USS Gamble (DD-123), c.1920

USS Gamble (DD-123), c.1920

U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann. Die standaardgeskiedenis van die ontwikkeling van Amerikaanse vernietigers, van die vroegste torpedobootvernietigers tot die naoorlogse vloot, en dek die massiewe klasse vernietigers wat vir beide Wêreldoorloë gebou is. Gee die leser 'n goeie begrip van die debatte wat elke klas vernietigers omring het en tot hul individuele kenmerke gelei het.


GAMBEL DM 15

Hierdie afdeling bevat 'n lys van die name en benamings wat die skip gedurende sy leeftyd gehad het. Die lys is in chronologiese volgorde.


    Wickes Class Destroyer
    Keel gelê 12 November 1917 - 11 Mei 1918 gelanseer

Vloeibedekkings

Hierdie afdeling bevat 'n lys van aktiewe skakels na die bladsye met voorblaaie wat met die skip verband hou. Daar moet 'n aparte stel bladsye vir elke inkarnasie van die skip wees (dws vir elke inskrywing in die afdeling "Skipnaam en aanwysingsgeskiedenis"). Omslae moet in chronologiese volgorde aangebied word (of so goed as wat bepaal kan word).

Aangesien 'n skip baie omslae kan hê, kan dit onder baie bladsye verdeel word, sodat dit nie vir ewig neem om die bladsye te laai nie. Elke bladsyskakel moet vergesel wees van 'n datumreeks vir die voorblaaie op daardie bladsy.

Poststempels

Hierdie afdeling bevat voorbeelde van die posmerke wat die skip gebruik. Daar moet 'n aparte stel posstempels wees vir elke inkarnasie van die skip (dws vir elke inskrywing in die afdeling "Skipnaam en aanwysingsgeskiedenis"). Binne elke stel moet die posmerke in volgorde van hul klassifikasietipe gelys word. As meer as een posstempel dieselfde klassifikasie het, moet hulle verder gesorteer word op datum van die vroegste bekende gebruik.

'N Posstempel moet nie ingesluit word nie, tensy dit vergesel is van 'n close-up beeld en/of 'n beeld van 'n omslag wat die posstempel toon. Datumreekse MOET SLEGS op DEKKINGS IN DIE MUSEUM gebaseer wees en dit sal na verwagting verander namate meer voorblaaie bygevoeg word.
 
& gt & gt & gt As u 'n beter voorbeeld vir een van die posmerke het, kan u die bestaande voorbeeld vervang.


Dobbelgeskiedenis, familiewapen en -wapens

Gamble is 'n naam van antieke Normandiese oorsprong. Dit het in Engeland aangekom met die Normandiese verowering van 1066. Gamble is 'n naam wat afkomstig is van die gegewe naam Gamel, wat algemeen onder die Dene en die Normandiërs was. Die naam Gamble is uiteindelik afgelei van die Ou Normandiese woord Gamall, wat beteken oud.

'N Ander bron merk op: & quot hierdie van is afgelei van die naam van 'n voorouer. 'die seun van Gamel', 'n eens gewilde maar nou vergete Noord-Engelse persoonlike naam. Dit word saamgestel met baie plaaslike name. Die moderne aanvaarde vanvorm is Gamble and Gambles. & Quot [1]

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Vroeë oorsprong van die Gamble -familie

Die van Gamble is die eerste keer gevind in die Domesday Book van 1086 waar Gamel gelys is en in die Hundredorum Rolls van 1273. & quotIn laasgenoemde word 'Fitz Gamell' ook gevind. Van die Angelsaksiese gamol of gamel, oud, oud. Dit word saamgestel met 'n paar Domesday -name, soos Gamel -bar, 'ou beer' - Gamel -carle, 'ou mannetjie' - beide in Yorkshire. & Quot [2]

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Vroeë geskiedenis van die Gamble -familie

Hierdie webblad toon slegs 'n klein uittreksel van ons dobbel -navorsing. Nog 61 woorde (4 reëls teks) wat die jare 1158, 1297, 1450, 1687, 1666, 1865, 1618, 1629, 1640, 1659, 1663, 1670 dek en is ingesluit onder die onderwerp Early Gamble History in al ons PDF Extended History produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.

Sweatshirt met capuchon van Unisex

Gamble Spelling Variations

Anglo-Normandiese name word gewoonlik gekenmerk deur 'n groot aantal spellingvariasies. Dit is grootliks te wyte aan die feit dat Oud- en Middel -Engels geen spellingreëls gehad het toe Norman French in die 11de eeu bekendgestel is nie. Die tale van die Engelse howe was destyds Frans en Latyn. Hierdie verskillende tale het redelik gemeng in die ontwikkelende sosiale omgewing. Die laaste element van hierdie mengsel is dat die Middeleeuse skrifgeleerdes woorde volgens hul klanke gespel het, eerder as enige spesifieke reëls, dus 'n naam is dikwels op soveel verskillende maniere gespel as die aantal dokumente waarin dit verskyn het. Die naam is gespel Gamble, Gambel, Gambol en ander.

Vroeë bekendes van die Gamble -gesin (voor 1700)

Uitstaande onder die familie was John Gamble (oorlede 1687), komponis en musikant in die hof van koning Charles I van Engeland en koning Charles II van.
Nog 29 woorde (2 reëls teks) is, waar moontlik, onder die onderwerp Early Gamble Notables ingesluit in al ons PDF -uitgebreide geskiedenisprodukte en gedrukte produkte.

Migrasie van die Gamble -gesin na Ierland

Sommige van die Gamble -familie het na Ierland verhuis, maar hierdie onderwerp word nie in hierdie uittreksel behandel nie.
Nog 243 woorde (17 reëls teks) oor hul lewe in Ierland is waar moontlik by al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte ingesluit.

Dobbelmigrasie +

Sommige van die eerste setlaars met hierdie familienaam was:

Dobbelaars in die 17de eeu in die Verenigde State
  • Gideon Gamble wat hom in 1681 in Delaware gevestig het
  • Gideon Gamble, wat in 1681 in Pennsylvania geland het [3]
  • Grisel Gamble, wat in 1685 in Perth Amboy, NJ aangekom het [3]
  • Grist Gamble, wat in 1685 in New Jersey geland het [3]
  • Grizel Gamble, wat in 1685 in New Jersey aangekom het [3]
  • . (Meer as moontlik is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte.)
Dobbel -setlaars in die 18de eeu in die Verenigde State
  • Archibald Gamble, wat in 1740 in New England geland het [3]
  • James Gamble, wat hom in 1767 in Charles Town [Charleston], Suid -Carolina, gevestig het
Dobbelaars in die 19de eeu in die Verenigde State
  • William Gamble, wat in 1802 in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania, beland het [3]
  • Edward Gamble, wat in 1805 in Amerika geland het [3]
  • James Gamble, wat in 1807 in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania, beland het [3]
  • Joseph Gamble, wat in 1811 in New Jersey geland het [3]
  • Samuel Gamble, wat in 1811 in New York, NY aangekom het [3]
  • . (Meer as moontlik is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte.)

Dobbelmigrasie na Kanada +

Sommige van die eerste setlaars met hierdie familienaam was:

Dobbelaars in Kanada in die 18de eeu
Dobbelaars in Kanada in die 19de eeu
  • Catherine Gamble, wat in 1825 in Nova Scotia geland het
  • John Gamble, wat in 1833 in Nova Scotia aangekom het
  • Alexander Gamble, 38 jaar oud, 'n arbeider, wat in 1834 in Saint John, New Brunswick, aangekom het aan boord van die brig "Betsy Heron" uit Belfast, Ierland
  • Jane Gamble, 35 jaar oud, wat in 1834 in Saint John, New Brunswick aangekom het aan boord van die brig "Betsy Heron" uit Belfast, Ierland
  • Sarah Gamble, 10 jaar oud, wat in 1834 in Saint John, New Brunswick aangekom het aan boord van die brig "Betsy Heron" uit Belfast, Ierland
  • . (Meer as moontlik is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte.)

Dobbelmigrasie na Australië +

Emigrasie na Australië het gevolg op die eerste vloot van gevangenes, handelaars en vroeë setlaars. Vroeë immigrante sluit in:

Dobbelaars in Australië in die 19de eeu
  • John Gamble, Engelse veroordeelde wat vir 14 jaar in Durham, County Durham, Engeland skuldig bevind is, het op 5 Junie 1819 aan boord van die & quotAsiatic & vervoer, aangekom in New South Wales, Australië [5]
  • Mnr. William Gamble, Britse veroordeelde wat vir 15 jaar in Leicester, Engeland skuldig bevind is, het op 25 April 1840 aan boord van die & quotAsia & vervoer, met sy aankoms in Tasmanië (Van Diemen's Land) [6]
  • Eliza Gamble, wat in 1847 aan boord van die skip in "Adelaide, Australië" aangekom het, "Trafalgar" [7]
  • Mary Gamble, wat in 1847 aan boord van die skip in "Adelaide, Australië" aangekom het, "Trafalgar" [7]
  • Mej. Ellen Gamble, (geb. 1831), 18 jaar oud, Ierse kindermeisie wat sewe jaar lank in County Longford, Ierland skuldig bevind is, aan boord van die & quotAustralasia & quot vervoer op 26 Junie 1849, aangekom in Tasmanië (Van Diemen's Land) [8 ]
  • . (Meer as moontlik is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte.)

Dobbelmigrasie na Nieu -Seeland +

Emigrasie na Nieu-Seeland volg in die voetspore van die Europese ontdekkingsreisigers, soos kaptein Cook (1769-70): eerstens seëlaars, walvisjagters, sendelinge en handelaars. Teen 1838 het die Britse Nieu -Seelandse Kompanjie begin om grond te koop van die Maori -stamme en dit aan setlaars te verkoop, en na die Verdrag van Waitangi in 1840 het baie Britse gesinne op die moeisame reis van ses maande van Brittanje na Aotearoa begin om te begin 'n nuwe lewe. Vroeë immigrante sluit in:


Notas [wysig | wysig bron]

  1. ↑ "Die maand Julie in die Amerikaanse vlootgeskiedenis". U.S. Fleet Forces, United States Navy. http: //www.cffc.navy.mil/naval_history/july.htm. Ontsluit 10 Mei 2009. "14 Julie 1813 - LT John M. Gamble, die eerste marine wat 'n skip in die geveg beveel het (prysvaartuig Greenwich in gevangenskap van die Britse walvisjagter Seringapatam) "  [dooie skakel]
  2. ↑ Gibowicz, Charles J. (2007). The Traditions: Marine Corps Mess Night Tradition. AuthorHouse. p. 㺒. ISBN 𧓒-1-4259-8446-5. http: //books.google.com/books? Id = 0Vo62GFJlpoC & amppg = RA1-PA18 & amplpg = RA1 -PA18 & ampdq = John+M.+Gamble+Marine & ampsource = bl & ampots = z24FPXqChs & ampsig = 7qR3h4vYHZPCTYgu_Oc1lL33ISY & amphl = en & ampei = mRcISr_WPMektwfkw62LBw & amp; r & amp; op 30 Maart 1813 het luitenant John M. Gamble, USMC, die bevel geneem oor die USS Greenwich, die enigste mariene ooit wat 'n Amerikaanse vlootskip beveel het. " 
  3. ↑ "Marine Corps Officers of the War of 1812". Oorloë en konflikte van die Amerikaanse vloot. Naval History & amp Heritage Command, Department of the Navy. http: //www.history.navy.mil/wars/war1812/list14.htm. Ontsluit op 10 Mei 2009.  

Die "Register of Officers and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps" is jaarliks ​​vanaf 1815 tot ten minste die sewentigerjare gepubliseer, en dit het rang, bevel of stasie verskaf, en soms tot in die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, toe bevel/stasie nie meer ingesluit nie. Geskandeerde afskrifte is hersien en data is vanaf die middel van die 1840's tot en met 1922 ingevoer, toe meer gereelde vlootgidse beskikbaar was.

The Navy Directory was 'n publikasie wat inligting verskaf het oor die bevel, billet en rang van elke aktiewe en afgetrede vlootoffisier. Enkele uitgawes is vanaf Januarie 1915 en Maart 1918 aanlyn gevind, en dan is drie tot ses uitgawes per jaar van 1923 tot 1940 aanlyn, vanaf April 1941.

Die inskrywings in beide dokumentreeks is soms kripties en verwarrend. Hulle is dikwels selfs in 'n uitgawe inkonsekwent, met die naam van opdragte, veral in die 1920's en vroeë 1930's.

Alumni wat op dieselfde bevel gelys is, het moontlik al dan nie beduidende interaksies gehad nie; hulle kon 'n hut of werkruimte gedeel het, het baie ure saam gestaan ​​... of, veral by die groter opdragte, het hulle mekaar moontlik glad nie geken nie. Die inligting bied egter die geleentheid om verbindings te skep wat andersins onsigbaar is, en gee 'n volledige beeld van die professionele ervarings van hierdie alumni in Memorial Hall.


HistoryLink.org

Die verkeerde naam "Spaanse griep" -pandemie het 'n hoogtepunt bereik aan die einde van 1918 en bly steeds die mees wydverspreide en dodelike uitbraak van siektes wat die mensdom wêreldwyd in die geskiedenis opgetel het. Klein mutasies in 'n griepvirus het 'n buitengewoon dodelike variant geskep wat gesonde jong volwassenes doodgemaak het, net soos meer kwesbare ouderdomsgroepe. Die plek van oorsprong van die patogeen word nog gedebatteer, maar die rol van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in die vinnige verspreiding daarvan is onbetwis. Tog het Washington, ondanks 'n sterk militêre teenwoordigheid, beter gevaar as enige ander staat in die unie behalwe Oregon. Alhoewel die dodetal die hoogste was in die bevolkte stede in die staat, het die pandemie byna elke gemeenskap geraak. Pogings om die uitbraak te beheer was grootliks tevergeefs, en van einde September 1918 tot einde daardie jaar het dit byna 5 000 Washington -inwoners doodgemaak. Meer as die helfte van die slagoffers was tussen 20 en 49 jaar oud.

'N Antieke plaag

Griepvirusse het waarskynlik 6 000 tot 7 000 jaar gelede mense die eerste keer siek gemaak, wat ooreenstem met die vroeë makmaak van varke en beeste. Verhoogde mobiliteit van mense vergemaklik epidemies en pandemies wat groot gebiede kan beïnvloed. Tot die vroeë dertigerjare was griep deur die meeste wetenskaplikes beskou as 'n bakteriese eerder as 'n virussiekte. Trouens, beide was dikwels betrokke, diegene wat verswak is deur 'n griepvirus, is meer kwesbaar vir bakteriële longontsteking. Tog het dit tydens die jaarlikse besoeke van griep gewoonlik net matige siektes veroorsaak. Maar nou en dan het iets anders en baie meer dodelik gekom.

Die eerste aangetekende pandemie wat waarskynlik deur 'n griepvirus veroorsaak is, kom in 1580 en verwoes 'n gebied wat strek van Klein -Asië tot so ver noord as vandag se huidige Nederland. Daar was daarna gereeld groot uitbrake, maar relatief min sterftes. 'N Dodeliker virus tref Europa en die Russiese ryk in 1781-1782, en in 1889 en 1890 sterf meer as 'n miljoen mense toe 'n dodelike variant uit China bars, versprei na Rusland en in Europa en na Noord-Amerika en Latyn kom. Amerika voordat hulle in Japan uitspuit. Daarna kom die pandemie van 1918, verreweg die algemeenste en dodelikste, 'n sombere onderskeid wat tot vandag toe bestaan.

Amerikaans Samoa was die enigste georganiseerde samelewing op die planeet wat heeltemal ontsnap het van die pandemie van 1918, danksy 'n vroeë, streng en lang kwarantyn. In Wes -Samoa, skaars 50 myl ver, sterf 20 persent van die bevolking binne 'n paar maande. Griep het die aardbol omring van oos na wes en van die noorde van die poolcirkel tot by die suidpunt van Chili, wat samelewings en tientalle miljoene mense in die nasleep laat lê het.

Heeltemal 'n ander siekte

Voor 1918 was die gemiddelde sterftesyfer vir die meeste griep slegs ongeveer 'n tiende van 1 persent, of ongeveer een sterftesyfer vir elke 1000 infeksies. Die griep van 1918 het meer as 2,5 persent van die geteisterdes doodgemaak, byna altyd binne enkele dae na die eerste simptome en dikwels binne enkele ure. Sommige het gesterf as gevolg van akute respiratoriese nood ('n direkte effek van die griepvirus) en ander het prooi geword van opportunistiese bakteriële longontsteking. En anders as bykans enige vorige bekende aansteeklike siekte, het hierdie virus volwassenes tussen 20 en 40 jaar veral erg getref.

Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was in die laaste maande toe die ergste van die pandemie getref het. Ongeveer 53 500 Amerikaners het hul lewens in gevegte verloor en 'n byna gelyke getal is dood aan griep terwyl hulle in Europa dien. Die getal Amerikaners, militêr en burgerlik, wat deur die virus tuis vermoor is, is na raming meer as 650,000. Die mees konserwatiewe (en miskien die minste akkurate) skatting van die dodetal wêreldwyd is meer as 20 miljoen, en soveel as 100 miljoen kan gesterf het (baie regerings hou min of geen akkurate rekords nie, wat selfs growwe ramings baie problematies maak).

Amerikaanse griep?

Dit is onbekend waar die pandemie ontstaan ​​het. Dit word algemeen die 'Spaanse griep' genoem, waarskynlik omdat Spanje, wat nie aan die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deelgeneem het nie, vryelik siektes en sterftes as gevolg van die siekte aangemeld het, inligting wat deur die strydende nasies gesensor is. Die bevooroordeelde vermoede dat dodelike aansteeklike siektes spruit uit landelike varkstokke in Asië of die stomende oerwoude van Afrika suid van die Sahara, was waarskynlik nie waar in 1918 nie. 'N Ondersteunbare teorie beweer dat die' Spaanse 'griep sy oorsprong in Haskell County, Kansas, in Februarie, het. In 1918 word 'n plaaslike dokter oorweldig deur 'n aantal gevalle van 'n besonder virulente en dodelike siekte, in teenstelling met enigiets wat hy in lang jare van praktyk gesien het. Tydens die uitbraak het 'n plaaslike man met verlof van die weermag huis toe gekom en daarna teruggekeer na Camp Funston in die uitgestrekte Fort Riley -kompleks, 300 myl daarvandaan. Binne drie weke is meer as 1 100 soldate in die kamp met die griep in die hospitaal opgeneem en 28 het nie oorleef nie, 'n buitengewoon hoë sterftesyfer.

Begin April is beduidende uitbrake van 'n ligter griep aangemeld, onder meer in Detroit, waar tot 2000 werkers by die Ford -motorfabriek getref is. Die dodelike variant het Spanje einde Mei getref. Die raaisel bly vandag - dit is onseker waar die 'normale' griepvirus gemuteer het tot 'n doeltreffende moordenaar. Mededingende teorieë wissel van Kansas tot Noorweë tot die hawens van die Engelse kanaal tot die gewone verdagte, China. Dit is onwaarskynlik dat hierdie vraag ooit finaal opgelos kan word, en dit maak nie saak nie.

Een feit is onbetwis: Oorlog en siekte het hand aan hand gegaan. Gedurende die lente van 1918 het konvooie Amerikaanse troepe vervoer om in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog te veg en met gewonde, siek en gedemobiliseerde soldate terug te keer. Alhoewel die konflik blykbaar geen direkte verband met die oorsprong van die virus gehad het nie, het dit alles te doen gehad met die verspreiding daarvan.

Wenke van 'n komende rampspoed

Baie van die gevalle wat in die middelmaande van 1918 aangemeld is, was relatief sag en gelokaliseer, maar aan die einde van Augustus het die gebeure 'n skrikwekkende wending geneem toe die dodelike variant losgebars het:

'Dit het byna gelyktydig in drie groot dele van die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan voorgekom: Freetown, Sierra Leone, waar plaaslike Wes -Afrikaners saamgevoeg is met Britse, Suid -Afrikaanse, Oos -Afrikaanse en Australiese soldate en matrose Brest, Frankryk, wat die belangrikste hawe was vir Geallieerde troepe en Boston, Massachusetts, een van Amerika se besigste aanvangshawens in Amerika en 'n belangrike kruispad vir militêre en burgerlike personeel van elke nasie wat betrokke was by die Geallieerde oorlogspoging. Massiewe troepebewegings en die ontwrigting van belangrike dele van die bevolking tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog speel 'n belangrike rol in die oordrag van die siekte "(" Griep, "webwerf vir mediese ekologie).

In Washington lyk die eerste agt maande van 1918 soortgelyk aan die meeste jare, en koerante in die staat het blykbaar geen kennis geneem van die uitbrake van griep in Detroit en 'n paar ander Amerikaanse stede nie. Op 15 April is egter berig dat by die weermag se Camp Lewis suid van Tacoma "Longontsteking gedurende die week effens toegeneem het, die meeste gevalle volg griep, wat twee weke gelede op sy maksimum was" ("Civil Workers Fast Being Uitgeskakel . "). Einde Mei Die Seattle Times 'n kort verslag oor die diens gelewer waarin gesê word dat ''n geheimsinnige epidemie' 'ten minste 40 persent van die bevolking van Spanje siek gemaak het, en dat alhoewel die simptome' soos griep lyk. Siekte. "). 'N Week later sê die koerant oor die Spaanse uitbraak: "Die vinnige verspreiding daarvan is slegs vergelykbaar met die groot plaag van 1889," 'n verwysing na die grieppandemie van byna 30 jaar tevore ("King Visited by Strange Illness"). In Junie was daar vrolike berigte oor 'n griepepidemie onder vyandige Duitse soldate, maar vroeg in die maand het Camp Lewis slegs 39 gevalle aangemeld.

Dinge het vroeg in Julie meer onheilspellend gelyk. Op 9 Julie, Die Seattle Times berig dat die griep in Spanje 'versprei het oor ander dele van Europa' ('' 'n Puzzelende epidemie ''). Op 28 Julie het die koerant opgemerk dat Camp Lewis 327 gevalle van griep het, maar 'n week later het die getal tot onder 100 gedaal. Teen middel Augustus was daar gerusstellende berigte dat die aantal griepgevalle by die weermagbasis steeds verminder het , en geen aanduiding van spesiale besorgdheid nie. Selfs tot in September was die algemene stemming vol vertroue. 'N Optimistiese kommentator was opgewonde: "Dit is 'n wonder, vanweë die volmaaktheid van ons mediese wetenskap, dat daar hierdie somer geen wydverspreide epidemie was met 'n ernstiger karakter as' griep ', soos die Spaanse griep en ander geallieerde koors genoem word nie" ("Swaar reën en modder.").

Namate die maand aanstap, het 'n toon van beskeie alarm by sommige rekeninge begin insluip. A Tye artikel op 22 September verwys na 'n 'ligte epidemie' by Camp Lewis, met 173 nuwe gevalle wat aangemeld is ('Camp Lewis Reports.'). Op dieselfde bladsy is melding gemaak van twee ernstige gevalle van griep wat in Bellingham aangemeld is. Tog, twee dae later, is daar mediese bronne in die koerant aangehaal wat sê: 'Daar was moontlik 'n Spanjaard met griep op Camp Lewis, maar daar is geen Spaanse griep nie' ('Say Camp Lewis'). .

Dit kon verby die begraafplaas gewees het, maar in werklikheid het niemand die tsunami wat besig was om te bou, verstaan ​​nie. Wat gebeur het, was nie op afstand onder die kennis van die helderste wetenskaplikes en dokters van die era nie. Die virus wat griep veroorsaak het, het gemuteer, en op 'n manier wat dit een van die dodelikste patogene kan maak wat die mensdom ooit geteister het. Toe dit Amerika ten volle tref, het dit met asemrowende spoed deur die hele land beweeg, om elke draai gehelp deur 'n oorlogsmobiliseerde weermag.

Versprei soos 'n veldbrand

Tussen September 1918 en die einde van die oorlog in November was tot 40 persent van die Amerikaanse weermag- en vlootpersoneel besmet met griep. Die verband tussen die weermag en die vinnige verspreiding van die pandemie was duidelik duidelik. Staatsgesondheidsamptenare was bewus van die gevaar. In die notule van 'n staatsraad van gesondheidsvergadering in Spokane op 28 September 1918 word opgemerk: "Die waarskynlikheid van 'n uitbraak van griep in die staat is breedvoerig bespreek en maniere en metodes om die voorkoming daarvan te probeer oorweeg" (Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 6).

Dit blyk onvoorkombaar en in wese onbehandelbaar te wees. Slegs twee dae later, op 30 September, by die University of Washington Naval Training Station in Portage Bay in Seattle (die huidige plek van die universiteit se Health Sciences -kompleks), is meer as 650 gevalle van "ligte griep" aangemeld ("Navy Camp at" U '. "). In die eerste week van Oktober is meer as 100 gevalle van "ernstige griep" by Camp Lewis gedokumenteer. Gevalle is ook by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton gevind, en op 4 Oktober is berig dat 14 vlootrekrute daar gesterf het en "tussen 200 en 400" burgerlike werkers by die vlootwerf siek geword het ("Bremerton Hit.") . Hierdie berigte was 'n voorbode van veel erger wat gekom het, aangesien die dodelike virus met ongelooflike spoed versprei het.

'N Gebrek aan data

Om verskeie redes is dit onmoontlik om die vordering van die pandemie in die staat op te spoor. In die eerste plek was griep nie 'n siekte wat by die staatsgesondheidsowerhede aangemeld moes word nie, ten minste nie tydens die ernstigste fase van die herfs van 1918 nie. Vrywillige beriggewing was uiters sporadies, soos gesien sal word. Sterftes het geen diagnose nodig gehad nie en is getrou opgeteken, maar die totale getalle van die besmette moet as growwe ramings beskou word, selfs as dit indrukwekkend spesifiek is.

Tweedens kom die griep in 1918 en vroeg in 1919 in drie verskillende golwe - 'n gewoonlik ligte vorm in die lente en somer van 1918, gevolg deur die dodelike spanning in die laaste maande van daardie jaar en eindig met 'n terugkeer van gewoonlik (maar nie altyd nie) ligter siekte in die vroeë maande van 1919, nie heeltemal afneem tot in 1920. Nie almal wat siek geword het, was besmet met die virulente "Spaanse" griep nie, sommige het 'n ligter vorm, wat nog dodelik kan wees vir baie jong en die bejaardes.

Om die owerheid vir openbare gesondheid verder te frustreer, het die Spaanse griep sowel as die slagoffers kwesbaar gelaat vir sekondêre infeksies met bakteriële longontsteking, wat dikwels dodelik was selfs in die afwesigheid van griep, veral by bejaardes of siekes. Dit het die oorsaaklikheidsbeeld verward gemaak. Maar omdat die Spaanse griep so verstommend aansteeklik was en longontsteking so gereeld gevind is tydens lykskouings van griepslagoffers, het die federale sensusburo besluit om 'n enkele kategorie in sy sterftestatistieke vir 1918 te gebruik: "sterftes as gevolg van griep en longontsteking (alle vorme)" (Sterftestatistiek, 1918). Net so frustrerend as vir epidemioloë en lewensversekeringsaktuarisse, is alle statistiese studies oor die gevolge van die pandemie van 1918 deurspek met onsekerheid en benaderings.

Wat die rekord toon

Washington was een van 30 'registrasiestate' wat deur die Amerikaanse sensusburo in 1918 redelik betroubaar gehou is, maar die epidemioloog van die staat, in 'n tweejaarlikse verslag van die Raad van Gesondheid in Januarie 1919 aan goewerneur Ernest Lister (1870-1919), beklemtoon die ongekende aard van die pandemie en die moeilikheid om akkurate inligting in te samel:

"Hierdie pandemie het in die eerste week van Oktober in Washington verskyn. In die geskiedenis van die State Board of Health het die staat nog nie so 'n ramp getref nie, en het daar nog nooit so 'n ernstige noodgeval ontstaan ​​nie. In die vyf jaar 1913-1917, insluitend vanaf die vyf mees algemene aansteeklike siektes. daar was 1768 sterftes. Van griep alleen af ​​moes ons al meer as 2000 sterftes opdateer en die einde is nog nie. Die tol sal waarskynlik dubbel of drievoudig wees 1768.

"Stadsgesondheidsbeamptes, behalwe in Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane en Yakima, is deeltydse mans. Hulle salaris is dikwels niks of vyf dollar per maand nie. Hulle word deur hul burgemeesters aangestel en verander gereeld. Hulle is nie van ons nie en doen voel nie asof hulle baie verantwoordelikheid teenoor ons het nie. Hulle werk betaal min en hul beleid is om soveel te doen as wat die betaling dit regverdig "(Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 34-35).

Die verslag is opgestel in Desember 1918, toe die volle omvang van die ramp onbekend was. Die volgende tweejaarlikse verslag van die gesondheidsraad is eers in Januarie 1921 uitgereik en was byna stil oor die pandemie van 1918. Dit lyk asof daar geen staat of federale samestelling van infeksiesyfers of sterftes per land is nie, veel minder vir individuele gemeenskappe, hoewel daar wel sensusdata bestaan ​​vir Washington se twee grootste stede, Seattle en Spokane, en Yakima se ervaring is relatief goed gedokumenteer.

In sy Sterftestatistiek 1918 die Amerikaanse Sensusburo het die staat se totale griepsterftes in 1918 vergelyk met dié van 1915, in teenstelling met die eerste agt maande van elke jaar met die laaste vier. Tussen Januarie en Augustus 1915 sterf 605 inwoners van Washington in die eerste agt maande van 1918 aan griep en longontsteking, 838 Washingtoniërs sterf, 'n aansienlike maar nie skokkende toename nie.

In die laaste vier maande van 1915 het slegs 381 mense in Washington aan die griep beswyk, maar in die laaste vier maande van 1918 het die pandemie 4,041 in die staat doodgemaak, 10,6 keer die telling van 1915 vir dieselfde tydperk. Die pessimisme van die staatsepidemioloog oor die finale tol was redelik akkuraat.

Ander feite uit die sterftetabelle toon die ongekende aard van die Spaanse griep aan. Miskien die mees verrassende, effens meer as die helfte, of 2 461 van die 4,879 griepsterftes in Washington in kalenderjaar 1918, was mans en vroue tussen die ouderdomme van 20 en 39 jaar, die demografiese groep wat normaalweg die hoogste siekteoorleefbaarheid geniet het. Dieselfde rowwe verhoudings geld in die twee grootste stede van die staat. In Seattle het 708 van 1,441 griepsterftes wat tussen 12 Oktober 1918 en 15 Maart 1919 aangeteken is, in daardie ouderdomsgroep gedaal, terwyl die telling in Spokane 252 van die 428 griepsterftes was. Hierdie getalle alleen illustreer hoe uniek hierdie pandemie was in vergelyking met enige ander siekte -uitbraak waarvoor rekords bestaan. Hierdie raaisel is nog nooit heeltemal opgelos nie, maar die leidende teorie is dat die virus van 1918 katastrofiese immuunreaksies veroorsaak het by jong volwassenes met 'n sterk immuunstelsel.

Vergelykende getalle is nie vir Yakima bereken nie, maar ongeveer 'n derde van die bevolking, of ongeveer 6 000 mense, is daar besmet. Hiervan het 120 gesterf - 32 persent van die stad se totale dodetal in 1918 uit alle oorsake. Die siekte was so aansteeklik dat Yakima se enigste hospitaal, St. Elizabeth, wat deur die Sisters of Providence bestuur is, 'n tyd lank geweier het om grieppasiënte op te neem.

Daar is slegs een statistiek in die sterftetabelle van 1918 waaruit ons vertroosting kan vind. Van die 30 registrasiestate waarop die Sensusburo staatgemaak het, met die enkele uitsondering van Oregon, het Washington met 'n aansienlike marge die laagste aantal sterftes aan griep/longontsteking per 1000 inwoners gehad. Nietemin is 4,1 uit elke 1000 Washingtoniërs in 1918 dood aan griep/longontsteking (meer as vyf keer normaal) en 1,9 uit elke 1000 in 1919 (meer as twee keer normaal). Daarteenoor was die sterftesyfer van die staat weens die oorsake in elk van die drie voorafgaande jare minder as een per 1 000.

Doen hul bes

Die gesondheidsraad se Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag dokumenteer beide 'n realistiese begrip van die gevaar wat die Spaanse griep inhou en 'n erkenning van die nutteloosheid van pogings om dit te voorkom. Dit beskryf die pogings van dr. Thomas D. Tuttle, die minister van gesondheid van die staat en die hoofskrywer van die verslag, om advies van die federale regering in te win:

'Hierdie epidemie was gedurende September baie algemeen in die oostelike state, en omdat hulle besef het dat dit na alle waarskynlikheid vinnig oor die hele land sou versprei, het u kommissaris van gesondheid die vraag van die Amerikaanse raadsaam om individuele gevalle in kwarantyn te plaas "(Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 22-23).

Die raad het spesifiek berig dat Tuttle 'n telegram aan die Amerikaanse chirurg -generaal Rupert Blue gestuur het met die vraag: "Intrastate kwarantyn Spaanse griep in oorweë. Watter kwarantynperiode, indien enige, beveel u aan?" en Blue het gesê "Diens beveel nie kwarantyn teen griep aan nie" (Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 22-23).

In die verslag gee Tuttle die advies van die gesondheidsraad oor hoe die Spaanse griep na Washington gekom het. Dit is maar een teorie uit verskeie, maar so geloofwaardig soos enige ander:

"Die epidemie het ons staat in die vroeë deel van Oktober getref. Die onmiddellike bekendstelling van die siekte was deur 'n verskeping van Pennsylvania na die Verenigde State se vlootopleidingsstasie in Bremerton van ongeveer 1500 mans, waarvan 'n groot persentasie met griep teister was toe hulle het vanaf hierdie plek die siekte wyd versprei [maar] baie uitbrake was nie direk na die infeksie in of naby Seattle opgespoor nie "(Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 23).

Tuttle se verslag van 'n vergadering van die staatsgesondheidsowerhede in Chicago kon nie 'n toon van wanhoop verberg nie:

"Die uitstaande kenmerk van die bespreking van die onderwerp op hierdie konferensie was die bewyse dat alles wat gedoen is, die verspreiding van die siekte slegs vertraag en nie verhinder het nie. Soos een gesondheidsbeampte die situasie baie treffend uitgedruk het: 'U kan vermy dat u die siekte opdoen. as hy in 'n gat gaan en daar bly, maar die vraag is hoe lank hy daar moet bly? Die aanduidings is dat dit ten minste 'n jaar of langer sal duur '"(Twaalfde tweejaarlikse verslag, 23).

Desperate maatreëls, meestal nutteloos

Ondanks die vroeë bekommernisse, het die Washington State Board of Health geen staatswye maatreëls ingestel om die pandemie te bekamp nie, waarskynlik omdat dit baie beperkte hulpbronne en min of geen beheer oor die plaaslike gesondheidsowerhede het nie. Die enigste voorkomende regulering van 'n staatswye aansoek wat die raad uitgereik het, kom op 3 November 1918, toe dit vereis dat chirurgiese maskers van 'n spesifieke grootte en dikte "wat die neus en mond heeltemal bedek" op feitlik alle openbare plekke gedra word waar mense naby gekom het kontak met mekaar, die bestelling vereis ook dat die eienaars van winkels, restaurante en kafees 'hul deure oop hou en hul plekke goed geventileer' is en dat 'n derde van die vensters in die trams oopgemaak word wanneer die publiek dit gebruik ('Spesiaal' Orde en regulasie. ").

Vancouver in Clark County was een van die eerste stede in die staat wat die pandemie aggressief aangespreek het. Op 7 Oktober 1918, op grond van 'n verslag van die hoofgesondheidsbeampte, het die stadsraad beveel dat "alle plekke vir openbare byeenkomste, soos skole, kerke, danse, ens." gesluit word (notules van die stadsraad van Vancouver). Twee dae later het die stadsraad van Monroe in Snohomish County 'n soortgelyke maatreël goedgekeur, net soos Yakima, wat later saam met Yakima County aangesluit het om 'n gebou in besit van St Michael's Parish te huur "met die doel om dieselfde as 'n isolasiehospitaal te vestig" (Yakima Stadskommissie se notule, 21 Oktober). Op 31 Oktober is die verbod op byeenkomste in Yakima nog verder uitgebrei tot "alle plekke waar sake gedoen word. Met die uitsondering van dwelmwinkels, vleismarkte, restaurante, eetplekke, hotelle en vrugtewarehuise", 'n oënskynlike toegewing vir die stad se voorste bedryf (notule van die Yakima -kommissie, 31 Oktober).

Soortgelyke verbod op openbare vergadering is ingestel in provinsies, stede en dorpe regoor die staat. 'N Klein steekproef sou insluit Seattle (6 Oktober) Spokane (8 Oktober) Pullman (10 Oktober) Anacortes in Skagit County (15 Oktober) Ferry County in Noordoos -Washington (17 November) klein Wilson Creek in Grant County, waar alle kinders onder 16 jaar oud is is beveel om tot hul huise (7 Desember) en Chelan beperk te word, hoewel dit skole (10 Desember) vrygestel het. No corner of the state was spared, nor did the ordeal end with the new year. The Cowlitz County Council did not even impose similar restrictions until January 16, 1919, and White Salmon to the east was at that time still under siege.

These and similar measures probably helped to limit the spread to some extent, but perhaps the most telling reason for the eventual ebbing of the pandemic was that it simply ran out of vulnerable victims. In this regard it is important to remember that most people did nie become infected, despite nearly universal exposure, nor did it kill but a fraction of those it did infect.

What Was It? Where Did It Go?

In the 1990s researchers, using archived autopsy samples from 1918, mapped the virus's genome and determined it to be Type A, the most common, which can infect both humans and some animals. More specifically, the investigation revealed that the virus was a strain of Type A known as H1N1. The "H" represents a protein molecule on the surface of a virus that is the usual target for the immune system. When random mutations alter that molecule, the virus can become virtually invisible to the body's defenses. As researchers explained in 2006, "Recently published . analyses suggest that the genes encoding surface proteins of the 1918 virus were derived from an avianlike influenza virus shortly before the start of the pandemic and that the precursor virus had not circulated widely in humans or swine in the few decades before" (Taubenberger and Morens, 16). Because it had not circulated widely, humanity had developed no "herd immunity" to it. This explains its rapid spread but not its lethality, which remains a mystery.

As to where it went, the answer is that it went nowhere. Almost all cases of type A influenza since 1918 have been caused by less-dangerous descendants of that lethal virus. Viruses do not have intentions, only random mutations. Some mutations will enable them to sicken birds, pigs, people, or other animals. Some will make them unusually lethal, others will render them totally harmless to humans. But inevitably a strain will emerge that is as infectious and deadly as the 1918 variety. Viral mutation is ongoing, endless, and unpredictable. In any new flu pandemic the toll will likely be lower due to advances in immunology and other countermeasures, but as with death itself, the question is not whether it will come, but rather when.

Announcement closing public places during flu pandemic, The Pullman Herald, October 11, 1918

Policemen wearing gauze masks during influenza epidemic, Seattle, December 1918

Courtesy National Archives (Record No. 165-WW-269B-25)

Stewart and Holmes employees wearing masks, 3rd Avenue, Seattle, 1918

Photo by Max Loudon, Courtesy UW Special Collections (UW1538)

Front page, The Seattle Times, October 5, 1918

Streetcar conductor blocking entry of unmasked man during flu pandemic, Seattle, 1918

Courtesy National Archives (Record No. 165-WW-269B-11)

Masked elevator attendant during flu pandemic, Seattle, 1918


Update for December 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: Kwajalein and Majuro Jugurthine War Salamanca campaign Sixth French War of Religion Douglas and Bell aircraft German artillery Wickes class destroyers

Update for December 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: Kwajalein and Majuro Jugurthine War Salamanca campaign Sixth French War of Religion Douglas and Bell aircraft German artillery Wickes class destroyers

This month we look at the invasions of Majuro and Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands, including the first US invasion of pre-war Japanese territory. Our Napoleonic series looks at the Salamanca campaign, including a number of the diversionary attacks carried out by the Allies. We return to the French Wars of Religion, looking at the short Sixth War, effectively an extension of the Fifth and ended by a lack of funds on the part of Henry III. In ancient history we begin a series on the Jugurthine War, a prolonged conflict between the Romans and the Numidians, which saw the rise of Marius.

In the air we look at Bell experimental aircraft, focusing on VTOL designs, and start a short series on Douglas transport aircraft. At sea we continue with the massive Wickes class of destroyers, this time looking at six that served with the US Navy during the Second World War. Our series on artillery finishes the German very heavy artillery of the First World War and moves onto their 7.5cm and 10cm guns.

The occupation of Burton Island (3-4 February 1944) was one of a series of operations that saw the Americans capture the defended islands in Kwajalein Atoll, and saw them occupy the next major island to the north of Kwajalein island.

The occupation of Bennett Island saw the Americans occupy one of the smaller islands in Kwajalein Atoll after overcoming unexpected Japanese resistance

The occupation of Jacob Island (Ennuebing), 31 January 1944, was one of two simultaneous landings that began the attack on Roi and Namur in Kwajelein Atoll (Operation Flintlock).

The occupation of Majuro (31 January 1944) was the first American invasion of pre-war Japanese territory, but was almost entirely unopposed (Operation Flintlock).

The occupation of Ivan Island (Mellu), 31 January 1944, was one of two simultaneous landings that began the attack on Roi and Namur in Kwajelein Atoll.

The occupation of Albert Island (Ennumennet), 31 January 1944, was one of two simultaneous landings that formed the second stage in the invasion of Roi and Namur in Kwajelein Atoll.

The Jugurthine War (111-104 BC) was a prolonged struggle between Rome and her former ally of Numidia that played a part in the rise of Marius and eventually ended with a Roman victory.

The battle of Suthul (late 110 BC or early 109 BC) was a Roman defeat early in the Jugurthine War and saw Aulus Postumious Albinus forced to surrender on harsh terms after his army was forced out of its camp in a night attack.

The battle of the Muthul River (109 BC) was the first significant Roman victory during the Jugurthine War, but had little long term impact on the course of the war.

French Wars of Religion

The Sixth War of Religion (December 1576-September 1577) was a short conflict triggered by the terms that had ended the Fifth War, but it ended with stalemate and a similar peace settlement.

The siege of La Charité (25 April-2 May 1577) saw Henry III’s army seize one of the eight security towns granted to the Huguenots at the end of the Fifth War of Religion.

The siege of Issoire (to 12 June 1577) was the last significant military action during the Sixth War of Religion, and saw Henry III’s army capture a second one of the security towns offered to the Huguenots after the Fifth War of Religion.

The peace of Bergerac (14 September 1577) ended the Sixth War of Religion, and was a slightly modified version of the unpopular Edict of Beaulieu, which had helped trigger the war in the first place.

Salamanca Campaign

The combat of Guarda (14 April 1812) was Marmont's only significant success during his belated attempt to help the defenders of Badajoz, and came eight days after the city had fallen to Wellington's men.

The combat of Almaraz (18 May 1812) saw a detached British army under General Rowland Hill destroy a key French bridge over the River Tagus, making it much harder for Marmont and Soult to help each other.

The battle of Bornos (1 June 1812) was a French victory over the Spanish army of General Ballasteros, who had been asked to carry out a diversion to prevent Soult from sending troops north to interfere with Wellington's advance on Salamanca.

The combat of Maguilla (11 June 1812) was a minor French victory in a cavalry clash, fought during of one of Wellington's diversionary attacks during the Salamanca campaign.

The siege of the Salamanca Forts (17-26 June 1812) saw Wellington detach a division from his army to eliminate the last French strong points in Salamanca, while the rest of his army continued to face Marmont.

The combat of San Cristobal (20-22 June 1812) was a standoff between Wellington and Marmont that developed while the British were besieging the Salamanca forts, and that almost produced the major battle that Wellington was searching for.

The Bell Model 65 ATV was an experimental jet powered VTOL aircraft that successfully hovered and flew level, but never converted between the two.

The Bell X-22 was an experimental aircraft designed to test out the potential of a ducted-fan powered VTOL aircraft.

The Bell XV-3 (Model 200) was a convertiplane powered by rotors mounted at the end of the wings, which could switch between vertical and horizontal positions. Although it was produced in the 1950s, it was also an early step in the development of the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, which entered development in the 1980s and service in the 2000s.

The Bell XV-15 was a successful experiment into tilt-rotor technology and played a major role in the development of the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey.

The Douglas C-1 was the first in the long family of Douglas transport aircraft and was a biplane transport capable of carrying eight passengers or 2,500lb of cargo.

The Douglas C-74 Globemaster I was developed during the Second World War to serve as a very long range transport, but didn't enter production until just after VJ Day, and only a handful were ever completed.

The Heavy 30.5cm Kartaune L/30/ 30.5cm Beta-M-Gerät howitzer was produced in an attempt to get more use out of the M-Gerät carriage by fitting a longer barrelled but smaller calibre barrel.

The 7.5cm Feldkanone 16 nA was an inter-war redesign of the First World War 7.7cm FK 16, modifying it to use the new standard 75mm ammunition.

The 7.5cm leichte Feldkanone 18 was designed after the German Army decided to switch from 77mm to 75mm field guns, but it was more complex and had shorter range than the weapon it was designed to replace and was only produced in small numbers.

The 7.5cm Feldkanone 38 was a light field gun built by Krupp for Brazil and later adopted by the Wehrmacht.

The 10cm Kanone 04 was the standard German 10cm gun at the start of the First World War, and only the second gun with a modern recoil system to enter service with the German army.

The 10cm Kanone 14 was a more complex version of the 10cm Kanone 04, designed to be useable as an anti-aircraft gun as well as a normal field cannon.

Wickes Class Destroyers

USS Roper (DD-147/ APD-20) was a Wickes class destroyer that sank U-85, before becoming a fast transport that served in the Mediterranean and Pacific theatres.

USS Breckinridge (DD-148/ AG-112) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on convoy escort and anti-submarine duties in the Atlantic.

USS Barney (DD-149) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties in the Caribbean, as well as escorting two trans-Atlantic convoys.

USS Blakeley (DD-150) was a Wickes class destroyer that survived having her bows blown off by a U-boat, and spent most of the Second World War serving in the Caribbean.

USS Biddle (DD-151/ AG-114) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on convoy duty in the Caribbean.

USS Du Pont (DD-152/ AG-80) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on convoy escort duty in the Atlantic theatre and that played a part in the sinking of U-172.

The First Afghan War 1839-42 - Invasion, catastrophe and retreat, Richard MacRory.
A deeply relevant look at the first, and most disastrous, British intervention in Afghanistan, which saw the complete destruction of a British army, in what was one of the worst setbacks ever suffered by the British army in India. Covers the reasons for the invasion, the initial campaign, the wasted year at Kabul, the build-up to disaster, the failed retreat and the army of retribution, which allowed the British to put a gloss on the war
[read full review]

Dutch Armies of the 90 Years' War 1578-1648 (1) Infantry, Bouko de Groot.
Traces the dramatic evolution of the Dutch armies during the long war of independence, which saw the Dutch Republic emerge as one of Europe's military superpowers. Part one focuses on the infantry, which began as unwieldy blocks of poorly trained men, and developed into a powerful, flexible force, using new tactics and centrally produced weapons
(Read Full Review)

Dutch Armies of the 80 Years' War 1568-1658 (2) Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers, Bouko de Groot.
Traces the impressive development of the Dutch cavalry, artillery and engineering forces during the long wars of independence from Spain, a period in which they went from being improvised forces created at great speed to highly professional specialists, with advanced artillery and increasingly proficient and well equipped engineers, allowing the Dutch to carry out ever more ambitious campaigns
(Read Full Review)

Friends of the Wigwam - A Civil War Story, John William Huelskamp.
An entertaining historical novel before and during the first half of the American Civil War, mainly tracing the lives of a small group of young friends, linked originally by their discovery of a hidden riverside cave, and following the group as it was split up by the war. Largely based on genuine historical events, with a mix of fictional and real characters
(Read Full Review)

The Boat that Won the War - An Illustrated History of the Higgins LCVP, Charles C. Roberts, Jr.
A detailed examination of the history, design and construction of the LCVP, the most famous landing craft of the Second World War and an iconic vessel that played a key part in amphibious operations from Normandy to the Pacific. Supported by a huge array of detailed plans, contemporary photographs and wartime documents, and written by someone who has restored one of these boats, this is a very valuable look at this key weapon
(Read Full Review)

Wartime Standard Ships, Nick Robins.
Looks at the surprisingly wide variety of ‘standard’ ships produced by the Allied and Axis nations during the two World Wars, covering their design, construction, civil service and military usage. Could have done with more basic info for those without a background in maritime matters, but is otherwise an interesting look at the massive industrial effort that defeated both German U-boat campaigns and produced many of the ships used in the inter-war and post-war periods
(Read Full Review)

Hannibal's Oath - The Life and Wars of Rome's Greatest Enemy, John Prevas.
A good biography of Hannibal, covering his entire life from childhood to his death in exile, as well as the famous period of dramatic victories over the Romans in Italy. Pitched at the interested non-historian, and covers his entire life story, from childhood, through the long years of war in Italy to exile in the east. Paints a picture of an obsessed figure whose career in Italy peaked early, and who spent most of his time in Italy unable to find a way to come to grips with the Romans, before continuing to campaign against them even when in exile
(Read Full Review)

Chattanooga 1863 - Grant and Bragg in Central Tennessee, Mark Lardas.
Good account of the entire Chattanooga campaign, from the moment the Confederates arrived outside the city, through the siege and on to the series of battles which saw Grant break the siege and force the Confederates back onto the defensive. Gives a clear picture of the contrast between the lethargy and dysfunctional command structure on the Confederate side and the energy levels injected into the battle by Grant and his trusted subordinates
(Read Full Review)

Camden 1780 - The annihilation of Gates' Grand Army, David Smith.
An account of the last successful British campaign of the American of Independence, which saw them capture Charleston and then destroy Gates' Grand Army at the battle of Camden, but which failed to have any long term success, as the Americans were soon able to regain control of everywhere outside the reach of a large British garrison, marking the failure of the 'Southern Strategy', and the beginning of the end for the British
(Read Full Review)

Pyrrhus of Epirus, Jeff Champion.
A useful biography of one of the more adventurous leaders of the generation that followed Alexander the Great, twice king of Macedon, twice king of Epirus, once king of Sicily and one of Rome's most dangerous early opponents, even if his victories did come at such a cost that his name has become associated with costly self defeating victories. Does a good job of tracing his career through the often fragmentary sources, and of placing him in the context of his times
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Fixer & Fighter - The Life of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, 1170-1243, Brian Harwood.
Follows the turbulent career of one of the key figures during the reign of King John and Henry III, and one of the victors in the war that established the infant Henry on the throne after the death of his father. A self made man, Hubert suffered several periods of out favour, and even had to go on the run for a period late in his career, despite his constant support for John and Henry
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Hell on Wheels: The Men of the US Armored Forces, 1918 to the end of the 20th century, Christopher J. Anderson.
A photographic study of the US armoured forces, covering the period from the armoured cars of 1917 to the end of the twentieth century. Focuses largely on the crews and their equipment, showing how that has evolved over the years. Includes coverage of both World Wars, Korea and the first Gulf War, as well as peace time operations
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The Forgotten War Against Napoleon - Conflict in the Mediterranean 1793-1815, Gareth Glover.
Covers the full range of British commitments in the Mediterranean theatre, from the early siege of Toulon through to the brief campaigns that accompanied Napoleon's return from exile in 1815. A well researched and readable account of more than twenty years of warfare that covered the full length of the Mediterranean, making it clear just how significant the British commitment was in this theatre
[read full review]

Tiger Tank, Marcus Cowper.
A fairly short, well balanced account of the Tiger I and Tiger II, looking at their development, technical descriptions and examples from their combat record, as well as looking at some of their main opponents - the Firefly and IS-2. Focuses on a selected series of individual tank battles to examine the combat performance of the Tiger - Tiger I vs Sherman Firefly in the west and Tiger II vs IS-2 in the east
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Railway Guns – British and German Guns at War, John Goodwin.
After a rather rushed introduction, really gets into its stride when discussing British railway guns in the south-east during the Second World War, looking at the demands they made on the rail network, how the individual guns were operated, where they were located, what their targets were, and many of the occasions on which they fired. Supported throughout by an impressive collection of photographs covering the full range of the topic
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USS Gamble (DD-123), c.1920 - History

A Massively Collaborative Open U.S. History Textbook

  • Indigenous America 1
  • Colliding Cultures 2
  • British North America 3
  • Colonial Society 4
  • The American Revolution 5
  • A New Nation 6
  • The Early Republic 7
  • The Market Revolution 8
  • Democracy in America 9
  • Religion and Reform 10
  • The Cotton Revolution 11
  • Manifest Destiny 12
  • The Sectional Crisis 13
  • The Civil War 14
  • Reconstruction 15
  • Capital and Labor 16
  • The West 17
  • Life in Industrial America 18
  • American Empire 19
  • The Progressive Era 20
  • World War I & Its Aftermath 21
  • The New Era 22
  • The Great Depression 23
  • World War II 24
  • The Cold War 25
  • The Affluent Society 26
  • The Sixties 27
  • The Unraveling 28
  • The Triumph of the Right 29
  • The Recent Past 30

Yawp yôp n: 1: a raucous noise 2: rough vigorous language
"I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world." Walt Whitman, 1855.


Partitions of Poland

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Partitions of Poland, (1772, 1793, 1795), three territorial divisions of Poland, perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, by which Poland’s size was progressively reduced until, after the final partition, the state of Poland ceased to exist.

The First Partition occurred after Russia became involved in a war against the Ottoman Turks (1768) and won such impressive victories, particularly in the Danubian principalities, that Austria became alarmed and threatened to enter the war against Russia. Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia, however, in order to avoid an escalation of the Russo-Turkish War, determined to calm Austro-Russian relations by shifting the direction of Russia’s expansion from the Turkish provinces to Poland, which not only had a structurally weak government but also, since 1768, had been devastated by a civil war and by Russian intervention and was, therefore, incapable of resisting territorial seizures.

On August 5, 1772, Russia, Prussia, and Austria signed a treaty that partitioned Poland. Ratified by the Polish Sejm (legislature) on September 30, 1773, the agreement deprived Poland of approximately half of its population and almost one-third (about 81,500 square miles [211,000 square km]) of its land area. Russia received all the Polish territory east of the line formed roughly by the Dvina and Dnieper rivers. Prussia gained the economically valuable province of Royal Prussia, excluding the cities of Gdańsk (Danzig) and Toruń, and also gained the northern portion of the region of Great Poland (Wielkopolska). Austria acquired the regions of Little Poland (Małopolska) south of the Vistula River, western Podolia, and the area that subsequently became known as Galicia.

Almost 20 years later Poland, which had made efforts to strengthen itself through internal reforms, adopted a new, liberal constitution (May 3, 1791). That action, however, resulted in the formation of the conservative Confederation of Targowica (May 14, 1792), which asked Russia to intervene to restore the former Polish constitution. Not only did Russia accept the confederates’ invitation, but Prussia also sent troops into Poland, and on January 23, 1793, the two powers agreed upon the Second Partition of Poland. Confirmed in August and September 1793 by the Polish Sejm—surrounded by Russian troops—the Second Partition transferred to Russia the major remnant of Lithuanian Belorussia and the western Ukraine, including Podolia and part of Volhynia, and allowed Prussia to absorb the cities of Gdańsk and Toruń as well as Great Poland and part of Mazovia. The Second Partition accounted for an area of about 115,000 square miles (300,000 square km).

In response to the Second Partition, the Polish officer Tadeusz Kościuszko led a national uprising (March–November 1794). Russia and Prussia intervened to suppress the insurgents, and on October 24, 1795, they concluded an agreement with Austria that divided the remnants of Poland (about 83,000 square miles [215,000 square km]) between themselves. By the Third Partition of Poland, which was not finally settled until January 26, 1797, Russia incorporated Courland, all Lithuanian territory east of the Neman (Nieman) River, and the rest of the Volhynian Ukraine Prussia acquired the remainder of Mazovia, including Warsaw, and a section of Lithuania west of the Neman and Austria took the remaining section of Little Poland, from Kraków northeastward to the arc of the Northern Bug River.

Those territorial divisions were altered in 1807, when the emperor Napoleon of France created the duchy of Warsaw out of the central provinces of Prussian Poland, and in 1815, when the Congress of Vienna created the Congress Kingdom of Poland. However, the main result of the partitions—i.e., the elimination of the sovereign state of Poland—was in effect until after World War I, when the Polish republic was finally restored (November 11, 1918).

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Adam Augustyn, besturende redakteur, verwysingsinhoud.


Vaudeville

In the early 20th century, vaudeville variety shows moved to the entertainment forefront, and tap dancers such as Greenlee and Drayton, Pat Rooney, Sr., and George White traveled the country. A number of family acts formed, including that of the future Broadway actor, producer, and songwriter George M. Cohan, who with his sister, mother, and father formed the Four Cohans. The Covan brothers together with their wives formed the Four Covans, one of the most sensational fast tap acts ever. The comedian and dancer Eddie Foy, Sr., appeared with his seven tap-dancing children, the Seven Little Foys. By the late 1910s, more than 300 theatres around the country hosted vaudeville acts.

According to the producer Leonard Reed, throughout the 1920s “there wasn’t a show that didn’t feature tap dancing. If you couldn’t dance, you couldn’t get a job!” Nightclubs, vaudeville, and musicals all featured tap dancers, whose names often appeared on the many marquees that illuminated New York’s Broadway. Stars of the day, including Fred Astaire and his sister, Adele, brought yet more light to the “Great White Way” with their elegant dancing. Bill Robinson, known for dancing on the balls of his feet (the toe taps) and for his exquisite “stair dance,” was the first Black tap dancer to break through the Broadway colour line, becoming one the best-loved and highest-paid performers of his day.

Because this was an era when tap dancing was a common skill among performers, a tap dancer had to create something unique to be noticed. The Berry Brothers’ act, for example, included rhythmic, synchronized cane twirling and dazzling acrobatics. Cook and Brown had one of the finest knockabout acts. King, King, and King danced in convict outfits, chained together doing close-to-the-floor fast tap work. Buster West tap-danced in “slap shoes”—oversized clown-style shoes that, because of their extended length, slapped audibly on the floor during a routine—and did break dancing decades before it had a name. Will Mahoney tap-danced on a giant xylophone.

The “challenge”—in which tap dancers challenged one another to a dancing “duel”—had been a major part of the tap dancer’s education from the beginning. It filtered into many theatrical acts. Possibly the finest exponents of the challenge were the Four Step Brothers, whose act consisted of furious, flying steps, then a moment when each attempted to top the others.

From the outset, tap dancers have stretched the art form, dancing to a wide variety of music and improvising new styles. Among these innovative styles were flash (dance movements that incorporated acrobatics and were often used to finish a dance) novelty (the incorporation into a routine of specialty props, such as jump ropes, suitcases, and stairs) eccentric, legomania, and comedy (each of which used the body in eccentric and comic ways to fool the eye and characteristically involved wild and wiggly leg movements) swing tap, also known as classical tap (combining the upper body movement found in 20th-century ballet and jazz with percussive, syncopated footwork, a style used extensively in the movies) class (precision dancing performed by impeccably dressed dancers) military (the use of military marching and drum rhythms) and rhythm, close floor, and paddle and roll (each of which emphasized footwork using heel and toe taps, typically of a rapid and rhythmic nature).

For each one of these styles there were hundreds of dancers creating a unique version. John Bubbles, for instance, went down in history as the “Father of Rhythm Tap.” Though he may not have been the very first tap dancer to use the heel tap to push rhythm from the 1920s jazz beat to the 1930s swing beat, he certainly was the most influential generations of dancers learned his style. Three young dancers from Philadelphia—the Condos Brothers (Frank, Nick, and Steve)—became legendary among dancers for their exceptionally fast, rhythmic footwork few tap dancers ever achieved Nick’s mastery of a difficult move he is credited with inventing known as the five-tap wing. Of the eccentric and legomania dancers, Buddy Ebsen, Henry (“Rubber Legs”) Williams, and Hal Leroy stand out. A unique style was invented by one of tap’s greatest dancers, Clayton (“Peg Leg”) Bates. After losing his leg at age 12, he reinvented tap to fit his own specifications—a peg and a shoe with two taps.