are necessary. Strengthened by the Sacrament of Confirmation, we are enabled to become more convinced of the truth of our faith, because we have to defend what we believe against the errors among which we live.

Once again, what are we being told? We are being told that hostility to our faith convictions is Gods mysterious way of making us more firm in holding on to what we believe, even though this perseverance may cost us our blood.

Confirmation is the Saviors great blessing for both our minds and wills. Our minds become more convinced that what we believe is really true. And our wills become more courageous in protecting this truth, even with our bodily lives.

The Churchs literature is filled with statements that might be called aphorisms. In every language since the dawn of Christianity, believing Catholics are encouraged to imitate the saints whom we honor as martyrs. Let me just mention a few of these mottos: The ashes of martyrs drive away demons. The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians. Heaven is opened to martyrs. All times are the age of martyrs. The martyrs were bound, imprisoned, scourged, burnt, rent, butchered and they multiplied. The death of the martyrs blossoms in the faith of the living. The Lord has willed that we should rejoice even over persecutions because, when persecutions occur, then the faith is crowned.

So the litany of these proverbs could go on. They teach us one thing, the most important thing we need to believe in this valley of tears. Christ instituted the sacrament of spiritual strengthening so that His followers might follow Him on the road to Calvary. The Savior is now glorified, but only because He had been crucified. Our own glorious eternity depends on the courageous witness of our faith, made possible by our Confirmation by the Holy Spirit.


Baptism

Baptism by immersion in water by one having authority is necessary for a person to become a member of the Church and receive the Holy Ghost. All who seek exaltation must follow the example of the Savior by receiving these ordinances. (See Matthew 3:13–17 John 3:3–7 Acts 2:37–38 2 Nephi 31:5–10.)

Approval for a Person to Be Baptized and Confirmed

Children Who Are Members of Record

The bishop holds the priesthood keys for baptizing 8-year-old members of record in a ward. These children should be baptized and confirmed on or as soon after their 8th birthday as is reasonable (see Doctrine and Covenants 68:27). These are children for whom Church membership records already exist (see 33.6.2). When they reach age 8, the bishop makes sure they have every opportunity to accept the gospel and be baptized and confirmed.

For information about baptizing and confirming a person who has an intellectual disability, see 38.2.1.8 and 38.2.3.5.

The bishop or an assigned counselor conducts interviews for the baptism and confirmation of:

Children age 8 who are members of record.

Children age 8 who are not members of record but have at least one parent or guardian who is a member.

Members of record ages 9 and older whose baptism was delayed due to intellectual disabilities.

Instructions for interviews are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Bishops give special attention to 7-year-old children in the ward, ensuring that their parents, their Primary leaders and teachers, and those who minister to their families help them prepare for baptism and confirmation. Elders quorum and Relief Society leaders also encourage parents to prepare their children for these ordinances.

Converts

The mission president holds the priesthood keys for baptizing converts in a mission. Convert baptisms are defined as baptisms of:

Persons ages 9 and older who have never been baptized and confirmed. See 18.7.1.1 for an exception for those with intellectual disabilities.

Children ages 8 and older whose parents (1) are not members or (2) are being baptized and confirmed at the same time as the children.

Full-time missionaries interview converts for baptism and confirmation. Instructions are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Baptismal Services

A baptismal service should be simple, brief, and spiritually uplifting. It may include the following:

A brief welcome from the brother who is conducting the service

An opening hymn and prayer

One or two short messages on gospel subjects, such as baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost

A time of reverence while those who participated in the baptism change into dry clothes (hymns or Primary songs may be played or sung during this time)

The confirmation of 8-year-old members of record the confirmation of converts if determined by the bishop (see 38.2.3.2)

Bearing of testimonies by new converts, if desired

A closing hymn and prayer

When a baptismal service for 8-year-old children who are members of record involves only one ward, a member of the bishopric plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning.

When a baptismal service for these children involves more than one ward, a member of the stake presidency or an assigned high councilor plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning. A member of the bishopric from each ward with a child being baptized should attend.

Members should not request individual times for the baptism of a child. Nor should they prescribe the content of the service.

Baptismal services for converts should be scheduled as soon as they have met the qualifications in 38.2.3.3. Baptism of a family member should not be delayed until a father can receive the priesthood and perform the baptism himself.

Under the bishopric’s guidance, the ward mission leader (if one is called) or the member of the elders quorum presidency who leads missionary work in the ward plans and conducts baptismal services for converts.

Who Performs the Ordinance

The ordinance of baptism is performed by a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder. The person who performs a baptism must be approved by the bishop (or by the mission president if a full-time missionary is performing the baptism).

A bishop may allow a father who is a priest or a Melchizedek Priesthood holder to baptize his child even if the father is not fully temple worthy (see 18.3). Bishops encourage fathers to prepare themselves to baptize their own children.

To perform a baptism, a person who is outside his own ward must show a current temple recommend to the presiding leader. Or he may show a Recommend to Perform an Ordinance signed by a member of his bishopric.

Where to Perform the Ordinance

Baptisms should be performed in a baptismal font if one is available. If there is not a font, a safe body of water may be used. It should be large enough for both the person performing the ordinance and the person being baptized to stand in. Water is not dedicated for baptisms.

If a font is used, it is scheduled through an assigned member in the agent bishop’s ward.

For safety, a responsible adult must be present while a font is being filled and remain until it is drained, cleaned, and secured. The font should be drained immediately after each baptismal service. The doors to the font should be locked when it is not in use.

Clothing

A person who performs a baptism and a person who is being baptized wear white clothing that is not transparent when wet. An endowed person wears the temple garment under this clothing while performing a baptism. Local units purchase baptismal clothing with budget funds and do not charge for its use.

Baptismal clothing may be ordered at store.ChurchofJesusChrist.org.

Witnesses

Two witnesses, approved by the presiding leader, observe each baptism to make sure it is performed properly. Baptized members of the Church, including children and youth, may serve as witnesses.

A baptism must be repeated if the words are not spoken exactly as given in Doctrine and Covenants 20:73. It must also be repeated if part of the person’s body, hair, or clothing is not completely immersed.

Instruksies

To perform the ordinance of baptism, a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder:

Stands in the water with the person being baptized.

Holds the person’s right wrist with his left hand (for convenience and safety). The person being baptized holds the priesthood holder’s left wrist with his or her left hand.

Raises his right arm to the square.

States the person’s full name and says, “Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen” (Doctrine and Covenants 20:73).

Has the person hold his or her nose with the right hand (for convenience) then places his right hand high on the person’s back and immerses the person completely, including clothing. Immersion is easier if the person bends his or her knees.

Helps the person to come up out of the water.

Baptism Record

For information about making a record of a baptism, see 18.8.3.


When could California mission priests perform confirmation? - Geskiedenis

The Spanish eventually realized that the Valley of the Bears had a large amount of food and other natural resources and that the local tribe, the Chumash, were friendly. They decided that it would be a good location for another Mission. The Mission is located a few miles from the coast in a protected valley with good land for farming.

After a chapel or church was finished where the Fathers and Neophytes could hold Mass they would start building the Convento. The Convento was where the Fathers would live. Next would come workshops and the Monjerio. The Monjerio was where unmarried girls and women would live and be locked in at night. The Fathers didn’t think that unmarried girls and women should live near single men. Eventually there would be enough buildings for four sides of a square or quadrangle. The Mission complexes weren’t perfect squares because the Fathers didn’t have a way to measure distance other than walking off distances. Most Missions included a fountain. The fountain was used for washing, laundry, and water. The more fancy the fountain the more successful the Mission.

The Mission prospered and became quite large with many work areas and sleeping rooms. The Mission also had aqueducts to carry water to the gardens, ranchos for farming and keeping livestock, and two smaller branch churches or asistencias. The Mission has suffered damage from earthquakes in the past, including one in 1830.

Father Cavaller died in 1789 and Father Miguel Giribet was appointed to take his place. Eventually Father Luis Antonio Martinez joined Father Giribet. Father Martinez was well liked by the Chumash but not well liked by the military. In 1830 the military decided they had had enough and accused him of treason. He was forced to leave Alta California.

Those that lived at the Mission went by a strict schedule. The Fathers were used to this type of lifestyle, but the neophytes were not. The structure of Mission life was one of the reasons many Native Californians tried to leave. A French explorer, Jean Fran ois de La P rouse, visited Mission San Carlos is 1786 and wrote a detailed account of what he observed. Events at the Mission were signaled by the ringing of the Mission bells. Each day started around sunrise (about 6am). The Mission bells would ring to wake everyone and summon them to Mass and morning prayers. Prayer lasted for about an hour and then everyone would go to breakfast. Atole, a type of soup made from barley and other grains, would be served. Breakfast took about 45 minutes and then it was time for everyone to go to work.

The Fathers were responsible for running the Mission and instructing the new converts and children in the Catholic faith. Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or to help with the animals while women stayed at the Mission and worked on domestic chores such as weaving cloth and making clothes, boiling down fat to make soap and candles, and tending to the vegetable gardens. Children often helped at these chores around the Mission once their religious instruction was over. Depending on the particular industry at the Mission there also might be neophytes leatherworking, metalworking, wine making, and pressing olives for olive oil.

At noon the bells would ring again for everyone to gather for dinner, what we would call lunch. Lunch was normally pozole, another thick soup with beans and peas. After an afternoon break everyone returned to their work for another two to four hours depending on how much work there was to be done. A last bell would be rung to end the work day. Another serving of Atole would be served and the neophytes would be able to rest until it was time for bed (Margolin, Pg. 85). Women were usually expected to go to bed by 8pm and men by 9pm. Most of the Fathers allowed their neophytes to continue to hunt and gather additional foods and to cook some of their traditional dishes.

Living at the Mission was often difficult for new converts. They were used to working when work needed to be done and resting when they were tired. The Mission lifestyle was different. The Neophytes were the main source of labor for the Missions. It was their hard work along with the soldiers’ and Fathers’ that built the Missions and their outbuildings. Agriculture and ranching required constant tending to the crops and animals. Without this labor the Missions would not have been able to survive. Many neophytes missed the freedom of their tribal life and would try to leave the Mission. The Fathers wouldn’t allow neophytes to leave and would send soldiers to search for them and bring them back. Runaways were usually punished for breaking the rules.

The Chumash didn’t like the Spanish Missionaries taking their land and telling them how to live. The Spanish found it difficult to convince the Chumash to convert to Christianity and live at the Mission. Unlike at other missions, the Chumash that had converted were allowed to visit their families and friends at the village about once every 5 weeks. The Fathers hoped that the visitors would convince other tribe members to come to the Mission, but the Chumash didn’t need the Mission’s help to survive.

By 1780 the Spanish decided to allow the Natives to appoint an alcade. The alcade, a Native tribe member, talked to both sides and tried to help settle disputes.


Junípero Serra's brutal story in spotlight as pope prepares for canonisation

Generations of American schoolchildren have been taught to think of Father Junípero Serra as California’s benevolent founding father, a humble Franciscan monk who left a life of comfort and plenty on the island of Mallorca to travel to the farthest reaches of the New World and protect the natives from the worst abuses of the Spanish imperial army.

Under Serra’s leadership, tens of thousands of Native Americans across Alta California, as the region was then known, were absorbed into Catholic missions – places said by one particularly rapturous myth-maker in the 19th century to be filled with “song, laughter, good food, beautiful languor, and mystical adoration of the Christ”.

What this rosy-eyed view omits is that these natives were brutalized – beaten, pressed into forced labour and infected with diseases to which they had no resistance – and the attempt to integrate them into the empire was a miserable failure. The journalist and historian Carey McWilliams wrote almost 70 years ago the missions could be better conceived as “a series of picturesque charnel houses”.

Little wonder, then, that Pope Francis’s decision to elevate Serra to sainthood during his visit to Washington this week has revived longstanding controversies and enraged representatives of California’s last surviving Native American populations. There have been protests outside some of California’s most heavily visited Missions, petitions, open letters written both to the pope and to California’s political leaders, and even an attempt by members of the state legislature to have Serra replaced as one of California’s two representative figures in Washington’s National Statuary Hall. Natives travelled to California and Washington this week to protest against Serra’s elevation in person.

Opponents point out that, from the time Serra arrived in 1769, the native population was ravaged by European diseases, including syphilis spread by marauding Spanish soldiers. Indians brought into the missions were not allowed to leave, and if they tried they were shackled and severely beaten.

They were used as forced labour to build out the Mission’s farming projects. They were fed atrociously, separated from close family members and packed into tight living quarters that often became miasmas of disease and death.

When the Native Americans rebelled, which they did on at least two occasions, their rebellions were put down in brutal fashion. When Native American women were caught trying to abort babies conceived through rape, the mission fathers had them beaten for days on end, clamped them in irons, had their heads shaved and forced them to stand at the church altar every Sunday carrying a painted wooden child in their arms.

Passions are riding high on both sides. While Serra’s critics say he was responsible for the near-eradication of California’s native peoples, the state’s governor, Jerry Brown, has defended him as “a very courageous man”, an innovator and a pioneer, and vowed that his statue will stay in Washington “until the end of time”.

In many ways, the issue is reminiscent of the Vatican’s campaign a few years ago to canonise Pius XII, the wartime pope accused in many quarters of failing to stand up to the Nazis and helping in their rise to power, but defended in others as a holy man who did his part to save many hundreds of thousands of Jews.

The push to canonise Pius XII (now on hold) came in the wake of a 1998 papal document that sought to atone for the church’s silence in the face of the Holocaust. Likewise, Serra’s sainthood follows an apology issued by Pope Francis in Bolivia this summer for the “grave sins … committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God”.

That, however, has only further raised the hackles of Serra critics, who say the apology means nothing if the Vatican simultaneously seeks to canonise a person exemplifying the actions for which the apology was issued. “Apologies that aren’t followed by a change of behaviour, in general, don’t carry a lot of weight,” Deborah Miranda of Washington and Lee University, who is of California Native American descent, said in a recent magazine interview.

Even mainstream Catholics have been surprised that Pope Francis has championed Serra without going through the usual four-step review process, including verification of two miracles. Serra has been credited with only one.

The cause of his sainthood, which was first proposed in 1930, was long ago assumed to have stalled because of the controversies surrounding his legacy.

But Francis, as the first Latin American pope, has an obvious interest in creating a role model for Latinos in the United States and the rest of the American continent – an interest echoed by the state of California, which can now look forward to a global wave of Serra-related tourism. The pope also appears to have an interesting theological take on Serra’s imperfections. Kevin Starr, widely regarded as California’s pre-eminent state historian, summarised the Vatican’s view this way: “Saints do not have to be perfect. Nobody is perfect. Sanctity is just another mode of imperfection.”

In other words, it is enough to state that the good outweighs the bad. José Gómez, the first Latino archbishop of Los Angeles and an enthusiastic Serra champion, wrote recently: “Whatever human faults he may have had and whatever mistakes he may have made, there is no questioning that he lived a life of sacrifice and self-denial.”

Gómez also argued that we cannot judge 18th-century behaviour by 21st-century standards – a form of historical relativism that the Serra critics find particularly galling. John Cornwell, a British journalist turned academic who has written extensively about the Vatican, including an acclaimed book about Pius XII, said the argument also clouded the important question of whether Serra was an appropriate exemplar for today’s faithful.

“For those who argue that we should not judge the values of the past by those of the present,” Cornwell told the Guardian, “one could, and should, object that it’s important to learn the lessons of history.”

To Native Americans like Valentin Lopez, the chairman of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band based in Sacramento, those lessons are not complicated. Serra, in his view, was part of a colonial enterprise whose goal was the complete subjugation of California’s native peoples. The mission system he set up was based on coercion, punishment and indifference to Indian suffering, against which his expressions of piety were no more than window-dressing.

“It’s amazing to me this is even a debate,” Lopez told the Guardian. “There is no debate – it’s like debating the pros and cons of the genocide of the Jewish people in world war two. The only reason this is not treated as a black and white issue is because of the lies that the church and the state of California have perpetuated from the time of the missions.”

Helen Hunt Jackson’s 1884 bestselling novel Ramona set the tone for a mythologised history of the Missions, giving the impression Spanish colonialism had been an idyll for settlers and Native Americans alike and that the natives only suffered after the gringos began arriving. Even the most ardent Catholic historians now accept this is flat-out wrong.

A flurry of recent Serra scholarship, however, suggests the politics of the Spanish conquest were complicated. Missions were established with much greater success and lesser suffering in other parts of the American continent – particularly by the Jesuits. Serra’s mandate only arose because the Vatican temporarily disbanded the Jesuits in 1767, and many of the mistakes he and the Franciscans made were the result of inexperience, according to Professor Starr.

“The perspective of Franciscans and Dominicans of that era was: God will punish us for the way we treat the Indians, so we’ve got to protect them as some kind of atonement,” Starr told the Guardian. “Serra knew he couldn’t keep California a Franciscan mission protectorate forever. He hoped that by the time Spaniards came in large numbers, Native Americans would be educated and competent to deal with it. That was the dream, but the dream never came true.”

The biggest philosophical divide among serious historians is whether Serra’s initiative was worth undertaking in the first place. Catholic scholars – including Professor Starr – tend to take an indulgent view of the church’s evangelizing mission, while Native American advocates like Lopez view the imposition of Catholicism as a violation of the Indians’ longstanding spiritual traditions, just as the Spanish conquest disrupted and violated their way of life more generally.

The Vatican would like to believe that Serra and the missionaries were somehow separate from the Spanish colonial enterprise, and that the army’s abuses should not in any way be laid at Serra’s door. Pope Francis said in May that Serra was one of a generation of missionaries “who … defended the indigenous peoples against abuses by the colonisers”.

Most historians, however, dismiss that interpretation as fanciful. While it’s true that Serra was often at odds with military commanders in the region, he travelled to the New World at the behest and direction of the same Spanish crown in command of the army. He couldn’t be against the colonisers, because he was one himself.

“The church and the army were partners,” Lopez said. “Junípero Serra’s own handwriting details the cruelties. His policy was to enslave the Indians – he didn’t let them leave the missions. You can’t blame that on Spanish soldiers.”

Out of deference to the papal visit, the push to have Serra’s statue in Washington replaced with the late astronaut Sally Ride – championed by LGBT advocacy groups as well as fans of space exploration – has been deferred until after Francis is back in Rome. But the sponsors of the measure, including a Latino state senator from Los Angeles and the speaker of the state assembly, have vowed to reintroduce it thereafter – paving the way for yet more showdowns over Serra in the foreseeable future.


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