LST - 850 - 900 - Geskiedenis

LST - 850 - 900 - Geskiedenis

LST - 850 - 900

LST-850

LST - 850 is op 15 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 3 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Mildred M. T. Honig; en in opdrag van 27 November 1944, luitenant Perry B. Hazard in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-850 in die teater van die Asiatiese Stille Oseaan aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het die skip besetting in die Verre Ooste tot begin Oktober 1945 verrig. Sy het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is op 17 Mei 1946 ontmantel en oorgeplaas na die Pacific Reserve Fleet. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy herontwerp op Juniata County (LST-850) (q.v.) na 'n provinsie in Pennsylvania. Juniata County word op 20 Oktober 1958 aanbeveel om as 'n teiken vir vernietiging te gebruik, en is op 1 November dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys verwyder. LST-850 verdien een gevegster vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

LST-851

LST - 851 is op 10 Augustus 1944 in Seneca, Illinois, neergelê deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 8 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Gertrude B. Van Trigt; en in opdrag van 30 November 1944, luitenant Leo T. Tyburski in bevel, tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is LST-851 na die Asiatic_ Pacific-teater gestuur en neem hy deel aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Mei 1945. Na die oorlog het die die skip het sy beroep in die Verre Ooste tot middel Oktober 1945 verrig. Sy keer terug na die Verenigde State en word op 24 April 1946 uit diens geneem en op 8 Mei dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 30 September 1946 is LST- 851 verkoop aan die Northwest Merchandising Service, Seattle, Washington. LST-851 verdien een gevegster vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-852

LST - 852 is op 14 Augustus 1944 herontwerp ARL -23 en die naam Satyr (q.v.).

LST-853

LST - 853 is op 30 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 17 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Ellen Scott DeCoursey; en in opdrag van 11 Desember 1944, luitenant Charles B. Salsbury in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-853 na die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater gestuur en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Mei en Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het die skip tot begin Desember 1945 besetting in die Verre Ooste verrig. Sy keer terug na die Verenigde State en word op 24 Julie 1946 uit diens gestel en aan die Pacific Reserve Fleet toegewys. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy herontwerp in Kane County (LST-853) (q.v.) na provinsies in Illinois en Utah. Kane County is op 22 Desember 1958 na die vloot van die Republiek Korea oorgeplaas waar sy as Sit Yong gedien het (LST-813). LST-853 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-854

LST - 854 is op 30 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 20 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mevrou M. A. Menkol; en in opdrag van 14 Desember 1944, luitenant E. J. Robeson in bevel. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-854 na die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater gestuur en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het die skip in die Verre Ooste besetting verrig en diens in China gesien. tot vroeg in Maart 1949. Sy is op 21 Oktober 1949 uit diens gestel en is op 20 November 1950 weer in gebruik geneem en het tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog uitgebreide diens verrig. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy herontwerp in Kemper County (LST-854) (q.v.) na 'n provinsie in Mississippi. Kemper County het in 1965 voortgegaan met die Stille Oseaan-vloot en het in 1965 aan die ondersteuning van die Republiek Viëtnam deelgeneem totdat sy op 28 Mei 1969 weer uit diens gestel is. die Koreaanse oorlog, en een toekenning van die Navy Unit Commendation en vyf gevegsterre vir die Viëtnam -oorlog.

LST - 855

LST - 855 is op 6 September 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 27 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Jeanne H. Hoerner; en in opdrag van 21 Desember 1944, luitenant (jg.) Thomas P. Kierl in bevel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-855 diens verrig in die Verre Ooste en het diens in China tot middel Junie 1949 plaasgevind. Die skip is op 15 Februarie 1950 uit diens gestel. tydens die Koreaanse oorlog. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy herontwerp Kent County (LST-855) (q.v.) na provinsies in Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, Rhode Island en Texas. Na post-Koreaanse operasies met die Stille Oseaan-vloot, is Kent County weer op 22 Januarie 1958 ontmantel en op 19 Maart dieselfde jaar as 'n teiken vernietig. Sy is op 19 Maart 1958 uit die vlootlys geslaan. LST-855 verdien ses gevegsterre vir die Koreaanse Oorlog.

LST-856

LST - 856 is op 16 September 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 1 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Patricia Wiegand; en in opdrag van 23 Desember 1944, luitenant Arthur E. Fisher in bevel. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-856 in die teater van die Asiatiese Stille Oseaan aangestel en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy in die Verre Ooste beroep gedoen en tot middel Februarie 1946 diens in China gesien. Die tenklandingsskip het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is op 29 Mei 1946 buite gebruik gestel en op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar uit die vlootlys geslaan. Op 5 Mei 1948 is sy verkoop aan die Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., En daarna geskrap. LST-856 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 857

LST - 857 is op 19 September 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 6 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. Beatrice S. Major; en in opdrag op 29 Desember 1944, luitenant Roy C. Parlier in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-857 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1940. Na die oorlog het sy in die Verre Ooste tot middel Desember 1945 besettingsplig verrig. Na die oorlog operasies met die Pacific Fleet, het LST-857 uitgebreide diens gelewer tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog. Op 1 Julie 1955 is die skip herontwerp na King County (LST-857) (q.v.) na graafskappe in Texas en Washington. In Oktober 1957 begin sy met die omskakeling na 'n eksperimentele geleide missiel-toetsskip en word op 17 Mei 1958 AG-157 herklassifiseer. Op 8 Julie 1960 is King County uit diens geneem, verkoop aan Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oreg., Op 25 April 1961. LST-857 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en sewe gevegsterre vir Koreaanse diens.

LST - 858

LST - 858 is ARL -26 herontwerp en op 14 Augustus 1944 die naam Stentor (q.v.).

LST - 859

LST - 859 is op 26 September 1944 by Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 15 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Elsie M. Marcum; en in opdrag op 6 Januarie 1945, luitenant Daniel D. Kipnis in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-859 in die teater Asiaties-Stille Oseaan aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot in Desember 1945 beroep in die Verre Ooste verrig. Na naoorlogse operasies Met die Stille Oseaan-vloot het LST-859 uitgebreide diens tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog beleef. Op 1 Julie 1955 is die skip herontwerp in Lafayette County (LST-859) (q.v.) na graafskappe in Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri en Wisconsin: en 'n gemeente in Louisiana. Lafayette County is op 15 Augustus 1958 aangestel en is oorgeplaas na die Republiek van die Chinese vloot, waar sy as Chung Cheng gedien het (LST-224). LST-859 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en ses gevegsterre vir Koreaanse diens.

LST - 860

LST - 860 is op 23 September 1944 neergelê in Seneca, Ill., Deur die Chicago Bridge & Iron Co .; op 19 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Marjorie C. Lindahl; en in opdrag op 13 Januarie 1945. LST-860 het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geen gevegsoperasies uitgevoer nie. Sy is op 1 Junie 1946 ontmantel en op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys verwyder. Op 19 Maart 1948 is die tenklandingsskip aan die Mechanical Equipment Export Co. verkoop vir operasie.

LST - 861

LST - 861 is op 18 September 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Ma chine Co .; op 4 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur juffrou Frances K. Gadjen; en in opdrag van 30 November 1944. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-861 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Mei en Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het LST-861 besettingsplig uitgevoer in die Verre Ooste tot middel Maart 1946. Sy het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is op 10 Maart 1947 uit diens geneem en op 4 April dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys verwyder. Op 10 Junie 1948 is die skip verkoop aan Kaiser Co., Inc., Seattle, Wash., En daarna geskrap. LST-861 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-862

LST-862 is op 26 September 1944 by Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. op 9 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur juffrou Angela Tolkacz; en in opdrag op 4 Desember 1944, luitenant R. N. Moffett, USNR, in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-862 in die teater Asiatic-Pacific aangestel en het deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy beroep in die Verre Ooste verrig en diens in China gesien tot middel April 1946. Die tenklandingsskip is vroeg in 1946 ontmantel en op 10 Oktober 1947 na die Maritieme Administrasie oorgeplaas. LST-862 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-863

LST-863 is op 11 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. op 14 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Eva L. Nolan; en in opdrag van 9 Desember 1944. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-863 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het hy van April tot Junie deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto. 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot middel Januarie 1946 in die Verre Ooste besetting verrig. Die skip het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is op 19 Junie 1946 ontmantel en op 31 Julie dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 13 Mei 1948 is sy verkoop aan Hughes Bros., Inc., en daarna geskrap. LST-863 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-864

LST-864 is op 3 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co. op 18 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Viola J. Wathen; en in opdrag van 13 Desember 1944. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-864 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy besettings in die Verre verrig Oos en sien diens in China tot middel Januarie 1947. Sy keer terug na die Verenigde State en word op 1 Mei 1947 uit diens geneem en op 22 Mei dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 26 Junie 1948 is die skip verkoop aan Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., En daarna geskrap. LST-864 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 865

LST - 865 is op 19 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co .; op 22 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Monetta S. Brendel; en in opdrag van 16 Desember 1944. Na die oorlog het LST-865 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig en diens in China gesien tot middel Desember 1947. Sy is op 30 Desember 1947 uit diens geneem en is dieselfde dag na die Filippynse vloot oorgeplaas waar gedien as Albay (LT-39). Die skip is op 22 Januarie 1948 uit die vlootlys geslaan.

LST - 866

LST - 866 is op 14 Oktober 1944 by Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co .; op 27 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Nellie Meehan; en in opdrag van 21 Desember 1944. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-866 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het in Junie 1945 deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto. het diens gedoen in China tot vroeg in April 1946. Die skip het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is op 27 Junie 1946 uit diens geneem en op 31 Julie dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 25 September 1947 is sy verkoop aan Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Wash., En daarna geskrap. LST-866 het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 867

LST - 867 is op 23 Oktober 1944 by Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co .; op 1 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Kathryn V. Wise; en in opdrag van 18 Desember 1944 het Ens. V. Lopresti in bevel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-867 tot in Maart 1946 besettings in die Verre Ooste uitgevoer. Op 25 September 1947 is die skip aan Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Washington, verkoop en daarna geskrap.

LST - 868

LST - 868 is op 31 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 6 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. Beatrice C. Hanley; en in opdrag van 30 Desember 1944. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-868 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1945. LST-868 keer terug na die Verenigde State en word op 9 Augustus 1946 en op 10 Junie 1947 uit die vlootlys geslaan. Op 19 Desember 1947 is die skip aan die Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, Pa, verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-868 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 869

LST - 869 is op 27 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 11 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Janie G. Ray; en in opdrag op 6 Januarie 1945, luitenant (jg.) E. Malloy in bevel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-869 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig en diens tot in die middel van April 1946 in China gesien. jaar. Op 26 Desember 1947 is die skip vir operasie aan Pablo N. Ferrari & Co. verkoop.

LST-870

LST - 870 is op 4 Oktober 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 15 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Opal M. Burke; en in opdrag van 10 Januarie 1945. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-870 tot in Februarie 1946 besettings in die Verre Ooste uitgevoer. jaar. Op 29 Augustus 1947 is die skip aan Consolidated Builders, Inc., Seattle, Washington, verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-87-1 LST-871 is op 9 November 1944 neergelê in Jeffersonville, Ind., Deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 20 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; en in gebruik geneem op 18 Januarie 1945. LST-871 is herontwerp LSTH-871 op 15 September 1945. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LSTH-871 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig tot vroeg in Mei 1946. Sy het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State en is uit diens geneem op 4 Oktober 1946 en op 13 November dieselfde jaar van die Navy -lys geslaan. Op 30 Junie 1948 is die skip aan die Humble Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Texas, verkoop vir operasie.

LST-872

LST - 872 is op 18 November 1944 by Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 28 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. Carrie 1. Morris; en in opdrag op 22 Januarie 1945. LST-872 het geen gevegsdiens by die Amerikaanse vloot verrig nie en is op 8 Julie 1946 uit diens geneem en op 15 Augustus dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 27 Oktober 1947 is sy vir operasie aan die Northwest Merchandising Service verkoop.

LST-873

LST - 873 is op 14 November 1944 in Jeffersonville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co .; op 3 Januarie 1945 gelanseer; geborg deur juffrou Florence A. Babb; en in opdrag op 27 Januarie 1945, luitenant Ned S. Holley in bevel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-873 tot middel Februarie 1946 besettings in die Verre Ooste uitgevoer. Op 20 Mei 1948 is die skip verkoop aan Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., Vir sloop.

LST-874

LST - 874 is op 16 Oktober 1944 in Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 25 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Ernest B. Rainey; en in opdrag van 18 Desember 1944. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-874 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy besettings in die Verre verrig Oos tot vroeg in Januarie 1946. LST-874 keer terug na die Verenigde State en word op 29 Mei 1946 ontmantel en op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 8 Junie 1948 is die skip vir operasie aan Donald P. Loker verkoop. LST-874 verdien 'n gevegster vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 875

LST - 875 is op 18 Oktober 1944 in Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. op 29 November 1944 gelanseer; geborg deur mev Karl R. Zimmermann; en in opdrag op 22 Desember 1944, luitenant Euliss in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-875 in die teater Asiaties-Stille Oseaan aangestel en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Mei en Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot middel September 1945 in die Verre Ooste besetting verrig. Sy is op 22 April 1946 ontmantel en op dieselfde datum op 19 Julie van die vlootlys verwyder. Op 2 Julie 1948 is die skip oorgeplaas na die Filippynse vloot, waar sy as Misamis Oriental gedien het (LT-40). LST-875 verdien een gevegster vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 876

LST - 876 is op 21 Oktober 1944 by Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 2 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev John S. Shochmake; en in opdrag op 27 Desember 1944, luitenant John V. Quillan, Jr., USNR, in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-876 in die teater Asiatic-Pacific opgeneem en het in Mei en Junie 1945 deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto. lys op 31 Julie dieselfde jaar. Op 4 November 1947 is die skip aan W. Talbot verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-876 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 877

LST - 877 is op 25 Oktober 1944 in Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 6 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. L. Hardeman; en in opdrag op 1 Januarie 1945, luitenant George Lee Smith in bevel. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-877 in die teater Asiatic-Pacific aangestel en het deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1945. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 1 Mei 1946 ontmantel en van die vloot af geslaan. lys op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar. Op 15 Januarie 1948 is die skip vir operasie aan die California Co. verkoop. LST-877 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 878

LST - 878 is op 30 Oktober 1944 neergelê in Evansville, Ind., Deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 9 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Richard L. Moorehead; en in opdrag op 3 Januarie 1945, luitenant Laurence Lattomus, USNR, in bevel. Na die oorlog het LST-878 tot laat November 1945 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 3 Mei 1946 ontmantel en op 19 Julie dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys gesluit. Op 5 November 1947 is die tenklandingsskip verkoop aan Bosey, Filippyne.

LST-879

LST-879 is op 2 November 1944 neergelê in Evansville, Ind., Deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 13 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; van stapel gestuur deur mev. Rella G. Heath; en in opdrag op 5 Januarie 1945. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-879 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy besettings in die Verre verrig Oos tot middel November 1945. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 26 Junie 1946 uit diens gestel en op 25 September dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 17 Mei 1948 is die skip aan die Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa, verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-879 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-880

LST-880 is op 6 November 1944 neergelê in Evansville, Ind., Deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 16 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. H. Quigley; en in opdrag op 9 Januarie 1945, luitenant (jg.) James T. Connolly in bevel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-880 tot in Desember 1945 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig. Sy is op 1 Oktober 1946 uit diens geneem en na die Atlantiese Reserwe-vloot in Green Cove Springs, Florida, heraangestel, weer op 20 Augustus 1951, LST-880. gedien by die Atlantiese Vloot, insluitend besetting in Europa, van Junie tot November 1952. Op 1 Julie 1955 is die skip herontwerp Lake County (LST-880) (qv) na graafskappe in 12 state. Sy is op 25 November 1958 uit diens gestel. Ongeskik verklaar vir verdere diens, Lake County is as 'n teikenskip vir vernietiging gebruik.

LST-881

LST-881 is op 10 November 1944 by Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 20 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur juffrou Pat Shobe; en in opdrag van 15 Januarie 1945. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-881 besetting in die Verre Ooste tot laat September 1945 uitgevoer. dieselfde jaar. Op 24 November 1947 is die skip vir operasie aan E. G. Fontes & Co. verkoop.

LST-882

LST-882 is op 14 November 1944 by Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 23 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev John R. Brown; en in opdrag van 18 Januarie 1945. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het LST-882 tot vroeg in Maart 1946 besettings in die Verre Ooste uitgevoer. dieselfde jaar. Op 4 November 1947 is die skip aan die Moore Drydock Co., Oakland, Kalifornië, verkoop om dit te skrap.

LST - 883

LST - 883 is op 16 November 1944 by Evansville, Ind., Neergelê deur die Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co .; op 30 Desember 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. D. McBride; en in opdrag van 23 Januarie 1945, luitenant Winfield H. Cook in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-883 in die teater Asiaties-Stille Oseaan aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Junie 1945. Sy is op 20 April 1946 ontmantel en na die weermag oorgeplaas. Op 1 Julie 1950 is LST-883 weer in diens geneem tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy herontwerp in La Moure County (LST-883) (q.v.) na 'n provinsie in Noord-Dakota. La Moure County, wat na die oorlog saam met die Stille Oseaan -vloot was, is weer opgehef. Die skip is op 1 Julie 1960 van die vlootlys afgestuur en is op 30 November 1960 verkoop aan Zidell Explorations Corp., Portland, Oreg. LST-883 verdien een gevegster vir diens tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en sewe gevegsterre vir die Koreaanse Oorlog.

LST - 884

LST - 884 is op 23 Julie 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 30 September 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Michael Durkin; en in opdrag van 10 Oktober 1944. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-884 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Iwo Jima in Februarie 1945 en die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Sy was ontmantel op 16 Februarie 1946. As gevolg van groot skade as gevolg van 'n kamikaze-aanval op 1 April 1945, is LST-884 se hulk op 6 Mei 1946 gesink. Die skip is op 21 Mei 1946 van die vlootlys geslaan. LST-884 verdien twee gevegte sterre vir die Tweede Wêreldoorlog diens.

LST - 885

LST - 885 is op 13 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 23 September 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. Alvin H. Tutt; en in opdrag van 26 Oktober 1944. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-885 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Maart en April 1945. Na die oorlog het sy besettings in die Verre verrig Oos tot laat in November 1945. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 29 April 1946 uit diens geneem en op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar uit die vlootlys geslaan. Op 16 Desember 1947 is die skip aan die Tex-O-Kan Flour Mills Co., Dallas, Tex. Verkoop vir operasie. LST-885 het een gevegster verdien vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 886

LST - 886 is op 20 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 30 September 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. C. S. Hamilton; en in opdrag van 2 November 1944. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-886 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het hy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Iwo Jima in Maart 1945 en die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in April 1945. Na aanleiding van die Oorlog het sy tot middel November 1945 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 10 Mei 1946 uit diens geneem en op dieselfde jaar op 19 Junie van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 20 Mei 1948 is die skip verkoop aan Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Wash., Vir sloop. LST-886 verdien twee gevegsterre vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-887

LST-887 is op 27 Augustus 1944 in Pittsburgh, Pa, neergelê deur die Dravo Corp .; op 7 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. F. Conroy; en in opdrag van 7 November 1944, Lt. Loring 0. Chandler, USCGR, in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-887 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot laat Oktober 1945 beroep in die Verre Ooste verrig. Die skip is op 23 Julie 1946 ontmantel en aan die Pacific Reserve Fleet gestuur. Op 3 November 1950 is LST-887 weer in gebruik geneem tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog en daarna met die Stille Oseaan-vloot. Op 1 Julie 1955 is sy hernoem na Lawrence County (LST-887) (q.v.) na graafskappe in 11 state van die Verenigde State. Lawrence County is op 22 Maart 1960 weer uit diens gestel en is op 1 November 1960 van die vlootlys verwyder en aan die Indonesiese vloot verkoop, waar sy as Tandjung Nusanixe (LST-1) gedien het. LST-887 verdien een gevegster vir diens tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en drie vir die Koreaanse Oorlog.

LST-888

LST-888 is op 11 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 14 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev. Richard Connell; en in opdrag van 13 November 1944, luitenant Walter V. Harlin in bevel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-888 in die teater Asiaties-Stille Oseaan aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van Maart tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot in April 1946 in die Verre Ooste besettingsplig verrig. Met haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 2 September ontmantel en na die Atlantic Reserve Fleet in Green Cove Springs, Fla. Op 1 Julie 1955 is LST-888 herontwerp Lee County (LST-888) (qv) na graafskappe in 12 state van die Verenigde State. Die skip, wat op 21 September 1960 van die vlootlys afgehaal is, is op 18 April 1961 verkoop aan die vernietiging van Gulf Tampa Drydock, Inc., Tampa, Fla. LST-888 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-889

LST-889 is op 3 September 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 14 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Sylvester Hohl; en in opdrag van 18 November 1944, luitenant Lon Hocker, Jr., USNR, in bevel. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-889 in die teater Asiatic-Pacific aangestel en het deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot in Desember 1945 besettings in die Verre Ooste verrig. Toe sy terugkeer na die Verenigde State, is sy op 28 Mei 1946 uit diens gestel en op dieselfde tyd op 19 Julie van die vlootlys gesluit. Op 13 Februarie 1948 is die skip verkoop aan Bosey, Filippyne. LST-889 het een gevegster verdien vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST-890

LST-890 is op 10 September 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 21 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev Andrew Hetherington; en in opdrag van 24 November 1944. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is LST-890 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy besettings in die Verre verrig Oos tot middel Oktober 1945. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 24 Mei 1946 uit diens geneem en op 3 Julie dieselfde jaar uit die vlootlys geslaan. Op 10 Junie 1948 is die skip aan Kaiser Co., Inc., Vancouver, Washington, verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-390 verdien een gevegster vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 891

LST - 891 is op 21 Augustus 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 28 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur juffrou Edyth Cole; en in opdrag op 27 November 1944, luitenant James F. Brown in bevel. Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-891 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanval en besetting van Okinawa Gunto in Mei 1945. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 2 Julie 1946 ontmantel en van die vloot geslaan. lys op 31 Julie dieselfde jaar. LST-891 verdien een gevegster vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 892

LST - 892 is op 17 September 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 28 Oktober 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev P. Bowman; en in opdrag van 30 November 1944, luitenant W. Miller in bevel. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is LST-892 in die Asiatiese-Stille Oseaan-teater aangewys en het sy deelgeneem aan die aanranding en besetting van Okinawa Gunto van April tot Junie 1945. Na die oorlog het sy tot middel Februarie 1946 in die Verre Ooste besetting verrig. By haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State is sy op 5 Julie 1946 buite gebruik gestel en op 28 Augustus dieselfde jaar van die vlootlys geslaan. Op 27 Oktober 1947 is die skip aan die Moore Dry Dock Co., Oakland, Kalifornië, verkoop om dit te skrap. LST-892 verdien een gevegster vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

LST - 893

LST - 893 is op 24 September 1944 neergelê in Pittsburgh, Pa, deur die Dravo Corp .; op 4 November 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev John Schutt; and commissioned on 4 December 1944. Following World War II, LST-893 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early December 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 8 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June that same year. On 29 May 1948, the ship was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-894 LST-894 was laid down on 4 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 11 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Robert C. Norris; and commissioned on 12 December 1944, Lt. Wood in command. During World War II, LST-894 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April and May 1945. The ship was decommissioned on 29 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 July that same year. On 5 December 1947, she was sold to Bosey, Philippines. LST-894 earned one battle star for World War II service. LST-895 LST-895 was laid down on I October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 11 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Frank Brooks; and commissioned on 16 December 1944. During World War 11, LST-895 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 17 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 12 March 1948. On 10 January 1952, the ship was, sold to Babbidge & Holt Co., Inc., Portland, Oreg. LST-895 earned one battle star for World War II service. LST-896 LST-896 was laid down on 6 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 18 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Russell D. Strouse; and commissioned on 20 December 1944, Lt. Vinton C. Vint in command. Following World War 11, LST-896 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early December 1945. She was decommissioned on 3 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 3 January 1946. Her typhoon-damaged hulk was destroyed on 8 March 1946.

LST - 897

LST - 897 was laid down on 19 September 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 25 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Henry B. Taliaferro; and commissioned on 22 December 1944, Lt. Peter K. Peterson, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-897 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until mid-March 1946. The ship returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 23 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 August that same year. On 15 June 1948, the tank landing ship was sold to Steel Powers for operation. LST-897 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 898

LST - 898 was laid down on 15 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 25 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. B. Mahwhinney; and commissioned on 29 December 1944, Lt. Kallock in command. During World War II, LST-898 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-March 1946. The ship was decommissioned on 9 May 1946 and transferred to the Army. Recommissioned on 28 August 1950, LST-898 performed extensive service during the Korean War and with the Pacific Fleet thereafter. On I July 1955, she was redesignated Lincoln County (LST-898) (q.v.) after counties in 24 states of the United States. Decommissioned again on 24 March 1961, Lincoln County was transferred to the Royal Thai Navy on 31 August 1962 where she served as Cheng (LST-2). LST-898 earned one battle star for World War 11 service and six for the Korean War.

LST - 899

LST - 899 was laid down on 22 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 2 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Trevorrow; and commissioned on 1 January 1945, Lt. Thornton in command. Following World War II, LST-899 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until early April 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 15 July 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 15 August that same year. On 5 December 1947, the ship was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping.

LST - 900

LST - 900 was laid down on 1 October 1944 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by the Dravo Corp.; launched on 9 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Felix R. Konkle; and commissioned on 6 January 1945, Lt. Neil A. McClaflin in command. During World War II, LST-900 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early November 1945. The ship was decommissioned on 15 May 1946 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Linn County (LST-900) (q.v.) after counties in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Oregon. The tank landing ship was transferred to the Republic of Korea on 2 December 1958 where she served as Puk Han (LST-815). Linn County was struck from the Navy list on 6 February 1959. LST-900 earned one battle star for World War II service.


Embroidery: A 900-year history that deserves to be told

A beautiful and intricate method of embellishing fabric, as well as a symbol of luxury and wealth, embroidery is a old art form of decorating clothing, bedding, and household goods with needle and thread.

Recently-found remains of hand-stitched and decorated clothing, boots, and hats show that embroidery was used by Cro-Magnons back in 30,000 BC. Examples of hand embroidery have been found in Siberia and China as well, dating from between 5,000 and 3,500 BC.

The art of embroidery up close. Photo credit

The art of embroidery was also popular in the time of Ancient Egypt when women decorated clothing using metallic threads. The opening of the tomb of the famous Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen revealed one of the oldest surviving examples of embroidery.

Embroidered piece with vivid threads by the Gurjars who live in India and Pakistan. Photo credit

The Orient and the Middle East are believed to be the cradle of embroidery and most of the needlework arts. It did not take long before ancient humans realized that the stitches used to join animal skins could also be used for embellishment. The trend of wearing thread-embroidered clothing soon spread among Babylonians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews, who furthered this artisanal craft.

Examples of embroidery found on Peruvian mummies, on Coptic pieces in Egypt, and at various sites in Central Asia prove that embroidery was already evolving in the first century AD. A wide range of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese embroideries and occasional groups of early medieval embroideries in Europe are among the surviving examples dating from the 8 th –10 th centuries AD.

Traditional Japanese embroidery on a festival cart. Photo credit

The world-famous Bayeux Tapestry is the oldest piece of embroidery, dating circa 1066. This 70-meter long tapestry is actually an embroidered composition recalling the Norman Conquest of England. Given its size and the fact that it is made up of several pieces, with differently joined borders, it is speculated that it took more than 100 people several years to complete the chef d’oeuvre, which today still hangs in the town of Bayeux in Normandy.

Sections of the 1066 medieval Bayeux Tapestry, re-created in Geraldine, New Zealand

Numerous collections throughout the world dating back to the twelfth century prove that the art of embroidery gained popularity in medieval times. The existence of embroiderers’ guilds in Europe as early as the Middle Ages indicates the importance that the long tradition of embroidery had in terms of both professional and amateur production. High-quality work was done in convents, particularly in Italy and France, the church being one of the most important customers for excellent embroidery. Embroidered pieces embellished all of the textiles used in the liturgy, and smaller seed pearls and beads sewn on vellum decorated religious items and clothing.

Embroidery was a highly appreciated craft by the church and used to decorate religious items and clothing. Photo credit

Another immensely popular type of embroidery at the time was canvas needlework, produced by both professionals and amateurs. At home, needlework was considered an essential skill of every well-bred young woman. Samplers were therefore produced, enabling women to acquire the art necessary to decorate clothing and mend linens. By the middle of the 14 th century, however, the craze for needle and the thread disappeared as both design and workmanship declined.

Every well-bred young girl had to possess canvas needlework skills. Photo credit

Pattern books specifically intended to provide models for embroidery and lace appeared as early as the 16 th century. While most of them were simply collections of black and white printed designs, more ambitious publications included hand-colored plates or even embroidery samples. Not only the style changed from the ecclesiastical to the secular, but also new materials and designs reached the European soil as the Age of Sail began. A ground made of linen, silk, or satin and sometimes even velvet or leather was embroidered in various colored wools or silks, often outlined in a golden or silver thread, bringing to life flowers, fruits, animals, birds, and insects. The charming patterns led to exaggerated and grotesque designs, giving way to poorer standards of taste, workmanship, and originality.

An embroidered bookbinding (England, 16th century)

The lace that embellished collars, sock, and gloves for the first time in the 17 th century was one of the most important innovations in the fashion industry. However, the 18th century marked a turning point when embroidery became the highlight of fashion in France.

Lace was one of the most important innovations in the fashion industry. Photo credit

Known for extraordinary patterns, colorful as well as metallic and silk yarns and idyllic scenes, embroidered fashion soon became immensely popular in the everyday life of men, women, and children throughout the entire continent. These years also saw the heyday of buttons, which men favored to express their style. However, they became quite expensive due to their embellishment with precious stones and pearls. Quilting became another popular needlework technique.

A quilt illustrating Biblical motifs

Mothers taught their daughters to stitch and sew the samplers done were passed down for generations or sold at auctions for fantastic amounts. As the century went by, embroidery was more considered as a decoration rather than a symbol of status since it was applied everywhere. The growth of trade with China and the Far East refreshed embroidery designs, introducing birds with wonderful plumage and elegant flowers alongside the traditional European forms. Besides the church, the nobility was a major customer for high-quality embroidery, which during Neoclassicism was applied on lighter and softer foundations such as silk crepe, cotton, and linen muslins. The embellishment of garments, furnishings, and decorations for everyday use and special occasions was often trusted to individual designers and embroiderers who worked at the court or in noble households.

A mid-eighteenth century English sampler in monochrome, by Elizabeth Laidman.

So-called white embroidery appeared in the early 19 th century. White threads stitched on white fabric underlined the freshness, pureness, and youth of the female figure. For the first time, the arms were naked and the feet were bare, and the breast was shown in its natural shape. From 1830, fashion changed again, modifying the silhouette of the body as fabrics became heavier, decorated and printed. Samplers became popular once again, followed by the fashion for wool-work pictures. The development of sewing techniques led to the craze for artisan needlework and Berlin wool-work, which waned in popularity around the 1870s when counted cross-stitch appeared on the scene.

Woman’s Purse c. 1840. Cotton canvas with wool needlepoint (Berlin work), Europe.

Embroidered and ribbon-decorated corsets became vogue in the second half of the 19 th century. Embroidery shops sprouted like mushrooms at the very end of the century, with women completing delicate stitches by hand. These shops were further mechanized when the first embroidery machine came along in 1880. Switzerland soon became the forerunner in embroidery design and technology, followed by the United States and numerous shops based in New York City and Chicago.

A piece of excellent embroidery. Christian Dior at a Moscow exhibition. Photo credit

The idea of high fashion illuminated the beginning of the 20 th century, introducing the art of embroidery into the world of couture. Embroidery styles have changed over and over again ever since, but embroidery stitches and techniques have remained the same. Thanks to technological advances, embroidery is nowadays a computerized process of decorating, mimicking the elaborate handcraft of the past, but no less elegant, sophisticated or sought-after.


BMW F 850 GS Adventure

BMW has long had a stranglehold on the large displacement adventure bike category with bikes like the venerable R 80/100/1100/1200/1250 GS’s. Heck, some would argue BMW started the whole thing. And although the big Boxers generate more sales for the company, BMW (and KTM, for that matter) has been a player in the middleweight adventure game since the 1990s. BMW’s first Single cylinder 650 “Funduro” made it stateside in 1997, the same year KTM introduced its 640 Adventure model.

Fun fact: The first BMW F650 was designed by BMW and Aprilia jointly. Aprilia manufactured the bike in Italy with an Austrian Rotax 652cc Single engine. Remember when we could all just get along?

BMW’s middleweight adventure bike line was originally made up of the Single 650s mentioned above before the 700 and 800, now 750 and 850, Twins eventually graced dealership floors. This latest iteration of F 850 GS is powered by an 853cc parallel Twin engine that, according to our official MO dyno, cranks out 80.5 hp at 9,660 rpm and 50.6 lb-ft of torque at 7,430 rpm. The motor makes smooth power all the way up to the rev limiter. Smooth, that’s a good descriptor for the F 850 GS Adventure.

Despite the 21/17-inch wheel combo, the BMW handles nicely on road. Also of note, “off-road tires” are a no cost option for the F 850 GSA.

For $1,100 more, the Adventure model gets increased fuel capacity from 4.0 to 6.1 gallons, an extra inch of travel in the front fork, a two-way adjustable windscreen that, in conjunction with the absolutely bulbous front end, provides the most wind protection out of our trio, three seat options (rally, double, or low), engine crash bars, and a rear luggage mount. As for ride modes, cruise control, ESA, and other acronyms and niceties, those are still all upgraded through the same Essential ($550), Select ($1,550), and Premium ($2,250) packages available to the standard F 850 GS. In order, to get the F 850 GS Adventure close to the same level with all of the features found on the Triumph Tiger 900 Rally Pro, one would have to opt for the Premium package which, in addition to things like ride modes Pro, cruise control, quickshifter, TPMS, and heated grips, BMW gives the option of low suspension or its Dynamic ESA (Electronic Suspension Adjustment) – which applies only to the shock, the 43mm fork remains non-adjustable. So, to really compare apples to apples, the F 850 GSA would be ringing up for $17,540 to bring it on par with the Tiger 900 Rally Pro in terms of features.

Although the Tiger 900 uses the same technology, BMW first introduced a TFT screen mated to the outer glass which provides a very vivid display in any condition.

Alas, I think we had the (mis?)fortune to test one of the few nearly base models that BMW decided to import into the US. I’ve been told at many a BMW press introduction that BMW NA generally doesn’t plan to bring many base model GS’s stateside because their customers usually want features included in one of the three packages offered. Hey, we all have to make money somehow.

Not a lot of off-road protection going on on the underside of the F 850 GS Adventure.

But what’s it like to ride back to back with the other two middleweights in this comparo? Let’s bring it back to the word smooth. On the freeway, at 80-plus, the F 850 GS Adventure rides like a ’60s Cadillac, complete with that boat-like floaty feel as the plush suspension eats up road imperfections before they ever make their way through the cush seat to your backside. With a 5’8” rider, the BMW’s rider triangle is nearly perfect while pounding out the miles, if only for the footpegs to seem slightly high after jumping off of the KTM or Triumph. The monstrous front end – which is almost entirely made up of plastic without much fuel tank or anything else essential behind it – coupled with the adjustable windscreen, does a fantastic job of punching a train-sized hole in space giving the rider the most wind/weather protection of the three bikes tested.

Guest tester and former MOron, Tommy “Guns” Roderick concurred, “The BMW is comfy with the best wind protection of the three. Part of this stems from the bike’s ultra-wide styling. Sharing a family resemblance with its larger sibling the R1200GS Adventure is one thing, but the girth of this middleweight motorcycle is enough to make a GoldWing blush.”

And then we took it off-road…

It’ll fly, especially with Eric Bostrom on its back. It’s the landing you need to worry about.

I’ll let Tom reveal the 552 lb elephant in the room: “The GS is the heaviest of the group by a lot, and you can feel every pound of extra weight when the riding gets dirty. Even when adjusting for the extra gallon of fuel it carries, the BMW is 85 pounds heavier than the KTM. On the bright side, it carries its weight well, or as well as it can considering its too-soft suspension, so that helps.”

Tom’s spot on. The BMW’s weak point is its suspension. Like I mentioned previously, we tested a mostly stock 850 GSA which has a 43mm non-adjustable fork and a standard shock adjustable for preload via a remote handwheel and rebound. Although the Adventure model gains an additional inch of travel from the fork, it blows through the stroke so quickly it hardly matters. Unfortunately, this wasn’t only a problem when our ace-in-the-hole guest tester, AMA Supersport and dirt track champ, Eric Bostrom was ripping the 850 off-road. The Beemer suffered the same issues when trying to unwind a tight set of curves on the asphalt too.

After one of Eric Bostrom’s final jumps on BMW he joked, “they probably felt the shockwave in Ridgecrest”.

When Eric pulled in from his final photo pass on the BMW after flogging the Triumph and KTM for the camera, the first thing out of his mouth was, “This thing is actually hazardous to your health.” To be fair, Eric later admitted he may have been a bit harsh on the F 850, but he’s not totally out of line. If you plan to do serious off-roading on your middleweight adventure bike, the BMW F 850 GS Adventure simply isn’t the bike to do it with. If your plan is to pound out the miles on pavement and graded fire roads, and you’re okay keeping the pace slow and steady once the going gets tricky, the 850 GSA will fit the bill just fine. Plus, you’ll be able to go some 270 miles between fill ups.

“Besides Eric Bostrom riding the hell outta this thing in the dirt, I fail to see how this motorcycle really qualifies as an adventure bike. Sure, it has a 6.1-gallon fuel tank for making it further down the road compared to the other two in this shootout, but its suspension is too soft for any type of riding outside of smooth freeway cruising. Rubbing salt in the wound is the non-adjustable attribute of the fork.” –Thomas J. Roderick


9th Century, 801 to 900

803 The war against the Ainu ends. The emperor, Kammu, has left court-appointed aristocrats as leaders of his army, and an aristocrat, Sakanoue Tamuramaro, has emerged as a war hero and the first person with the title of Shogun.

807 The Abbasid caliph, Harun al Rashid, decress that Baghdad Jews are wear a yellow badge and Christians are to wear a blue badge.

813 The new Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, son of al Rashid, Abdallah al-Mamun, sends people to Constantinople's empire to collect scientific works by ancient Greeks.

825 The kingdom of Wessex wins in war and becomes the dominate power in England.

826 In China, the Tang Dynasty limps along politically. A reckless teenager, Jingzong, has inherited the throne &ndash the second emperor in five years. In the eyes of court eunuchs he has filled the court with incompetent persons, and they have him assassinated.

834 In Norway, two women are buried in a Viking ship. In the year 2008 it will be called the Oseberg ship. One of the women will be described as "upper class" and her skeleton indicating that she had led a hard life. The older woman, in her 70s and perhaps over 80, has cancerous tumors in her bones, perhaps having spread there from breast or uterine cancer.

840 Eunichs in China have chosen Wuzong (age 36) as emperor, and while doing so they murder two rivals to the throne and the mothers of these contenders.

841 In Scandinavia and increase in population has inspired people called Vikings or Norsemen to venture out in longboats. This year, give or take a year or so, Vikings land and build a settlement on the south bank of the River Liffey, founding what will eventually be the city of Dublin.

843 Buddhism, imported from India, has grown in China. Wuzong is an ardent Taoist, and he begins a campaign that will close Buddhist shrines and temples, return Buddhist monks and nuns to lay life and confiscate millions of acres of Buddhist land. Buddhism in China is to survive but never fully recover, while its rival, Confucianism, enjoys a renewed intellectual life.

845 Vikings journeying up the Seine River and arriving at Paris in search of loot are bribed not to attack.

850 A Muslim scholar in Baghdad, al Kindi, is using translations of Aristotle &ndash unavailable in Western Europe &ndash to create a neoplatonic school of Islamic thought.

850 Gunpowder is described in a Taoist book of alchemy, the "Classified Essentials of the Mysterious Dao of the True Origin of Things."

858 In Japan, the Nakatomi family has changed its name to Fujiwara. Fujiwara women have married into the royal Yamato family and they have given birth to Yamato emperors. The Fujiwara family runs the government and their taking power is described as having begun &ndash a power that the Fujiwara family is to keep for three centuries.

858 Christian missionaries develop the Cyrillic alphabet from written Greek &ndash an alphabet that in modern times is used in Russian, Serbian, Bulgarian and other languages.

860 Vikings have attacked at Constantinople. A new phase in Scandinavian (Viking) aggression has begun. Encouraged by former successes, the Scandinavians are beginning to attack in greater number.

861 Vikings voyage up the river Seine and attack at Paris, up the Rhine to Cologne, and they attack at Aix-la-Chapelle.

862 Vikings have reported that land is more available abroad. Their growth in population has eliminated the availability of land at home. Moving from more densely populated areas, Scandinavians have begun moving to less densely populated areas and settling down. Rurik of Scandinavia has established a dynasty at Novgorod.

865 In England, an Army of Danes has overthrown the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.

868 Someone in China produces a book of pages and paper.

869 The last writing on a stele in the major Maya city of Tikal is dated as 869.

870 A Sufi, Tayfur Abu Yazid al-Bistami (Bayazid), has been spreading his wisdom. A change has been taking place in Islam, as religion had when the Roman Empire was disintegrating. Muslims are no longer looking with hope to a god that is a glorious conqueror. Instead they are looking for a sense of well-being through a personal relationship with Allah. The Sufi movement is bringing Allah down from his heights and sees Him as a loving friend &ndash the way Christians saw Jesus.

874 Vikings settle in Iceland.

899 The Maya city Tikal is abandoned. Other Mayan cities in the surrounding lowland area are collapsed while some cities in the northern Yucatan Peninsula continue to thrive. (map)

899 King Alfred the Great of Wessex has rallied England against Viking attacks. Vikings are settled and remain in Northumbria and East Anglia while a Viking army has sailed back to the continent.

900 For sometime the horse collar has been spreading in Europe, invented more than 1000 years earlier in China. The collar prevents choking a horse, ignored by Roman farmers. The collar allows a horse to pull heavier loads, needed for pulling plows in Europe's heavy soils.

900 By now a Muslim trading settlement has been established on the coast at Zeila, on the northern Somali coast, about 150 miles south of the mouth of the Red Sea.


Cahokia Sprawled Over Five Square Miles

Like cities in other parts of the world, Cahokia, which sprawled over an area of about five square miles, developed in a highly desirable spot. The settlement was situated along a flood plain that provided fertile soil for agriculture, with nearby hickory forests to provide wood and other raw materials as well as wildlife to hunt, according to Lori Belknap, site manager for the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.

Cahokia also had convenient access to the nearby Mississippi River, which its residents𠅊 people known as the Mississippian culture—navigated in large dugout canoes. “It likely was a trading center,” Belknap says.

Like a modern city with suburbs, Cahokia’s outer edge was a residential area, consisting of houses made from sapling frames lined with clay walls and covered by prairie grass roofs. Further inside was a log palisade wall and guard towers, which protected a central ceremonial precinct of the site, including Monks Mound, the Grand Plaza and 17 other mounds. More than 100 mounds extended more than a mile outside the wall in all directions. Some served as bases for what probably were important community buildings, while other cone-shaped mounds functioned as burial sites. Still others apparently were markers that delineated the city’s boundaries, according to Belknap.

At the center was the 100-foot-tall Monks Mound, the largest earthen mound in North America, which had four terraces and a ramp or stairway leading up from the ground. From the top of the mound, one could take in a panoramic view of Cahokia and its surrounding realm.

One of the most remarkable things about Cahokia is that it appears to have been carefully planned around 1000 A.D., with a rectangular-shaped Grand Plaza whose core design mirrors the native vision of the cosmos, according to archaeologist Thomas Emerson. From the beginning, the city’s builders had “grandiose visions of what Cahokia would be,” Emerson explains. “It did not grow by slow accretion through time.”

The events that led to the deliberate building of Cahokia and the rapid growth of its population remain unclear. 𠇊 religious prophet? The immigration of a foreign elite group? The introduction of maize?” Emerson says. “The options seem endless, but we have few answers right now.”

Cahokia’s decline, which began around 1250 or 1300, and culminated in the site’s abandonment by 1350, are similarly mysterious. A recent study suggests the settlement’s demise was linked to climate change since a decrease in rainfall would have affected the Mississippians’ ability to grow their staple crop of maize. Others think that the sheer size and diversity of the Cahokian population may have led to irreconcilable rifts.

“It was a large population, composed of immigrants from the midcontinent who brought very different practices and beliefs to the city,” Emerson says. “The management of differences requires a strong social and political consensus within a group. If that consensus collapses, societies will fragment into their smaller groups that existed based on kinship, ethnicity, religious beliefs, residential propinquity, shared economic goals, etc.”


WHAT IS MY USED TREK WORTH? (If "PRICELESS!" is not sufficiently accurate for you.)

eBay.com is the best practical guide. It can tell you what similar bikes recently sold for on eBay. Try search/ advanced search/ check "completed items only". This way, you get the final prices paid. Search for words like "Trek road" with words to exclude "aluminum carbon". You also can search more specifically, such as for "Trek 400". You might need to try for a few weeks to find a bike similar to yours, if it is not a common model.

To compare a local sale to an eBay sale, you should add the cost of shipping to the eBay price. A low value bike can be hard to sell on eBay for top dollar if the bike is to be shipped, as that can add $50 or more to the price.

Craigslist.org can provide some information about current prices. However, these are asking prices, not the actual price for which the bike was sold. One can search by region on the Craigslist.org site. One can search for an item on Craigslist overall (not just by region). Use a search engine (Google or Yahoo etc.) and include "Craigslist" as the first keyword. Follow this by what you are looking for. For example "Craigslist Trek 760".

A very rough measure of current selling price is to multiply the original selling price by a percentage. See the price information above for prices of many Treks when new. For bikes 1976 to about 1983, one can use a range of 40% to 70% for a bike. For bikes from about 1984 to 1990, one can use 33% to 50% of the original selling price. This is for bikes with good to excellent paint and in good to excellent overall condition. Condition is very important. A bike in mint condition will sell well above these ranges, perhaps at or above the original price when new. A bike in poor condition, especially one with significant rust inside and out, has little value.

The percentage for selling frames is higher than for bikes because the frames are less outdated than old components. For frames 1976 to 1983, one can use a range of 40% to 100%. For frames from about 1984 to 1990, one can use 33% to 80% of the original selling price. This is for frames in good to excellent overall condition.

The bike values above are useful only if the potential buyer is a person who appreciates a vintage lightweight or specifically, a vintage Trek. A vintage road bike offered at a garage sale might never be sold, even for a ridiculously low price, because it is unlikely the right buyer will come along. See Selling Suggestions for help in finding the right buyer.

Value can vary by season. Road bikes typically sell for more money and more quickly in the Spring and early Summer. An exception is for local sales in regions that don't have cold or rainy Fall and Winter seasons. Another exception is high end collector bikes, which tend to be season independent.


Starting with TDM machines manufactured in 2001, Yamaha decided to upgrade the displacement of the parallel engine. Now sporting an 897cc displacement, the long-standing TDM only got better and a tad more powerful, bringing even more joy to the riders. The bike retained its dual-sport character, being an excellent commuter, but at the same time a very nifty tourer, especially when equipped wi.


Europe 750 CE

Medieval Europe is beginning to emerge from the wreckage of the Ancient World.

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What is happening in Europe in 750CE

Westelike Europa

The past two and a half centuries have seen the Franks come to rule most of modern-day France and much of Germany. Their kings are active supporters of the Catholic church and its leaders, the popes (based in Rome). The Franks will shortly intervene in Italy to safeguard a pope against his enemies, the Lombards.

In these areas of western Europe, urban life and culture is mostly a thing of the past. Economic life is now largely based on huge self-contained estates (the precursors of medieval “manors”) a class of warrior land-owners dominates society. Literacy and education is almost exclusively the preserve of the Christian clergy, and Graeco-Roman learning is preserved only in monasteries.

The frontiers of Europe

Pagan tribes still inhabit central, eastern and northern Europe. England is now divided amongst a group of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, with Celtic kingdoms to their north and west. Most of these have now converted to Christianity.

Spain has been conquered by the vast Muslim Caliphate. The Christians hang on only in the mountainous north.

The Byzantine empire

To the East, the Roman empire has also been battered by Muslim armies. Other enemies, pagan tribes from central Europe, have occupied most of the Balkans.

As a result of these attacks, the Roman empire (or Byzantine empire, as modern scholars call it) is now but a fraction of its former size. Internally, Byzantine society has also changed a great deal. The great cities of the past have now all but vanished, with Constantinople the only sizeable one left. Nevertheless, Graeco-Roman culture is still cherished, and (along with Christian teaching) remains the basis for the education of the upper classes.

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Europe in the Middle Ages (a PowerPoint bird’s eye view of a thousand years of history)

Medieval Europe 400 to 1000 CE (a more in-depth look at the early Middle Ages)


Ghana Empire flourishes ca. 850 AD. Rurik, Varagian chieftain and founder of the Rurik Dynasty becomes Prince of Novgorod in 862 AD. The Photian schism between the Eastern and Western Churches between 863-867 AD. Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized in 864 AD. The founder of the Macedonian dynasty, Basil I becomes Byzantine Emperor on September 23, 867 AD. Islamic philosopher and scientists Al-Kindi dies in 870 AD. Eastern part of the Carolingian Empire is partitioned between the three sons of Louis the German on his death on June 28, 876 AD. Western part of the Carolingian Empire fells into decline after death of Charles the Bald on October 6, 877 AD. King of Wessex, Alfred the Great defeats the Danes in the Battle of Ethandun in 878 AD. Oleg of Novgorod captures Kiev in 882 AD. King of East Francia, Charles the Fat unites the Carolingian Empire in 885 AD. Alfred the Great dies on October 26, 899 AD.

900 - 949 AD

A Norwegian Viking Gunnbjörn Ulfsson discovers Greenland ca. 900 AD. Collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization ca. 900 AD. The Hungarians defeat the Bavarian army under the command of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria in the Battle of Pressburg on July 5, 907 AD. The fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907 AD is followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The last Carolingian ruler of East Francia, Louis the Child dies on November 10, 911 AD. King of West Francia, Charles the Simple gives Normandy to the Viking leader Rollo as a fief. Gorm the Old becomes King of Denmark ca. 920 AD. Henry I the Fowler becomes King of Germany on May 15, 919 AD. Persian philosopher and physician Rhazes dies on October 27, 925 AD. Arab astronomer Al-Batani dies in 929 AD. Saint Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia is killed in a plot on September 29, 935 AD. Otto I is crowned King of Germany on August 8, 936 AD. Athelstan of England defeats the combined Norse-Celtic forces in the Battle of Brunanburh and claims the title king of all Britain in 937 AD.

950 - 999 AD

The first monasteries are built in the Mount Athos ca. 950 AD. Otto I decisively defeats the Hungarians in the Battle of Lechfeld on June 6, 955 AD. Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus dies on November 11, 959 AD. Danish king Harald "Bluetooth" is baptized ca. 960 AD. The Song Dynasty becomes the ruling dynasty in China ca. 960 AD. Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor on February 2, 962 AD. The first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I converts to Christianity in 966 AD. The Fatimids capture Egypt in 969 AD. The fist Nordic settlement in Greenland is founded by Eric the Red ca. 980 AD. Hugh Capet succeeds the last Carolingian ruler in West Francia and becomes the first King of France in July 3, 987 AD. Vladimir I of Kiev converts to Christianity in 988 AD. Otto III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Gregory V on June 21, 996 AD.


The Last Settlements

By the late 10th century, the Vikings have either been expelled or melted into the populations of Europe. The Vikings still have worlds to attempt to conquer: North Americas.

902: Dublin is decisively defeated and the Vikings are expelled from Ireland.

917: Vikings retake Dublin.

918–920: Lincoln falls to the English king Edward the Elder and Aethelflaed.

919: Exiled Irish-Viking king Ragnall takes York, and as a king of Northumbria, submits to King Edward of Essex.

920: Ragnall dies and is succeeded by Sitric, a dynastic Viking rule.

930–980: First Norse invaders in England become established as settlers

954: Eirik Bloodaxe dies and Vikings lose control of York.

959: Danelaw established.

980–1050: Newly established Norwegian and Danish kings launch attacks on England

985: Norse farmers led by Erik the Red settle Greenland, but the colony eventually fails, but only after 300 years.

1000: Leif Erikson finds North America and sets up a colony on Newfoundland, but the colony fails after 10 years.

1002–1008: The Laws of Edward and Guthrum are enacted in the Danelaw, the first time the term is used.

1014: Vikings defeated at Clontarf by Brian Boru.

1016: Danish King Cnut named king of England, Denmark, and Norway.

1035: Cnut dies.

September 25, 1066: Norman Harald Hardrada dies at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, the traditional end of the Viking Era.


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