Gardner Jackson

Gardner Jackson

Gardner Jackson, seun van 'n welgestelde spoorwegmagnaat, is gebore as Colorado Springs in 1896. Hy het Amherst College (1914-1917) bygewoon voordat hy tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog by die Amerikaanse weermag aangesluit het. Nadat hy sy opleiding aan die Columbia -universiteit voltooi het, het hy by die beleggingsfirma Boetcher, Porter and Company in Denver aangesluit. (1)

Jackson, wat sterk politieke sienings ontwikkel het, het 'n verslaggewer geword by die Denver Times. In 1920 sluit hy aan by die Boston Globe. In Julie 1921 word Bartolomeo Vanzetti en Nicola Sacco aan eersteklas moord skuldig bevind en ter dood veroordeel. Jackson was oortuig dat albei mans nie skuldig was aan die misdaad nie en het saam met John Dos Passos, Alice Hamilton, Paul Kellog, Jane Addams, Heywood Broun, William Patterson, Upton Sinclair, Dorothy Parker, Ruth Hale, Ben Shahn, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Felix Frankfurter, Susan Gaspell, Mary Heaton Vorse, John Howard Lawson, Freda Kirchway, Floyd Dell, Katherine Anne Porter, Michael Gold, Bertrand Russell, John Galsworthy, Arnold Bennett, George Bernard Shaw en HG Wells om 'n herverhoor te verkry.

Na hul teregstelling het Gardner Jackson die begrafnis van die twee mans gereël. Tydskrif berig: "Eers het die drie voorste lede van die verdedigingskomitee gekom - Gardner Jackson, Aldino Felicani, Mary Donovan. Elkeen soen die wenkbroue van die dooies. 'n Ontelbare skare, wat deur die polisie gestoot en gestamp word, skommel skelm agterna om te kyk, huil Miss Donovan is gearresteer toe sy probeer het om 'n plakkaat teen die regter Thayer tussen die begrafnisblomme in te steek ... Mary Donovan en Gardner Jackson van die verdedigingskomitee het die moeilikheid gehad om die krematorium in te volg nadat juffrou Donovan 'n laaste lofrede gelees het na die dooies. Hulle loer deur 'n geglasuurde loergat na die kiste wat in die gewelf vlam. Op die rand van die omringende natuurlike amfiteater het die skare die rookwolk dopgehou tot dit aand word. " (2)

In 1931 word hy die Washington -korrespondent vir Die Toronto Star. 'N Ondersteuner van Franklin D. Roosevelt het in 1933 by die Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) aangesluit. Gardner het onder Frederic C. Howe van die verbruikersraad gewerk. Hy skakel met ander radikale by die AAA, waaronder Jerome Frank, Adlai Stevenson, Alger Hiss, Hope Hale Davis en Lee Pressman. Davis het gesê dat "almal lief was" vir Jackson. (3)

Die hoof van die AAA, George N. Peek, beweer dat die organisasie "kruip met ... fanaties-agtige ... sosialiste en internasionaliste." Toe Chester R. Davis Peek as hoof van die AAA vervang, was hy vasbeslote om die linkse elemente in die organisasie te verwyder. In Februarie 1935 het Davis daarop aangedring dat Jerome Frank en Alger Hiss ontslaan moet word. Davis het aan Frank gesê: "Ek het 'n kans gehad om na jou te kyk en ek dink jy is 'n absolute revolusionêr, of jy dit besef of nie."

Henry A. Wallace, die minister van landbou, kon hulle nie beskerm nie: 'Ek het geen twyfel gehad dat Frank en Hiss opgewonde was oor die hoogste motiewe nie, maar hul gebrek aan landbou -agtergrond het hulle blootgestel aan die gevaar om absurd te gaan ... Ek was oortuig dat hulle uit 'n regsoogpunt niks gehad het om op te staan ​​nie en dat hulle toegelaat het dat hul sosiale vooroordele hulle lei tot iets wat nie net uit 'n praktiese, landboukundige oogpunt onverdedigbaar is nie, maar ook met 'n slegte wet. " Raymond Gram Swing, het in die Nation Magazine dat Wallace hom onwillig getoon het om groot produsente en landboubedrywe op te staan ​​en 'ekonomiese mag te gryp uit die belange in die landbou wat dit besit'.

Rexford Tugwell beweer dat Frederic C. Howe 'die onderwerp was van vitrioliese aanvalle deur die sakebelange' en 'as 'n rooi' voorgestel is. (4) Davis het nou besluit om van Howe en Gardner Jackson ontslae te raak. Hy onthou later: "Fred Howe was 'n man met hoë ideale en baie praktiese verstand. Hy was die tipe 'draai die ander wang'. Hy was 'n goedbedoelde man wat toegelaat het dat sy organisasie gelaai word met 'n groep mense wat was meer gemoeid met die opwekking van ontevredenheid as om die doelwitte van die wet te bereik. ” (5)

Tydskrif berig: "In die AAA se inligtingsafdeling het verbruikersadvies Frederick C. Howe en Gardner Jackson in die naam van die verbruiker daaroor gesny. Stadig en bestendig was mnr. Davis nie tuis onder sulke assistente nie, was hy nie bereid om radikaal te werk nie. Hy hou sy hand vas, maar die tyd kom dat die byl moet val ... 'n Donker aand verlede week het 'n mimeografiese blad 'n herorganisasie van AAA aangekondig. (6)

Hope Hale Davis het vir Howe gewerk en was van mening dat hy hom uitstekend van sy taak gekwyt het as die hoof van die verbruikersadvies, en was baie ontsteld toe hy in 1935 uit die AAA moes bedank. hy het probeer om die verbruiker te beskerm, soos die wet vereis. " (7) Howe het destyds aan Gardner Jackson gesê: "Die politieke staat is 'n baie moeilike instelling, maar nie so 'n ondoeltreffende, verkwistende en oneerlike instelling soos wat baie mense glo nie. En dit versterk my geloof en vertroue in demokrasie wat ek kan sê aan die einde van byna twee jaar saam met u en twintig ander mans en vroue, was daar 'n hoë mate van doeltreffendheid en 'n ewe hoë mate van toegewydheid en intellektuele integriteit, wat nie eers 'n vraag gestel het nie. " (8)

Nadat hy die regering verlaat het, werk Jackson vir die Research Associates, 'n organisasie vir wetenskaplike navorsing en konsultasie onder leiding van Frederick Cottrell. Jackson was ook aktief in die Aid Republican Spain Committee. Hy was 'n sterk teenstander van die House of Un-American Activities Committee wat in 1938 deur Martin Dies gestig is. Jackson was ook lid van die Committee for Cultural Freedom (CCF). Ander lede was John Dewey, Sidney Hook, Dashiel Hammett en Harold Weisberg. (9)

Gardner Jackson keer terug na die Roosevelt -administrasie in 1941. Hy dien as spesiale assistent van die minister van landbou, Claude Wickard en onder sekretaris Paul H. Appleby. Sy belangrikste taak was by die Farm Security Administration. Hoewel hy links was, was Jackson kritiek op die Kommunistiese Party van die Verenigde State (CPUSA). In 1944 is hy in New York aangeval deur Jack Lawrenson, vise-president van die National Maritime Union, weens 'n artikel wat hy oor Harry Bridges geskryf het. As gevolg van die aanval verloor Jackson sy linkeroog.

In 1951 word hy aangestel deur Philip Murray, die hoof van die Congress of Industrial Organisations in 'n "vrye, wetgewende, skakelende rol" en word deur AFL-CIO aangehou in die organisering van die departement na samesmelting. Daar word beweer dat "Jackson in 1958 ontslaan is, hoofsaaklik vanweë sy ywerige veldtog om die werksomstandighede te verbeter, veral vir landbouwerkers. Hy werk voort vir trekarbeid deur sy assosiasies met groepe soos die National Farm Labor Union, National Farm Labor. Advieskomitee en die National Sharecroppers Fund. " (10)

Gardner Jackson is op 17 April 1965 oorlede.

Hy "Massachusetts ... het die vishandelaar en die skoenmaker uitgewis ... wat in die gedagtes van menigtes hul plek by die timmerman sal inneem."

So het die oorvol Nasie sy gevolge begin vir 'n ander verlore saak. In Boston was minder histeriese mense as die redakteur van die Nasie bedroef met die wegdoen van die lyke van mnre. Sacco & Vanzetti en die praktiese sake om martelaarskap lewendig te hou met nog meer geskille.

Die verdedigingskomitee het 'n verslag ontken dat hy van plan was om die gebalsemde liggame op 'n opwindende toer deur die Amerikaanse industriële sentrums te neem. 'N Staatswet vereis dat die liggame voor sononder die Vrydag na die teregstelling Dinsdag verbrand of begrawe moet word. Gesondheidsbeamptes in Boston het die tyd tot Sondag verleng. Toe die brein en harte van die lyke vir ondersoek deur Harvard medicos verwyder is, het Massachusetts die oorblywende gevangenes aan hul vriende teruggestuur, wat dadelik 'n openbare saal gesoek het vir 'n openbare ontwaking. Maar Boston -eienaars weier om hul eiendom te verhuur. Eienaars van die gebou waarin die verdedigingskomitee kantore gehad het, het veroorsaak dat 'n stewige balk in die gebou se deur vasgespyker word sodat geen kis ingedra kan word nie. Die verdedigingskomitee moes tevrede wees met 'n klein lykhuis in die Italiaanse deel van Boston. Die sterrekundige, 'n kunstenaar op sy manier, wou die lyke in etensbaadjies aantrek, maar die verdedigingskomitee het nee gesê, laat hulle in hul beste arbeidersmanne Sondag lê-swart doekpakke, swart bande met vier hande, un - gemaklike swart skoene. Laat die kiste van gewone mahonie bedek wees met rooi, bedek met geurige rooi blomme. So was dit, en hul bure het hulle gesien soos hulle hulle gereeld gesien het.

Eers het die drie voorste lede van die Verdedigingskomitee gekom - Gardner Jackson, Aldino Felicani, Mary Donovan. Juffrou Donovan is in hegtenis geneem toe sy 'n plakkaat teen die regter Thayer tussen die begrafnisblomme wou steek. Sy is later tot 'n jaar tronkstraf gevonnis, en appelleer teen die saak. Kunstenaar William Gropper van die Nuwe massas is nie toegelaat toe hy bierportrette kom maak nie.

'N Winderige motreën spoel oor die twee lykswaens en hul vreemde volgelinge van limousines, rubbernekbusse, taxi's, lomp gesinsmotors. Die voetskare het 40 langs mekaar gestap met arms gekoppel toe breë strate bereik is, wat tot 5 000 sterk geword het. Baie het Rooi armbande gedra met die opskrif "Onthou - geregtigheid gekruisig - 23 Augustus 1927."

Polisiebeamptes verhoed dat die optog by die State Capital -huis verbyloop. Toe die motorwa voor die bedrieglike optoggangers uitstap en in die verte verdwyn, het die berede polisie die optoggangers, wat geraas en twis geraak het, aangekla. 'N Rest het op Forest Hills geloop.

Terug in Cambridge het branders vyf geboue afgevuur. In die begraafplaas het 'n ander vuur gebrand, sy rook het dun en treurig geraak uit die krematorium se hoë rookstok. Die limousines staan ​​daar, een met sy skakerings om die neiging van juffrou Luigia Vanzetti, mev. Sacco en haar seun Dante te verberg. Op die rand van die omliggende natuurlike amfiteater het die skare die rookwolk dopgehou tot dit aand word.

Alhoewel Tugwell se tong die bekendheid van die Brain Trust saam met die publiek verower het, het 'n ander, selfs meer onstuimige tong, die bekendheid van die Brain Trust gewen in baie Washington -vertrekke - die tong van Jerome Frank. Daardie rustelose jong Joodse prokureur - wat 'n breinskepper was van burgemeester Dever se hervormingsadministrasie in Chicago; wie se vroeë kleedkamer in die huise was van literêre liberale in die Midde -Weste soos Floyd Dell, Sherwood Anderson, Harriet Munroe; wat die kommunis Emma Goldman "Jerry" noem; wie se skerpsinnigheid hom 'n plek in die prokureursfirma in Manhattan, Chadbourne, Stanchfield & Levy, verower het; wie se briljante artikels oor geregtelike sielkunde hom tot vriendskap met Felix Frankfurter gelei het - was soos 'n blikkie TNT wat in 'n sitkamer in Washington geval het. Hy het sy diep brandende oë op sy mede -gaste gerig en sy maklike tong losgemaak vir die sport van reaksionarisse. Niks het hom meer geniet as om die vinnige vernietiging te voorspel wat die Administrasie in die gevestigde orde sou veroorsaak nie. Toe hy verbygaan, lê Tory se harte onder hul gestyfde hemp se voorkant palpitasie en bloeding. Hy was die maak van menige partytjie.

As raad vir AAA was hy ook 'n doring in die poot van die stewige George Peek, sy baas. Meneer Peek protesteer teen sekretaris Wallace. Tevergeefs, vir Frank het die goedkeuring van Felix Frankfurter en die ondersteuning van dr. Tugwell gekry. Meneer Peek het dus, in plaas van sy regsberader, sy eie prokureur uit sy eie sak gehuur. Maar Thorn Frank was te skerp vir sy vlees. Die tyd het aangebreek dat meneer Peek vir meneer Wallace die keuse gegee het om sy eie bedanking of Frank s'n te aanvaar. Met advies van dr. Tugwell en die toestemming van die president, aanvaar Wallace meneer Peek's.

By In Mr. Peek se plek het Chester C. Davis die leiding geneem oor die AAA. "Chet" Davis is nie 'n man van meneer Peek nie, nie 'n man van meneer Frank nie. Ekonomies staan ​​hy ietwat nader aan Jerome Frank, maar hy was 'n middel-in-die-roader in die ekonomie en in die geaardheid. In die regsafdeling van AAA het Frank en sy satelliete, waaronder Francis Shea, Lee Pressman, Victor Rotnem, hul verkragters geflits, vasbeslote om die wins van verwerkers en middelaars af te sny en aan die boere voor te stel. In die inligtingsafdeling van AAA, verbruikersraad Frederick C. Hy hou sy hand vas, maar die tyd kom dat die byl moet val.

Een troebel aand verlede week het 'n mimeografiese blad 'n herorganisasie van AAA aangekondig. Frank, wat soveel Tories geskok het, was geskok. Hy en sy vriende is sonder waarskuwing afgedank. Frederick Howe is gedegradeer. Die Brain Trust was so heeltemal verras dat dit geen weerlegging gehad het nie. En dr. Tugwell was helaas in Florida. Eers die volgende dag het Washington die volle betekenis van die gebeurtenis aangebreek.

Sekretaris Wallace en administrateur Davis het honderd nuutslae ontvang. Die twee is 'n uur lank kruisondervra. Hulle het met omsigtigheid gepraat, maar hulle het niks ontken nie. Die Brain Trusters van AAA is verdryf omdat meneer Davis en Wallace genoeg daarvan gehad het. Die aksie is vir twee maande bespreek.

(1) Gardner Jackson Papers

(2) Tydskrif (5 September 1927)

(3) Hope Hale Davis, Groot dag kom: 'n herinnering aan die 1930's (1994) bladsy 77

(4) Rexford Tugwell, Roosevelt se rewolusie (1977) bladsy 355

(5) Chester R. Davis, Herinneringe (1953) bladsy 313

(6) Tydskrif (18 Februarie 1935)

(7) Hope Hale Davis, Groot dag kom: 'n herinnering aan die 1930's (1994) bladsy 77

(8) Frederic C. Howe, brief aan Gardner Jackson (7 Februarie 1935)

(9) Gardner Jackson Papers

(10) Gardner Jackson Papers


Slawerny

In werklikheid was slawerny die bron van Andrew Jackson se rykdom.

Die Hermitage was 'n selfstandige plantasie van 1000 hektaar wat heeltemal staatgemaak het op die arbeid van slawe-Afro-Amerikaanse mans, vroue en kinders. Hulle het die harde arbeid verrig wat die kontantgewas van The Hermitage, katoen, opgelewer het. Hoe meer grond Andrew Jackson opgedoen het, hoe meer slawe het hy aangeskaf om dit te bewerk. Die oorlewing van die Jackson -gesin is dus moontlik gemaak deur die wins wat gemaak is uit die gewasse wat daagliks deur die slawe gewerk word.

Toe Andrew Jackson The Hermitage in 1804 koop, besit hy nege slawe -Afro -Amerikaners. Net 25 jaar later het die getal tot meer as 100 toegeneem deur aankoop en reproduksie. Ten tyde van sy dood in 1845 het Jackson ongeveer 150 mense besit wat op die eiendom gewoon en gewerk het.

Danksy die navorsing van die kuratorale personeel by The Hermitage, kan toergidse nou verhale vertel oor die lewens van die slawe van mans en vroue wat hier gewoon het tydens die lewe van Andrew Jackson en daarna. Besoekers sal leer hoe lewensbelangrik die lewens van die slawe was vir die werking van die plaas, die harde werklikheid van die slawernystelsel en hoe hierdie mans en vroue verduur het totdat hulle hul vryheid verkry het.


Kort biografie van Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner is gebore op 11 Julie 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Hy beskryf homself as ''n leergierige kind wat baie plesier daaruit put om klavier te speel'. Hy voltooi sy naskoolse opleiding aan Harvard, behaal sy voorgraadse graad in 1965 en sy Ph.D. in 1971.

Terwyl hy oorspronklik van plan was om regte te studeer, is hy geïnspireer om ontwikkelingsielkunde te bestudeer deur die werke van Jean Piaget. Hy noem ook die mentorskap wat hy van die beroemde psigoanalis Erik Erikson ontvang het, as deel van die rede waarom hy sy visier op sielkunde rig.

"My gedagtes was regtig oop toe ek na Harvard College gegaan het en die geleentheid gehad het om onder individue te studeer - soos die psigoanalis Erik Erikson, sosioloog David Riesman en die kognitiewe sielkundige Jerome Bruner - wat kennis oor mense geskep het. Dit het my gehelp die verloop van die ondersoek na die menslike natuur, veral hoe mense dink, 'verduidelik hy later.


Gardner Jackson - Geskiedenis

* kom van St. Mary's, MD

+ Onder hierdie lyste is daar vier gemene name: John Garner, Thomas Broughton, Ann Williams en Edward Dawson

GK lys die kinders van John Garner deur sy vrou Susanna Keene (waarskynlik geb. op Kent Island op die Potomac- d. C1716). GK hersien die geskiedenis van grondtoelaes of aankope deur John, benewens die gee van sy testament, maar die ligging van sy graf word nie genoem nie. Volgens GK vestig John hom naby die huidige Lewisetta, Virginia wes van Garner se spruit. Daar word nie meer met die naam na Garner se spruit verwys nie. Daar is eintlik twee Garner's Creek's- die een is aangrensend aan Cypress Farm, naby Lewisetta (sien kaart), terwyl die ander een naby Kinsale is. 'N Kort geskiedenis van laasgenoemde watermassa kom uit [NORRIS p.68],

"Gardner Creek is vernoem na een van die Garner -familie wat die Hurd -toekenning van 500 hektaar aan die noordekant van die spruit meer as 63 jaar besit het. John Garner het dit in 1698 gekoop. Dit het toe oorgegaan aan sy seun, John, wat dit wou aan sy seun, Abraham, in 1712, wou hy dit dan aan sy dogter, Frances, in 1761. Dit was eers bekend as Heards Creek (soms Hurds gespel) tot ten minste die middel van die 18de eeu. Later, vroeg in die 19de eeu het dit Crab Creek (qv) genoem. Die huidige spelling van die naam verskyn in 1825 op kaarte, wat blykbaar 'n fout van die kaartmaker is, aangesien die Garners nie die spelling in hul testamente gebruik het nie. "

In ongeveer 1672 verhuis hulle 'n entjie na Westmoreland County naby die huidige dorp Kinsale. Tabak was die belangrikste gewas, dit was winsgewend soos nou [BOORSTIN bl. 100], en was destyds die geldeenheid [DABNEY p. 25]. John Garner was nie een van die elite planters in die 17de eeu in Virginia nie, maar hy was 'n grondeienaar. (Die Garner -naam was nie onder die twintig voorste planters in bv. [WERTENBAKER bl. 48 en 109] of [WRIGHT bl. 56 en 112] nie.) Soos aangedui, was sy grond aanvanklik in Northumberland County en later in Westmoreland County. Min van 'n persoonlike aard word deur GK gegee, behalwe die feit dat John geleef het van die boerdery, soos feitlik almal destyds. Die vroeë bevolking van Virginia was ongelooflik klein:

VIRGINIA se bevolking in die 1600's

John was 'n grondeienaar en as vryeman het hy stemreg [DABNEY bl. 42]. Gegewe die hoeveelheid grond wat John besit net voor sy dood, is meer as 2000 hektaar 'n redelike skatting, gegewe die getalle in sy testament, is dit veilig om aan te neem dat John nie 'n arm was nie.

The Northern Neck of Virginia is bekend vir verskeie van sy inheemse seuns, waaronder presidente George Washington, James Madison, James Monroe en die beroemde Lee -familie [RITCHIE bl. 68 NORRIS]. Dit is egter onwaarskynlik dat John Garner 'n 'gentleman' was, wat geen belediging is nie, want hierdie woord het destyds 'n spesiale betekenis gehad [WRIGHT].

'N Weglating in die volledige studie van die genealogie van Garner deur GK is die oorsprong van John Garner, wie was sy ouers en waar kom hulle vandaan? GK was beslis bewus van hierdie weglating en het gesê dat hulle nie weet waar John Garner vandaan kom nie, maar het gedink dat Engeland feitlik die land van sy oorsprong is. In die vroeë Virginia, in teenstelling met Massachusetts, was die immigrante wat 'n gegewe graafskap Virginia bevolk het, geneig om uit dieselfde gebied van Engeland te kom [RITCHIE bl. 68]. Die Internasionale G enealogiese indeks van die LDS -kerklys bevat vier John Garners wat in 1634 in Engeland gedoop is.

Een van hierdie vier John Garners is in Kent, Engeland, gebore saam met die ouers Thomas Garner en Mary Lacye. Volgens [SG private kommunikasie] het mev Wilbur C. Garner (Gwendoline), Elmscroft Road 3800, Randallstown, Maryland 21133, Engeland besoek in 1989 en die "Register Books of Christeninges Marriages and Burialls" in Saint Dunstan, Canterbury 1559-1800 gevind " Geredigeer deur J. Meadows Cowper waar dit verklaar dat Thomas [b. omstreeks 1610 Kent] en Mary Lacye [geb. ongeveer 1613 in Kent] is op 24 Oktober 1631, Canterbury, gemeente Saint Dunstan, getroud. Hierdie inligting is ook in die IGI. Thomas en Mary het 'n seun gehad, John Garner, wat op 4 Mei 1634 gedoop is, Canterbury, St. Dunstan. [St. Dunstan -kerk is 'n ou en beroemde parogiekerk van die katedraal van Canterbury, veral bekend as die kerk waar Thomas More in die laat Middeleeue voor die Hervorming lid was.] 'N 22 -jarige Thomas Gardner is na Virginia August gelys. 10, 1635 op die skip, Safety (kaptein John Graunt) [HOTTEN bl. 123]. Miskien was dit Johannes se pa? 'N Meer aanneemlike moontlikheid word gevind in [GREER p.123] waar in 1650, dieselfde jaar as wat John Garner na Northumberland County vervoer is, 'n Thomas Gardner na Northumberland County gekom het, ingevoer deur mev. Frances Townshend en dieselfde jaar 'n Mary Gardner is deur Ralph Green vervoer, maar die provinsie word nie genoem nie. Dit kon man en vrou gewees het, aangesien dit moontlik was dat 'n ander persoon vir die vervoer van man, vrou en kinders kon betaal. ([GREER bl. 190] gee 'n lys in 1653 van die Keene -familie wat grond in Northumberland County verkry het. Daardie jaar vervoer kolonel William Clayborne Thomas Keene in, Thomas Keene vervoer sy vrou, Mary, en seun William in, maar 'n Jervais Dodson wat in Susan Keene vervoer word. .) Bykomende geloofwaardigheid vir die teorie dat John Garner se ouers Thomas Garner was en Mary Lacye is John genoem een ​​van sy sewe seuns Thomas en een van sy drie dogters Mary (die tweede dogter is Susan genoem na Susanna Keene en Martha was die naam van die derde dogter). Dit is egter ook moontlik dat die dogter Mary na haar ouma, Mary Keene en die seun Thomas na sy oupa vernoem is. Op die oomblik glo ek nie dat daar voldoende bewyse is om te bewys dat dit die ouers van John was nie.

Onder die vier John Garners wat in 1633 Engeland gebore is, was daar 'n John Garner wat op 2 September 1634 gedoop is in Saint Chad, Shrewsbury, Engeland, in die Shropshire County. Hierdie stad is in die weste van Sentraal -Engeland, naby Wallis. Sy ouers was Richard Garner en Katharn? Van die drie opsies wat ek gevind het, glo ek dat hierdie opsie die waarskynlikste is. Daar is 'n verhaal op die internet oor Kathryn Garner wat in 1636 as 'n heks in Shropshire verhoor word- sy is skuldig bevind en het daarom gesterf. Richard en sy jong seun John (destyds 3 of 4 jaar oud) verlaat Engeland en arriveer in Henrico County, VA, vervoer deur William Farrar in 1637. [Nugent] Volgens die Henrico County Court Order Book vir 1643/44 sterf Richard in 1643 en die tienjarige John is 'n afdeling van William Farrar gemaak, Jr. John het 500 pond geërf, 'n aansienlike bedrag vir daardie tyd, wat sy oom John nog in Shropshire aan hom gestuur het. 'N Deel van die geld kom uit die verkoop van die Garner -onderneming in Shropshire, 'n herberg. Vermoedelik het John toe 7 jaar later in 1650 uit Henrico County na Northumberland County verhuis, maar ek moet dit nog bewys.

Laastens bestaan ​​daar 'n ander moontlikheid. Volgens [GARDINER], [SKORDAS, pp175-176] en LDS-rekords het 'n gesin Gardiners in 1637 in Maryland gekom. Die name van die ouers was Richard Gardiner (geb. 1590 in Engeland-dc 1648 St. Mary's, MD ) wat in 1614 in Engeland getroud is met Elizabeth Hame (geb. 1595 in Engeland-d.? St. Marys, MD). Hulle arriveer in St. Marys MD in 1637. Hulle het kinders wat almal in Engeland gebore is, Mary (geb. 1615 in Surrey ENG. Na 1693 in Oxfordshire ENG) wat in Engeland gebly het, Richard (geb. 1616 in Surrey ENG. D. 1693 in Mechanicsville, St. Marys, Oakley MD), Jone (geb. 1617 in Surrey ENG -d.? In Oxfordshire ENG) wat in Engeland gebly het, Elizabeth (geb. 1618 in Surrey ENG -dc 1642 St. Marys MD), Luke (geb. 1622 in Oxfordshire ENG- d. 1674 St. Marys, MD), Juliana (geb. 1630 in - d.?) En John? (geb. 1633 in Surrey ENG d.?). Hierdie Garner's was gekonsentreer in St. Mary's, Maryland, wat direk oorkant die Potomic River van Lewisetta, Virginia, geleë is. St Mary's is die oudste nedersetting in MD. Die LDS -rekords wys daarop dat Luke in 1649 in St. Mary's, MD, getroud is met Elizabeth Hatton (geb. 1/1/1663 in Londen, ongeveer 1702 in MD). Elizabeth Hattons pa, Richard (gebore in Shropshire, Engeland) en moeder, Margaret, was grondeienaars in die Northern Neck so laat as 1652. Luke se seun, Richard Gardiner, uit wie se huis die Withuis gekopieer is, trou met Virginian Elizabeth Wiere, dogter van John Wiere en Honoria Jones, van Rappahannock Cty. Garner's was deur die jare in oorvloed in St. Onthou, Thomas Keene, die vader van Susannah, het ook in St. Volgens 'n artikel in [Bull. Northumb. C. Hist. Soc., 1998, bladsy 30] sowel as [Hist. Atlas Westm. C.] baie van die oorspronklike inwoners van die provinsies Northumberland en Westmoreland kom van St. Mary's MD af. Boonop weet ons uit [GARDINER, bl. 30] dat Luke Gardiner, sy suster Juliana Gardiner en moontlik sy broer John (ons John?) Van St. Mary's na Virginia gereis het om Richard Ingle se aanvalle op St. Mary's in die somer 1645 te vermy. Dit is waarskynlik dat Richard en Elizabeth gesterf het om die hande van Ingle, want daar is geen rekords daarvan na 1645 nie en ons weet dat St. Richard's Manor deur Ingle ontslaan is. Die dogter Elizabeth en haar man Richard Luslick het ook geen rekords na 1642 nie, daarom was hulle waarskynlik dood. Luke en Juliana keer in 1647 terug na St. Marys saam met Leonard Calvert, maar daar word geen melding gemaak van John nie. Het John agtergebly? Is dit ons Johannes? As u 'n paar bladsye terugkyk, sien u 'n hele paar van die 1654 patente van mnr. Hobkins wat van St. Marys, MD, gekom het. Op grond van al hierdie bewyse sou dit nie te vergesog wees as John Gardiner ons John Garner is nie.

'N Punt daarteen dat hierdie Johannes ons Johannes is, is dat nie een van Johannes se kinders die name van Richard of Luke of Elizabeth dra nie. Daar is ook geen rekords van ons John wat ooit kontakte in MD gehad het nie. Een verduideliking kan wees: die MD Gardiners was Katolieke en ons John was 'n lid van die Church of England, net soos die Keene's. Daarbenewens sou die grootste deel van John Gardiner se familie dood gewees het teen die tyd dat hy hom in 1650 in VA gevestig het. Hierdie bewysstukke is interessant, maar ek glo dat die gegewens die seun van die Shropshire -familie bevoordeel. Bykomende besonderhede moet nog gesoek word.

Laat ons nou regtig bespiegel. Ek wonder of hierdie Richard Gardiner van MD een of ander manier verband hou met die Richard Gardiner wat in 1620 alleen op die Mayflower na Plymouth gekom het? Die Richard in Plymouth het tussen 1624 en 1 Junie 1627 Plymouth verlaat en het nooit weer na Plymouth teruggekeer nie. Sy ouers was John en Lucy (Russell) Gardiner van Harwich, Essex. Hierdie inligting is van [SMD]. [GARDINER, pg.xli] het ook hierdie moontlike verband oorweeg, maar kon niks bewys nie. Dit alles kom neer, ons is nog steeds nie absoluut positief oor wie die ouers van John Garner was nie, en daar is 'n kans dat ons dit nooit sal weet nie.

GK lys die kinders van Thomas Garner (omstreeks 1655-d. 1726) wat met Mary Bushnell getroud is. Thomas vestig hom in 1700 in Stafford County, Virginia. Thomas Gardner word gelys as 'n patentering van 625 hektaar op Tinpot Run and Licking Run in Fauquier County in 1725 [F bl.23 en GK bl. 65]. GK lys die kinders van Thomas en sy testament [GK bl. 66-67]. Die grootste deel van GK se boek word ook gewy aan die hoofstuk oor Thomas.

GK lys die kinders van Thomas en hul datums op p.67. Die kind van Thomas Garner van primêre belang hier is Charles Garner (? -1798) wat getroud is met c1746 Ann Darnell, die dogter van Waugh Darnell en weduwee van Jonas Williams. Charles het baie jare in die distrik Fauquier gewoon, waar hy in 1798 oorlede is. Die verwysing [F bl. 171] noem Charles Garner as 'n lid van die Militia, maar me. Ritchie was van mening dat hierdie Charles 'n neef van Charles was [RITCHIE bl. 78]. 'N Rekord met betrekking tot die verkoop van 60 hektaar grond aan John Wright in 1748 deur Charles en Ann Garner van Prince William County word aangeteken in [TQH bl. 229-230 en GK bl. 108]. Charles dagvaar sy broers om sy deel van die kinders van 'n slaaf wat in 1732 verkoop is, te verhaal [GK bl. 108]. Daar is geen bewyse dat Charles in die Revolusionêre Oorlog geveg het nie, maar sy seun Charles het [GWATHMEY bl. 298 STEWART -inskrywing 245 WIT bl. 1314]. GK lys ander grondrekords en op bl.108 lys GK die kinders van Charles.

Die kind van Charles Garner van primêre belang hier is Joseph Garner (geb. 1753 in Fauquier County, Virginia- d. 20 Desember 1840 in Cherokee County, Alabama) wat op 22 Desember 1790 in Fauquier County, Virginia Sally (Sarah) getroud is. Orr (Dodd). Volgens bl. 109 in GK, in 1797 woon Joseph in Culpeper, Virginia, waar hy op 286 hektaar grond betaal het wat voorheen in besit was van 'n Hisle en hy het vyf jaar lank op hierdie grond betaal. GK verklaar dat Joseph in 1789 36 jaar oud was, dat hy as privaat in die eerste Virginia -regiment in die arm gewond is, en dat sy salaris 24 pond per jaar beloop. Volgens [REV bl. 45], het Joseph op 5 September 1775 by die 1ste VA -regiment aangesluit en die volgende lente in Williamsburg is hy gewond. Ook deponeer Henrico Co 5 September 1791 deur kolonel Martin Pickett dat hy die pensioensertifikaat van Gardner, onderteken deur J. Pendleton, verloor het.

Daar is meer bewyse dat Joseph Garner tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog gedien het. Hy het hom in Fauquier County, Virginia, aangestel en in kapt William Blackwell's Co, en in Cols gedien. Daniel Morgan se VA. Regt. [JULICH p.223]. Hy is pensioen gegee op aansoek in Clarke County, Georgia. Sy weduwee, Sarah, het 'n pensioen gekry op haar aansoek wat op 13 Oktober 1842 toegepas is, toe sy 68 jaar oud was en 'n inwoner van Cherokee County, Alabama (Pensioen nr. W7496) [JULICH p.224]. 'N Sarah Garner, gebore in VA, word in 1850 gelys as 'n inwoner (80 jaar oud) van Cherokee County, Alabama [CHEROKEE p.14].

Verder [JULICH p. 224] verklaar dat Joseph in 1802 van Fauquier County, Virginia, na Georgia verhuis het en in 1815 'n inwoner van Clarke County, Georgia was. In 1818 was hy 64 jaar oud en nog steeds 'n inwoner van Clarke County. In 1820 verhuis hy na Alabama en woon daar 'n geruime tyd in Saint Clair County. Die kinders van Joseph en Sarah word ook in JULICH en deur [SG bl. 128]:

Malinda Burger, Rosa Burger, Sophia Goodwin, Sally White, Gilford, Joseph, John

Ander verwysings wat die bogenoemde bronne oor Joseph se oorlogsrekord en familie bevestig, sluit in:

[GANRUD bl. 90-93] wat verklaar dat Joseph gesê het dat hy in 1774/5 onder kapt William Blackwell in die 7de Virginia Regiment aangesluit het en dat John Marshall die eerste luitenant was. (later hoofregter van die Hooggeregshof). Hy het die hele inskrywing bedien. Hy is 10 pond betaal. jaarliks ​​as pensioenaris. Thomas Page en John Marshall bevestig die diensrekord van Joseph in 'n brief in 1819. Die sensusrekord van Alabama vir die jaar 1850, Cherokee County, 27ste distrik, familie #1083 toon die kinders van Joseph, waaronder John en sy, moeder, vrou en kinders, Gilford en Joseph.

Boonop haal hierdie bron 'n artikel aan in die "Tuscaloosa News", 16 Februarie 1976, getiteld "Cemetery out of People's Mind", Gadsden, Alabama. Joseph Garner word begrawe in die "Garner-begraafplaas" in Noord-Gadsden en sy merker lees: "Joseph Garner, Sgt. 15 Va Regt. Rev. War, 1754-1840". Die begraafplaas dateer uit die vroeë 1800's. Sommige van die bogenoemde inligting is ook in [WHITE p. 1314]. SG also includes several references on the Joseph Garner line [SG p. 129], e.g. an article in the "Gadsden Times" from 19 March, 1978 is mentioned. See also Appendix 1 where an article is reproduced from the magazine, Family Puzzlers, No. 568, Sept. 7, 1978 pp 4-5. Among other things, this article gives the detailed location of Joseph Garner s grave, which is on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage. This same article states that Joseph "was wounded at Brandywine [this was at that time in VA, now it is in WVA], fought at Valley Forge, and was discharged at White Plains, NY."

[DAR1 p. 81] and [DAR2 p. 1127] lists Joseph Garner (1754-12/20/1840 AL) m Sarah Orr and was a private in VA in the Rev. War. See also, [STEWART, entry 245].

[GWATHMEY p. 298] lists Joseph Garner as a Sgt. in the 10,11,11, and 15 continental lines during the Revolutionary War.

[BRUMBAUGH p. 438] lists Joseph Garner as a VA Sgt. who served 3 years in the Rev. War.

[OWEN p. 41] lists Joseph as a private in the Virginia Continental Line and pensioner of Rev. War.

[VA LINE] lists Joseph in 1835 as a sergeant in the Va Line infantry who had not received bounty land.

It seems there is a bit of confusion regarding Joseph s rank, private or sergeant?

The period 1802-1820 when Joseph was in Georgia is a period when many Garners migrated to Georgia [CRESS].

The child of Joseph Garner of primary interest in this work is John A. Garner (b.3/15/1815-d. c1870 in Pontontoc, Mississippi near Oxford) . John was born in Clarke County, Georgia, his wife s name was Elizabeth (age 22 in 1850 and born in Tennessee), and the 1850 Alabama census of Cherokee County gave their children, Francis (age 6, born in AL), William(age 4, born in AL), and Elizabeth (age 1, born in AL) according to [GANDRUD p.92]. John s eighty year old mother, Sarah (born in VA), was living with them in 1850.

[SG p. 128 and the Family Puzzlers article mentioned above] indicates that John married Elizabeth Tillison, daughter of Spenser Tillison, in 1844.

Additional information about John s family is found in [JD] where it is stated that John was born 3/15/1815 and his wife Elizabeth was born May, 1829. John got around! He was born in Georgia, lived most of his life in Northern Alabama, moved to Mississippi shortly after the Civil War (as evidenced by the birthplace of his children), and he died in Mississippi. Near the end of John s life he lived in Toccopola, Mississippi where he taught in the high school and Elizabeth ran a boarding house. Their children are listed in [JD]

Francis Marion , William Adam, John Anderson, Molly E., and Edythe Josephine.

Francis Marion married Martha Ann Sharp (see below for more information on my great grandfather). William Adam married Charlotte Lewis and this is the line of central focus in JD s short note. John Anderson married Sarah Sharp, Molly E. married John Willie Sharp, and Edythe Josephine married William Mark Harding. No dates are given on these individuals.

Both John Garner and his son Francis Marion Garner served during the Civil War. According to Civil War pension records [WILTSHIRE p. 312] they were from Lafayette County, Mississippi and served in the 31 st Alabama infantry. A pension was given to Elizabeth, whose husband was John A. Garner , in 1900. A pension was given to F. M. Garner who served in the 31 st Alabama and was from Lafayette County, Mississippi in 1916 and his widow, M. A. Garner was pensioned in 1917 and again in 1924. She was listed as living in Lafayette County both in 1917 and in 1924. Both F. M. Garner and J. A. Garner are listed as Confederate soldiers serving in the AL 31 st infantry, company A in [HEWETT p.218 and p. 219]. According to [CRUTE p. 23] the AL 31 st infantry was organized in Talladega, AL in April, 1862. It recruited in several counties including Cherokee County, the residence of John and Francis Marion Garner. The 31 st saw action at Cumberland Gap, Tazewell and was captured during the famous long siege of Vicksburg. It was reorganized and saw action at Chattanooga and Atlanta. Colonel Daniel R. Hundley, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas M. Arrington, and Major George W. Mattison commanded the 31 st . A more detailed accounting of the 31 st whereabouts is listed in [SIFAKIS p. 99] and [CMH, p. 154-156].

POST CIVIL WAR AND THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

According to family Bible records [AGUD], John A. Garner dates were: b. 3/15/1815- d. c1870, in agreement with the above sources. He is buried in the Pontocola Cemetery which is between Pontotoc and Toccopola, Mississippi. These are in Lafayette County near Oxford, Mississippi. Confirming the above, the Bible records state that John moved from Georgia to Alabama before coming to Mississippi. Elizabeth Garner, his wife, was originally Elizabeth Tillison, b. 5/18/1829 in Tennessee. Her father may have been born in Kentucky and her mother may have been born in North Carolina. Elizabeth was living in Lafayette County in 1900 with her son-in-law J. W. Sharp.

All the children of John A. Garner were born in Alabama except the last one who was born in Mississippi. From these Bible records we have for John s children (which is consistent with [JD]),

Francis Marion (b. 7/5/1845 Gadsden, AL- d. 12/14/1916 in Webb cemetery near Tula, MS and see below) William Adam "Add" Garner (b. 8/18/1847 in Gadsden, AL-d.?) married 6/27/1868 Charlotte Lewis John Anderson (b.1858 in AL-d.?) married 4/4/1880 Sarah Sharp Molly E. (b. 1861 in AL-d. 1945 in Tula Cemetry, MS) married 12/12/1878 John Willie Sharp and Edythe Josephine (b. 9/1867 in MS- d. 1923/4 in MS) married 1890 William Mark Harding.

The rest of the material in this genealogy is from the AGUD family Bible or from my own knowledge of my immediate family. My great grandfather was Francis Marion Garner (listed above) who married (11/14/1876, see the copy of the certificate in the appendix) in Huntsville, Alabama Martha Ann Sharp (b. 9/18/1857 in Huntsville, Alabama-d?). Martha Ann was the daughter of John Sharp and Martha Ann Ward. Francis Marion Garner was wounded in the Civil War and as already noted, he served with his father in the AL 31 st infantry.

Francis Marion and Martha Ann Sharp had issue: Mona who never married, Marion Harlan (see below), Wiley who married Bess Marchbank, James Luther (b. 6/8/1882-d. 11/12/04) , red headed, who never married and died at age 22, and Dana who married Halley? .

My grandfather, Marion Harlan Garner (b. 3/9/1880 in Oxford, MS- d. 7/1/1967 in Blytheville, Arkansas) was a farmer. He married 11/19/1906 in Tula, Mississippi Fannie Montez Marchbank (b. 11/15/1889 in Sulligent, Alabama-d. 5/21/1944 in Charter Oak, Missouri). Marion Harlan and Fannie Montez lived in Potlocna, Mississippi (5 miles SE of Oxford) but left Yocona, Mississippi in September, 1922 to move to Arkansas, near Blytheville. A colorful account of this journey was written by my Aunt Gene Garner, see APPENDIX II.

Fannie Montez Marchbank s parents were John Erwin Marchbank (b. 12/12/1851 in Crews, Alabama-d.?) and Susan Emmaline May (b.6/2/1854 in Birmingham, Alabama-d.?) and they married in 1888 in Sulligent, AL. John Erwin Marchbank s mother was Emiline Bankhead (b. 1832 in AL) who was a cousin of some sort to Tallulah Bankhead, the actress from Alabama.. John Erwin s father was Baily Marchbank (b.1831 in AL ) who married Emiline in 1850 in Crews, AL.

Tallulah was the granddaughter of the US Senator , John Hollis Bankhead from northern Alabama, and she was the daughter of the AL US Congressman, William Brockmon Bankhead. A copy of Fannie Montez s obituary is given in APPENDIX III.

Marion Harlan Garner and Fannie Montez Marchbank had issue: Cecil (b. 8/13/1907-d. 1968) married Ollie Mae Lusk Leonard Garner (b. 1909-d. 1966) married Eleanor ? Imogene(b. 11/26/1911) married Russell Gaines (b.?-d. 1968) James Luther (see below) Duke (b. 8/13/1915) married Sue Dison (b. 11/16/1917-d. 12/19/1973) Keith (b. 8/31/1919-d. 1967) married Willie Pearcy Ruby (b. 11/16/1917) married Speedy Walden Tull (b. 5/20/1921) married Mable Vannoy and Sammy (b. 1931) married Sonnie Poe. Marion Harlan and some of the family moved from Blytheville, Arkansas in 1943 to pursue better farming land in Charter Oak, Missouri (in the "boothill").

My father, James Luther Garner (b. 6/25/1913 in Oxford, Mississippi-d. 7/4/1970 in Vermilion, Ohio) married my mother, Sunshine Mick (b. 3/24/1916 in Blytheville, Arkansas) in 1932 in Blytheville, Arkansas. James Luther was a farmer and truck driver. In 1959 the immediate family of James Luther moved with him to Vermilion in northeastern Ohio.

James Luther Garner and Sunshine Mick had issue: Joseph Marion, Patricia Ann, Sandra Lou, Lelia Montez, Connie Jay, and James Luther Garner

Joseph Marion (b. 7/24/1935 in Arkansas) married Pat Phillips (b. 2/1939) and had issue: Linda Renee (b. 9/3/1958) who married Ray Born, Jeannie (b. 12/26/1959) who married Ed Lampe, Joseph (b. 6/1/1961 in Ohio) who married ?, and Elizabeth (b. 6/20/1963 in Ohio) who married ?.

Patricia Ann (b. 3/18/1939 in Arkansas) married Loren Leonberger and had issue: Vincent Bruce Leonberger (b. 12/28/1955 in Missouri) who married Roberta ? and Timothy Scott Leonberger (b. 9/3/1960 in Missouri), single.

Sandra Lou (b. 5/31/1941 in Missouri- d. Jan., 1998 in Ohio) married Larry Lawson then Mark Nemeth. Her children are: Gordon Lawson (b. 9/30/1959 in Missouri) who married Tonya ?, Mark Nemeth (b. 10/12/1960 in Ohio) who married ?, Walter Scott Nemeth (b. 12/20/1964 in Ohio) who married Renee Lugley, and Gena Nemeth (b. 9/23/1970 in Ohio) who married ?.

Lelia Montez (b. 7/26/1944 in Missouri-d. 10/9/1977 in Vermilion, Ohio) married Steve Brixie (b.8-03-1939 in Arkansas) and had issue: Steven Harlan Brixie (b. 10/31/1961) who married Penny Burquset, Richard Marshall Brixie (b. 6/3/1963),m Karen Gilbreth(b. 2-2-1968), and Debra Brixie (b. 12/13/1965) who marriedRandy Randolph.

Connie Jay (b. 12/18/1952 in Missouri) married Glenn Graves, then William Bettcher, and then Greg Goldcamp. Her children are: Jennifer Graves (b. 4/23/1969 in Amherst, Ohio) and Glenn Shannon Graves II (b. 11/15/1972 in Ohio).


GARDNER Genealogy

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Please join us in collaborating on GARDNER family trees. Ons het die hulp van goeie genealoë nodig om 'n heeltemal gratis gedeelde stamboom om ons almal te verbind.

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History of Gardner-Webb University

Located in the North Carolina foothills on over 225 acres, Gardner-Webb University is a private, Christian, liberal arts university. Gardner-Webb emphasizes a strong student-centered experience and rigorous academics to prepare students to become effective leaders within the global community. Ignite your future at Gardner-Webb.edu.

From our humble beginnings as Boiling Springs High School in 1905, to our transition to higher education as Gardner-Webb College in 1942, to our evolution in 1993 as Gardner-Webb University, we&rsquove come a long way.

Gardner-Webb University was founded as a boarding high school before transitioning into a junior college and four-year institution. Today Gardner-Webb is a thriving regional university featuring a variety of bachelor&rsquos, master&rsquos and doctoral programs.

A partnership between the Kings Mountain Baptist Association and the Sandy Run Baptist Association established the Boiling Springs High School on December 2, 1905, as an institution &ldquowhere the young&hellipcould have the best possible educational advantages under distinctive Christian influence.&rdquo This close relationship with area churches continues today.

In response to the changing educational needs of the area, the school was transformed into the Boiling Springs College in 1928. The Great Depression created many challenges for small colleges around the country, but the survival of Gardner-Webb&rsquos predecessor was secured by the sacrifices of many loyal financial supporters.

In 1942, North Carolina Governor O. Max Gardner and his wife Fay Webb Gardner began devoting energy, guidance, time and wealth to strengthening the College. The influence of his family was so profound that the board of trustees voted to change the name of the institution to honor the governor, his wife and their families. Gardner-Webb College was born.

The decades following World War II were years of physical growth and academic development. New buildings were erected as enrollments continued to increase. A major step in Gardner-Webb&rsquos development was its full accreditation as a four-year college in 1971-1972. In 1980 the institution began offering a Master of Arts degree in education.

The institution officially became known as Gardner-Webb University in January 1993, culminating years of preparation. Gardner-Webb University&rsquos six professional schools and 14 academic departments offer more than 80 undergraduate and graduate major fields of study.

Historically the University has played significant roles in teacher education and ministerial preparation for church-related vocations. Programs of instruction and experiences designed to prepare teachers and ministers continue to be major objectives of the University.

Although there have been many changes over the years, Gardner-Webb University holds in high esteem its commitment to Christian principles and values as the best foundation for the development of human personality and social order.

Nationally recognized for character-building programs, Gardner-Webb challenges students to ignite their passions, purposes and professions within an environment that challenges the mind, heart and soul.


Gardner Jackson - History

Rising on the northeast slope of Joseph Peak in the northwest corner of Yellowstone Park, the Gardner is first seen by most anglers in Gardner's Hole.

Hole, as a place-name in the West, is a term of varied significance. It is applied to high landlocked basins (Freezeout Hole), to mountain-girt valleys (Jackson's Hole), to desert sinks (Humboldt's Hole) or even to a spot on a river where the water depth increases sharply. Most generally, in the northern Rockies, it refers to a subalpine basin, and that is what Gardner's Hole is. It is surpassing beautiful.

The river starts as a tiny, icy trickle almost 10,000 feet up. By the time it reaches the northwest corner of Gardner's Hole it has been joined by several other icy small streams but it is not yet fish worthy.

In Gardner's Hole, which it traverses the full length in a northwest-southeast direction, it is joined by Fawn, Panther, Indian and Obsidian creeks, as lovely a quartet of trout stream names as one will find, and the streams are just as lovely.

All are small, winding, willow lined, clear and cold, and all host numbers of brook and rainbow trout. These four streams, and the river here, are the only ones in the Park that may be fished with worms-but only by children twelve years and under. This is a family fishing area, with an excellent campground located near where Panther, Indian and Obsidian creeks join the main river.

The Park administration, in choosing this as a family fishing area, acted with a wisdom not always applied to other aspects under their control. The area abounds with deer, elk, moose, waterfowl, beaver, squirrels, chipmunks and other small creatures, and birds. Opportunities for wildlife photos are everywhere. The area is scenic and the main road just a few hundred yards away.

The fish are mostly panfish size. A rainbow or brookie of a foot or more is a bragging fish. The small, winding streams with their undercut banks and clearly defined deeper spots, are ideal for worm fishing by the beginning angler. The mainstream at the confluence with the other creeks is also largely a panfish proposition. But it is a delight to fish with small wet flies, a high-riding dry fly and, in season (August and September), with a hopper pattern.

From where it passes under the Norris-Mammoth road bridge, there is downstream a mile or so of very pleasant water. But as one proceeds, the walls of the canyon move steadily inward upon the stream, the bed becomes rocky and boulder filled aqd one is at last forced to proceed almost entirely in the stream if he wishes to continue. In a while, with Bunsen Peak towering over the stream to the north and the abrupt face of Sheepeater Cliffs on the south, the stream becomes a torrent racing for its leap over Osprey Falls, and the even steeper canyon below. It is dangerous to continue.

It returns to a more fishable approach under the soaring bridge on the Mammoth-Tower Junction road. Here one may fish his happy way both up and down stream. It is swift, boulder-filled pocket water, and the fish, somewhat larger than above, arte also more plentiful. Lava Creek adds its mineral-rich input just downstream of the road bridge and almost doubles the flow.

The next approach to the river is a dirt road from the newer housing section for Park Headquarters at Mammoth. By using both approaches one can cover the entire area between without walking or wading more than a half-mile. From the housing area road it is another half-mile before the stream comes into sight along the Mammoth-Gardiner road (roads in Yellowstone Park are not numbered but are identified by the names of the areas at either end of a section of road).

The five miles or so of stream in the Mammoth-Gardiner area are very pleasant miles to fish. There is just enough difficulty getting into and out of the stream, and in fishing it, to deter the casual, and the regulations and constant patrol by rangers give pause to the meat fisherman.

It is a prolific piece of water for the proficient fly-fisher. The fish are larger than farther up, and there are, now and then, run-up fish from the Yellowstone, which the Gardner joins within the boundary of the town. A knowledgeable fly-fisher can, on a good day, take and release fifty or more trout. But he can also get skunked. You must know what you are about to do well in the lower Gardner.

The "salmonfly," really the giant stone fly Pteronarcys califomica, emerges (hatches, in angler parlance) in June and July. Thus the nymphs of this insect are always in the stream, since it lives there four years from the time the egg is laid until it becomes a flying adult. A large black fly such as a Woolly Worm or one of the nearly two dozen local nymphal imitations will take fish most of the time. These are difficult to fish in this broken, boulder-filled pocket water stream and only the experienced nympher will do well.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park and
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Gardner Jackson - History

The land that Jackson sits on was included in the "Waldo Patent", which was part of the Charter of New England granted by King James I of England in 1620. Jackson was named after General Henry Jackson, who commanded a regiment of Massachusetts soldier in the Revolutionary War.

Jackson was organized as a Plantation in 1812. In 1818, Jackson was incorporated as a town in what was then the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. At that time, the population of the town was 707.

Het jy geweet? Jackson was chosen as a tree planting site as part of a family legacy
On Sunday, July 31st, 2011, John and Joyce Jackson returned to the site in Jackson where, 15 years ago, they planted five white pine trees as a gift to the community. The planting was part of a project to plant five trees in all fifty states at a place connected to their family name. Jackson, ME was # 30 on the list.

The trees were planted not far from the intersection of Route 7 and Kimball Rd. John and Joyce even wrote a book about their adventure: "Trail of Trees". To buy the book and find out more, go to www.thejacksonlegacy.com


Stories of Living in Jackson
Beverly Ann (Eldridge) Ludden

Beverly is the eldest child of Florence (Dodge) Eldridge and Jefferson Eldridge of Jackson. Beverly has lived and been involved in the Jackson community for 75 years! Many townspeople know Beverly for her Jackson column in the Republican Journal and eagerly await her news each week. Once again, she has put pen to paper to tell us just a few stories about living in Jackson over the years.
Click here to read them.


Bill Gardner

Vice President, Programming & Development

As Vice President, Programming & Development Bill Gardner oversees content strategy, development and production for the PBS Primetime schedule in the genres of history, culture, natural history and science. He works closely with flagship PBS strands such as Nature, NOVA and American Experience as well as managing a large portfolio of independent projects.

During his time at PBS, projects Gardner shepherded have won three Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, a Dupont-Columbia Award, an Imagen Award, an NAACP Image Award and numerous Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival and Wildscreen Awards. International co-productions he has developed or commissioned have also earned several BAFTA and Grierson Awards.

Bill is particularly focused on collaborating with producers and distribution partners to reach younger and more diverse audiences and expand content reach across distribution platforms. Recent projects include natural history specials such as Earth A New Wild en Your Inner Fish landmark cultural and history series Native America Die Afro -Amerikaners: baie riviere om oor te steek Africa’s Great Civilizations Black America since MLK: And Still I Rise Latino Americans en Soundbreaking: Stories from the Cutting Edge of Recorded Music. He also oversees or developed formatted ongoing series such as Finding Your Roots en No Passport Required with Chef Marcus Samuelsson, in addition to helping bring The Great British Baking Show to PBS.

Bill also oversees the PBS-BBC co-production partnership, with successful multi-platform focused output such as Big Blue Live, Wild Alaska Live, Earth’s Natural Wonders en Spy in the Wild in the Science and Natural History genres, and Basquiat: Rage to Riches in the Arts & Culture space. He also developed and oversaw Civilizations, a marquee reboot of the 1969 classic BBC series on the history of art and The Great American Read, the first ever major television and multiplatform campaign to identify America’s best loved novel.

Before joining PBS in 2012 Gardner was Executive Producer at Discovery Studios, where he oversaw and developed national productions in the documentary, reality, lifestyle and CGI genres for multiple networks with partners such as the NFLPA, Petfinder.com and the Department of Defense. Prior to that he spent over a decade in the independent production world, working as director, producer, writer and show runner on projects for multiple networks both in the US and globally, including National Geographic, CNN, Discovery and The History Channel. He has produced programs in over 30 countries, including spending 2 months embedded with US Special Forces investigating the looting of Baghdad’s Iraq museum in 2003. During this time he was also the first Westerner allowed to film inside the holy Shi’i shrines of Abbas and Hussein in Karbala.

Bill holds a Masters Degree in cultural anthropology, has taught university programs in Arkansas and Marrakech, Morocco and is on the board of the Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival.


The Battle of Chancellorsville and Jackson’s Death

Lee and Jackson’s most famous victory took place near a crossroads at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863. Facing a numerically superior Union force of 130,000 men to 60,000 of their own, Lee and Jackson devised and executed a plan to rout the army of Union General Joseph Hooker (1814-79).

Historians call this battle one of Lee’s finest moments as a Confederate general, and his success owed much to Jackson’s participation. On May 2, Jackson stealthily and quickly took 28,000 troops on an approximately 15-mile forced march to Hooker’s exposed flank while Lee engaged in diversionary attacks on his front. Jackson’s attack on the Union rear inflicted massive casualties on the superior force, and Hooker was forced to withdraw only days later.

But the victory was not without cost. Jackson’s brutal attack ended at sunset, and he took some men into the forest to scout ahead. A North Carolina regiment mistook them for enemy cavalry and opened fire, severely wounding Jackson. He was taken from the field and General J. E. B. Stuart (1833-64) took over his command. Doctors determined that a bullet had shattered the bone just below his left shoulder, and they quickly amputated Jackson’s left arm. He was transferred to a field hospital at a nearby plantation to recover. Lee dispatched a letter, writing, 𠇌ould I have directed events, I would have chosen for the good of the country to be disabled in your stead.” Jackson initially appeared to be healing, but he died from pneumonia on May 10, 1863, at the age of 39. Southerners mourned his death, while Lee faced fighting the war without a highly valued general and comrade. Jackson was buried in Lexington, Virginia.


Kyk die video: Little Passed Crazy - Jackson Gardner Unplugged Songwriter Sessions