Sulla se hervormings as diktator

Sulla se hervormings as diktator

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (l. 138 - 78 v.G.J.) het sy grondwetlike hervormings (81 v.C.) uitgevaardig as diktator om die Romeinse senaat se mag te versterk. Sulla is gebore in 'n baie onstuimige era van die geskiedenis van Rome, wat dikwels as die begin van die val van die Romeinse Republiek beskryf is. Die politieke klimaat is gekenmerk deur burgerlike onenigheid en hewige politieke geweld, waar stemming in die Vergadering soms deur gewapende bendes besleg is. Daar was twee primêre opponerende faksies in die Romeinse politiek: die Optimeer wat die leiding en prominente rol van die senaat beklemtoon het, en die Gewildheid wat oor die algemeen gepleit het vir die regte van die mense.

Gedurende hierdie era is die senatoriese mag ingeperk en is daar aansienlike vordering gemaak met die regte van die gewone mense, veral die magistraat van die tribune van die plebs, wat spesifiek geskep is om 'n beskermheer van die mense te wees. Sulla was 'n Optimeer en nadat hy aan bewind gekom het, verklaar hy homself as diktator en het hy verskeie hervormings aan die grondwet oorgedra om die senatoriese mag te laat herleef en te herstel tot wat dit eens was. Alhoewel sy hervormings nie lank geduur het nie, het sy nalatenskap die Romeinse politiek in die laaste jare van die Republiek baie beïnvloed totdat dit in 27 vC geval het.

Sulla en die Laat -Romeinse Republiek

Sulla is gebore in 'n ou patrisiërsfamilie en kon sy afkoms terugvoer na die oorspronklike senatore wat deur Romulus, die stigter van Rome, aangestel is. Deel van die cursus honorum, die onuitgesproke, maar aanvaarde loopbaanleer van die openbare amp, sou eers as 'n militêre offisier dien voordat hy vir 'n openbare amp kon wees. Sulla, by wyse van sy patrisierang, het militêre diens oorgeslaan en is verkies tot die junior landdros van kwestor in 108 vC. Hy het vinnig naam gemaak as 'n uitstekende bevelvoerder en onderhandelaar wat onder dien konsul Gaius Marius (l. 157 - 86 v.C.) - a Gewild wat 'n buitengewone vyf opeenvolgende konsulskappe bedien het tussen 104 - 100 vC - in die Jugurthine -oorlog (112 - 106 vC). 'N Meningsverskil tussen Marius en Sulla oor wie werklik verantwoordelik was vir Jugurtha se gevangenskap was die eerste saad van haat tussen die twee wat sou lei tot die eerste groot burgeroorlog van Rome.

Militêre sukses in die sosiale oorlog het Sulla uiters gewild in Rome gemaak en hom die konsulaat gegee.

Sulla is verkies praetor urbanus in 97 vC en was die volgende jaar goewerneur van die provinsie Cilicië in Klein -Asië. Die senaat het Sulla beveel om koning Ariobarzanes - 'n vriend van Rome - weer op die Cappadociaanse troon terug te sit omdat hy deur koning Mithridates VI van Pontus (r. 120-63 vC) wat sy seun as die Cappadociaanse koning wou insit, verdring is. Sulla was suksesvol en word selfs deur sy soldate geprys imperator, of seëvierende bevelvoerder.

In die Laat Republiek wou Italianers lankal Romeinse burgerskap en gelyke seggenskap oor politiek en mag hê. Die Romeine het die vermoë gehad om die Italianers met burgerskap te plaag, maar het nooit die volle afstand gedoen om 'n wet te aanvaar wat die Italianers gee wat hulle wou hê nie. Hierdie burgerlike onenigheid het 'n kritieke punt bereik in 91 VHJ, die begin van die Sosiale Oorlog, tussen Rome en Italianers wat uiteindelik in 89 VC burgerskap gekry het na groot ongevalle aan beide kante. Tydens die Sosiale Oorlog het Sulla onafhanklike bevel oor legioene in Suid -Italië gehad, waar hy die Italiaanse stad Pompeii beleër en suksesvol leërs probeer afweer het om Pompeii te help. Hy het dapper geveg en sy soldate het hom die Graskroon toegeken (corona graminea), die hoogste militêre eer. Hierdie militêre sukses het hom uiters gewild gemaak in Rome en het hom die konsulskap van 88 v.G.

Marius vs Sulla

Tydens sy konsulskap het hy oostelike bevel van die legioene gekry om koning Mithridates VI van Pontus, een van Rome se mees gedugte vyande, wat in die ooste verwoes het, te trotseer. Mithridates VI het 'n ryk bymekaargemaak en homself omring met bondgenote, en tydens Sulla se konsulsskap beveel hy alle stede in sy Asiatiese gebiede om alle Romeine en Italianers te vermoor. Nie eers vroue en kinders is gespaar nie. Maar voordat Sulla sy reis na die ooste kon onderneem en Mithridates VI kon verslaan, het Marius en sy bondgenoot, Sulpicius, gewapende bendes en 600 perderuiters as 'n lyfwag gebruik om die vergadering te oortuig om die oostelike bevel van Sulla te verwyder en dit te laat oordra aan Marius . Marius het toe twee militêre tribunes ontplooi om die bevel oor Sulla se leër te neem.

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In een van die deurslaggewende keerpunte in die geskiedenis van Rome, het Sulla toe nie 'n militêre toespraak vir sy soldate gehou nie, maar 'n politieke een, waarin hy sy 35.000 legioene opgewek en hulle oproer oor die onreg wat hy en hulle aangedoen is. Die ooste was bekend vir sy eindelose rykdom en Marius beroof hulle nou van die oorvloedige oostelike buit wat hulle sou gewees het. Sulla se roerende toespraak was suksesvol, en sy legioene was nou lojaal aan Sulla alleen. Toe Marius se tribunes uiteindelik opdaag, het Sulla se soldate hulle vermoor. Hulle het toe met hul opmars na Rome begin om dit wat met reg aan hulle behoort, terug te neem. Toe hy gevra is waarom hy soldate teen sy eie land sou optrek, het hy geantwoord: "om haar van tiranne te verlos". Sulla, die eerste persoon wat Rome verower het, het Marius en Sulpicius se optrede omgekeer en homself heringestel as konsul. Sulla en sy legioene het weer die gesogte oostelike bevel gehad en Marius moes noodgedwonge uit Rome vlug.

Terwyl Sulla in die Ooste was, was sy strategie om Mithridates VI se beheer oor Griekeland te verwyder, sodat hy in die winter van 87-86 vC Athene beleër het. Gedurende hierdie tyd hoor hy die nuus dat Marius en sy faksie teruggekeer het en Rome verower het, deur 'n dekreet uit te voer wat Sulla 'n vyand van die staat verklaar het. Marius sny toe geld uit Sulla se veldtog af, sodat hy die plaaslike Grieke moes belas om sy veldtog te finansier. Skielik, terug in Rome, sterf Marius aan longontsteking in 86 vC. Sulla het sy besigheid in die ooste voortgesit, uiteindelik Athene verower, die Slag van Chaeronea (86 v.C.) en die Slag van Orchomenus (85 v.C.) suksesvol gewen en Mithridates se teenwoordigheid oortuig en die Romeinse gesag in Griekeland heringestel. Daarna spandeer hy sy tyd om die provinsie Asië te vestig en te organiseer totdat hy uiteindelik in 83 vC na Italië terugkeer om Marius se faksie in Rome se eerste burgeroorlog te konfronteer.

Die senaat, sonder verset, was verplig om Sulla na te kom en aan te stel as diktator om wette te skep en die grondwet te skik.

Sulla en sy veteraanlegioene het deur Italië getrek en vyandelike legioene oorreed om na sy kant toe te gaan en diegene wat dit nie gedoen het nie, te verslaan. Hy het groot genade getoon deur mense en stede wat besluit het om van kant te verander, te vergewe. Toe hy egter as oorwinnaar in Rome kom, het hy die barmhartige persona afgeskud en (proscriptio) sy vyande. Die voorskrifte was tablette met die name van mense wat weens 'n oorwinning vermoor sou word en hul grond gekonfiskeer is. Uiteindelik het ongeveer honderd senatore en meer as duisend perderuiters omgekom.

Noudat Sulla heeltemal onbestrede was, het die oorblywende senaat die bevel tot nietig verklaar, wat hom 'n vyand van die staat gemaak het en beveel dat 'n standbeeld van Sulla voor die Forum Romanum aangebring moet word. Om sy gesag te legitimeer, stel Sulla toe voor dat hulle die ou amp van diktator. Dit was 120 jaar sedert Rome laas 'n diktator gehad het. Die senaat, sonder verset, was verplig om sy voorstel na te kom en hom as diktator aan te stel om wette te skep en die grondwet te skik. Diktators is slegs in tye van groot nood aangestel toe daar geen ander opsie was as om alle gesag en mag aan een persoon toe te vertrou om Rome te red nie. In die verlede was die termyn van 'n diktator ses maande en hul magte was in wese onbeperk. Hulle het mag oor lewe en dood en kon oorlog en vrede verklaar, senatore aanstel en verwyder, asook die mag om stede te stig en af ​​te breek. Sulla het egter geen tydsbeperking op sy diktatuur opgelê nie en kan dus so lank neem as wat hy nodig het om die grondwet te skik.

Hervormings van die Grondwet

Sulla, nou diktator, het met die magte van 'n koning voor die senaat verskyn. 24 fasces is voor hom gehou as diktator, dieselfde hoeveelheid wat voor die ou konings gehou is. As miskien die belangrikste hervorming van Sulla as diktator, het hy die mag en aansien van die tribunes van die plebs ernstig verminder. Tribunes is oorspronklik geskep om bewakers van die mense te wees. Hulle regsbevoegdheid (potestas) was groot, en as gevolg van die vordering en presedente wat gemaak is deur Gewild tribunes, soos Tiberius Gracchus in 131 VHJ, toe hy die Senaat omseil en sy grondhervormingswette direk aan die Vergadering voorlê, het hul mag nog sterker geword.

Sulla wou hierdie vordering ongedaan maak, en daarom het hy vereis dat 'n tribunus toestemming van die senaat moet kry voordat hy 'n wet instel. Verder het hy ontslae geraak van die belangrikste vetoreg van die tribune. Sulla het ook die kantoor van sy lok en aansien ontneem. Hy het bepaal dat enigiemand wat die landdros van tribune beklee, nooit daarna 'n ander landdros moet beklee nie. Dit is te verstane dat almal wat in die politiek naam wou maak, die posisie vermy het. Die eens groot kantoor van die tribune met sy agtergrond as beskermer van die mense, was nou net 'n skaduwee van wat dit eens was.

Sulla het ook die cursus honorum. Hy het enigiemand verbied om die landdros van praetor tot nadat hy eers 'n kwestor of om verkies te word konsul voordat hy 'n praetor. Hy het ook 'n man verbied om dieselfde landdros agtereenvolgens te hou. In plaas daarvan sou hy tien jaar moes wag totdat hy weer dieselfde amp kon beklee. Verder het hy besluit dat twee jaar tussen landdroste moet gaan. Hy het ook die aantal uitgebrei quaestors tot twintig en praetors tot agt. Hierdie groeiende aantal landdroste was nodig om 'n immer-groeiende ryk te regeer en te bestuur.

'N Ander Sullan -hervorming het tot gevolg gehad dat provinsiale goewerneurs nie hul verwelkoming in hul provinsies sou oorskry nie, en hul kans om 'n persoonlike weermag te bou wat teen politieke mededingers of Rome self sou lei, aansienlik verminder, soos Sulla gedoen het. Omdat daar 'n groter aantal landdroste was onder die hervormings van Sulla, het dit daartoe gelei dat goewerneurs nie lank in hul provinsie hoef te bly nie, omdat daar nou genoeg landdroste was om 'n vakature in 'n provinsie te vul nadat sy termyn van een jaar geëindig het. Verder, as 'n goewerneur sy magte sou misbruik of oorskry, sou dit in die Verraadhof verhoor word (maiestas).

Omdat die senaat aansienlik uitgedun is deur die oorlog, om nie te praat van Sulla se eie beskuldigings nie, het hy die rol van die senaat verdubbel van 300 tot 600. Die senaat het na sy aanklagte tot 'n paar honderd lede teruggesak, dus was daar 400 leë plekke om te vul. As diktator het Sulla self baie van die nuwe senatore aangestel uit 'n groep ruiters wat hy waardig geag het om tot die rang van senator bevorder te word. Vir die oorblywende plekke het hy aanbevelings van verskillende mense geneem en 'n groot groep dankbare senatore geskep wat dankbaar is vir hul promosie in rang. Die Senaat het krag gekry, sowel as sterkte in getalle.

In een van sy belangrikste hervormings het Sulla die senatoriese mag in die howe teruggesit. Hofsjurale was destyds 'n uiters kragtige instrument. A Gewild wou hê dat die jurie uit ruiters en 'n Optimeer wou 'n jurie van senatore hê. As 'n jurie vol senatore was, sou hulle, soos 'n mens kon verwag, selde hul senatoriale kollegas skuldig bevind het, maar 'n jurie wat uit ruiters bestaan, sou baie min slaap verloor weens die veroordeling van 'n senator wat beskuldig word van korrupsie. Gewildheid en Optimeer het mekaar konstant hieroor beveg. Die hervorming van Sulla het die tribune Gaius Gracchus se hervorming na die afpersingshof omgekeer toe hy senatore belet het om jurielede te wees. Sulla het toe sewe nuwe permanente howe ingestel vir moord, vervalsing en vervalsing, verkiesingsbedrog, verduistering, verraad, persoonlike besering en provinsiale afpersing.

Sulla gooi in hierdie jare 'n lang skaduwee oor die Republiek. Die senaat was in werklikheid sy skepping, gesuiwer van al sy teenstanders wat nie betyds by hom gebuk gegaan het nie, en was vol met sy partydiges. As liggaam het hy die senaat se posisie versterk, die senatoriese monopolie op juries in die howe herstel en die mag van die tribunaat ernstig beperk. Ander wetgewing, byvoorbeeld 'n wet wat die gedrag van provinsiale goewerneurs beperk, was bedoel om te verhoed dat enige ander generaal die voorbeeld van die diktator volg en die legioene teen die staat draai. (Goldsworthy, Caesar, 92)

Benewens sy hervormings, gebruik Sulla sy magte as diktator om wraak nie net in Rome nie, maar ook in die Italiaanse streke wat hom teëgestaan ​​het, uit te voer. Onder die vorme van straf was bloedbad, ballingskap en konfiskering vir diegene wat sy vyande gehoorsaam het tydens die burgeroorlog. Hulle misdaad kan so min wees as om sy vyand te huisves, geld uit te leen of vriendelikheid aan hulle te bewys. Toe aanklagte teen individue nie suksesvol was nie, het Sulla wraak geneem op hele dorpe. Hy het sommige gestraf deur hul vestings te vernietig of hul mure af te breek, of boetes op te lê en hulle te versmoor met swaar belasting en huldeblyk. Sulla het sy troepe opgerig in kolonies in die land en huise van die stede waarop hy wraak geneem het.

Nalatenskap

Nadat hy die grondwet bepaal het, het hy die diktatuur neergelê. Die volgende jaar in 80 vC is hy verkies konsul. In 79 vC tree hy geheel en al uit die Romeinse politiek en gaan woon in sy landhuis in Campania, waar hy kan probeer om sy memoires klaar te skryf. Volgens Plutarchus het Sulla sy dood in 'n droom voorsien en het hy opgehou om sy memoires te skryf twee dae voor hy in 78 vC gesterf het.

Alhoewel Sulla se grondwet gehoorsaam deur ander gevolg is Optimeer soos Pompeius (l. 106 - 48 v.G.J.) en Crassus (l. 115/112 - 53 v.G.J.) - Sulla se hervormings sou uiteindelik nie bestaan ​​nie. Hy het probeer om die probleme wat die Republiek geteister het, reg te stel, maar sy oplossing vir die probleem was eensydige en versterkte senatoriese mag, terwyl hy die mag van die tribune van die volksgenote en nie-senatoriese geledere ernstig beperk het.

Julius Caesar (l. 100 - 44 v.G.J.) tydens sy tyd as militêre tribunus het hom uitgespreek ten gunste van die herstel van die bevoegdhede van die tribune wat Sulla deeglik afgebreek het. In 75 vC het Caesar sy oom, Caius Aurelius Cotta, gehad konsul daardie jaar om 'n wetsontwerp goed te keur waarmee voormalige tribunes ander landdroste kon soek. Dit was 'n baie belangrike ongedaanmaking van een van Sulla se belangrikste hervormings, want nou was die tribunaal nie meer 'n doodloopstraat nie, wat die weg baan vir ambisieuse politici om weer die amp te soek.

Caesar hervorm en verbeter ook nog 'n Sullan -hervorming. Hy het lankal belangstelling in die administrasie van die provinsies gehad, en sy bekendste hofverskynings was vervolging van korrupte en onderdrukkende goewerneurs. Sy hervormings oor die rol en gedrag van die Romeinse provinsiale goewerneurs sou nog eeue lank die standaard wees. Cicero beskryf Caesar se hervorming later as 'n 'uitstekende wet'. Laastens is die wet van Sulla om slegs senatore in jurylede toe te laat, omgekeer toe praetor Lucius Aurelius Cotta het toegelaat dat juries uit sowel senatore as perderuiters bestaan, wat die kragbalans gelyk maak.


Grondwetlike hervormings van Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Die grondwetlike hervormings van Lucius Cornelius Sulla was 'n reeks wette wat tussen 82 en 80 vC deur die Romeinse diktator Lucius Cornelius Sulla uitgevaardig is, wat die Grondwet van die Romeinse Republiek hervorm het. In die dekades voordat Sulla Diktator geword het, het 'n reeks politieke ontwikkelings plaasgevind wat die aristokratiese beheer oor die Romeinse Grondwet erg verswak het. Sulla se diktatuur was een van die belangrikste ontwikkelings in die geskiedenis van die grondwet van die Romeinse Republiek, en dit was 'n waarskuwing vir die komende burgeroorlog, wat uiteindelik die Romeinse Republiek sou vernietig en die Romeinse Ryk sou skep. Sulla, wat die chaos van sy politieke vyande in die jare voor sy diktatuur beleef het, was natuurlik konserwatief. Hy was van mening dat die onderliggende gebrek in die Romeinse grondwet die toenemend aggressiewe demokrasie was wat deur die Romeinse vergaderings tot uiting gekom het, en as sodanig wou hy die Romeinse senaat versterk. Hy tree in 79 vC af en sterf in 78 vC, omdat hy geglo het dat hy die grondwetlike gebrek reggestel het. Sy konstitusie sou meestal minder as tien jaar na sy dood deur twee van sy voormalige luitenante, Pompeius Magnus en Marcus Licinius Crassus, ingetrek word. Maar wat hy nie besef het nie, was dat dit hyself was wat eintlik die onderliggende gebrek in die Romeinse grondwet geïllustreer het: dat dit die weermag was, en nie die Romeinse senaat wat die lot van die staat bepaal het nie. Die presedent wat hy geproduseer het, sou minder as veertig jaar later nagevolg word deur 'n individu wat hy amper uitgevoer het, Julius Caesar, en as sodanig speel hy 'n kritieke vroeë rol in die transformasie van die Romeinse Republiek in die Romeinse Ryk.

Beroemde aanhalings wat die woord hervormings bevat:

& ldquo Niks goddelik sterf nie. Alles goed is ewig voortplantend. Die skoonheid van die natuur hervormings self in die verstand, en nie vir onvrugbare kontemplasie nie, maar vir die nuwe skepping. & rdquo
& mdashRalph Waldo Emerson (1803 �)


Sulla se hervormings as diktator - geskiedenis

AKA Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Gebore: 138 vC
Oorlede: 78 vC
Plek van dood: Pozzuoli, Italië
Oorsaak van dood: Aneurisme

Geslag: Manlik
Godsdiens: Heidense
Ras of etnisiteit: Wit
Seksuele oriëntasie: Biseksueel
Beroep: Militêr, staatshoof

Nasionaliteit: Antieke Rome
Uitvoerende opsomming: Romeinse generaal, diktator

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, met die naam Felix, Romeinse generaal, politikus en diktator, behoort aan 'n minderjarige en verarmde tak van die beroemde patrisiër Cornelian gens. Hy het deeglike opleiding ontvang en was 'n toegewyde student in letterkunde en kuns. Sy politieke vordering was stadig, en hy het die kwestorskap eers in 107 gekry toe hy in die Jugurthine -oorlog onder Gaius Marius in Afrika gedien het. Hierin het hy hom baie onderskei en die krediet geëis dat hy die oorlog beëindig het deur Jugurtha self te vang. In hierdie Afrika -veldtogte het Sulla getoon dat hy weet hoe om die vertroue van sy soldate te wen, en gedurende sy loopbaan blyk die geheim van sy sukses die entoesiastiese toewyding van sy troepe te wees, wat hy steeds in die hand gehou het, terwyl hy dit toegelaat het om te plunder en allerhande oordaad. Van 104 tot 101 dien hy weer onder Marius in die oorlog met die Cimbri en Teutones en veg hy in die laaste groot geveg in die Raudiaanse vlaktes naby Verona. Dit was in hierdie tyd dat Marius se jaloesie oor sy legaat die grondslag gelê het vir hul toekomstige wedywering en wedersydse haat. Toe die oorlog verby was, het Sulla, by sy terugkeer na Rome, 'n paar jaar lank rustig geleef en geen rol in die politiek geneem nie. In 93 word hy verkies tot praetor na 'n oordrewe geldverspilling, en hy verheug die bevolking met 'n uitstalling van honderd leeus uit Afrika. Volgende jaar (92) het hy as eienaar van Cilicië gegaan met spesiale gesag van die senaat om Mithradates VI van Pontus Cappadocia te laat herstel na Ariobarzanes, een van Rome se afhanklikes in Asië. Sulla met 'n klein leër het gou 'n oorwinning oor die generaal van Mithradates behaal, en die kliënt-koning van Rome is herstel. 'N Ambassade van die Partiërs het nou 'n alliansie aangegaan met Rome, en Sulla was die eerste Romein wat diplomatieke omgang met die afgeleë mense gehad het. In die jaar 91, wat die dreigende vooruitsig op ingrypende politieke verandering meegebring het, met die uitbreiding van die Italiaanse volke, keer Sulla terug na Rome, en daar word algemeen gevoel dat hy die konserwatiewe en aristokratiese party was.

Intussen is Mithradates en die Ooste vergete in die krisis van die Sosiale of Kursiewe Oorlog, wat in 91 uitgebreek het en die bestaan ​​van Rome bedreig het. Die dienste van beide Marius en Sulla is verleen, maar Sulla was hoe suksesvoller, of in elk geval, die meer gelukkig. Van die Italiaanse volke Rome se ou vyande was die Samniete die mees formidabele wat hierdie Sulla oorwin het, en neem hulle hoofstad, Bovianum, in. Ter erkenning van hierdie en ander briljante dienste, is hy in 88 tot konsul verkies en het die opstand tot 'n einde gekom deur die verowering van Nola in Kampanië. Die vraag oor die bevel van die leër teen Mithradates kom weer na vore. Die senaat het Sulla reeds gekies, maar die tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus het aangevoer dat Marius die bevel moes kry. Onluste het in Rome plaasgevind op aanleiding van die gewilde leiers, en Sulla het na sy legioene in Kampanië ontsnap, vanwaar hy na Rome opgeruk het, die eerste Romein wat die stad binnegekom het aan die hoof van 'n Romeinse leër. Sulpicius is doodgemaak, en Marius het gevlug en hy en sy groep was vir die tyd verpletter.

Sulla, wat dinge in Rome stil laat, vertrek uit 87 in Italië, en vir die volgende vier jaar wen hy oorwinning na oorwinning teen die leërs van Mithradates en versamel grenslose buit. Athene, die hoofkwartier van die Mithradatiese saak, is geneem en afgedank in 86 en in dieselfde jaar, in Chaeroneia, die toneel van Philip II van Macedon se oorwinning meer as twee en 'n half eeue tevore, en in die jaar daarna, by die naburige Orchomenus, het hy ontsaglike leërskare van die vyand verstrooi met 'n klein verlies vir homself. Toe hy die Hellespont in 84 na Asië oorgesteek het, het die troepe van C. Flavius ​​Fimbria by hom aangesluit, wat gou hul generaal verlaat het, 'n man wat deur die Mariane party uitgestuur is, nou weer in die opkoms in Rome. Dieselfde jaar is vrede met Mithradates gesluit op voorwaarde dat hy teruggesit moet word in die posisie wat hy voor die oorlog beklee het, maar terwyl hy besware opper, moes hy hom uiteindelik tevrede stel dat hy bloot 'n vasaal van Rome was.

Sulla keer in 83 terug na Italië, land by Brundisium, nadat hy die senaat voorheen ingelig het oor die uitslag van sy veldtogte in Griekeland en Asië, en kondig sy teenwoordigheid op Italiaanse grond aan. Hy het verder gekla oor die mishandeling wat sy vriende en partydiges tydens sy afwesigheid ondergaan het. Marius is in 86 oorlede, en die revolusionêre party, spesiaal verteenwoordig deur L. Cornelius Cinna, Cn. Papirius Carbo en die jonger Marius het Sulla se ondersteuners in die groot bloedbad vermoor, sy eiendom gekonfiskeer en hom tot 'n openbare vyand verklaar. Hulle het gevoel dat hulle hom tot die dood toe moes weerstaan, en met die troepe wat versprei was in Italië en die nuut opgeknapte Italianers, aan wie verstaan ​​word dat Sulla bitter vyandig was, reken hulle vol vertroue op sukses. Maar met Sulla se vooruitgang aan die hoof van die 40 000 veterane, het baie van hulle moed verloor en hul leiers verlaat, terwyl die Italianers self, wat hy in hul nuwe voorregte bevestig het, aan sy kant oorgeneem is. Slegs die Samniete, wat nog sonder die Romeinse franchise was, het sy vyande gebly, en dit het gelyk asof die ou oorlog tussen Rome en Samnium weer gevoer moes word. Verskeie Romeinse adellikes, waaronder Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompeius die Grote), Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, het by Sulla aangesluit, en in die daaropvolgende jaar (82) het hy 'n beslissende oorwinning behaal oor die jonger Marius naby Praeneste (moderne Palestrina) en daarna opgetrek na Rome, waar daar net voor sy nederlaag van Marius 'n groot slagting op sy aanhangers plaasgevind het waarin die geleerde juris Q. Mucius Scaevola omgekom het. Rome was terselfdertyd in groot gevaar as gevolg van die opmars van 'n Samnitiese leër, en is skaars gered deur Sulla, wat na 'n harde geveg die vyand onder Pontius Telesinus by die Colline-poort van Rome gelei het. Met die dood van die jonger Marius, wat homself om die lewe gebring het ná die oorgawe van Praeneste, was die burgeroorlog ten einde, en Sulla was meester van Rome en van die Romeinse wêreld. Toe kom die onvergeetlike "beskuldiging", toe daar vir die eerste keer in die Romeinse geskiedenis 'n lys mans is wat as 'n verbod verklaar is en openbare vyande in die forum vertoon word, en 'n skrikbewind begin in Rome en Italië. Die titel "diktator" is herleef en Sulla was in werklikheid keiser van Rome. Nadat hy 'n wonderlike triomf vir die Mithradatiese Oorlog gevier het en die van "Felix" ("Epafroditus", "Venus se gunsteling" aangeneem het, het hy homself in die toespraak tot Grieke toegespits), het hy 80 en 79 sy groot politieke hervormings ingevoer. Die hoofdoel hiervan was om die senaat, wat hy met 'n aantal van sy eie party, met volle beheer oor die staat, oor elke landdros en elke provinsie gewerf het, te belê, en die steunpilaar van sy politieke stelsel was die militêre kolonies wat hy het met toekennings van grond in elke deel van Italië gevestig, tot die ondergang van die ou Italiaanse vrye eienaars en boere, wat van hierdie tyd af weggedwaal het en hele distrikte verlate en verlate gelaat het.

In 79 bedank Sulla sy diktatuur en tree terug na Puteoli, waar hy in die daaropvolgende jaar sterf, waarskynlik as gevolg van die uitbarsting van 'n bloedvat. Die verhaal dat hy 'n slagoffer geword het van 'n siekte soortgelyk aan dié wat een van die Herodes afgesny het (Handelinge 12:23), is waarskynlik 'n uitvinding van sy vyande. Die 'half leeu, half jakkals', soos sy vyande hom genoem het, die man wat 'n beleid van 'bloed en yster' met 'n grimmige humor uitgevoer het, het hom in sy laaste dae vermaak met akteurs en aktrises, met gedigte in poësie, en die voltooiing van die Herinneringe (kommentaar) van sy bedrywige lewe. Selfs toe het hy sy belangstelling in staats- en plaaslike aangeleenthede nie prysgegee nie, en word gesê dat sy einde versnel is deur 'n passie wat veroorsaak is deur 'n opmerking van die quaestor Granius, wat openlik beweer dat hy die betaling van 'n bedrag sou ontgaan geld aan die Romeine, aangesien Sulla op sy sterfbed was. Sulla het hom laat roep en in sy opgewondenheid in sy teenwoordigheid laat wurg, het hy 'n bloedvat gebreek en die volgende dag gesterf. Hy het 'n wonderlike openbare begrafnis ontvang, en sy lyk is na Rome geneem en begrawe in die Campus Martius. Op sy monument was 'n opskrif wat hy self geskryf het, sodat hy altyd die vriendelikheid van sy vriende en die onreg wat sy vyande hom aangedoen het, ten volle terugbetaal het. Sy militêre genie is in die Sosiale Oorlog en die veldtogte teen Mithradates vertoon, terwyl sy grondwetlike hervormings, hoewel dit gedoem is tot mislukking weens die gebrek aan opvolgers, 'n triomf van organisasie was. Maar hy het sy vyande koelbloedig vermoor en wraak geneem met genadelose en berekende wreedheid, hy het alles opgeoffer aan sy eie ambisie en die triomf van sy party.

Vrou: Ilia
Dogter: Cornelia Sulla
Seun: Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Vrou: Aelia (div.)
Vrou: Caecilia Metella Dalmatica
Seun: Faustus Cornelius Sulla (tweeling, geb. 87 v.C.)
Dogter: Fausta Cornelia Sulla (tweeling, geb. 87 v.C.)
Vrou: Valeria Messala (m. 80 v.C.)
Dogter: Postuma Cornelia Sulla (geb. 78 v.C.)
Kêrel: Metrobius (akteur, langtermynliefhebber)


Bronne

Portret van Sulla op 'n denarius wat in 54 vC deur sy kleinseun Q. Pompeius Rufus [1] / CNG, Wikimedia Commons geslaan is

Sulla se lewe is gewoonlik opgeneem in die antieke biografiese versamelings van toonaangewende generaals en politici, afkomstig uit die biografiese kompendium van beroemde Romeine wat deur Marcus Terentius Varro gepubliseer is. In Plutarchus ’s Parallelle lewens Sulla is gekoppel aan die Spartaanse generaal en strateeg Lysander.

In ouer bronne kan sy naam gevind word as Silla. Dit is 'n Hellenisme sylva vir klassieke Latyn silva, versterk deur die feit dat twee groot ou bronne, Plutarch en Appian, in Grieks geskryf het, en hom Σύλλα noem. [6]


Sulla se grondwet (82–80 v.C.)

'N Paar jaar later het 'n nuwe mag in Asië ontstaan. In 88 vC is 'n Romeinse leër gestuur om die mag, koning Mithridates van Pontus, neer te sit, maar is verslaan. Lucius Cornelius Sulla is vir die jaar verkies tot konsul (een van die twee uitvoerende hoofde van die Romeinse Republiek) en is deur die senaat beveel om die bevel oor die oorlog teen Mithridates aan te neem. Gaius Marius, 'n voormalige konsul en lid van die demokratiese ("gewild") party, was 'n bitter politieke mededinger van Sulla. Marius het 'n Plebeian Tribune laat herroep Sulla se bevel oor die oorlog teen Mithridates, so Sulla, 'n lid van die aristokratiese ("optimaliseer") party, het sy leër na Italië teruggebring en na Rome opgeruk. Marius het gevlug, en sy ondersteuners het óf gevlug óf deur Sulla vermoor. Sulla het so kwaad geword vir Marius se tribune dat hy 'n wet aanvaar het wat bedoel was om die [8] Daarna keer hy terug na sy oorlog teen Mithridates, en met Sulla weg, die gewildheid onder Marius en Lucius neem Cornelius Cinna spoedig beheer oor die stad. Die popularis rekord was nie een om op trots te wees nie, [8] omdat hulle Marius verskeie kere tot die konsulaat herkies het sonder om die vereiste interval van tien jaar in ag te neem. Hulle het ook die demokrasie oortree deur onverkose individue tot hul amp te bevorder, en deur landdroshowe deur populêre wetgewing te vervang. [9] Sulla het uiteindelik vrede gemaak met Mithridates, en in 83 vC keer hy terug na Rome, oorkom alle weerstand en verower die stad weer. Sulla is geïnstalleer as diktator, en sy ondersteuners slag toe die meeste van Marius se ondersteuners, hoewel een van die ondersteuners, 'n 17-jarige popularis (en die skoonseun van Cinna) genaamd Julius Caesar, is uiteindelik gespaar.

Sulla, wat die gewelddadige gevolge van radikale waargeneem het popularis hervormings (veral dié onder Marius en Cinna), was natuurlik konserwatief, en dus was sy konserwatisme meer reaksionêr as visioenêr. [9] As sodanig het hy probeer om die aristokrasie, en dus die senaat, te versterk. [9] Sulla het sy vroeëre hervormings behou, wat goedkeuring van die senaat vereis het voordat enige wetsontwerp by die Conflict of the Ordes voorgelê kon word, waartydens die Plebeians politieke gelykheid met die aristokratiese Patriciaanse klas gesoek het.

Sulla, self 'n Patrisiër en dus nie in aanmerking kom vir die verkiesing tot die kantoor van Plebeian Tribune nie, het 'n ernstige hekel aan die amp gehad. Sommige van sy afkeer is moontlik verkry toe Marius 'Tribune die magtiging van Sulla om die oorlog teen Mithridates te beveel, ingetrek het. Soos Sulla die amp beskou het, was die Tribunaat veral gevaarlik, wat deels te wyte was aan die radikale verlede daarvan, en daarom was sy bedoeling om nie net die mag van die Tribunaat te beroof nie, maar ook van aansien. Die hervormings van die Gracchi Tribunes was een van die voorbeelde van sy radikale verlede, maar dit was geensins die enigste voorbeelde nie. Die afgelope driehonderd jaar was die Tribunes die amptenare wat die meeste verantwoordelik was vir die verlies van mag deur die aristokrasie. Aangesien die Tribunaat die belangrikste manier was waarop die demokrasie van Rome altyd teen die aristokrasie beweer het, was dit vir Sulla van uiterste belang dat hy die amp kreupel. Deur sy hervormings aan die Plebeiaanse Raad het Tribunes die mag verloor om wetgewing te begin. Sulla het toe voormalige Tribunes verbied om ooit 'n ander amp te beklee, so ambisieuse individue sou nie meer verkiesing tot die tribunaat soek nie, aangesien so 'n verkiesing hul politieke loopbaan sou beëindig. [10] Laastens het Sulla die bevoegdheid van die Tribunes herroep om veto op die senaat te veto. Hierdie hervorming het hoogstens twyfelagtige grondwetlikheid gehad en was in die ergste geval heilig. Uiteindelik het die Tribunes, en dus die mense van Rome, magteloos geword.

Sulla then weakened the magisterial offices by increasing the number of magistrates who were elected in any given year, [9] and required that all newly elected Quaestors be given automatic membership in the senate. These two reforms were enacted primarily so as to allow Sulla to increase the size of the senate from 300 to 600 senators. This removed the need for the Censor to draw up a list of senators, since there were always more than enough former magistrates to fill the senate. [9] The Censorship was the most prestigious of all magisterial offices, and by reducing the power of the Censors, this particular reform further helped to reduce the prestige of all magisterial offices. In addition, by increasing the number of magistrates, the prestige of each magistrate was reduced, and the potential for obstruction within each magisterial college was maximized. This, so the theory went, would further increase the importance of the senate as the principal organ of constitutional government.

To further solidify the prestige and authority of the senate, Sulla transferred the control of the courts from the knights, who had held control since the Gracchi reforms, to the senators. This, along with the increase in the number of courts, further added to the power that was already held by the senators. [10] He also codified, and thus established definitively, the cursus honorum, [10] which required an individual to reach a certain age and level of experience before running for any particular office. In this past, the cursus honorum had been observed through precedent, but had never actually been codified. By requiring senators to be more experienced than they had been in the past, he hoped to add to the prestige, and thus the authority, of the senate.

Sulla also wanted to reduce the risk that a future general might attempt to seize power, as he himself had done. To reduce this risk, he reaffirmed the requirement that any individual wait for ten years before being reelected to any office. Sulla then established a system where all Consuls and Praetors served in Rome during their year in office, and then commanded a provincial army as a governor for the year after they left office. [10] The number of Praetors (the second-highest ranking magistrate, after the Consul) were increased, so that there would be enough magistrates for each province under this system. These two reforms were meant to ensure that no governor would be able to command the same army for an extended period of time, so as to minimize the threat that another general might attempt to march on Rome.


Sulla - in ancient sources @ attalus.org

This is part of the index of names on the attalus website. The names occur either in lists of events (arranged by year, from the 4th to the 1st century B.C.) or in translations of sources. There are many other sources available in translation online - for a fuller but less precise search, Search Ancient Texts.
On each line there is a link to the page where the name can be found.

Sulla (P. Cornelius Sulla) - Roman praetor, 212 B.C.
213/23 P.Cornelius Sulla is chosen to be Flamen Dialis.

Sulla 5 (L. Cornelius Sulla Felix) - Roman dictator, 82-79 B.C.
&rarr Wikipedia entry
+ Cornelius , Epaphroditus , Sylla
138/31 The birth of L.Sulla.
107/14 The dissolute lifestyle of L.Sulla, as a young man.
106/10 The quaestor L.Sulla arrives at Marius' camp with reinforcements from
106/15 Marius sends Sulla and A.Manlius on a mission to Bocchus.
105/1 Further negotiations between Sulla and Bocchus.
105/6 Bocchus seizes Jugurtha and hands him over to Sulla and the Romans.
104/11 Sulla captures Copillus, the leader of the Tectosages.
103/5 Sulla persuades the Marsi to stay allied to Rome.
102/5 Sulla joins Catulus and manages his supplies.
99/4 L.Sulla fails to be elected praetor.
98/11 L.Sulla is elected praetor at the second attempt.
97/8 L.Sulla, as praetor, receives a sarcastic rebuke from C.Caesar.
97/9 L.Sulla displays a lion hunt for the first time in games at Rome.
95/7 Sulla, the propraetor of Cilicia, installs Ariobarzanes as king of
94/7 Sulla meets Orobazus, a Parthian envoy, by the river Euphrates, and
92/6 rinus attempts to prosecutes Sulla for extortion, but fails to bring
91/30 cchus, king of Mauretania, and over Sulla's seal depicting Jugurtha.
89/6 Sulla captures and destroys Stabiae.
89/18 Sulla defeats the Samnites under Cluentius near Nola.
89/19 Sulla subdues the Hirpini.
89/20 Sulla invades Samnium and captures Bovianum.
89/36 Sulla returns to Rome to stand as a candidate for consul.
88/_ Consuls: L. Cornelius L.f. Sulla, Q. Pompeius Q.f. Rufus
88/6 Sulla marries Metella, daughter of L.Metellus.
88/9 The role of Marius, Sulla, and the other leaders of the opposing side
88/13 Sulla is appointed commander for the war against Mithridates.
88/20 Sulla leaves Rome to join the Roman army at Nola.
88/30 Sulla leads his army against his opponents at Rome.
88/31 Sulla defeats Marius and his supporters inside Rome, near the Esquili
88/36 Sulla and Pompeius introduce a series of reforms at Rome, giving more
88/49 Sulla stops Sertorius becoming tribune for the following year.
88/58 consuls, and are forced to swear not to upset Sulla's arrangements.
88/61 Sulla sends his army from Rome back to Capua.
87/1 Sulla leaves Italy to take charge of the war against Mithridates.
87/5 Sulla arrives in Greece and forces the Boeotians to abandon their sup
87/6 return to Macedonia, leaving Sulla to fight against Mithridates' army
87/7 The birth of Faustus and Fausta, twin children of Sulla and Metella.
87/17 Sulla besieges Archelaus at Athens.
87/26 CIL_712, an inscription in honour of Sulla on Delos.
87/27 Lucullus coins money for Sulla's army.
87/51 killed by Marius and Cinna and Sulla is declared a public enemy.
87/55 Sulla retires to Eleusis for the winter.
87/57 Rumours about the return of Sulla bring a halt to the killing at Rome
87/62 sage from Jupiter, promising Sulla victory in the war against Mithrid
86/5 builds a villa near Misenum, which earns the admiration of Sulla.
86/12 Lucullus sets sail for Egypt, to try to collect warships for Sulla.
86/13 Sulla despoils the temples at Olympia, Epidaurus, and Delphi, and ste
86/15 The Athenians yell out insults against Sulla and his wife Metella.
86/20 Sulla captures Athens.
86/21 Sulla punishes the Athenians, but allows them to keep their freedom.
86/26 Sulla captures Peiraeus, but Archelaus escapes by sea.
86/28 Archelaus joins up with Taxiles' army and faces Sulla near Elateia.
86/29 Sulla defeats Archelaus and destroys his army at Chaeroneia.
86/30 Sulla punishes the Thebans by confiscating their territory.
86/40 the command of Dorylaus, but it is defeated by Sulla at Orchomenus.
86/41 Sulla storms the camp of his opponents and slaughters most of them
86/46 Sulla takes his army to Thessaly for the winter.
86/47 Sulla and Archelaus start to negotiate about peace terms.
85/6 Sulla treats Archelaus with honour, and gives him a large estate
85/7 Sulla leads a punitive expedition against the Dardani and other Thrac
85/16 Sulla and Mithridates agree peace terms at Dardanus.
85/17 Opponents of Cinna sail from Italy to join Sulla.
85/24 Sulla writes a letter to the senate, threatening revenge against his
85/26 Sulla imposes a tribute on the cities of Asia.
85/37 the leading orator at Rome, during the absence of Sulla in the East.
84/1 citizens of Smyrna offer clothes to Sulla's army during the winter.
84/2 aeus Alexander escapes from Mithridates and takes refuge with Sulla.
84/3 Cinna and Carbo make preparations for the war against Sulla.
84/4 The senate votes to send an embassy to Sulla.
84/6 Sulla re-organises the province of Asia, and punishes the supporters
84/12 Sulla returns to Greece from Asia.
84/20 Sulla receives the senate's embassy and sets out his terms for a sett
84/23 Sulla visits hot springs ( ? Aedepsus ) in Euboea in an attempt to
84/24 Sulla sends a painting by Zeuxis and other treasures back to Rome,
84/25 Sulla takes Aristotle's books back to Rome, where they are later acqu
84/26 Sherk1_62b, a letter from Sulla confirming the privileges of the Dio
84/30 tor, deserts Carbo and goes over to Sulla with a large sum of money.
84/36 Lycians, in gratitude for having their freedom restored by Sulla
84/37 Lycians, in gratitude for having their freedom restored by Sulla.
83/1 Atticus meets Sulla at Athens, but refuses to follow him back to Ital
83/3 Sulla crosses over from Greece and arrives at Brundisium.
83/6 Metellus joins Sulla.
83/7 Sulla advances against his opponents, who make further preparations
83/10 Pompeius joins Sulla, who honours him with the title of "imperator".
83/11 Cethegus, Philippus and other senators join Sulla.
83/12 Sulla defeats Norbanus at Canusium.
83/13 Sulla makes a dedication of land and water to Diana on Mount Tifata.
83/22 deserted by his army, after entering into negotiations with Sulla.
83/23 Crassus collects new recruits for Sulla from amongst the Marsi.
83/27 Sulla advances against Norbanus at Capua, but Norbanus avoids him.
83/32 CIL_720, an inscription in honour of Sulla at Suessa.
82/2 Sulla arranges a treaty with the Italian allies.
82/4 Sulla sends Pompeius to join Metellus in northern Italy.
82/10 Sulla defeats Marius at Sacriportus, and forces him to take refuge
82/17 Sulla enters Rome, after handing over command at Praeneste to Q.Ofell
82/18 Further victories of Sulla, at the river Glanis, Saturnia, and Neapol
82/20 L.Philippus wins over Sardinia for Sulla.
82/22 indecisive battle between Sulla and Carbo at Clusium.
82/24 Sulla fortifies the approaches to Praeneste, and stops an attempt by
82/32 mnite army, but is defeated and killed by Sulla at the Colline Gate.
82/33 Sulla orders the massacre of at least 3,000 Samnite prisoners.
82/34 Sulla rewards inhabitants of Spain, Gaul and Sicily, including Aristo
82/35 on the high losses suffered by both sides during Sulla's civil war.
82/37 Sulla assumes the title Felix.
82/38 Sulla institutes circus games to celebrate his victory.
82/39 golden statue is put up of Sulla on horseback.
82/40 ccus passes a law to appoint Sulla dictator and give him autocratic
82/41 candidate for the consulship, but he is killed by order of Sulla.
82/42 Sulla persuades Pompeius to divorce Antistia and marry Aemilia.
81/1 Sulla punishes the inhabitants of Praeneste.
81/2 The triumph of Sulla, over Mithridates, including a parade of the boo
81/3 Sulla publishes proscriptions listing his enemies, who are hunted dow
81/7 Sulla punishes the Italian towns which supported his opponents, inclu
81/8 Sulla founds colonies of his veterans at Aleria, Arretium, Capua, Fae
81/12 M.Piso divorces his wife Annia in order to win favour with Sulla.
81/13 hiding after antagonising Sulla, and avoids capture by bribing Cor
81/14 Crassus and other friends of Sulla enrich themselves by buying up the
81/16 Sulla passes a law imposing sanctions on the children of proscribed
81/17 not to mutiny after they are ordered by Sulla to return to Italy.
81/21 OGIS_441, a decree of Sulla and the Roman senate, renewing a grant
81/27 Sulla sends Gabinius to recall Murena from Asia.
81/29 Sulla digs up the body of Marius and destroys his monuments.
81/30 Sulla formally ends the proscriptions.
81/31 Sulla grants Roman citizenship to the slaves who supported him: they
81/33 Sulla reluctantly agrees to pardon Caesar.
81/35 Cato is restrained from making threats against Sulla.
81/45 rsuades the decurions of Ameria not to seek an interview with Sulla.
81/48 The death of the young son of Sulla and Metella.
81/50 Sulla extends the "pomerium", the city boundary of Rome.
81/51 Sulla enlarges the "curia", the senate-house.
81/52 Sulla curtails the power of the tribunes of the plebs.
81/53 Sulla increases the number of praetors to ten, and the number of quae
81/54 Sulla passes a Lex Annalis, setting a fixed sequence of magistracies.
81/55 Sulla passes the Lex Cornelia de Provinciis, regulating the conduct
81/56 Sulla increases the number of priests and augurs.
81/57 Sulla restores the size of the senate, by creating new senators.
81/58 Sulla passes a Lex Judicaria, to transfer membership of juries from
81/59 Sulla passes a law about the falsification of wills.
81/60 Sulla passes a series of laws, setting up courts to try cases of murd
81/61 Sulla passes a sumptuary law, limiting private expenditure on feasts.
81/62 Sulla passes an agrarian law, confirming the distribution of land to
81/63 efuses to justify his conduct as quaestor, when challenged by Sulla.
81/66 CIL_722, a dedication by the freedmen (Cornelii) to Sulla.
81/68 Sherk1_62a, a letter from Sulla authorising Alexander of Laodiceia,
81/69 Rutilius is invited back by Sulla, but refuses to return from exile.
80/_ Consuls: L. Cornelius L.f. Sulla Felix (II), Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metell
80/1 Sulla's law about Pompeius' return is blocked by C.Herennius.
80/6 Sulla sends Ptolemy XI Alexander to be king of Egypt.
80/11 Sulla marries Valeria, daughter of Messalla.
80/13 cancelled, because the athletes have been summoned to Rome by Sulla.
80/20 Sulla decides not to stand for election as consul for the following
80/23 The harmonious consulship of Sulla and Metellus.
80/25 Sulla starts the restoration of the Capitol.
80/27 firms grants of land made by Sulla to the sanctuary of Amphiaraus at
80/29 Sulla has a mosaic floor installed in the temple of Fortuna at Praene
80/30 Sulla releases some allied states from taxation.
79/3 General comments on Sulla's absolute power and ruthlessness as dictat
79/4 Sulla abdicates from his position as dictator, and retires to priv
79/5 Sulla is allocated the province of Cisalpine Gaul.
79/13 M.Lepidus is elected consul, despite being an opponent of Sulla.
79/15 The sudden death of L.Tuccius, Sulla's doctor.
78/2 Lepidus criticises Sulla's rule in a speech to the people.
78/3 Sulla has a dream in which his death is predicted by his son.
78/4 Sulla settles a dispute at Dicaearchia.
78/4a IL_1.2646, a dedication by Sulla in the name of his sister Corneli
78/5 Stratagems employed by Sulla.
78/6 Sulla shows great trust in L.Lucullus, to whom he dedicates his memoi
78/7 ral comments on the despotic and pleasure-loving character of Sulla.
78/8 The death of Sulla, from the disease called phtheiriasis.
78/9 The funeral of Sulla, whose body is burnt on a pyre.
78/15 Lepidus proposes measures to undo the effect of Sulla's laws.
78/22 The birth of Postuma, a posthumous daughter of Sulla.
75/45 senate to reimpose taxes on states which had been exempted by Sulla.
73/29 Roman people to recover their rights which were taken away by Sulla.
72/57 reclaim the money which Sulla remitted to purchasers of property
72/62 boy, punches Faustus to stop him boasting about his father Sulla.
70/27 the first censors since Sulla's reforms, and Pompeius, though
70/38 Epicadius is a freedman of Sulla, and a favourite of his son Faustu
64/11 and convicted of murders committed during the dictatorship of Sulla.
64/36 Cato, as quaestor, forces Sulla's henchmen to give back the rewards
60/20 presents a lavish gladiatorial show in memory of his father Sulla.
46/34 Some jokes about Faustus, the son of Sulla.
44/32 sayings of Caesar, including a comment on the dictatorship of Sulla.

Sulla 7 (Faustus Cornelius Sulla) - son of the dictator
&rarr Wikipedia entry
+ Faustus
87/7 The birth of Faustus and Fausta, twin children of Sulla and Metella.
72/62 ius, as a young boy, punches Faustus to stop him boasting about his
70/38 picadius is a freedman of Sulla, and a favourite of his son Faustus.
60/20 Faustus presents a lavish gladiatorial show in memory of his father
46/34 Some jokes about Faustus, the son of Sulla.
46/35 Faustus, L.Caesar and other leading opponents of Caesar are captured
  Within translations:
Joseph:AJ_14.69 in apace and Cornelius Faustus, the son of Sylla, with
Joseph:AJ_14.73 stowed proper rewards on Faustus, and those others that
Joseph:BJ_01.149 get over the wall, was Faustus Cornelius the son of Sull
Joseph:BJ_01.154 ecollatlon but rewarded Faustus, and those with him that
Plut:Mor_205 voured not." & When Faustus the son of Sulla, being

Sulla 9 (P. Cornelius Sulla) - convicted of bribery in the consular elections of 66 B.C.
&rarr Wikipedia entry
66/25 Sulla and Paetus, the consuls elected for the following year, are con
64/20 Sittius, an associate of P.Sulla and Catilina, goes out to Spain.
62/19 Cic:Sull_, Cicero's speech in defence of P.Sulla.
  Within translations:
Cic:Fam_15.17 the death of P. Sulla senior some say it was brigands,
Cic:Fam_15.19 virtues. And so Sulla, whose judgment we ought to accep
Schol:Bob_78 ght have appeared that P.Sulla withdrew from everyone's
Schol:Bob_79 after the conviction of Sulla and Autronius, the consuls

Sulla 11 (P. Cornelius Sulla) - son of the consular candidate
Cic:Fam_15.19 once he has cast his eye on Sulla junior. And now to


6.9.1: The Gracchi and the Beginning of Political Violence

It is striking to consider that political violence was minimal in the Roman Republic until 133 BCE. Indeed, if the legends are true, even the expulsion of the kings in 510 BCE was a bloodless event. Starting with 133 BCE, however, the final century of the Roman Republic was defined by political violence and civil wars.

In 133 BCE, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, a scion on his mother&rsquos side of one of the oldest and most respected families in Rome, the Cornelii Scipiones, was one of the ten annually elected plebeian tribunes. Alarmed that the lands acquired through recent Roman conquests had largely been taken over by rich landowners at the expense of poorer Romans, Gracchus proposed a land distribution law, known as the Lex Sempronia Agraria. Gracchus argued that the advantages of such land redistribution would have benefited the state, since land-ownership was a pre-requisite for military service. Aware that the Senate&rsquos Optimates faction opposed his proposal, Gracchus took his law directly to the Plebeian Council, which passed it. This measure resulted in escalating conflict between Gracchus and the rest of the Senate. At a meeting of the Senate, the pontifex maximus, who was Tiberius Gracchus&rsquo own cousin Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, ultimately argued that Gracchus had attempted to make himself king thus, he had to be stopped. Since weapons were banned inside the Senate building, enraged Senators grabbed whatever was on hand, including chair and table legs, and clubbed Gracchus to death. As the biographer Plutarch states, this was the first instance of civic strife of this kind in ancient Rome.

The death of Tiberius Gracchus also meant the death of his proposed law. Ten years later, however, Gracchus&rsquo proposed reforms gained a second life in the hands of his younger brother, Gaius Gracchus, who was elected plebeian tribune in 123 BCE and served a second term in that office in 122 BCE. Gaius Gracchus&rsquo revived agrarian reform proposal was even more ambitious than his brother&rsquos a decade earlier. Especially controversial was Gaius Gracchus&rsquo proposal of granting full Roman citizenship to Rome&rsquos Italian allies. Finally, in 121 BCE, alarmed at Gaius Gracchus&rsquo popularity with the people, the consul Lucius Opimius proposed a new measure in the Senate: a senatus consultum ultimum, or the final decree of the Senate, which amounted to allowing the consuls to do whatever was necessary to safeguard the state. Realizing that the passing of this law amounted to his death sentence, Gaius Gracchus committed suicide.

The proposed reforms of Gaius Gracchus were overturned after his death, but the legacy of the Gracchi for the remainder of the history of the Roman Republic cannot be underestimated. First, their proposed laws showed the growing conflict between the rich and the poor in the Roman state. Second, the willingness on the part of prominent Senators to resort to violence to resolve matters set a dangerous precedent for the remainder of the Republic and fundamentally changed the nature of Roman politics. Finally, the support that the Gracchi received from the Roman people, as well as the residents of Italian cities who were not full citizens, showed that the causes that the Gracchi adopted were not going to go away permanently after their death. Indeed, Rome&rsquos Italian allies went to war against Rome in 90 &ndash 88 BCE the result of this Social War, after &ldquosocii,&rdquo meaning &ldquoallies,&rdquo was the grant of full Roman citizenship rights to Italians.


How Dictators Work

The office of dictator once had a very different meaning from how we think of it today. It was first created by the Roman Senate in 510 B.C. for emergency purposes, such as taking care of rebellions. During the time of the Republic, Rome was ruled by two consuls, and the Senate decided that in some cases it was necessary to have a single person making decisions. Sometimes, one of the consuls became dictator.

Dictators held authority over all other politicians, couldn't be held legally responsible for their actions and couldn't hold the office for longer than six months (although there were two exceptions to this rule). They could also change Roman law and the constitution, but they couldn't use any public money other than what the Senate gave them, and they couldn't leave Italy. Most dictators left office after they completed their tasks, even if their six months hadn't yet elapsed.

Titus Larcius, had been a consul. He was chosen to put down a rebellion staged by several cities that wanted to reinstate the most recent Roman king, Tarquin II. Titus Larcius was a member of the patrician class, the privileged elite. He worked to improve the lives of the plebeians, the middle- and lower-class Romans.

Dictators were appointed off and on as necessary until 202 B.C. More than 100 years later, Lucius Cornelius Sulla was appointed dictator without a term limit and without the restrictions of previous dictators. He ruled for two years in the office and executed thousands of Roman citizens, many of them political opponents. Sulla also became rich by confiscating property. He was succeeded by Julius Caesar, who was named dictator for life and proceeded to begin a civil war. Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C., and the office of dictator was abolished due to its corruption.

Modern dictators usually come to power during states of emergency, too. Many historians consider Napoleon Bonaparte to be the first modern dictator. Napoleon was a general during the French Revolution, a period of huge social and political upheaval in the country. Beginning in 1789, France evolved from a monarchy to a republic, and then to an empire. In the midst of executions, coups and confusion, Napoleon became a consul under a new provisional government.

Because he was an undefeated military commander, Napoleon enjoyed immense popularity. He created a balan­ced budget, reformed the government and wrote the Civil Code that still forms the basis of French civil law today. Napoleon then abolished the Senate and continued to reform the constitution. He named himself consul for life, and in 1804, crowned himself emperor. He continued his military pursuits, fighting across Europe.

Napoleon controlled every facet of government and had a network of spies. He also controlled the press, ensuring that his propaganda machine continued. But his reign began to falter when his invasion of Russia was a failure. A coalition of European forces, including armies from Great Britain, Prussia, Spain and Portugal, surrounded France.

Generals in the French Army mutinied and Napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne. After a brief return to power, he was exiled for good in 1815.

So from ancient dictators to modern ones, dictators have several different commonalities. Let's look at what makes a dictator a dictator in the next section.


Course [ edit | wysig bron]

With Mithridates defeated and Cinna now dead in a mutiny, Sulla was determined to regain control of Rome. In 83 BC he landed uncontested at Brundisium with three veteran legions. As soon as he had set foot in Italy, the outlawed nobles and old Sullan supporters who had survived the Marian regime flocked to his banner. The most prominent was Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had gathered legions in Africa and, with Marcus Licinius Crassus who had raised troops in Spain, joined Sulla soon after his landing in Italy. The consular Lucius Marcius Philippus also joined Sulla and led a force which secured Sardinia for the Sullan cause. Here is also where the young Gnaeus Pompey first comes into the limelight, the son of Pompeius Strabo, he raised three legions in Picenum and, defeating and outmanoeuvering the Marian forces, made his way to Sulla. With these reinforcements Sulla's army swelled to around 50,000 men, and with his loyal legions he began his second march on Rome.

To check his enemies' unresisted advance, Carbo sent his newly elected puppet Consuls, Gaius Norbanus and Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, both with armies against Sulla. Eager not to appear a war-hungry invader, Sulla sent deputations to Norbanus offering to negotiate, but these were rejected. Norbanus then moved to block Sulla's advance at Canusium and became the first to engage him in the Battle of Mount Tifata. Here Sulla inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marians, with Norbanus losing six thousand of his men to Sulla's seventy. The beaten Norbanus withdrew with the remnants of his army to Capua and Sulla was stopped in his pursuit by the second Consul, Scipio. But Scipio's men were unwilling to fight and when Sulla approached they deserted en masse to him, further swelling his ranks. The Consul and his son were found cowering in their tents and brought to Sulla, who released them after extracting a promise that they would never again fight against him or rejoin Carbo. However, immediately after their release Scipio broke his promise and went straight to Carbo in Rome. Sulla then defeated Norbanus for a second time, who also escaped back to Rome and had Metellus Pius and all other senators marching with Sulla declared enemies of the state. The new Consuls for the year 82BC were Carbo, for his third term, and Gaius Marius the Younger, who was only twenty-two years old at the time. In the respite from campaigning provided by Winter, the Marians set about replenishing their forces. Quintus Sertorius levied men in Etruria, old veterans of Marius came out of retirement to fight under his son and the Samnites gathered their warriors in support of Carbo, hoping to destroy the man who defeated them in the Social War, Sulla. As the fresh campaigning season opened, Sulla swept along the Via Latina towards the capital and Metellus led Sullan forces into Upper Italy. Carbo threw himself against Metellus whilst the young Marius defended the city of Rome itself. Marius moved to block Sulla's advance at Signia, falling back to the fortress town of Praeneste, in front of which he drew up for battle. The struggle was long and hard fought but in the end the veteran Sullans won the day. With his lines buckling and mass defections of his troops to Sulla, Marius decided to flee. He and many of his men sought refuge in Praeneste but the terrified townspeople shut the gates, Marius himself had to be hoisted in on a rope, while hundreds of Marians trapped between the walls and the Sullans were massacred. Sulla then left his lieutenant Lucretius Ofella besieging Praeneste and moved on the now undefended Rome. Upon his defeat Marius sent word to the praetor Brutus Damasippus in Rome, to kill any remaining Sullan sympathisers left before Sulla can take the city. Damasippus called a meeting of the Senate and there, in the Curia itself the marked men were cut down by assassins. Some, such as Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus were killed on the senate steps as they tried to flee, and the Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of Rome, Quintus Mucius Scaevola was murdered in the Temple of Vesta, and the bodies of the murdered were then thrown into the Tiber.

As Sulla surrounded the city with his troops, the gates were opened by the people and he entered unresisted, taking Rome without a fight, the remaining Marians having fled. The city was his but Sulla did not spend long in Rome before he once again set out with his army. Around the same time Sulla was defeating Marius, Metellus was facing an army led by Carbo's general Gaius Carrinas, which he routed, and Carbo, with his superior force, after hearing of the defeat at Praeneste withdrew to Arminium. Sulla then won another victory at Saturnia, followed by his defeat of Carbo at Clusium. Having taken and looted the town of Sena, Pompey and Crassus then slaughtered 3,000 Marians at Spoletium, before ambushing and destroying a force sent by Carbo to relieve Marius in Praeneste. Meanwhile the Samnite Pontius Telesinus and the Lucanian Marcus Lamponius were hurrying with 70,000 men to also break the siege at Praeneste. This force Sulla blocked at a pass and made their route impossible, he also blocked an attempt by Damasippus with two legions to reach Marius. Metellus then crushed an army led by Norbanus at Faventia and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus won a victory over Carbo's men at Placentia. Carbo had suffered nothing but defeats and setbacks for the entire war, and now he lost heart. Even though he still had armies in the field he decided to flee the scene. With his staff and some men Carbo fled to Sicily, attempting to carry on resistance there. With their leader gone the remainder of the Marian forces united for one final stand. Damasippus, Carrinas joined their men with the Samnites and Lucanians and marched on Rome. There, at the Battle of the Colline Gate, the last decisive battle of the civil war took place and out of the bitter, long fought struggle Sulla eventually emerged victorious and 50,000 lay dead, amongst them Telesinus the Samnite. Carrinas and Lamponius were brought to Sulla the following day and executed.

Sulla now entered the city victorious. A meeting of the Senate was convened in the Temple of Bellona, as Sulla was addressing the senators the sound of terrified screams drifted in from the Campus Martius. Sulla told the senators not to worry, that some 'criminals are receiving correction.' It was the sound of 8,000 prisoners who had surrendered the previous day being executed on Sulla's orders, none were spared. Soon Sulla had himself declared Dictator, he now held supreme power over Rome. When the starving people of Praeneste despaired and surrendered to Ofella, Marius hid in the tunnels under the town and tried to escape through them but failed and committed suicide. The people of Praeneste were then mostly massacred by Ofella. Carbo was soon discovered and arrested by Pompey, whom Sulla had sent to track the man down. Pompey had the weeping man brought before him in chains and publicly executed him in Lilybaeum, his head then sent to Sulla and displayed along with Marius' and many others in the Forum.


Sulla's Reforms as Dictator - History

Vervaet Frederik Juliaan. Die lex Valeria and Sulla’s empowerment as dictator (82-79 BCE). In: Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, 15, 2004. pp. 37-84.

Cahiers Glotz, XV, 2004, p. 37-84 FREDERIK JULIAAN VERVAET

AND SULLA’S EMPOWERMENT AS DICTATOR (82-79 BCE)*

1. Introduction

* All years are consular years BCE. The term imperator is used in its broad sense of official

cum imperio suo iure. I wish to warmly thank Professors Fergus Millar (Oxford), David Wardle (Cape Town) and Frédéric Hurlet (Nantes), and Marcia DeVoe, graduate student at UC Berkeley, for their elaborate and useful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. Responsibility for all remaining flaws and errors is mine alone. All translations are those of LCL, modified where necessary. To a certain extent, this article may be construed as a complement to Frédéric Hurlet’s La dictature de Sylla: monarchie ou magistrature républicaine? Essai d’histoire constitutionelle,

Brussel-Rome, 1993, the first comprehensive study of the public nature of Sulla’s dictatorship in all its respects, which also gathers a wide variety of valuable source material concerning the Roman dictatorship in general. In recognition of Professor Hurlet’s ongoing and inspiring contributions to the field of Roman political and institutional history, this far more modest contribution to the discussion on Sulla’s dictatorship is dedicated to him. Last but not least, I also wish to commend the members of the comité de lecture of the Cahiers du Centre Gustave-Glotz

for their kind willingness to accept this lengthy and circumstantial study in Roman public law. This study was for the most part carried out while being a grateful recipient of a Francqui Fellowship of the Belgian American Educational Foundation granted for research at UC Berkeley’s most welcoming Department of Ancient History and Mediterranean Archaeology.

At the end of 82, in the wake of Sulla’s second vengeful march on Rome, the dictatorship was revived on behalf of the dauntless conqueror of Mithridates. The office had now been obsolete for 120 years. This paper attempts to define the precise legal scope of Sulla’s dictatorship, and aims in particular to demonstrate that the empowering lex Valeria set down a number of detailed provisions concerning both Sulla’s past acts and the extraordinary

potestates he was to wield as the holder of an unprecedented kind of dictatorship. It will also demonstrate that, in terms of public law, Sulla’s dictatorship can indeed hardly be compared to the dictatorship as it occasionally appeared until 202. Of course, one should never forget that the exceptional measures allowed to Sulla on the occasion of his final victory over the opposing faction occurred against the unusual background of the first major breakdown of the

Res Publica. During the years 88-82, following immediately upon the exhausting Social War, Rome itself was for the first time in its history thrice shattered


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