Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen is gebore in Luxemburg op 27 Maart 1879. Toe Edward drie jaar oud was, verhuis sy gesin na die Verenigde State en vestig hulle uiteindelik in Hancock, Michigan.

Op vyftienjarige leeftyd het Steichen 'n litografie -vakleerlingskap by die American Fine Art Company in Milwaukee begin. Hy het ook lesings deur Richard Lorenz en Robert Schode bygewoon by Milwaukee's Arts Students League. Steichen het in 1895 met fotografie begin, maar het vir die komende twintig jaar aanhou skilder.

In 1899 is 'n paar van Steichen se foto's in die Tweede Philadelphia -salon uitgestal. Drie van hierdie afdrukke is deur die fotograaf Alfred Stieglitz gekoop. Die twee mans het goeie vriende geword en in 1902 saam met Clarence White, Alvin Langdon Coburn en Gertrude Kasebier om die Photosecession Group te vorm. Stieglitz het ook Steichen se werk in sy joernaal bevorder, Kamerawerk en sy Little Gallery in Fifth Avenue, New York.

Steichen het in 1904 met kleurfotografie begin eksperimenteer en was een van die eerste mense in die Verenigde State wat die Lumiere Autochrome -proses gebruik het. Hy het na Europa gereis en die werk van die beste fotograwe versamel, en dit is in 1910 deur Alfred Stieglitz uitgestal tydens die International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography. Een en dertig van Steichen se foto's verskyn ook in die uitstalling.

In 1913 bestee Alfred Stieglitz 'n dubbele uitgawe van Kamerawerk na Steichen se foto's. Hy skryf in die tydskrif: 'Niks wat ek ooit gedoen het, het my soveel tevredenheid verskaf dat ek uiteindelik hierdie nommer die wêreld in gestuur het nie.'

Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Steichen bevelvoerder geword van die fotografiese afdeling van die Amerikaanse ekspedisiemagte. Dit het hom die geleentheid gebied om betrokke te raak by lugfotografie. Geskok oor wat hy aan die Westelike Front gesien het, veroordeel Steichen impressionistiese fotografie en konsentreer hulle eerder op realisme. Hy het later geskryf: "Ek is nie meer bekommerd oor fotografie as 'n kunsvorm nie. Ek glo dat dit moontlik die beste medium is om die mens aan homself en sy medemens te verduidelik."

Na die oorlog raak Steichen toenemend betrokke by kommersiële fotografie. Hy werk vir die J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency en word in 1923 hooffotograaf vir Conde Nast Publications en sy werk verskyn gereeld in Vogue en Vanity Fair. Hy publiseer ook portrette van baie bekende figure, waaronder Carl Sandburg, Charles Chaplin en H. L. Mencken.

In 1945 word Steichen direkteur van die U.S. Naval Photographic Institute. Steichen was verantwoordelik vir die publikasie van die gevegsfotografie van die vloot en het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog die Pad na oorwinning en Krag in die Stille Oseaan uitstallings in die Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Na die oorlog word Steichen direkteur van fotografie by die Museum of Modern Art. Dit sluit die organisasie in 1955 in van die gewildste uitstalling in die geskiedenis van fotografie, Die familie van die mens. In 1964 is die Edward Steichen Photography Centre in die museum gestig. Edward Steichen is op 25 Maart 1973 in West Redding, Connecticut, oorlede.


Edward Steichen - Geskiedenis

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Steichen, Edward (1879-1973), Amerikaanse fotograaf, wat gesoek het na 'n emosionele, impressionistiese weergawe van sy onderwerpe en probeer het om fotografie as 'n ernstige kunsvorm te erken.

Steichen is op 27 Maart 1879 in Luxemburg gebore en as kind na die Verenigde State gebring. Hy het op 16 met fotografie begin werk en het op 21 na Parys gegaan om skilderkuns te studeer.

In New York het hy (1905) by die Amerikaanse fotograaf Alfred Stieglitz aangesluit om 'n galery te stig wat bekend staan ​​as '291', waar baie belangrike 20ste-eeuse skilders hul eerste Amerikaanse vertonings ontvang het. Die jaar daarna keer Steichen terug na Parys, waar hy eksperimenteer met skildery, fotografie en die kruising van plante.

In 1923 keer Steichen terug na New York as hooffotograaf vir Vanity Fair en Vogue tydskrifte. Onder die beroemde mense wat hy vir Vanity Fair afgeneem het, is die Amerikaanse akteur Greta Garbo en die Britse akteur Charlie Chaplin.

In 1938 tree Steichen terug na syne West Redding, Connecticut, plaas. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hy 'n gevegsfotografiespan van die Amerikaanse vloot gelei.

In 1947 word Steichen aangestel as direkteur van fotografie vir die Museum of Modern Art in New York. Hy berei The Family of Man voor, 'n fotografiese uitstalling (1955) wat later deur die wêreld getoer het en in boekvorm 3 miljoen eksemplare verkoop het. Sy werk word versamel in die Museum of Modern Art en Eastman House, Rochester, New York. Hy is op 25 Maart 1973 in West Redding oorlede.

Kyk na voorbeelde van sy werk- Steichen Photographs.

Topstone Park
Oliver Goulston

'N Groep burgers van Redding het die stad 270 hektaar oop ruimte gebied, insluitend die swemarea van die stad. Die burgers, wat hulself Redding Open Lands, Inc. (R.O.L.I.) noem, het die idee in 1970 begin.

Die jaar tevore het Axel Bruzelius, wat 'n plaasvervanger in die Beplanningskommissie was, belanggestel in 'n projek in Lincoln, Massachusetts. 'N Hele plaas in 'n voorstad van Boston is deur die plaaslike burgers gekoop. Die oortollige grond is aan die stad gegee. Mnr. Bruzelius besluit dat Redding 'n soortgelyke organisasie benodig.

Omstreeks hierdie tyd het Edward Steichen, die bekende fotograaf, besluit om alles behalwe 38 van die 421 hektaar wat hy besit op Topstoneweg te verkoop. Voordat mnr Steichen dit op die ope mark plaas, het hy die stad die voorreg gegee om te weier. 'N Groep van twaalf burgers het besluit om 'n organisasie te stig en te probeer om dieselfde te bereik as wat in Massachusetts gedoen is.

R.O.L.I. begin met die idee om 'n park op die eiendom van mnr. Steichen te bou. Geloof in die idee van R.O.L.I., het nog elf burgers by die groep aangesluit. James Jenkins is verkies tot die voorsitter van die eerste vergadering en William Karraker is as voorsitter van die organisasie verkies. Hulle plan was om die grootte van die pakkie te verander sodat die grond wat beskikbaar is vir die aankoop van die stad, minder as 'n miljoen dollar werd sou wees. Hulle was dit eens dat as R.O.L.I. genoeg oppervlakte gekoop het, sou die waarde van die oorblywende grond onder 'n miljoen dollar beloop word.

R.O.L.I. kon 'n banknota vir $ 350,000 dollar beding om slegs deur die handtekeninge van die 23 lede van R.O.L.I. Dit het R.O.L.I. om 117 van die 387 hektaar te koop. Die nota is op 1 Maart 1971 onderteken.

Die stad het inderdaad die ander 270 hektaar gekoop, en dit word nou gebruik vir oop ruimte en 'n natuurpark.

Maar R.O.L.I. moes sy geld terugkry. Hulle het besluit om hul oppervlakte in erwe te verkoop. Die kleinste is 2,8 hektaar en die grootste 10,6 hektaar. Hulle het al 15 erwe verkoop en uiteindelik 'n wins behaal. Hierdie winste is aangewend om die Bewaringskommissie en die Land Trust te help.

History of Redding is nie 'n onderneming of 'n organisasie nie. Dit is een persoon wat die geskiedenis van sy tuisdorp wil bevorder
en omliggende gebiede. Alle koste is uit die sak, sodat skenkings en/of borgskappe my meer tyd kan afstaan
en moeite om navorsing en opdaterings te doen.


Edward Steichen

Hy het as leerling by die American Fine Art Company, 'n litografiefirma, gestudeer. Sy natuurlike talent het gereeld geskilder en geteken, en hy het spoedig plakkate vir die onderneming ontwerp. Steichen het kennis gemaak met fotografie en het sy eerste kamera, 'n Kodak 50-beligtingskassa, in 1895 gekoop.

Steichen se artistieke instinkte en vermoëns is slegs na die kamera oorgedra, en binne 'n paar jaar vertoon hy eerder foto's as sy skilderye. Teen 1898 het hy sy eerste vertoning by die Philadelphia Photographic Salon gehad, met een jurylid, Clarence White. Een jaar later was Clarence White en Alfred Stieglitz die beoordelaars van 'n fotografievertoning wat by die Chicago Art Institute gehou sou word, en byna al Steichen se inskrywings is aanvaar. In 1900 open F. Holland Day The New School of American Photography in Londen, en Steichen se foto's is ingesluit. In dieselfde jaar besluit Steichen om na New York te gaan.

Tydens Steichen se kort besoek aan New York het Stieglitz 'n paar foto's van Steichen vir slegs $ 5 elk gekoop! Dit was die eerste foto's wat Steichen verkoop het. 'N Rustelose kunstenaar, in Mei 1900 is Steichen na die S.S. -sjampanje na Europa om F. Holland Day te besoek en die skool te besoek. Hy woon tot 1902 in Parys, waar hy wyd uitstal en Rodin ontmoet. Toe Steichen na New York terugkeer, het Steiglitz hom as "die grootste fotograaf" beskou. Steichen het nie in 'spesialisme' geglo nie. Hy het gesê: 'Ek glo dat kuns kosmopolities is en dat ons alle punte moet raak. Ek haat spesialisme. Dit is die ondergang van kuns ... ”Terwyl Steichen in Parys geëksperimenteer het met gepigmenteerde verwerking en met sy terugkeer na Amerika, bevorder hy sy eksperimentele stadiums met fotografie, werk met platinum, gom -bichromaat, gelatien silwer koolstof en enige kombinasie van die genoemde. Die fotografie -tydskrif Camera Work was Steichen se perfekte artistieke weg.

In 1902 begin Steichen en Stieglitz hul lang en produktiewe verhouding en word die stigterslede van die Photo-Session. Die nommer 2 -uitgawe van Camera Work was amper heeltemal toegewy aan Steichen se fotografie. Gedurende die tydperk van die tydskrif is Steichen meer as 70 keer gepubliseer. Dit was meer as enige fotograaf wat deur Stieglitz versamel en gepubliseer is. Benewens sy fotografiese bydraes, het Steichen ook die uitlegte bewerk, ontwerp en kritiese opstelle geskryf. Sy werk met die tydskrif is in 1906 onderbreek toe hy na Parys terugkeer waar hy en sy gesin (hy trou in 1903 met Clara E. Smith) tot 1914 gewoon het.

Alhoewel hy oor see was, het Steichen sy bydraes tot Camera Work voortgesit, en terwyl hy in Parys was, het hy van baie kunstenaars geleer en inligting gestuur oor Cezanne, Picasso, Rodin en ander wat uiteindelik in New York in galery 291 vertoon is. en eksperimenteer met die Autochrome -proses in Parys, is Steichen na Parys om op skilderkuns te konsentreer. Hy het gehelp om die New Society of American Painters in Parys te organiseer. Hy het ook uitgestal in die Albright Art Gallery by die International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography in New York. Die katalogus vir die vertoning lui: "In die stryd om die erkenning van fotografie was die werk van mnr. Steichen een van die kragtigste faktore, en sy invloed op sommige werkers, sowel in Amerika as in Europa, is duidelik gemerk." Alfred Stieglitz is aangewys as die een persoon wat verantwoordelik was vir die bring van moderne kuns na Amerika, maar dit was Steichen wat dit in baie opsigte aan Stieglitz voorgestel het. Steichen het ook meer uitgebrei met fotografie as kuns as die meeste fotograwe van sy tyd. Dit was egter nie die omvang van sy werk nie.

Teen 1911 begin Steichen met modefotografie met Art et Decoration. Dit was 'n nuwe era in sy lewe en die begin van die einde van sy verhouding met Stieglitz wat nie met kommersiële fotografie saamstem nie. Soos Steichen aangehaal het, wou hy egter die vele aspekte van die fotografie -kuns ondersoek. Hy het eenkeer gesê: "Ek sal die kamera gebruik solank ek lewe, want dit kan dinge sê wat met geen ander medium gesê kan word nie."

Steichen keer in 1914 terug na die Verenigde State en het uiteindelik by die weermag aangesluit tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en het gehelp om die fotografiese afdeling van die Army Expeditionary Forces te vestig en word, en sy werk daar aan lugfotografie gewy. Hy verlaat die diens in 1919 met 'n rang as luitenant -kolonel. Hierdie ervaring het sy indruk gemaak. Hy sou terugkeer na mode- en kommersiële fotografie, maar met 'n nuwe uitkyk. Die sukses van lugfotografie lê in die hoë definisie. Steichen het die skoonheid van duidelik gefokusde fotografie raakgesien en teen 1920 verwerp hy die piktoralisme heeltemal, verbrand sy skilderye en wy hom geheel en al aan modernistiese idees. 'As 'n skilder het ek 'n hoë muurpapier vervaardig met 'n goue raam daar rondom ... ons het al die skilderye wat ek gemaak het, in die tuin getrek en ons het 'n vuur gemaak van die hele ding ... dit was 'n bevestiging van my geloof in fotografie en die opening van 'n hele nuwe wêreld vir my. "

Van 1923 tot 1937 werk Steichen met groot finansiële sukses vir die Conde Nast -publikasies, Vogue en Vanity Fair en vryskut kommersiële werk. Hy het die standaarde vir mode en kommersiële fotografie verhoog, met portrette van mense soos Chaplin, Gershwin, Mencken en Garbo. Gedurende hierdie tyd skei hy van sy eerste vrou en trou weer met Dana Desboro Glover en woon permanent in die Verenigde State. Hy tree in 1937 uit die mode- en kommersiële fotografie. 'N Paar jaar later word hy aangestel as luitenant -bevelvoerder in die Amerikaanse vlootreservaat en word hy uiteindelik direkteur van die Amerikaanse vlootfotografie -afdeling tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy eerste eenheid het sewe jong mans gehad, wat Steichen die belangrikheid van die fotografie van die mans in die weermag uitgespreek het. Hy het gesê: "die skepe en vliegtuie, hulle sou lankal verouderd wees, maar die mans raak nooit verouderd nie." Aan die einde van sy vlootloopbaan in 1945 was hy in beheer van 4 000 man, almal van die gevegsfotograwe van die vloot, en was hy aangewys as kaptein. Tydens sy diens het hy ook die twee vertonings vir die Museum of Modern Art, The Road to Victory and Power in the Pacific, geregisseer. Steichen het ook toesig gehou oor die verfilming van The Fighting Lady. En tog was sy loopbaan nog nie verby nie.

Twee jaar nadat hy by die vloot afgetree het, word Edward Steichen die direkteur van die afdeling Fotografie in die Museum of Modern Art in New York. Daar het hy geskep wat die bekendste fotografiese uitstalling van alle tye geword het, The Family of Man. Dit is geopen in Januarie 1955. Drie jaar lank reis Steichen die wêreld vol om hierdie uitstalling te vorm. Volgens Steichen was die hoofdoel of tema van die uitstalling om '' 'n spieël van die wesenlike eenheid van die mensdom '' te skep. Fotografie as die universele taal het hom geïnspireer om die uitstalling saam te stel met meer as 500 foto's van 273 fotograwe uit 68 verskillende lande. Amateurs vir professionele fotograwe, waaronder Ernst Haas, Robert Capa, Eugene Smith, Henri Cartier-Bresson en Andreas Feininger is gesoek vir The Family of Man. Alle regte op die beelde is verbeur en Steichen het volledige kreatiewe beheer. Hy sou die beelde sny, opblaas en verklein, omdat hy sy visuele boodskap wou lees dat die hele wêreld geluk van liefde en hartseer van die dood beleef. Alhoewel dit beskou word as een van die grootste uitstallings wat deur 9,000,000 mense gesien is, het dit egter sy kritici gehad. Fotografekritikus van die New York Times, Jacob Deschin, skryf: "die vertoning is in wese 'n prentverhaal om 'n konsep en 'n redaksionele prestasie te ondersteun eerder as 'n uitstalling van fotografie."

Die uitstalling het agt jaar lank getoer. Daar was 37 lande op 6 kontinente en hou die rekord vir die hoogste bywoning van enige uitstalling. Aan die einde van sy toer het die uitstalling dertig jaar van verwaarlosing beleef. Uiteindelik het dit in 1994 na Luxemburg gegaan, waar dit nou in die Steichen -museum bewaar word. Tydens sy bestuur as bestuur tot 1962 het Steichen talle ander uitstallings saamgestel en diverse fotografie vir die museum versamel.

Steichen het gedurende sy leeftyd ontelbare toekennings en eerbewyse ontvang. Hy was die onderwerp van talle artikels, boeke en uitstallings. Sy voor die hand liggende bydrae tot fotografie het daartoe gelei dat hy in 1974 by die International Photography Hall of Fame and Museum opgeneem is. Die museum bevat verskeie van Steichen se foto's, waaronder verskeie van Camera Work en een van sy bekendste, The Flat Iron.

Vandag is ek nie meer bekommerd oor fotografie as 'n kunsvorm nie. Ek glo dat dit moontlik die beste medium is om die mens aan homself en aan sy medemens te verduidelik.


Edward Steichen -kunswerke

Steichen het verskeie foto's geneem van die virtuose Franse beeldhouer Auguste Rodin. Hy het ook afdrukke van sy beelde gemaak en baie van Rodin se sketse en tekeninge by die 291 Galery in New York. Die twee mans het goeie vriende geword terwyl Steichen aan die begin van die twintigste eeu in Montparnasse gewoon het. Rodin sou inderdaad peetpa word van Steichen se dogter Katherine wie se middelnaam Rodina gekies is as huldeblyk aan die beeldhouer.

Op hierdie foto is Rodin in profiel aan die linkerkant van die beeld, en weerspieël (aan die regterkant van die raam) die profiel van moontlik sy mees ikoniese beeldhouwerk, Le Penseur (Die Denker). Op die agtergrond is nog een van Rodin se beroemde werke, syne Monument vir Victor Hugo, 'n skrywer wie se werk die Fransman baie bewonder het. (Die monument vir Hugo word hier slegs in gips weergegee en is eers na Rodin se dood in brons gegiet.) Beide werke verbind Rodin met die intellektuele deugde van kuns, filosofie en letterkunde en Steichen se doel was om hom ook met hierdie eienskappe te vereenselwig. Deur 'n moderne kunstenaar en met twee van sy kunswerke te fotografeer, roep Steichen 'n soort van vierrigtinggesprekke op (tussen Rodin, die denker, Hugo en Steichen self), wat fotografie, nog in sy kinderskoene in 1900, as 'n wettige hulpmiddel vir brei die dialoog van modernisme uit.

Fotograaf - Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Landskap met laan van bome

In sy vroeë loopbaan het Steichen skildery en fotografie gekombineer, en u kan hier sien hoe sy skildery oor sy fotografiese werk ingelig het. In Landskap met laan van bome, Toon Steichen duidelik die invloed van Tonalisme, 'n artistieke beweging wat begin het met die skilder James McNeill Whistler in die 1870's. Whistler, wat 'n erkende invloed op die jong Steichen was, was geïnteresseerd in die skildery van sy skilderye op 'n manier wat die komposisie van musiekstukke weerspieël, maar deur kleur eerder as notas te gebruik. Deur hierdie noue komposisiestruktuur en fokus, ondersoek Tonaliste die subtiele nuanses van kleur en die moontlikhede daarvan om 'n gegewe stemming uit te druk (baie soos musiek).

Hierdie skildery toon Steichen se vaardigheid om die nuanses van uitdrukking deur middel van 'n gedempte kleurpalet te kommunikeer. Die werk grens amper tot abstraksie deur sy wisselwerking tussen donker en lig. Alhoewel die titel ons in kennis stel van die 'laan van bome', is die vorms op die voorgrond nie noodwendig maklik nie, en die landskap self word slegs flou uitgebeeld. Die maan kyk net agter die blare van die hoë boom uit, wat 'n gloed om die rand van sy vorm gee en 'n byna rimpelende effek van lig oor die lug self veroorsaak. Dit is 'n beeld wat ons konsentrasie vereis, Steichen moedig sy kyker aan om te kyk (en weer te kyk) om die onderskeid in kleur, vorm en lyn te bepaal.

Olieverf op doek - privaat versameling

Flatiron -gebou

Steichen se belangstelling in die onderlinge verband tussen fotografie en Tonalistiese skildery blyk duidelik uit sy beroemde beelde van die Flatiron -gebou. Die Flatiron -gebou, geleë in Fifth Avenue 175 in Manhattan, was met sy voltooiing in 1902 een van die hoogste ter wêreld en was werklik uniek vanweë sy vorm. Hierdie beeld is die eerste keer in die openbaar gesien tydens die "International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography" wat in 1910 in Buffalo, New York, gehou is. Dit was in werklikheid een van ses honderd beelde wat deur Alfred Stieglitz gekies is as 'n manier om die kuns van piktoristiese fotografie ten toon te stel. Steichen se foto, wat sy gevoel vir vorms en teksture beklemtoon, het een van sy bekendste beelde geword en dit is maklik om 'n verhouding hier te sien met sy skildery Landskap met laan van bome. Die bou van die titel doem onrusbarend op die agtergrond op, 'n groot skaduwee in die middel van die raam. Steichen laat die punt van die gebou weg, asof die raam miskien nie die groot skaal daarvan kan bevat nie.

Hierdie beeld is gemaak op die hoogtepunt van Steichen se piktorialistiese tydperk met die Foto-sessie groep. In hierdie tyd was hy geïnteresseerd in die aanpassing en manipulasie van sy foto's, en hier kleur hy die beeld in met pigmentlaag in 'n ligsensitiewe oplossing. Die beeld bestaan ​​eintlik in drie weergawes, elk met 'n effens ander toon en gevoel, wat aantoon hoe kragtig kleur in 'n veranderende bui kan wees. Met hierdie afdruk was sy doel om in die vroeë oggendure iets van die nuanses van lig vas te vang. Soos professor William Sharpe opgemerk het: 'Die nag is 'n tyd van drome, van die onderdrukking van onderdrukte libidinale energie, en foto's soos hierdie benut die suggestiewe eienskappe van die stedelike landskap subtiel, deur 'n simboliese taal te gebruik om waarhede bekend te maak [wat middernag verborge sou wees]. "

Gom -bichromaat oor platinumafdruk - Gom -bichromaat oor platinumafdruk

Maanlig: Die dam

Hierdie beeld is geneem in Mamaroneck, New York, toe Steichen by sy vriend, die kunskritikus Charles Caffin, gekuier het. Dit beeld die maan op wat agter 'n skuur van bome opkom en dan weerkaats op 'n heeltemal stil dam. Soos Flatiron, Maanlig: Die dam gebruik lig en skaduwee op 'n buitengewoon stimulerende en spookagtige manier.

Steichen demonstreer hier nogmaals sy belangstelling in Tonalisme. Sy landskap word 'gewas' in 'n kleurtoon om 'n voltooide misagtige effek te vorm. Die wisselwerking tussen lig en donker en die breë donker wasgoed wat oor Steichen se palet gelê het, was dan heeltemal in ooreenstemming met die beeldvoorkeure van die Foto-sessie groep. Alhoewel die beeld baie eenvoudig lyk, is dit eintlik 'n komplekse emosionele samestelling in die manier waarop dit die ligbronne manipuleer. Die maan piek bo die horison en gloei helder deur die bome, terwyl dit in die middel van die raam posisioneer, wat 'n akkurate en bestudeerde komposisionele opset voorstel. Reageer op hierdie beeld in Kamerawerk, Bevestig Caffin Steichen se geloofsbriewe as 'n been-fide fotografiese kunstenaar deur hierdie taamlik poëtiese voorlesing: "Dit is in die penumbra, tussen die duidelike sigbaarheid van dinge en hul totale uitsterwing in die duisternis, wanneer die konkreetheid van voorkoms saamgevoeg word in halfgerealiseerde, half verward visie, lyk dit asof daardie gees hom losmaak van materie om dit te omhul met 'n raaisel van sielsuggestie. "

Windbrand, Thérèse Duncan op die Akropolis

In hierdie verstommende beeld, gemaak nadat hy sy belangstelling in Tonalisme laat vaar het, vang Steichen 'n ander wêreldse energie in die beweging van Thérèse Duncan, die aangenome dogter van die bekende danser Isadora Duncan. Steichen het Isadora ontmoet toe sy saam met haar dansgroep in Venesië was. Daarna volg hy haar na Griekeland in die hoop om haar op die Akropolis te kan dans. Uiteindelik was dit egter Thérèse en nie Isadora wat hy op die rotse bo die sitadel afgeneem het nie. Die beeld is die eerste keer gepubliseer in Vanity Fair in 1923 vergesel van 'n onderskrif van die digter Carl Sandburg (Steichen se swaer) wat lui: "Bokmeisie wat in die struikelblokke vasgevang is ... laat dit alles brand in hierdie windvuur, laat die vuur dit hê."

Op die foto het die uitbundige Thérèse haar liggaam verdraai, haar knie is vasgeslaan en haar arms word in 'n byna klassieke vroulike houding oor haar kop gehang. Sy staan ​​op 'n ongelyke rots met 'n paar blare wilde plante op die voorgrond, maar dit is haar golwende rok wat ons aandag trek. Die deurskynende materiaal verberg en onthul haar liggaam. Thérèse lyk vir ons as feitlik naak. Steichen het die volgende oor die beeld gesê: "Sy was 'n lewende reïnkarnasie van 'n Griekse nimf. . " Steichen het daarin geslaag om 'n tydlose beeld vas te lê in die manier waarop die moderne en die klassieke mekaar ontmoet.

Silwer gelatienafdruk - privaat versameling

Gloria Swanson

Hierdie portret van die stille filmster Gloria Swanson is een van Steichen se mees gevierde werke. Dit smelt die wêrelde van portret en modefotografie saam tot 'n betowerende effek. Die beeld is later gepubliseer in die uitgawe van Februarie 1928 van Vanity Fair om Swanson se nuwe film bekend te maak Sadie Thompson.

Joernalis, kritikus en redakteur van Vanity Fair Frank Crowinshield het na Steichen verwys as die 'wêreld se grootste lewende portretfotograaf' en in hierdie portret kan 'n mens sy punt waardeer. Die opvallendste element van die prentjie is die ster se hipnotiese oë wat direk in ons oë kyk. Aangesien hulle geen stem gehad het nie, was dit die norm vir stille filmsterre om hul teenwoordigheid op die skerm deur hul oë oor te dra. Swanson is inderdaad algemeen erken vir haar grootoog, en deur dit in hierdie beeld te beklemtoon, erken Steichen haar intelligensie en haar vaardigheid as kunstenaar. Op hierdie manier vier die portret haar standpunt as kunstenaar en haar kwaliteite as individu. Steichen skryf oor die fotosessie in sy outobiografie: "Aan die einde van die sessie neem ek 'n stukkie swart vetersluier en hang dit voor haar gesig. Sy herken die idee onmiddellik. Haar oë word verwyd en haar voorkoms was dié van 'n luiperdin wat skuil agter blaarryke struikgewas en na haar prooi kyk. Jy hoef nie dinge aan 'n dinamiese en intelligente persoonlikheid soos juffrou Swanson te verduidelik nie. Haar gedagtes werk vinnig en intuïtief. " In hierdie beskrywing erken Steichen dat as u wil streef na die beste portret, dan is daar moet eerstens 'n ware verbintenis tussen sitter en kunstenaar.

Silwerdruk van gelatien - privaat versameling

Die Maypole, Empire State Building

Gedurende die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu het New York tot sy reg gekom. Daar was aansienlike openbare fassinasie met wolkekrabbers en die vraag na argitektoniese fotografie en tydskrifte was groot. Steichen is dus in opdrag van Vanity Fair om die Empire State -gebou, destyds die hoogste gebou ter wêreld, en waarskynlik die grootste argitektoniese prestasie van die moderne wêreld, te fotografeer.

Gekonfronteer met die probleem om die ware majesteit van hierdie ikoniese landmerk vas te lê, berei Steichen hom voor met dieselfde bedagsaamheid waarmee hy sy portret benader het. Om die ware statuur van die gebou vas te lê, het Steichen 'n strategie beraam waardeur hy die gebou vooraan fotografeer en in 'n hoek vasmaak voordat hy die een negatief bo-op die ander plaas. Die eind -effek, waarin Steichen die gebou se krag in drie dimensies weergee, is verstommend. Wat die titel van die beelde betref, het Steichen gesê: "Ek het die gebou as 'n Maypole beskou. Om die werveling van 'n Maypole -dans voor te stel" (inderdaad 'n middelpunt van die stad waarheen die trotse inwoners van New York hulle kan verheug).

In 1951 het MoMA 'n 'Art Lending Service' begin wat begin in die tagtigerjare begin het. Die uitleendiens is ontwerp deur die Junior Raad van die museum om kunsversameling onder sy lede en/of die algemene publiek aan te moedig. Geselekteerde werke was drie maande op 'n slag te huur, waarna die beskermheer vry was om die werk aan die museum te koop of terug te besorg. Die Maypole was een van die gewildste beelde wat deur die "Art Lending Service" deurgegee is. Volgens MoMA se eie publisiteit, Die Maypole's gewildheid was "'n bewys van die tegnologiese vooruitgang in argitektuur net soos in fotografie, en [van] die ikoniese nalatenskap van een van die skerpste oë wat albei vasgevang het."


Verdere leeswerk

Steichen se eie rekening was 'N Lewe in fotografie (1963). Biografieë ingesluit: Penelope Niven's Steichen: 'n Biografie (Crown, 1997) Patricia Johnston's Real Fantasies: Edward Steichen's Advertising Photography (University of California Press, 1997) en Eric Sandeen's Stel 'n uitstalling voor: The "Family of Man" en Amerika uit die 1950's (University of New Mexico Press, 1995). 'N Ou biografie is Carl Sandburg, Steichen, die fotograaf (1929). 'N Groot, verteenwoordigende keuse van Steichen se werk was die New York Museum of Modern Art, Steichen die fotograaf (1961), uitstallingskatalogus met teks deur Sandburg, Alexander Liberman en Steichen en chronologie deur Grace M. Mayer. □


Edward Steichen - Biografie en nalatenskap

Eduard Jean Steichen is gebore in Bivange, Luxemburg in 1879. Sy pa, Jean-Pierre, verhuis die volgende jaar na die Verenigde State en Eduard en sy ma, Marie, in 1881, nadat sy pa werk in die kopermyne in Hancock gekry het. , naby Chicago. Eduard se suster Lilian is kort daarna in 1883 gebore. Die Steichen-gesin verhuis in 1889 na Milwaukee, Wisconsin, waar Marie, as gevolg van die agteruitgang van sy gesondheid, die rol van broodwinner aangeneem het as molenaar.

Toe hy vyftien was, het Steichen 'n vakleerlingskap in litografie by die American Fine Art Company van Milwaukee begin. Kort voor lank het hy die aanleg getoon om te teken en vinnig deur die geledere gegaan om 'n litografie -ontwerper te word. Hy koop 'n tweedehandse kamera in 1895 en begin homself leer hoe om foto's te neem. Hy studeer ook skilderkuns in sy vrye tyd en sy eerste uitstappies na fotografie het die skildertegnieke van die piktoristiese styl wat destyds in die mode was, behoorlik herhaal. Sy werkgewers was beïndruk met sy fotografiese werk en het daarop aangedring dat die ontwerpe van die onderneming voortaan uit sy werk moet kom. Kort daarna het Steichen en 'n uitgesoekte groep vriende die Milwaukee Art Students League gevorm. The League het 'n kamer in 'n sentrumgebou gehuur om in te werk en lesings aan te bied. In 1899 is die foto's van Steichen uitgestal in die tweede Philadelphia Photographic Salon langs die van Alfred Stieglitz en Clarence H. White. Die geleentheid was 'n voorspel vir 'n vrugbare professionele verhouding tussen die mans.

In 1900 skryf White aan Stieglitz om voor te stel dat hy met Steichen moet vergader. Die ontmoeting was 'n sukses, in werklikheid, dat Stieglitz Steichen se vroeë mentor en medewerker geword het. Stieglitz, wat 13 jaar oud was as Steichen en wat reeds 'n reputasie vir homself gemaak het, het drie van Steichen se afdrukke gekoop (vir $ 5 elk). Dit was die eerste afdrukke wat Steichen ooit verkoop het. In dieselfde jaar het Steichen 'n genaturaliseerde burger van die VSA geword en die spelling van sy naam verander van 'Eduard' in 'Edward'.

In Oktober 1900 het die Boston -fotograaf F. Holland Day 'n belangrike uitstalling aangebied met die titel Die New School of American Photography by die Londense hoofkwartier van die Royal Photographic Society. Sommige van die inhoud van die uitstalling het die Britse pers en die publiek geskok: inderdaad, Die fotografie nuus beweer dat die versameling 'bevorder is deur die gekheid van 'n paar kranksinniges'. Daar was 'n mate van onrustigheid oor die skool se 'progressiewe' piktorialistiese metode (in stryd met Day, Stieglitz wou nie deelneem aan die uitstalling nie), maar die ergernis was hoofsaaklik op Day gerig ('n individu wat opspraak was, en wat homself op Oscar Wilde gemodelleer het) vir sy homoerotiese beelde met naakte swart mans en 'n selfportret waarin hy homself as Christus voorgestel het. Tog, te midde van die ontsteltenis, is die 22-jarige Steichen uitgesonder vir 'n warboel lof.

Tussen 1900 en 1902 het Steichen 'n ateljee op die boheemse linkeroewer -gebied van Parys geneem. Sy verbintenisse met Europese moderniste was baie nuttig vir sy volgende mede-poging met Stieglitz: die galery in Fifth Avenue 291. Trading between 1905 and 1917, and officially called the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, it soon became known simply as 291. Thanks to Steichen's French connections, the 291 gallery was responsible for introducing the work of up and coming (and now legendary) French avant-gardists to the American public. In its first five years of operation, the gallery had exhibited works by the likes of Rodin, Cezanne, Matisse and Picasso.

In 1902 Steichen and Stieglitz established the artistic group Photo-Secession, a collective of photographers including White, Eva Watson-Schutze, William B. Dyer and Edmund Stirling. The group wanted to celebrate the photograph as art, but with a particular emphasis on Pictorialism, and the range of techniques that could be used to manipulate and alter the original composition. The birth of Photo-Secession coincided more-or-less with the inaugural edition of the influential quarterly Camera Work. Established by Stieglitz and Steichen, Camera Work, for which Steichen designed the logo and page layouts, and contributed essays, ran from 1903 to 1917. The second edition was devoted almost exclusively to Steichen's work and during its 14 year history, Steichen became Camera Work's most frequent contributor (with some 70 entries). Steichen's involvement with the magazine was interrupted in 1906 however when he returned to Paris with his family - Steichen had been married in 1903 to Cara E. Smith, a musician he met on his earlier visit to Paris - until 1914. Though he was still able to contribute to Camera Work, his primary motivation for returning to the French capital was to concentrate on his painting.

Middle Years

In 1910, divisions had started to arise between members of the Photo-Secession, due to differing opinions on the wavering artistic credibility of Pictorialism. There was a new call for a pure photographic style that would bring new perspectives and detail to ordinary or previously ignored subjects in the name of fine art. The new aesthetic took inspiration in the second half of the decade from Paul Strand whose "Straight" aesthetic condemned all forms of Pictorialism. Die Photo-Secession group dissolved around this time, and Steichen himself started to move into commercial photography. In 1911, he was commissioned to take photographs for the French magazine Art et Décoration. His images were to accompany a piece on the French fashion designer Paul Poiret, and are now widely considered to be the first examples of fashion photography.

When the U.S entered the First World War in 1917, Steichen joined the Army and helped create the photographic division, eventually becoming commander and head of aerial photography. In this role, he had to change his approach to photography, abandoning his Pictorialist style for a more exacting, realist method. The war also signalled a final break between himself and Stieglitz. Firstly, Stieglitz disapproved of Steichen's move into commercial photography and, secondly, the men had opposite views on the war. Stieglitz, a German, was primarily worried for the safety of his family and friends in Germany. He was also troubled by practical and commercial concerns such as the fact that he needed to find a new printer for the photogravures for Camera Work, which had been printed hitherto in Germany. For his part, Steichen supported America's involvement in the war and he was more concerned for the fate of Luxembourg (the country of his birth) and his beloved France. By the time the war had ended, Steichen had completely reappraised his photographic technique, and abandoned Pictorialism and painting altogether. He commented that: "As a painter I was producing a high grade wall paper with a gold frame around it [. ] we pulled all the paintings I had made out into the yard and we made a bonfire of the whole thing [. ] it was a confirmation of my faith in photography, and the opening of a whole new world to me."

He and Clara divorced in 1922 after several years of acrimony. The couple had two daughters, Katherine and Mary, but they had a difficult relationship with their father due in part to Clara's accusations of Steichen's infidelity. Steichen married actress Dana Desboro Glover in 1923. The same year, he returned to the world of fashion, and took up the post of chief photographer for Condé Nast, the publisher of high-end fashion magazines such as Vogue en Vanity Fair. Steichen then effectively transformed the world of fashion photography by making his haute couture images more animated and more inventive. He also took several portraits of dignitaries and Stars of stage and screen including Lillian Gish (as Ophelia), Marlene Dietrich, Gloria Swanson, Greta Garbo and Paul Robeson. Of his shoot with Robeson, Steichen said the following: "In photographing an artist, such as Paul Robeson, the photographer is given exceptional material to work with. In other words, he [the photographer] can count on getting a great deal for nothing, but that does not go very far unless the photographer is alert, ready and able to take advantage of such an opportunity."

Later years

After working for 15 years in the fashion industry, Steichen closed his studio on January 1 st , 1938. When World War II broke out, Steichen took up his second military post as Director of the Naval Aviation Photographic Unit. During his service (through which he rose to the rank of Captain) he produced two shows - The Road to Victory en Power in the Pacific - for the Museum of Modern Art, and directed his only film, a documentary entitled The Fighting Lady. The film followed the life of an aircraft carrier of the same name and won the Academy Award for Best Documentary in 1945.

Following the war, Steichen served as Director of the Department of Photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art between 1947 and 1961. In 1955 he curated and assembled the exhibit The Family of Man, an exhibition that travelled across the world and was seen by an estimated nine million people over eight years. The exhibition, the most famous photographic exhibition of all time, brought together works by two hundred and seventy-three different photographers, including the likes of Ansel Adams, Diane and Allan Arbus, Robert Frank, Nora Dumas, Lee Miller, Henk Jonker, and August Sander. Steichen had worked on the selection of images for two years and wanted to show the wide range of experiences photography can capture. In the press release from the time he said "[The photographers] have photographed the everyday story of man - his aspirations, his hopes, his loves, his foibles, his greatness, his cruelty his compassion, his relations to his fellow man as it is seen in him wherever he happens to live, whatever language he happens to speak, whatever clothes he happens to wear."

In 1957, Dana, his wife of 34 years, died of leukaemia. Three years later the 80-year-old Steichen married the copywriter Joanna Taub, 53 years his junior. They remained together until his death in 1973 when she became the guardian of her husband's legacy. While in his last year at MoMA, a 14-year-old boy named Stephen Shore rang Steichen to ask if he could show him some of his photographs. Admiring of the boy's audacity, Steichen allowed him an appointment and bought three of the images. Shore, known predominantly for his color photography, has gone on to have a long and laureled career.

In 1963 Steichen published his autobiography A life in Photography. He died on March 25th, 1973 at the age of 93 in his home on a farm in West Connecticut.

The Legacy of Edward Steichen

Steichen's place in the pantheon of photographic greats was secured as a young man through his contribution to three interlocked bodies: the Photo-Secession groep Camera Work en die 291 Gallery. With his colleagues he was instrumental in establishing a permanent footing for photography amongst the modern plastic arts and as such his influence can be traced through a range of photographic genres. He made the most personal impact however on fashion photography and magazine portraiture. The renowned photography historian Beaumont Newhall put it perfectly when he said that "Armed with his mastery of technique, and with his brilliant sense of design and ability to grasp in an image the personality of a sitter, [Steichen] began to raise magazine illustrations to a creative level." Curators and art critics William A. Ewing and Todd Brandow went further still when they suggested that Steichen "was among a tiny band of talented photographers who elevated celebrity portraiture from the status of formulaic publicity stills to an aesthetically sophisticated genre in its own right."

Through Steichen is primarily - and rightly - known through his photography, he was also crucial in bringing the works of highly distinguished French artists such as Rodin, Cézanne and Matisse to the United States. His curation of Family of Man exhibition, meanwhile, suggested new possibilities for photographic portraiture as at once an art form and a means of reaching a more nuanced understanding of the complexities of humankind.

Steichen was the recipient of numerous awards and honors in his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom (for his work in Photography) in 1963. He has been the subject of books and exhibitions and in 1974 he was inducted (having already served on its advisory board) into the International Photography Hall of Fame and Museum. In 1994, meanwhile, The Family of Man Exhibition found a permanent home in Luxembourg (Steichen's birthplace) where it is housed in the Steichen Museum. Perhaps the last word on his legacy should go to the esteemed American poet Carl Sandberg who said this of Steichen's work: "A scientist and a speculative philosopher stands [at the] back of Steichen's best picture. They will not yield their meaning and essence on the first look nor the thousandth -- which is the test of masterpieces."


Oral history interview with Edward Steichen, 1970 June 5

Formaat: Oorspronklik opgeneem op 1 klankbandrol. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 9 min.

Opsomming: An interview of Edward Steichen conducted 1970 June 5, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.

Biographical/Historical Note

Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was a photographer from New York, N.Y.

Herkoms

These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.

Language Note

Hoe om hierdie versameling te gebruik

For information on how to access this interview contact Reference Services.

Aanhalings en uittreksels moet soos volg aangehaal word: Oral history interview with Edward Steichen, 1970 June 5. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.


Edward Steichen - History

Editor's note: The Museum of Photographic Arts provided source material to Resource Library for the following article or essay. If you have questions or comments regarding the source material, please contact the Museum of Photographic Arts directly through either this phone number or web address:

Edward Steichen: The Early Years

January 31 through May 17, 2009

T he Museum of Photographic Arts (MoPA) in Balboa Park is pleased to present Edward Steichen: The Early Years, on view January 31 - May 17, 2009. Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was one of the most influential figures in the history of photography. MoPA celebrates this amazing talent by exhibiting thirteen images made between 1900 and 1925, several of them made when the photographer was still in his twenties. These early photographs caught the attention of photographer-impresario Alfred Stieglitz and the praise of sculptor, Auguste Rodin. (right: Edward Steichen, Grand Prix at Longchamp: After the Races, Paris , 1907, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts)

The Early Years , presented in MoPA's Atrium gallery, is from a 1981 Aperture portfolio from MoPA's permanent collection consisting of Steichen's signature soft-focus, moody studies of light, landscape, and form. Steichen's beautifully toned landscapes, sensual nudes and still life's, and psychological portraits are a dazzling visual record of his emergence as a major talent. Included in the exhibition is his famous 1905 twilight view of New York's Flatiron Building (one of the landmarks of turn-of-the-century architecture), his 1904 Moonrise (Mamaroneck, NY), and his little known In Memoriam , a nude from 1902 (inspired perhaps by his friendship with Rodin).

Steichen heavily influenced photography, graphic design, and the decorative arts in the 1920s and 1930s. He captured the energy and innovation of his day, working as he did with "a designer's eye, a poet's sensibility, and an entrepreneur's charisma," wrote Steichen scholar Joel Smith. Steichen made his mark with a stunningly beautiful array of quiet Pictorialist photographs that Stieglitz championed in his first issues of Camera Work , images that today have broken all photography auction sales records. He would later become a major fashion photographer for the leading magazines of his era, a highly sought after portraitist in Europe and America, a war photographer in two World Wars, and a groundbreaking curator at the Museum of Modern Art, NY. MoPA's The Early Years is testimony to Steichen's emergence as a formidable artist and tastemaker who would profoundly shape the world of photography for the next four decades.

Running concurrently at MoPA is Lou Stoumen: The Naked Truth on view January 31 - May 17, 2009, Lou Stoumen Award Winners: The Legacy featuring the Mikhael Subotzky, the new Stoumen Prize winner, and all past recipients on view January 31 - May 10, 2009 and Considering Edward Curtis on view February 7 - May 10, 2009. Also on view, Picturing the Process: Exploring the Art & Science of Photography from February 7- July 25, 2009.

(above: Edward Steichen, Moonrise, Mamaroneck, New York , 1904, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts. © Joanna T. Steichen)

(above: Edward Steichen, The Flatiron Building, New York , 1905, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts. © Joanna T. Steichen)

Wall text for the exhibition

One of the most influential figures in the history of photography, Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was also one of the most prolific and diverse. No other photographer can claim a leading role among the Photo-Secessionists, vibrant innovation in fashion photography, chief photographer for Condé Nast's Vogue and Vanity Fair , war photography born of two world wars, signature celebrity portraiture, and the title of curator at MOMA/NY where he conceived the groundbreaking exhibition, The Family of Man , viewed by nine million people in thirty-eight countries. Born in Luxembourg and raised in Wisconsin, Steichen started out as a painter while in his teens, and later learned photography. By age twenty-three he was creating painterly landscape photographs, moody still life's, and lush nude studies that caught the attention of famed sculptor Auguste Rodin and the impresario of art photography, Alfred Stieglitz. Over the next two decades, the young Steichen -- the most 'in-demand' portraitist of the elite on two continents -- became the peerless master of the painterly photograph. As Steichen scholar, Joel Smith, notes, "He worked with a designer's inventive eye, a Symbolist's poetic sensibility, an entrepreneur's charisma, and, above all, the originality and finesse of a creative, painstaking printer to establish ambitious new standards in artistic photography."

* * * Edward Steichen: The Early Years presents the photographer's work from 1900 to 1925, his most creative decades. Within those years, he made his famous twilight view of New York's Flatiron Building. A landmark of turn-of-the-century architecture, Steichen transforms this symbol of a new age into a mirage that floats behind a Japonisme masterpiece of blackened branches and hansom cabs. Conversely, the negative space carved by the Parthenon solidly holds the figure of another symbol of modernity, dancer Isadora Duncan. In two other images, light delicately illuminates the weighty flesh of roses while darkness shapes the sensuous curves of a woman's torso. Steichen's artfully rendered landscapes, sensual nudes, still life's, and psychological portraits from this period are a dazzling visual record of his emergence as a major talent. Unlike any other photographer of his time, it can be confidently said that Steichen's unique artistry, vision, ideas, and energy shaped photography in the 20th century. In 1969, at the end of a long career, Steichen selected twelve images that he considered his masterpieces for a final photographic project. He approached Aperture Publications with a formidable task: to publish these prints as hand-pulled photogravures. Like Stieglitz, Steichen always considered photogravures works of fine art. Jon Goodman, who was reviving the photogravure process at the time, painstakingly made plates from Steichen's negatives and printed them at an atelier in Switzerland. The resulting portfolio, Edward Steichen: The Early Years, from MoPA's permanent collection, constitutes a stunning visual record of Steichen's emergence as one of the greatest artists in photography's 170-year history, a medium that, like the artist himself, has reinvented itself in a new century.

(above: Edward Steichen, Heavy Roses, Voulangis, France , 1914, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts. © Joanna T. Steichen)

(above: Edward Steichen, Torso, Paris , 1902, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts)

Checklist for the exhibition

Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Grand Prix at Longchamp: After the Races, Paris , 1907, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.001 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Self-Portrait with Sister, Milwaukee , 1900, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.002 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Torso, Paris , 1902, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.003 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Moonrise, Mamaroneck, New York , 1904, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.004 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) In Memoriam, New York , 1902, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.005 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Steichen and Wife Clara on their Honeymoon, Lake George, New York , 1903, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.006 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Richard Strauss, New York , 1904, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.007 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) The Flatiron Building, New York , 1905, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.008 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Heavy Roses, Voulangis, France , 1914, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.009 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Isadora Duncan at the Portal of the Parthenon, Athens , 1920, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.010 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Three Pears and an Apple, France , 1921, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.011 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Brancusi in His Studio, Paris , 1925, printed later From the portfolio The Early Years, 1900-1927 Photogravure Museum purchase, 1985.023.012 Edward Steichen (American, 1879-1973) Portrait of Clarence H. White , 1905, printed later Photogravure Gift of Dorothy and Eugene Prakapas, 1991.007.001

(above: Edward Steichen, Three Pears and an Apple, France , 1921, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts)

(above: Edward Steichen, Isadora Duncan at the Portal of the Parthenon, Athens , 1920, photogravure, collection Museum of Photographic Arts)

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Captain Edward J. Steichen, USN Ret. Army & Navy Combat Photographer WWI & WWII Received the French Legion of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and Commander of the Order of Merit (Germany)

Edward Steichen (born Eduard Jean Steichen, 27 March 1879 in Bivange, Luxembourg) was one of the premier photographers of his generation. Aside from being one of the first to go into color photography, he also helped usher in the era of fashion photography.

During WWI he joined the Army Photographic Corps at the age of 38. He joined the Navy in January 1942 at the age of 63.

Steichen had retired in 1938, and closed his studio to devote his time to plant breeding. Soon afterwards he would find himself trying to reenlist in the military at the age of 61 as America faced the prospect of World War II. After his third attempt to reenlist he was commissioned a Lieutenant Commander in 1942, and headed the Naval Aviation Photographic Unit, which documented aircraft carriers in action. His first assignment was to complete an exhibition he had started for The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1941, on national defense. He organized the extremely popular exhibition "Road to Victory" that had 150 images and opened in May 1942, at MoMA. The show then traveled to many American cities and to London, Australia, and South America.

He directed the creation of the war documentary "The Fighting Lady," chronicling the battles of the crew of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Yorktown, which won the 1944 Academy Award for Best Documentary.

In 1945, his second joint Navy and MoMA exhibition, "Power in the Pacific," went on display. He was officially discharged in 1945, at the age of 67, and received the Distinguished Service Medal. Steichen left the Navy with the rank of Captain, as Director of the WWII Naval Photographic Institute.

Steichen was the recipient of many awards, some of which include his status as Chevalier of France's Légion d'Honneur, awarded in 1919, the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1963), and the Commander of Order of Merit, Germany (1966).

In 1963, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy, however Kennedy was assassinated before he could present it. President Lyndon B. Johnson presented it to him in December 1963.

Edward Steichen died in West Redding Connecticut on March 25, 1973, at the age of 94.

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is&mdashalong with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal bestowed by an act of U.S. Congress&mdashthe highest civilian award in the United States.


Dallas Museum of Art Uncrated

Seven murals painted by Edward Steichen are undergoing conservation treatment this summer in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery. After treatment is completed, the rare and exquisite murals will be on view September 5, 2017, through May 28, 2018, as part of the exhibition Edward Steichen: In Exaltation of Flowers (1910-1914), overseen by the Pauline Gill Sullivan Associate Curator of American Art at the DMA, Sue Canterbury.

Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy being unrolled from a travel tube

Edward Steichen, born Eduard Jean Steichen in 1879, was an American artist who was both a painter and photographer during his lifetime. Most of his paintings and photographs were produced for the American art market while he was living in the United States or France. He stayed in Paris for about a year in 1901 and then returned to Paris a second time in 1906 it was then that he joined the New Society of American Artists. One of his friends in Paris was an American student at the Sorbonne named Agnes Ernst, and she later played a large role in Steichen’s commission for In Exaltation of Flowers. In 1908, Steichen moved from Paris to his villa, L’Oiseu Bleu, in Voulangis, France. There, he cultivated a garden and built a small studio with a skylight.

In 1910 Agnes Ernst married Eugene Meyer and the couple traveled to L’Oiseu Bleu during their honeymoon. The three friends likely discussed the commission for In Exaltation of Flowers during that visit. This commission would include seven 10-foot-tall murals designed for a foyer in the Meyers’ new townhouse at 71st Street and Park Avenue, which the Meyers acquired in 1911. The commission was $15,000 and these artworks became Steichen’s most ambitious undertaking.

As Steichen worked on the Meyers’ commission from 1910 to 1914, many of their American friends visited Voulangis, including Arthur Carles, Mercedes de Cordoba, Katharine Rhoades , Marion Beckett, and Isadora Duncan. Some of these visitors identified with specific floral personifications, which became incorporated into Steichen’s tempera and gold leaf compositions. Die In Exaltation of Flowers series consists of the following seven panels:

    1. Gloxinia – Delphinium: a kneeling woman (likely Isadora Duncan) with Gloxinia, Delphinium, and Caladium flowers
    2. Clivia – Fuchsia – Hilium – Henryi: one woman sitting (possibly Isadora Duncan or Marion Beckett) and another woman standing (likely Katharine Rhoades) with Clivia, Fuchsia, and Henry Lily flowers
    3. Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy: Florence Meyer (first child of Eugene and Agnes Meyer) with a butterfly and poppies
    4. Petunia – Begonia – The Freer Bronze: a Zhou Dynasty bronze (symbolizing Charles Lang Freer, a collector of Asian art and benefactor of the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC) with Petunia and Begonia flowers
    5. Rose – Geranium: Katharine Rhoades with a fruit-bearing tree, roses, and geraniums
    6. Petunia – Caladium – Budleya: two standing women (Marion Beckett and an unidentified woman in the background), with Petunia, Iris, Caladium, and Budleya (other spelling variants include Buddleia and Buddleja) flowers
    7. Golden Banded Lily – Violets: a standing woman (likely Agnes Meyer) with Golden Banded Lily and Violet (also identified as Begonia rex) flowers

    Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery

    Even before receiving the Meyers’ commission, Steichen had been painting and photographing women and flowers however, his depiction of the subject matter and use of gold leaf in In Exaltation of Flowers alludes to influences from French couture designer Paul Poiret and Art Nouveau painters Gustav Klimt, Alphonse Mucha, Pierre Bonnard, and Maurice Denis.

    All seven murals in In Exaltation of Flowers were completed by 1914. Even though they had originally been commissioned for the townhouse on 71st Street and Park Avenue, the paintings were never displayed in that building. Due to financial hardship, the Meyers had to sell their townhouse earlier in 1914, and Steichen’s intended sequence for the murals remains unknown today. The order listed above is based on a 1915 checklist from their presentation at the Knoedler Galleries in New York. Two of the murals were later displayed at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1921 and 1996, and at least one mural was displayed at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1988. The DMA’s presentation this fall of the murals, which are part of a private collection, will mark the first time the seven panels have been exhibited together since their debut at the Knoedler Galleries 102 years ago.

    Rose – Geranium in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery