Kwarantyn van aggressie - Geskiedenis

Kwarantyn van aggressie - Geskiedenis

FDR Spraak

In totale opposisie teen die toon van die neutraliteitswetgewing, het president Roosevelt in 'n toespraak op 5 Oktober 1937 in Chicago 'n internasionale "kwarantyn van die aggressorlande" gevra. Roosevelt besef dat hy die publieke opinie vooruitloop; dit sal dus 'n voorsprong op die openbare mening wees; dus sal dit lank duur voordat hy die tema herhaal.


1937

Ek is bly om weer na Chicago te kom en veral die geleentheid te kry om deel te neem aan die toewyding van hierdie belangrike projek van burgerlike verbetering.

Tydens my reis deur die vasteland en terug is ek baie bewyse getoon van die resultaat van gesonde verstand samewerking tussen munisipaliteite en die federale regering, en ek is begroet deur tienduisende Amerikaners wat my in elke blik en woord vertel het dat hulle materiële en geestelike welstand het die afgelope paar jaar groot vordering gemaak.

En tog, soos ek met my eie oë gesien het, die welvarende plase, die florerende fabrieke en die besige spoorweë-soos ek die geluk en veiligheid en vrede wat ons wye land dek, gesien het, was ek byna onvermydelik verplig om ons vrede te kontrasteer met baie verskillende tonele wat in ander dele van die wêreld afspeel. Dit is omdat die mense van die Verenigde State onder moderne omstandighede ter wille van hul eie toekoms aan die res van die wêreld moet besin, dat ek, as die verantwoordelike uitvoerende hoof van die nasie, hierdie groot binnelandse stad gekies het. geleentheid om met u te praat oor 'n onderwerp van besliste nasionale belang.

Die politieke situasie in die wêreld, wat laat toeneem en steeds erger word, veroorsaak ernstige kommer en kommer vir alle mense en nasies wat in vrede en vriendskap met hul bure wil lewe.

Ongeveer vyftien jaar gelede is die hoop van die mensdom op 'n voortgesette era van internasionale vrede tot groot hoogtes gebring toe meer as sestig nasies hulself plegtig belowe het om nie wapens te neem ter bevordering van hul nasionale doelwitte en beleid nie. Die hoë aspirasies in die Briand-Kellogg-vredesverdrag en die hoop op vrede wat so ontstaan ​​het, het laat laat plek maak vir 'n spookagtige vrees vir rampspoed. Die huidige bewind van terreur en internasionale wetteloosheid het 'n paar jaar gelede begin.

Dit het begin deur ongeregverdigde inmenging in die binnelandse aangeleenthede van ander nasies of die inval in vreemde gebiede in stryd met verdragte en het nou 'n stadium bereik waarin die fondamente van die beskawing ernstig bedreig word. Die bakens en tradisies wat die vordering van die beskawing na 'n toestand van wet, orde en geregtigheid aangedui het, word uitgewis.

Sonder 'n oorlogsverklaring en sonder waarskuwing of regverdiging van enige aard word burgerlikes, insluitend vroue en kinders, genadeloos vermoor met bomme uit die lug. In tye van sogenaamde vrede word skepe sonder oorsaak of kennisgewing deur duikbote aangeval en laat sink. Nasies steun en neem kant in burgeroorlogvoering in nasies wat hulle nog nooit 'n hoer gehad het nie Nasies wat vryheid beweer, ontken dit aan ander. Onskuldige volke en nasies word wreed opgeoffer aan 'n hebsug na mag en oppergesag wat sonder sin vir geregtigheid en menslike oorweging is.

Om 'n onlangse skrywer te omskryf, "miskien voorsien ons 'n tyd waarin mans, verheug in die tegniek van moord, so hewig oor die wêreld sal woed dat elke kosbare ding in gevaar is, elke boek en prentjie en harmonie, elke skat wat deur twee versamel word millenniums, die klein, die delikate, die weerlose-alles sal verlore gaan of verwoes of heeltemal vernietig word. "

As hierdie dinge in ander dele van die wêreld gebeur, laat niemand dink dat Amerika sal ontsnap nie, dat hulle genade kan verwag, dat hierdie Westelike Halfrond nie aangeval sal word nie, en dat dit rustig en vreedsaam sal voortgaan met die etiek en die kunste van die beskawing. As daardie dae kom, "sal daar geen veiligheid wees nie, geen hulp van die owerheid, geen antwoord in die wetenskap nie. Die storm sal woed totdat elke kultuurblom vertrap word en alle mense in 'n groot chaos gelyk is."

As daardie dae nie moet gebeur nie-as ons 'n wêreld wil hê waarin ons vrylik kan asemhaal en in vrees kan lewe, moet die vredeliewende nasies 'n daadwerklike poging aanwend om wette en beginsels te handhaaf waarop alleen vrede kan rus veilig. Die vredeliewende nasies moet 'n gesamentlike poging aanwend teen die oortredings van verdrae en die onwetendheid van menslike instinkte wat vandag 'n toestand van internasionale anargie en onstabiliteit skep, waaruit daar geen ontsnapping is deur blote isolasie of neutraliteit nie.

Diegene wat hul vryheid koester en die gelyke reg van hul bure erken en respekteer om vry te wees en in vrede te lewe, moet saamwerk vir die oorwinning van die wet en morele beginsels, sodat vrede, geregtigheid en vertroue in die wêreld kan heers. Daar moet teruggekeer word na 'n geloof in die beloofde woord, in die waarde van 'n ondertekende verdrag. Die feit dat nasionale moraliteit net so belangrik is as privaat moraliteit, moet erken word.

'N Biskop skryf my nou die dag:

Dit lyk vir my dat daar iets ten behoewe van die gewone mensdom gesê moet word teen die huidige praktyk om die gruwels van oorlog aan hulpelose burgers, veral vroue en kinders, oor te dra. Dit is moontlik dat so 'n protes deur baie mense, wat beweer dat hulle realiste is, as nutteloos beskou het, maar dit mag nie so wees dat die hart van die mensdom so met afgryse vervul is oor die huidige onnodige lyding dat die krag genoegsaam gemobiliseer kon word nie volume om sulke wreedheid in die komende dae te verminder. Alhoewel dit twintig jaar kan duur, wat God verbied het, voordat die beskawing sy korporatiewe protes teen hierdie barbaarsheid effektief kan maak, kan sterk stemme die dag bespoedig.

Daar is 'n solidariteit en onderlinge afhanklikheid van die moderne wêreld, tegnies sowel as moreel, wat dit vir enige volk onmoontlik maak om hulself te isoleer van ekonomiese en politieke omwentelinge in die res van die wêreld, veral as sulke omwentelinge blykbaar versprei en nie afneem nie . Daar kan geen stabiliteit of vrede in die nasies of tussen die nasies wees nie, behalwe onder wette en morele standaarde waaraan almal voldoen. Internasionale anargie vernietig elke grondslag vir vrede. Dit stel die onmiddellike of die toekomstige veiligheid van elke nasie, groot of klein, in gevaar. Dit is dus vir die mense van die Verenigde State van lewensbelang en belang dat die heiligheid van internasionale verdrae en die handhawing van internasionale moraliteit herstel word.

Die oorgrote meerderheid van die mense en nasies van die wêreld wil vandag in vrede lewe. Hulle streef daarna om hindernisse teen handel te verwyder. Hulle wil hulself inspan in die nywerheid, in die landbou en in die sakewêreld, sodat hulle hul rykdom kan vergroot deur die vervaardiging van goedere wat goed produseer, eerder as om te probeer om militêre vliegtuie en bomme en masjiengewere en kanonne te vervaardig vir die vernietiging van menselewens en eiendom.

In die nasies van die wêreld wat skynbaar bewapening ophoop vir aggressiewe doeleindes, en in die ander nasies wat vrees vir aggressie teen hulle en hul veiligheid, word 'n baie groot deel van hul nasionale inkomste direk aan bewapening bestee. Dit strek van 30 tot 50 persent. Die verhouding wat ons in die Verenigde State bestee, is baie minder as 11 of 12 persent. Hoe bly is ons dat die huidige omstandighede ons toelaat om ons geld in brûe en boulevards, damme en herbossing, die bewaring van ons grond en vele ander soorte nuttige werke te plaas eerder as in groot staande leërs en groot voorraad gereedskap van oorlog.

Ek is verplig en julle is nietemin verplig om vorentoe te kyk. Die vrede, die vryheid en die veiligheid van 90 persent van die bevolking van die wêreld word in die gedrang gebring deur die oorblywende 10 persent wat 'n afbreek van alle internasionale orde en wet dreig. Die 90 persent wat in vrede onder die wet wil lewe en volgens morele standaarde wat deur die eeue heen byna universele aanvaarding ontvang het, kan en moet 'n manier vind om hul wil te laat seëvier.

Die situasie is beslis van universele belang. Die betrokke vrae hou nie net verband met die skending van spesifieke bepalings van spesifieke verdrae nie; dit is kwessies van oorlog en van vrede, van internasionale reg, en veral van beginsels van die mensdom. Dit is waar dat dit definitiewe oortredings van ooreenkomste behels, en veral die Verbond van die Volkebond, die Briand-Kellogg-verdrag en die Nege Mag-verdrag. Maar dit behels ook probleme van die wêreldekonomie, wêreldveiligheid en die wêreldmenslikheid.

Dit is waar dat die morele bewussyn van die wêreld die belangrikheid van die verwydering van ongeregtighede en gegronde griewe moet erken; maar dit moet terselfdertyd gewek word aan die noodsaaklikheid om heiligheid van verdrae te eerbiedig, die regte en vryhede van ander te respekteer en 'n einde te maak aan dade van internasionale aggressie.

Dit blyk ongelukkig waar te wees dat die epidemie van wetteloosheid in die wêreld besig is om te versprei. As 'n epidemie van fisiese siektes begin versprei, keur die gemeenskap dit toe en sluit dit aan by 'n kwarantyn van die pasiënte om die gesondheid van die gemeenskap te beskerm teen die verspreiding van die siekte.

Dit is my vasbeslotenheid om 'n vredesbeleid te volg en alle praktiese maatreëls te tref om betrokkenheid by oorlog te vermy. Dit behoort ondenkbaar te wees dat in hierdie moderne era, en in die lig van die ervaring, elke nasie so dwaas en genadeloos kan wees dat dit die risiko loop om die hele wêreld in oorlog te dompel deur die indringing en oortreding van, in stryd met plegtige verdrae, in gevaar te stel gebied van ander nasies wat hulle geen werklike skade berokken het nie en wat te swak is om hulself voldoende te beskerm. Tog word die vrede van die wêreld en die welsyn en veiligheid van elke nasie vandag bedreig deur presies dit.

Geen nasie wat weier om verdraagsaamheid te beoefen en die vryheid en regte van ander te respekteer nie, kan lank lank sterk bly en die vertroue en respek van ander nasies behou. Geen nasie verloor ooit sy waardigheid of goeie reputasie deur sy verskille te versoen nie en deur groot geduld met die regte van ander nasies uit te oefen.

Oorlog is 'n besmetting, of dit nou verklaar of nie verklaar word nie. Dit kan state en mense wat versigtig is van die oorspronklike toneel van vyandelikhede, verswelg. Ons is vasbeslote om uit die oorlog te bly, maar ons kan ons nie verseker teen die rampspoedige gevolge van oorlog en die gevare van betrokkenheid nie. Ons neem maatreëls wat ons risiko van betrokkenheid tot die minimum beperk, maar ons kan nie volledige beskerming hê in 'n wêreld van wanorde waarin vertroue en veiligheid gebreek het nie.

As die beskawing wil voortbestaan, moet die beginsels van die Vredevors herstel word. Gebroke vertroue tussen nasies moet herleef. Die belangrikste van alles is dat die wil vir vrede van vredeliewende nasies tot die einde moet uitspreek dat nasies wat in die versoeking kom om hul ooreenkomste te skend en die regte van ander, van so 'n rede sal verdwyn. Daar moet positiewe pogings wees om vrede te bewaar. Amerika haat oorlog. Amerika hoop op vrede. Daarom is Amerika aktief betrokke by die soeke na vrede.


Oor aggressie

Oor aggressie (Duits: Das sogenannte Böse. Zur Naturgeschichte der Aggression, "So-called Evil: on the natural history of aggression") is 'n 1963-boek deur die etoloog Konrad Lorenz, dit is in 1966 in Engels vertaal. [1] Terwyl hy in die proloog skryf, "is die onderwerp van hierdie boek aggressie, dit wil sê die veginstink by dier en mens wat gerig is teen lede van dieselfde spesie. "(Bladsy 3)

Die boek is baie keer beoordeel, beide positief en negatief, deur bioloë, antropoloë, psigoanaliste en ander. Baie kritiek was gerig op die uitbreiding van Lorenz se bevindings oor nie-menslike diere tot mense.


Kwarantyn voor ‘Kwarantyn ’

Terwyl ons die woord kan naspeur kwarantyn tot die tyd van die Swart Dood, strek die praktyk om die siekes te isoleer baie verder. Trouens, verwysings na die isolasie van mense met melaatsheid kan in die Bybel gevind word, en hospitale word ontbied lazarettos, wat doelbewus buite die middestad gebou is, bestaan ​​in die eerste helfte van die 14de eeu in Venesië. (Die naam lazaretto self is vernoem na die bedelaar Lasarus, die beskermheilige van melaatses in die katolisisme.)

Toe die Swart Dood Europa begin verwoes, het stede en amptenare gesukkel om die uitbrake te bekamp sonder om te weet wat dit veroorsaak het. Voordat mense 'n idee van mikrobes of 'n volledige teorie van oordrag gehad het, was daar mededingende idees oor besmetting, verduidelik Appuhn.

A “lazaretto ” in Napels, Italië. Krediet: Wellcome Collection

'[Destyds] sê sommige mense dat dit veroorsaak word deur 'n slegte astrologiese veronderstelling, sommige mense sê dat dit goddelike straf is,' sê hy. Maar 'n patroon het reeds ontstaan ​​in die vroeë benaderings tot inperking: "Hulle het erken en gedra asof die kontak tussen besmette en nie-besmette mense of besmette voorwerpe en nie-besmette mense die siekte versprei."

Voor die wettige instelling van kwarantyn het amptenare in Reggio, Italië, verklaar dat mense wat deur die plaag geraak is, na die velde buite die stad geneem moet word om te herstel of te sterf. En, sê Appuhn, 'Daar is iets werklik lewensgetrou oor die plaagtonele in Monty Python en die Heilige Graal. Daar is aansienlike bewyse dat hulle net mense wat nog lewe, maar baie siek was, sou uithaal en dat hulle hulle net op hierdie afgeleë eilande sou stort en hulle sou laat sterf. ”

Die uitbraak van 1348 het 'n dringendheid veroorsaak om die prosedures te versterk en 'n regsraamwerk daarvoor te bou, verduidelik Appuhn. En dit het hulle natuurlik ook 'n naam gegee.

In die Verenigde State het dit 'n bietjie proses geverg om enige soort nasionale kwarantynbeleid te ontwikkel. Soos baie ander aangeleenthede, het die staat dit aanvanklik beval om die toestroming van aansteeklike siektes te hanteer, maar herhaaldelike uitbrake van geelkoors het die kongres in 1878 aangespoor om die National Quarantine Act te aanvaar, wat 'n pad vir federale betrokkenheid geskep het. In 1892 het 'n cholera -uitbraak amptenare aangespoor om die federale regering meer gesag te gee om die vereistes op te lê. Teen 1921 is die kwarantynstelsel heeltemal genasionaliseer.

Tans is daar 20 kwarantynstasies in die Verenigde State, wat mense met siektes soos geelkoors, cholera en ja, pes isoleer - baie van dieselfde siektes wat gehelp het om die stelsel te ontwikkel wat vandag gebruik word.


Iran se lang geskiedenis van terreur en aggressie

Iran se minister van buitelandse sake beweer John Kerry het hom vertel van Israeliese aanvalle in Sirië

Iran se ministerie van buitelandse sake ondersoek die klank van die klank van die opmerkings van Mohammad Javad Zarif oor John Kerry FOX News 'Rich Edson se verslae oor' spesiale verslag '

Iran se onlangse aggressiewe optrede teen die VSA en sy bondgenote volg op 'n lang geskiedenis van terreur deur die staat, insluitend 'n onlangse modernisering van taktiek in die vorm van kuberkrane en desinformasieveldtogte.

Nuwe beelde wat Dinsdag deur die Amerikaanse vloot uitgereik is, wys hoe die skepe van die Iraanse rewolusionêre wag "onveilige en onprofessionele" maneuvers om Amerikaanse skepe in die Persiese Golf verrig.

Dit is die laaste provokasie deur Iran-die tweede grootste land in die Midde-Ooste-terwyl dit voorberei om met die VSA en ander wêreldleiers te onderhandel oor die kernkragooreenkoms met Iran in 2015.

Sedert Iran in 1979 die Islamitiese Republiek van Iran geword het, het Iran 'n lang geskiedenis van terreur en ander aggressiewe optrede om sy politieke doelwitte te bereik.

Vir 42 jaar is dit deur die VSA en ander wêreldmoondhede aangewys as die voorste staatsborg van terrorisme regoor die wêreld. Dit het ander terreurorganisasies - soos die Taliban en Hezbollah - gesteun om sy doelwitte te bereik.

Geskiedenis van terreur

Voor die Iranse rewolusie is die land beheer deur Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, wie se familie Iran sedert 1925 beheer het. Maar vanaf die 1950's het Shah Reza se bewind - met die steun van die VSA - al hoe meer outoritêr geword.

Die sjah het Iran probeer verwester en het meer geleenthede vir Iranse burgers geskep om suksesvol te wees in sake en onderwys. In 1979 het Pahlavi se diktatoriale regering egter gelei tot 'n rewolusie wat hom van die mag verwyder het.

Pahlavi is vervang deur Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini en die Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, 'n tak van die Iraanse regering wat dekades lank terroriste -aktiwiteite teen die VSA en sy bondgenote beoefen het.

Sewe maande nadat Iran amptelik 'n Islamitiese republiek geword het, het dit begin met die gebruik van terrorisme as 'n taktiek om sy politieke doelwitte te bereik en vrees by sy vyande in te boesem.

Op 4 November 1979 het 'n groep radikale Iraanse studente die Amerikaanse ambassade in Teheran binnegestorm. Vyftig Amerikaanse burgers is as gyselaars geneem. Die studente eis dat die destydse president Carter die sjah-wat uit sy geboorteland gevlug het-uitlewer, terug na Iran om verhoor te word. Khomeini het reeds 'n bevel uitgevaardig om die regering te suiwer van amptenare wat lojaal is aan die ballingskap wat gelei het tot duisende teregstellings.

Carter het geweier om die shah om te draai. Die gyselaars is 444 dae lank aangehou en het bygedra tot die verlies van Carter in die presidensiële verkiesing van 1980 teen Ronald Reagan. Maar Iran het sy terreurbewyse versterk.

Onder steun van Iran het die terreurgroep Hezbollah tussen 1982 en 1992 byna 100 buitelandse burgers in Libanon ontvoer, waaronder 'n groot aantal Amerikaners. Sommige van die ontvoerde Amerikaners het jare in ballingskap deurgebring, terwyl ander, waaronder CIA -stasiehoof William Buckley, gemartel en vermoor is.

Hezbollah, wat 'n Sjia -islamistiese politieke party en militante groep in Libanon is - het die Amerikaanse ambassade in Beiroet in 1983 gebombardeer en 63 mense doodgemaak, waaronder die "hele Amerikaanse sentrale intelligensie -agentskap in die Midde -Ooste."

Iran ondersteun ook die bombardement van 1983 by die Amerikaanse mariene kaserne op die Internasionale Lughawe in Beiroet, wat bykans 250 mariniers doodgemaak en 100 ander gewond het. Iran ondersteun ook die bombardement van die Amerikaanse ambassade in Koeweit in 1983 deur Hezbollah.

Iran is ook vasbeslote om die sluipmoorde op verskeie mense, waaronder baie politieke teenstanders, te lei.

Shapour Bakhtiar, die laaste premier van Iran voor die revolusie, het die nasionale beweging van Iraanse verset in ballingskap in Frankryk gelei. In 1991 in 'n voorstad van Parys, is hy deur Iraanse sluipmoordenaars vermoor. Toe een van die moordenaars 20 jaar later vrygelaat is, is hy deur Iranse amptenare as 'n held ontvang.

Daarbenewens het Iran 'n onstuimige verhouding gehad met sy buurman in die Midde -Ooste, Afghanistan, wat dateer uit 1979.

Die Midde -Ooste -instituut berig dat Iran "gelyktydig steun verleen aan die Afghaanse regering en die Taliban in die hoop om hulle verdeeld te hou en politieke ontwikkelinge te beïnvloed sodra die VSA sy magte aftrek." As gevolg hiervan, in sy voortdurende poging om die VSA wêreldwyd te verswak, het Iran wapens en finansiële steun aan die Taliban verleen om teen die Amerikaanse geleide koalisiemagte in Afghanistan te gebruik.

Israel, een van die naaste bondgenote aan die VSA, was ook 'n algemene doelwit vir Iraanse gesanksionaliseerde terrorisme. Iran poog voortdurend om Israel se plek in die Midde-Ooste te ondermyn omdat geweld deur die staat vrede in die streek voorkom.

Iran se terrorisme -taktiek het sedert 1979 ontwikkel en brei nou verder uit as fisiese geweld, wapenverspreiding en bombardemente en bevat meer ontasbare en moderne terreurmetodes.

Modernisering van terreurtaktieke

In die afgelope jaar het Iran se vermoë om terreur en vrees oor die hele wêreld te veroorsaak, ontwikkel om nie net fisiese aanvalle nie, maar ook 'n magdom kuberaanvalle te insluit, wat wissel van desinformasieveldtogte tot diefstal van data.

Die afgelope paar jaar het Iraanse onderdane wat namens die Iraanse regering werk, gekoördineerde veldtogte van kuberaanvalle teen die VSA en sy bondgenote onderneem.

In 2016 het sewe Iraanse beskuldigdes probeer om Amerikaanse finansiële instellings te saboteer deur toegang te verkry tot die beheerstelsels van 'n dam in New York. Die hackers werk spesifiek vir die Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

Twee jaar later het die DOJ aangekondig dat nege beskuldigdes, wat ook namens die Iraanse regering en die wagkorps werk, in rekenaarstelsels van 320 universiteite in 22 lande ingebreek het en miljarde dollars eksklusiewe navorsing gesteel het.

Verlede September is nog drie Iraanse hackers aangekla omdat hulle kritieke inligting oor Amerikaanse lugvaart- en satelliettegnologie gesteel het. Hulle het baie ondernemings in die VSA en in die buiteland geteiken en netwerke suksesvol in die gedrang gebring en sensitiewe inligting gesteel.

Boonop was Iraanse groepe vasbeslote om disinformasie te versprei rondom die Amerikaanse presidentsverkiesing in 2020.

Twitter het aangekondig dat meer as 200 rekeninghandvatsels uit Iran verwyder is as deel van 'n ondersoek na moontlike buitelandse invloed op die verkiesing.

Die Amerikaanse ministerie van tesourie het ook nuwe sanksies teen die Islamitiese Revolusionêre Wagkorps aangekondig, tesame met die Quds Force van die IRGC en die Bayan Rasaneh Gostar -instituut, "omdat hulle direk of indirek betrokke was by, geborg, verberg het of andersins aan buitelandse inmenging deelgeneem het. "in die verkiesing.

Die bedreiging van deur die staat geborgde kuberindringings is steeds 'n uitdaging vir die VSA en sy bondgenote oor die hele wêreld.

Die Biden -administrasie en Iran

Ondanks Iran se lang geskiedenis van fisiese en kuberterrorisme, het president Biden te kenne gegee dat sy administrasie 'n meer openlike benadering tot diplomasie met die staat sal neem, insluitend moontlik opheffing van sanksies en amptelike herbetreding van die Iran-kernooreenkoms.

Daarteenoor het die administrasie van voormalige president Trump 'n 'maksimum drukveldtog' teen Iran begin, waaronder ongeveer 1500 sanksies teen die staat en die onttrekking van die Iranse kernooreenkoms.

Bekommerde Republikeinse lede van die kongres het reeds aksie geneem om te verseker dat die Biden -administrasie nie aan Iran se eise sal voldoen nie.

Verlede maand het die komitee van die minister van buitelandse sake, Michael McCaul, R-Texas, saam met 20 Republikeinse lede van die komitee, die Iran Sanctions Relief Review Act van 2021 bekendgestel.

Die wetsontwerp is die huisgenoot van wetgewing wat deur senator Bill Hagerty, R-Tenn., Geborg word, en sou die Kongres die mag gee om enige poging van die Biden-administrasie om sanksies teen die Iraanse regime op te hef, te ignoreer.

Daarbenewens het die voormalige minister van buitelandse sake, Mike Pompeo, verlede week by ses republikeinse wetgewers aangesluit om die Max Pressure Act bekend te stel; nuwe wetgewing wat die maksimum drukveldtog sou kodifiseer, maak dit byna onmoontlik vir Biden om die Iraanse sanksies te verlig.

Hollie McKay en Greg Norman van Fox News het tot hierdie verslag bygedra.


Geskiedenis van kwarantyn

Die praktyk van kwarantyn, soos ons dit ken, het gedurende die 14de eeu begin in 'n poging om kusstede teen plaagepidemies te beskerm. Skepe wat uit besmette hawens na Venesië aankom, moes 40 dae lank voor anker sit voordat hulle land. Hierdie praktyk, wat kwarantyn genoem word, is afgelei van die Italiaanse woorde quaranta giorni wat 40 dae beteken.

Vroeë Amerikaanse kwarantyn

Toe die Verenigde State eers gestig is, is min gedoen om die invoer van aansteeklike siektes te voorkom. Beskerming teen ingevoerde siektes val onder plaaslike en staats jurisdiksie. Individuele munisipaliteite het 'n verskeidenheid kwarantynregulasies uitgevaardig vir aankomende vaartuie.

Staats- en plaaslike regerings het sporadiese pogings aangewend om kwarantynvereistes te stel. Voortgesette uitbrake van geelkoors het uiteindelik daartoe gelei dat die Kongres federale kwarantynwetgewing in 1878 aanvaar het. Hierdie wetgewing het, hoewel dit nie in stryd was met state en regte nie, die weg gebaan vir federale betrokkenheid by kwarantynaktiwiteite.

Beamptes van die Amerikaanse openbare gesondheidsdiens, net soos dié wat in hierdie prent geneem is, omstreeks 1912, het uniforms gedra terwyl hulle in die laat 19de eeu die kwarantynstasies uitgevoer het. Foto met vergunning van die National Library of Medicine.

Laat 19de eeu

Uitbarstings van cholera uit passasierskepe wat uit Europa aankom, het die wet in 1892 herinterpreteer om die federale regering meer gesag te gee om kwarantynvereistes op te lê. Die volgende jaar het die kongres wetgewing goedgekeur wat die federale rol in kwarantynaktiwiteite verder verduidelik. Namate die plaaslike owerhede die voordele van federale betrokkenheid besef het, is plaaslike kwarantynstasies geleidelik aan die federale regering oorgedra. Bykomende federale fasiliteite is gebou en die aantal personeel is verhoog om beter dekking te bied. Die kwarantynstelsel is teen 1921 volledig genasionaliseer toe die administrasie van die laaste kwarantynstasie aan die federale regering oorgedra is.

Wet op Openbare Gesondheidsdiens

Die Eksterne eksterne ikoon van 1944 van die Public Health Service Act het die federale regering en kwarantynowerheid vir die eerste keer duidelik gevestig. Die wet het die Amerikaanse openbare gesondheidsdiens (PHS) die verantwoordelikheid gegee om die bekendstelling, oordrag en verspreiding van oordraagbare siektes uit die buiteland na die Verenigde State te voorkom.

Herorganisasie en uitbreiding

Hierdie PHS -snyersskip is gebruik om kwarantyninspekteurs te vervoer aan boord van skepe wat die geel kwarantynvlag vaar. Die vlag is gewaai totdat kwarantyn en doeanepersoneel die skip ondersoek en skoonmaak om by die hawe aan te lê.

Hierdie PHS -snyersskip is gebruik om kwarantyninspekteurs te vervoer aan boord van skepe wat die geel kwarantynvlag vaar. Die vlag is gewaai totdat kwarantyn en doeanepersoneel die skip ondersoek en skoonmaak om by die hawe aan te lê.

Oorspronklik deel van die tesourie -afdeling, Quarantine en PHS, sy ouerorganisasie, het in 1939 deel geword van die Federale Veiligheidsagentskap. In 1953 het PHS en Quarantine by die Departement van Gesondheid, Onderwys en Welsyn (HEW) aangesluit. Kwarantyn is daarna in 1967 oorgedra na die agentskap wat nou bekend staan ​​as die Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Toe CDC verantwoordelikheid aanvaar vir kwarantyn, was dit 'n groot organisasie met 55 kwarantynstasies en meer as 500 personeellede. Kwarantynstasies was by elke hawe, internasionale lughawe en groot grensoorgange geleë.

Van inspeksie tot ingryping

Na die evaluering van die kwarantynprogram en die rol daarvan in die voorkoming van oordrag van siektes, het CDC die program in die sewentigerjare afgewerk en die fokus daarvan verander van roetine -inspeksie na programbestuur en intervensie. Die nuwe fokus sluit in 'n verbeterde toesigstelsel om die aanvang van epidemies in die buiteland te monitor en 'n gemoderniseerde inspeksieproses om aan die veranderende behoeftes van internasionale verkeer te voldoen.

Teen 1995 was alle Amerikaanse hawens van toegang deur slegs sewe kwarantynstasies gedek. 'N Stasie is in 1996 bygevoeg in Atlanta, Georgia, net voordat die stad die Olimpiese Somerspele 1996 aangebied het. Na die ernstige akute respiratoriese sindroom (SARS) -epidemie van 2003, het CDC die kwarantynstasie -stelsel herorganiseer en uitgebrei na 18 stasies met meer as 90 veldwerknemers.

Nou in kwarantyn

Die afdeling vir globale migrasie en kwarantyn is deel van die CDC & rsquos National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases en het sy hoofkwartier in Atlanta. Kwarantynstasies is geleë in Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, El Paso, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan, Seattle en Washington, DC (sien kontaklyste en kaart).

Onder sy gedelegeerde gesag is die afdeling vir globale migrasie en kwarantyn bevoeg om individue en wildlewe wat vermoedelik 'n oordraagbare siekte dra, aan te hou, medies te ondersoek of voorwaardelik vry te laat.

Tekens soos hierdie, vir die El Paso -kwarantynstasie, identifiseer die kwarantynstasie -fasiliteite wat op lughawens en by landgrensoorgange geleë is.

Baie ander siektes van groot belang vir die gesondheid, soos masels, bof, rubella en waterpokkies, word nie in die lys van kwarantynbare siektes vervat nie, maar hou steeds 'n gesondheidsrisiko vir die publiek in. Personeel van die kwarantynstasie reageer op berigte van siek reisigers aan boord van vliegtuie, skepe en by grensoorgange om 'n beoordeling van die risiko vir openbare gesondheid te doen en 'n gepaste reaksie te begin.


'N Kwarantynverhaal: 'n kort familiegeskiedenis van my oupa

Die verhale van veterane word nie gereeld vertel nie, ondanks alles wat hulle vir hierdie land gedoen het. Ek is 'n voorstander van die menslike lewe, so ek is teen aggressieoorloë. Dit is nog steeds belangrik om hierdie veterane te erken, want sonder hulle sou die land anders wees.

My oupagrootjie, Cleveland Valrey, het 30+ jaar in die weermag gedien. Hy was eintlik een van die eerste swart mans wat 'n valskermspringer vir die Amerikaanse lugmag was. Hy het gedien in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Viëtnam -oorlog, Koreaanse Oorlog en die oorlog in die Dominikaanse Republiek.

Tydens die COVID -kwarantyn het ek die kans gekry om saam met my oupagrootjie te gaan sit en te praat oor sy lewe en sy opvoeding. Hy het die grootste deel van sy lewe in die weermag deurgebring en het gesien hoe die weermag van geskei tot geïntegreerd gaan.

Xion: Waarom het u vrywillig as valskermspringer gewerk?

My oupa, Cleveland Valrey: Ek was nog altyd lief vir 'n nuwe avontuur. Toe ek in die hospitaal was (nadat ek in 'n helikoptermissie neergeskiet is) was daar 'n ander pasiënt in dieselfde afdeling as ek wat my gewaag het om dit te word. Ek was ook lief daarvoor om speelgoedvliegtuie te vlieg toe ek terug was op die laerskool. Ek hou daarvan om uit vliegtuie te spring en dit ook te vlieg.

Die adrenalien in my lyf het altyd gepomp. Ek het nooit regtig daaraan gewoond geraak nie, maar ek sal nooit nadink oor wat verkeerd kan gaan nie. Ek was hoofsaaklik daarop ingestel om uit die lug op die grond te kom sonder om myself dood te maak.

Xion: Hoeveel spronge het jy geneem?

Oupa: Ek het 127 spronge geneem, en een gevegspring. Gereelde spronge wat u doen vir betaling en 'n gevegsprong wat u bo -op u vyand beland.

Xion: Wat gaan deur jou kop die eerste keer dat jy spring?

Oupa: Die adrenalien in my lyf het altyd gepomp. Ek het nooit regtig daaraan gewoond geraak nie, maar ek sal nooit nadink oor wat verkeerd kan gaan nie. Ek was hoofsaaklik daarop ingestel om uit die lug op die grond te kom sonder om myself dood te maak.

Xion: Wanneer het die weermag geïntegreer geraak?

Oupa: President Truman onderteken die bevel in 1947 om die dienste te integreer. Die dienste is eers in 1950 volledig geïntegreer. Dit het lank geneem, want daar was baie weerstand in die leër se hiërargie.

Xion: Het die weermag jou ekstra betaal vir valskermspring?

Oupa: Die weermag het my ekstra betaal. Dit is nog 'n rede waarom ek begin valskerm spring het. Hulle het 'n gevaarlike heffing betaal.

Xion: Was u verbaas om te hoor dat die produksiemaatskappy 'n fliek wil maak oor u ervaring in die weermag?

Oupa: Nee, ek was nie verbaas nie, want dit is 'n mark vir my ervaring. Elke keer as daar 'n mark is vir iets, sal iemand 'n manier vind om dit te benut.

Xion: Het u persoonlik een van die ander mans geken wat hul verhaal in 'Brother Ranger' vertel het?

Oupa: Ek ken die manne in die film natuurlik ons ​​was almal in dieselfde geselskap. Ons het almal die opleiding in Georgia ondergaan, en ons het saam met die treinrit van Georgia na Kalifornië gegaan. Ons het ook saam geveg.

Oor hierdie kwarantyn het ek baie geleer oor my oupa en sy ervarings in die weermag. Dit is 'n seën dat hy nog lewe om hierdie stories vandag vir my te vertel.


Hotelle as vektore van siektes

Ons stel hotelle voor as plekke van vryheid en selfs anonimiteit - ondanks die feit dat ons van aankoms tot vertrek deur oë en kameras dopgehou word, ons kredietkaarte ingedien is en elke swipe van ons sleutelkaart ons onthulling onthul. Die hotel in kwarantyn maak sulke bedrywighede sigbaar, wat die adelaars besweer Hotel Kalifornië, 'n plek "wat u nooit kan verlaat nie."

Bob Davidson, 'n navorser wat kyk na kulturele teorieë oor ruimte, kos en gasvryheid, sê:

'Hotelle het 'n lang geskiedenis van aanhouding. Hul ruimtes kan maklik herontwerp word, van ontspanning tot inperking, terwyl lobby's kontrolepunte word en kamers oënskynlik selle vir diegene wat nie kan wag om huis toe te gaan nie.

En vir baie hotelbewoners - vlugtelinge wat byvoorbeeld op verwerking wag - lyk 'n verblyf in 'n hotel nie een van die glans en opgewondenheid wat verband hou met die gemak en styl van slanke moderne geboue of historiese groot hotelle nie. Die ervaring van onroerendheid in die hotel is trouens baie gekenmerk deur burgerskapstatus sowel as klas. As noodgevalle die spanning tussen die gebruiklike verwagtinge onder reisigers en die vereistes van die staat blootlê, bied dit geleenthede om na te dink oor hotelle se rol in sulke debatte.

Hotelle is in tye van noodgevalle in die openbare gesondheid as siektes beskou. Die vinnige verspreiding van Legionnaires -siekte tydens 'n byeenkoms in 1976 in Philadelphia bied 'n tragiese voorbeeld.

Die geskiedenis bied baie sulke gevalle van angs wat fokus op hotelle. Met hul verbygaande bevolkings kan siektes vinnig binne en buite hul mure versprei. Personeel fiets in en uit, en gaste kom en gaan.

Mediese owerhede het dikwels besluit om siek en moontlik siek mense in 'n hotel te beperk met die eerste oogopslag van 'n uitbraak. Vandaar die frekwensie van hotelkwarantyn, nie net in die tydperke van pokke en difterie nie, maar ook meer onlangs tydens H1N1.


Die oorsprong van aggressie by mense - nuwe bewyse

As ons na ons geskiedenis kyk, sal ons sien dat aggressiewe menslike gedrag en oorloë onder ons altyd daar was. Vandag is hierdie tipe gedrag nog gevaarliker as gevolg van die gebruik van massavernietigingswapens wat in die verlede nie bestaan ​​het nie.

Verskeie navorsers het egter getoon dat dit nie altyd die geval was nie. Graham Gynn en Tony Wright in hul uitstekende boek 'Left in the Dark', bewys dat die ontbinding van die menslike brein langs mekaar gebeur het met die toename in aggressie en wisselvallige gedrag. Hulle ondersteun die teorie dat die hoofrede vir die verandering 'n verandering in die dieet van mense was, waarskynlik as gevolg van 'n rampspoedige gebeurtenis, van 'n vrugte- en groente -dieet tot korrels en vleis, wat die chemie van die brein verander het.

'N Onlangse studie deur Douglas Fry en Patrik Soderberg dui daarop dat die verandering in aggressiewe gedrag plaasgevind het toe die landbou begin het, en dit lyk asof hulle dit ondersteun wat Graham en Tony in hul boek voorgestel het, omdat die begin van die landbou saamgeval het met 'n verandering in die dieet van mense.

Douglas en Patrik dui in hul bevindinge aan dat die meeste voorvalle van dodelike aggressie moord, vete en oorloë sou gewees het. Voordat landbou egter 'n algemene gebruik geword het, het mense vroeër as nomadiese landbouers geleef, en as ons dit kombineer met die boek van Graham en Tony, beteken dit dat wanneer mense in die bosse gewoon en vrugte en groente geëet het, aggressie en oorloë nie was nie. daar. Die samelewings wat die twee navorsers ondersoek het met behulp van etnografiese data, was in Suid -Afrika en die Maleise skiereiland

'N Studie in 2004 in die American Journal of Psychiatry het getoon hoe slegte voeding nie net tot aggressiewe en asosiale gedrag kan lei nie, maar ook tot 'n afname in die IK. In 1995 publiseer dr Melvyn Werbach 'n navorsing in die Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine wat wys hoe dieet 'n aggressiewe gedrag kan beïnvloed en bevorder.

It seems that the true nature of humans was never meant to be aggressive but something effectively changed our behaviour and the way that the brain works. If it is true that diet affects our behaviour in such a dramatic way why isn’t more research being done in this area instead of investing billions of dollars in weapons and technology such as drones supposedly used for protection against aggression?

John Black

Dr John (Ioannis) Syrigos initially began writing on Ancient Origins under the pen name John Black. He is both a co-owner and co-founder of Ancient Origins.

John is a computer & electrical engineer with a PhD in Artificial Intelligence, a. Lees meer


Keeping contagion at bay

The meaning of quarantine has evolved from its original definition "as the detention and segregation of subjects suspected to carry a contagious disease."

Now it represents a period of isolation for persons or animals with a contagious disease – or who may have been exposed but aren't yet sick.

Although in the past it may have been a self-imposed or voluntary separation from society, in more recent times quarantine has come to represent a compulsory action enforced by health authorities.

Leprosy, mentioned in both Old and New testaments, is the first documented disease for which quarantine was imposed. In the Middle Ages, leper colonies, administered by the Catholic Church, sprung up throughout the world. Although the causative agent of leprosy – the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae – was not discovered until 1873, its disfiguring and incurable nature made civilizations wrongly believe it was easily spread.

The plague of the 14th century gave rise to the modern concept of quarantine. The Black Death first appeared in Europe in 1347. Over the course of four years, it would kill between 40 million and 50 million people in Europe and somewhere between 75 million and 200 million worldwide.

In 1377, the seaport in Ragusa, modern day Dubrovnik, issued a "trentina" – derived from the Italian word for 30 (trenta). Ships traveling from areas with high rates of plague were required to stay offshore for 30 days before docking. Anyone onboard who was healthy at the end of the waiting period was presumed unlikely to spread the infection and allowed onshore.

Thirty was eventually extended to 40 days, giving rise to the term quarantine, from the Italian word for 40 (quaranta). It was in Ragusa that the first law to enforce the act of quarantine was implemented.

Over time, variations in the nature and regulation of quarantine emerged. Port officials asked travelers to certify they hadn't been to areas with severe disease outbreaks, before allowing them to enter.

In the 19th century, quarantine was abused for political and economic reasons, leading to the call for international conferences to standardize quarantine practices. Cholera epidemics throughout the early 19th century made clear the lack of any uniformity of policy.


‘Quarantine’: A history

People have been home for many weeks now, under what some states call “shelter-in-place” orders, others call “stay-at-home” orders, and New York state calls “PAUSE.” No one term is better than another, though, as we’ve written , “shelter in place” has different interpretations depending on the situation.

Some people are also in “quarantine,” staying in one place and avoiding all contact with other people while they wait to see if they have COVID-19, or trying to recover from it without giving it to anyone else.

“Quarantine” has a long history and has had several meanings.

Originally, “quarantine” meant the place where Jesus went to fast for forty days. Die Oxford English Dictionary traces that usage in English to 1470 or so. About fifty years later, the OED says, “quarantine” was used for “A period of forty days during which a widow who is entitled to a dower is supposed to be assigned her dower and has the right to remain in her deceased husband’s chief dwelling.” About 100 years after that , “quarantine” was “A period of forty days set aside or used for a specific purpose, as penance or service a set of forty (days).”

Do you see the pattern? While those uses are now considered obsolete, they have one thing in common: forty days.

People who speak French, Italian, or Latin are probably saying to themselves, “Hmmm. ‘qua…’” In those languages, “forty” is “quarante,” “quaranta,” and “quadraginta,” respectively.

Die OED says “quarantine” is borrowed partly from French, partly from Latin. But the Italians (maybe) gave us the more modern usage during the Black Death, the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe in the 14th century. That usage is, as Merriam-Webster puts it, “a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests.”

Though medical knowledge was still relatively primitive during and after the Black Death, it seemed obvious that the plague was being spread from person to person (and by rats). Fearing it was brought in by outsiders (sound familiar?) and trying to prevent the spread of leprosy and other communicable diseases, Venice ordered arriving ships to anchor in the harbor for 40 days.

Why forty days? Possibly because of the biblical implications: if Jesus could fast for forty days, if it could rain for forty days and forty nights, if the Israelites could wander in the desert for forty years, maybe forty was a magic number, and could appease the disease and the deity.

Or maybe the concept of “quarantine” came from the Croats. Dubrovnik ordered an isolation of arrivals in 1377 and built a place for them to do so, but visitors had to stay for only thirty days. Later, the Croats extended the isolation to forty days, when they called it “quarantine.”

Daniel Defoe discussed “quarantine” in A Journal of the Plague Year , an account of the Great Plague of London in 1665 attributed to “a citizen who continued all the while in London.” (Defoe was born only five years earlier, so it’s questionable whether he is the citizen or he repeated the accounts of someone else.)

In 1722, Defoe used “quarantine” to mean a forty-day period of isolation. In t he Gutenberg Project edition , which modernizes Defoe’s spelling, he wrote: “Why else do they exact a quarantine of those who came into their harbours and ports from suspected places? Forty days is, one would think, too long for nature to struggle with such an enemy as this, and not conquer it or yield to it.”

But later, he seems to wonder whether that was long enough. “Either the distemper did not come immediately by contagion from body to body, or, if it did, then a body may be capable to continue infected without the disease discovering itself many days, nay, weeks together even not a quarantine of days only, but soixantine not only forty days, but sixty days or longer.”

We are still struggling with those questions. How long should a “quarantine” last? For COVID-19, fourteen days seems to be the current prescription.

The verb “to quarantine” arrived around 1804, the OED says, as a transitive verb meaning “To isolate or confine (a person), frequently as a punishment to isolate (a nation) politically, economically, etc. to boycott, isolate, or insulate (an event, issue, etc.)” as “quarantine” gained meanings unrelated to disease.

Die OED traces the first political use of the noun “quarantine” to 1891, in a New York Times account of a disruption of relations between France and Bulgaria (though the Tye was quoting Le Temps , a Parisian newspaper): “When a great power establishes diplomatic quarantine against them it is well not to go too far on a course on which they appear to be embarking with a light heart.”

Speaking of a light heart, and Defoe, let us end with this delightful paean to Defoe , written by Mary Norris, a former copy editor with Die New Yorker . As she and Defoe write, “And I rejoice that I have recorded these things, however short and imperfect.”

Merrill Perlman managed copy desks across the newsroom at the New York Times, where she worked for twenty-five years. Follow her on Twitter at @meperl.


Aggression

Aggression is the most common and most serious behavior problem in dogs. It’s also the number-one reason why pet parents seek professional help from behaviorists, trainers and veterinarians.

What Is Aggression?

The term “aggression” refers to a wide variety of behaviors that occur for a multitude of reasons in various circumstances. Virtually all wild animals are aggressive when guarding their territories, defending their offspring and protecting themselves. Species that live in groups, including people and dogs, also use aggression and the threat of aggression to keep the peace and to negotiate social interactions.

To say that a dog is “aggressive” can mean a whole host of things. Aggression encompasses a range of behaviors that usually begins with warnings and can culminate in an attack. Dogs may abort their efforts at any point during an aggressive encounter. A dog that shows aggression to people usually exhibits some part of the following sequence of increasingly intense behaviors:

  • Becoming very still and rigid
  • Guttural bark that sounds threatening
  • Lunging forward or charging at the person with no contact
  • Mouthing, as though to move or control the person, without applying significant pressure
  • “Muzzle punch” (the dog literally punches the person with her nose)
  • Growl
  • Showing teeth
  • Snarl (a combination of growling and showing teeth)
  • Snap
  • Quick nip that leaves no mark
  • Quick bite that tears the skin
  • Bite with enough pressure to cause a bruise
  • Bite that causes puncture wounds
  • Repeated bites in rapid succession
  • Bite and shake

Dogs don’t always follow this sequence, and they often do several of the behaviors above simultaneously. Many times, pet parents don’t recognize the warning signs before a bite, so they perceive their dogs as suddenly flying off the handle. However, that’s rarely the case. It can be just milliseconds between a warning and a bite, but dogs rarely bite without giving some type of warning beforehand.

Classification of Aggressive Behavior

If your dog has been aggressive in the past or you suspect she could become aggressive, take time to evaluate the situations that have upset her. Who bore the brunt of her aggression? When and where did it happen? What else was going on at the time? What had just happened or was about to happen to your dog? What seemed to stop her aggression? Learning the answers to these questions can clarify the circumstances that trigger your dog’s aggressive reaction and provide insight into the reasons for her behavior. You need an accurate diagnosis before you can hope to help your dog.

Aggressive behavior problems in dogs can be classified in different ways. A beneficial scheme for understanding why your dog is aggressive is based on the function or purpose of the aggression. If you think of aggression this way, you can determine what motivates your dog to behave aggressively and identify what she hopes to gain from her behavior.

Territorial Aggression

Some dogs will attack and bite an intruder, whether the intruder is friend or foe.

Dogs’ wild relatives are territorial.They live in certain area, and they defend this area from intruders. Wolves are highly territorial. If a coyote or a wolf who’s not part of a pack invades their territory, the resident wolves will attack and drive off the intruder. Some dogs display the same tendencies. They bark and charge at people or other animals encroaching on their home turf. Dogs are often valued for this level of territorial behavior. However, some dogs will attack and bite an intruder, whether the intruder is friend or foe. Territorial aggression can occur along the boundary regularly patrolled by a dog or at the boundaries of her pet parents’ property. Other dogs show territorial aggression only toward people or other animals coming into the home. Male and female dogs are equally prone to territorial aggression. Puppies are rarely territorial. Territorial behavior usually appears as puppies mature into adolescence or adulthood, at one to three years of age.

Protective Aggression

Dogs may show aggressive behavior when they think that one of their family members or friends is in peril.

Dogs are a social species. If they were left on their own, they would live together in small groups, or packs, of family and friends. If one member of a pack is in danger, the others typically rush in to help defend that individual. This is classified as protective aggression because the dogs are protecting one of their own. Pet dogs may show the same type of aggressive behavior when they think that one of their family members or friends (human or animal) is in peril. Sometimes dogs reserve protective aggression for individuals they consider particularly vulnerable. A dog who has never shown aggression to strangers in the past might start behaving aggressively when she has a litter of puppies. Likewise, a dog might first show protective aggression when her pet parents bring a human child into the family. While this behavior sounds appealing at first glance, problems arise when the protective dog starts to treat everyone outside the family, including friends and relatives, as threats to the baby’s safety. Both male and female dogs are equally prone to protective aggression. Puppies are rarely protective. Like territorial behavior, protective aggression usually appears as puppies mature into an adolescence or adulthood, at one to three years of age.

Possessive Aggression

Many dogs show the tendency to guard their possessions from others, whether they need to or not.

Dogs evolved from wild ancestors who had to compete for food, nesting sites and mates to survive. Even though our pet dogs no longer face such harsh realities, many still show the tendency to guard their possessions from others, whether they need to or not. Some dogs only care about their food. These dogs might react aggressively when a person or another animal comes near their food bowl or approaches them while they’re eating. Other dogs guard their chew bones, their toys or things they’ve stolen. Still others guard their favorite resting spots, their crates or their beds (Often, these dogs also guard their pet parents’ beds!). Less common are dogs who guard water bowls. Usually a possessive dog is easy to identify because she’s only aggressive when she has something she covets. But some dogs will hide their cherished things around the house and guard them from unsuspecting people or animals who have no idea that they’re anywhere near a valued object. Male and female dogs are equally prone to possessive aggression, and this type of aggression is common in both puppies and adults. For more detailed information about food-related possessive aggression and how to treat it, please see our article, Food Guarding.

Fear Aggression

A fearful dog may become aggressive if cornered or trapped.

When animals and people are afraid of something, they prefer to get away from that thing. This is called the flight response. But if escaping isn’t an option, most animals will switch to a fight response. They try to defend themselves from the scary thing. So a dog can be afraid of a person or another animal but still attack if she thinks this is her only recourse. A fearful dog will normally adopt fearful postures and retreat, but she may become aggressive if cornered or trapped. Some dogs will cower at the prospect of physical punishment but attack when a threatening person reaches for them. Fearful dogs sometimes run away from a person or animal who frightens them, but if the person or animal turns to leave, they come up from behind and nip. This is why it’s a good idea to avoid turning your back on a fearful dog. Fear aggression is characterized by rapid nips or bites because a fearful dog is motivated to bite and then run away. Sometimes the aggression doesn’t begin with clear threats. A fearful dog might not show her teeth or growl to warn the victim off. In this kind of situation, the only warning is the dog’s fearful posture and her attempts to retreat. Male and female dogs are equally prone to fear aggression, and this type of aggression is common in both puppies and adults.

Defensive Aggression

Motivated by fear, defensively aggressive dogs decide that the best defense is a good offense.

Closely related to fear aggression is defensive aggression. The primary difference is the strategy adopted by the dog. Defensively aggressive dogs are still motivated by fear, but instead of trying to retreat, they decide that the best defense is a good offense. Dogs who are defensively aggressive exhibit a mixture of fearful and offensive postures. They may initially charge at a person or another dog who frightens them, barking and growling. Regardless of whether the victim freezes or advances, the defensively aggressive dog often delivers the first strike. Only if the victim retreats is the defensively aggressive dog likely to abort an attack. Male and female dogs are equally prone to defensive aggression. It’s slightly more common in adults than in puppies simply because dogs need to have some confidence to use this defensive strategy, and puppies are usually less confident than adults.

Social Aggression

A dog who perceives herself as high in status may show aggression toward family members.

Animals who live in social groups, like people and dogs, typically live by certain rules in order to minimize conflict between group members. Canid species, including the dog, adopt a type of hierarchical order that influences which group members get first crack at food, the best resting spots and opportunities to mate. So rather than having to fight for access to valued things each and every time, those lower down on the totem pole know to wait until the higher-ups have had their share before taking their turn. These ordered relationships are frequently reinforced by displays of ritualized aggression. Individuals of high status use aggressive threats to remind the others of their place in the pack. The relationships between people and dogs who live together are certainly more complex than this simplified description, but it’s still important to know that a dog who perceives herself as high in status may show aggression toward family members. (This kind of behavior is sometimes called dominance or status-seeking aggression). This is why a dog might be perfectly trustworthy with one pet parent but react aggressively toward the other or toward young children in the family. Such dogs are often described as “Jekyll and Hyde” because, most of the time, they’re happy-go-lucky, friendly dogs. But if they feel that someone in the pack has overstepped his or her bounds, these dogs can quickly resort to aggression. An aggressive response is usually provoked by things that a dog perceives as threatening or unpleasant, such as:

  • Taking food away
  • Taking a chew bone, toy or stolen object away
  • Disturbing the dog while she’s sleeping
  • Physically moving the dog while she’s resting
  • Hugging or kissing the dog
  • Bending or reaching over the dog
  • Manipulating the dog into a submissive posture (a down or a belly-up position)
  • Lifting or trying to pick up the dog
  • Holding the dog back from something she wants
  • Grooming, bathing, towelling or wiping the dog’s face
  • Touching the dog’s ears or feet
  • Trimming the dog’s nails
  • Jerking or pulling on the dog’s leash, handling her collar or putting on a harness
  • Verbally scolding the dog
  • Threatening the dog with a pointed finger or rolled-up newspaper
  • Hitting or trying to hit the dog
  • Going through a door at same time as the dog or bumping into the dog

Social aggression is somewhat more common in males than in females and more common in purebreds than in mixed breeds. Puppies are rarely socially aggressive with people, but they can be with other dogs, particularly littermates. Social aggression usually develops in dogs between one to three years of age.

It’s important to realize that the complexities involved in social aggression are poorly understood and hotly debated by behavior experts. Some believe that all social aggression is rooted in fear and anxiety, while others believe that it’s motivated by anger and the desire for control. When consulting a professional, make sure you’re comfortable with her treatment recommendations. If the professional’s suggestions consist of techniques for instilling fear and respect in your dog, such as alpha rolls, scruff shakes and hanging, there’s a very good chance that your dog will get worse rather than better—and you might get bitten in the process. Punishment may be appropriate, but only when it’s well planned and limited in application. The judicious use of punishment should always be embedded in a program that’s based on positive reinforcement and trust.

Frustration-Elicited Aggression

A dog who’s excited or aroused by something but is held back from approaching it can become aggressive.

Dogs can be like human children in that when they get frustrated, they sometimes lash out with aggression. A dog who’s excited or aroused by something but is held back from approaching it can become aggressive, particularly toward the person or thing holding her back. For instance, a frustrated dog might turn around and bite at her leash or bite at the hand holding her leash or collar. Over time, the dog can learn to associate restraint with feelings of frustration so that even when there’s nothing to be excited about, she tends to react aggressively when restrained. This explains why some normally friendly dogs become aggressive when put behind a gate, in a cage or crate, in a car, or on a leash. Likewise, a dog who loves people can still show surprising levels of aggression when her pet parent lifts her up so that guests can enter or leave the home. Male and female dogs are equally prone to frustration-elicited aggression, and this type of aggression occurs in both puppies and adults.

Redirected Aggression

Redirected aggression occurs when a dog is aroused by or displays aggression toward a person or animal, and someone else interferes.

Redirected aggression is a lot like frustration-elicited aggression with the exception that the dog need not be frustrated. Redirected aggression occurs when a dog is aroused by or displays aggression toward a person or animal, and someone else interferes. The dog redirects her aggression from the source that triggered it to the person or animal who has interfered. This is why people are often bitten when they try to break up dog fights. When a person grabs or pushes a fighting dog, the dog might suddenly turn and bite. Another example is when two dogs are barking at someone from behind a fence. Sometimes one will turn and attack the other. Male and female dogs are equally prone to redirected aggression, and this type of aggression occurs in both puppies and adults.

Pain-Elicited Aggression

An otherwise gentle, friendly dog can behave aggressively when in pain.

An otherwise gentle, friendly dog can behave aggressively when in pain. That’s why it’s so crucial to take precautions when handling an injured dog, even if she’s your own. A dog with a painful orthopedic condition or an infection might bite with little warning, even if the reason you’re touching her is to treat her. The improper use of certain pieces of training equipment, such as the pinch (or prong) collar or the shock collar, can inflict pain on a dog and prompt a pain-elicited bite to her pet parent. Male and female dogs are equally prone to pain-elicited aggression, and this type of aggression can occur in both puppies and adults.

Sex-Related Aggression

Intact male dogs will still vie for the attention of females in heat, and females will still compete for access to a male.

Even though pet dogs rarely have the opportunity to reproduce, intact male dogs will still vie for the attention of females in heat, and females will still compete for access to a male. Intact male dogs sometimes challenge and fight with other male dogs, even when no females are present. Fighting can also erupt between males living together in the same household. In the wild, this is adaptive because the strongest males are more likely to attract females for breeding. Likewise, females living together in the same household might compete to establish which female gets access to a male for breeding. This type of aggression is rare. It’s observed most often in reproductively intact males and less often in intact females. Dogs who were neutered or spayed as adults may still show this type of aggression. If sex-related aggression happens, the dogs involved are usually at least one to three years of age.

Predatory Aggression

Some pet dogs show classic canine predatory behaviors, including chasing and grabbing fast-moving things.

Dogs are closely related to wolves and coyotes, both of whom are large predators, and pet dogs still show some classic canine predatory behaviors, including chasing and grabbing fast-moving things. Many dogs love to chase running people, people on bicycles and inline skates, and cars. They might also chase pets, wildlife and livestock. Some dogs bite and even kill if they manage to catch the thing they’re chasing. Predatory aggression is very different from other classifications of aggression because there’s rarely any warning before an attack. A predatory dog doesn’t growl or show her teeth first to warn her victim, so predatory aggression can seem to come out of the blue. Predatory behavior can be especially disturbing if it’s directed toward a human baby. Sometimes the sound of a baby crying or the movement of lifting a baby out of a crib can trigger a lightening-fast reaction from a predatory dog. Fortunately, predatory aggression directed toward people or other dogs is extremely rare in pet dogs.

Family Members, Strangers or Other Animals

Determining whom your dog is aggressive toward is essential to understanding her behavior. It’s common for dogs to behave aggressively toward unfamiliar people. Some studies report that as many as 60 to 70% of all pet dogs bark threateningly at strangers and act unfriendly when around them. Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs is also widespread. It’s less common for dogs to direct aggression toward family members or other pets in the home. Most problematic are dogs who are aggressive toward children, especially children in the family. Not only is aggression toward children exceedingly difficult to treat because of safety concerns, the likelihood that a dog with this problem will ever become trustworthy is slim.

Some dogs are aggressive only to a certain category of people. A dog might be aggressive only with the veterinarian or groomer, or with the postal carrier, or with people in wheelchairs or individuals using canes and walkers. In some cases, it’s easy to limit a dog’s access to the people that upset her. For instance, if your short-haired dog dislikes the groomer, you can just groom her yourself at home. But in other cases, the targeted people are impossible to avoid. For example, if you have a dog who dislikes children and you live in a densely populated urban apartment building next to a preschool, it will be difficult to avoid exposing your dog to children.

Aggression toward people, aggression toward dogs and aggression toward other animals are relatively independent patterns of behavior. If your dog is aggressive toward other dogs, for example, that doesn’t mean she’s any more or less likely to be aggressive toward people.

Risk Factors

If you’re deciding whether to live with and treat your aggressive dog, there are several factors to consider because you, as the pet parent, are ultimately responsible for your dog’s behavior. These factors involve the level of risk in living with your dog and the likelihood of changing her behavior:

  • Size. Regardless of other factors, large dogs are more frightening and can inflict more damage than small dogs.
  • Age. Young dogs with an aggression problem are believed to be more malleable and easier to treat than older dogs.
  • Bite history. Dogs who have already bitten are a known risk and an insurance liability.
  • Severity. Dogs who stop their aggression at showing teeth, growling or snapping are significantly safer to live and work with than dogs who bite. Likewise, dogs who have delivered minor bruises, scratches and small punctures are less risky than dogs who have inflicted serious wounds.
  • Predictability. Dogs at the highest risk of being euthanized for aggression are those who give little or no warning before they bite and who are inconsistently, unpredictably aggressive. Dogs who give warning before they bite allow people and other animals time to retreat and avoid getting hurt. As counterintuitive as it might seem, it’s easier to live with a dog who always reacts aggressively when, for instance, every time you push him off the bed than a dog who does so only sporadically.
  • Targets. How often your dog is exposed to the targets of her aggression can affect how easy it is to manage and resolve her behavior. A dog who’s aggressive to strangers is relatively easy to control if you live in a rural environment with a securely fenced yard. A dog who’s aggressive to children can be managed if her pet parents are childless and have no friends or relatives with children. A dog who is aggressive to unfamiliar dogs poses little difficulty for pet parents who dislike dog parks and prefer to exercise their dog on isolated hiking trails. In contrast, living with a dog who has recurring ear infections and bites family members when they try to medicate her can be stressful and unpleasant.
  • Triggers. Are the circumstances that prompt your dog to behave aggressively easy or impossible to avoid? If your dog only guards her food while she’s eating, the solution is straightforward: Keep away from her while she’s eating. If no one can safely enter the kitchen when your dog’s there because she guards her empty food bowl in the cupboard, that’s another story. If your dog bites any stranger within reach, she’s a lot more dangerous than a dog who bites strangers only if they try to kiss her.
  • Ease of motivating your dog. The final consideration is how easy it is to motivate your dog during retraining. The safest and most effective way to treat an aggression problem is to implement behavior modification under the guidance of a qualified professional. Modifying a dog’s behavior involves rewarding her for good behavior—so you’ll likely be more successful if your dog enjoys praise, treats and toys. Dogs who aren’t particularly motivated by the usual rewards can be especially challenging to work with, and the likelihood of such a dog getting better is small.

Always Work with Your Veterinarian

Some aggressive dogs behave the way they do because of a medical condition or complication. In addition to acute painful conditions, dogs with orthopedic problems, thyroid abnormality, adrenal dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, seizure disorders and sensory deficits can exhibit changes in irritability and aggression. Geriatric dogs can suffer confusion and insecurity, which may prompt aggressive behavior. Certain medications can alter mood and affect your dog’s susceptibility to aggression. Even diet has been implicated as a potential contributing factor. If your dog has an aggression problem, it’s crucial to take her to a veterinarian, before you do anything else, to rule out medical issues that could cause or worsen her behavior. If the veterinarian discovers a medical problem, you’ll need to work closely with her to give your dog the best chance at improving.

Always Work with a Professional Behavior Expert

Aggression can be a dangerous behavior problem. It’s complex to diagnose and can be tricky to treat. Many behavior modification techniques have detrimental effects if misapplied. Even highly experienced professionals get bitten from time to time, so living with and treating an aggressive dog is inherently risky. A qualified professional can develop a treatment plan customized to your dog’s temperament and your family’s unique situation, and she can coach you through its implementation. She can monitor your dog’s progress and make modifications to the plan as required. If appropriate, she can also help you decide when your dog’s quality of life is too poor or the risks of living with your dog are too high and euthanasia is warranted. Please see our article, Finding Professional Behavior Help, to learn how to find a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist (CAAB or ACAAB), a veterinary behaviorist (Dip ACVB) or a Certified Professional Dog Trainer (CPDT) in your area. If you choose to employ a CPDT, be sure that the trainer is qualified to help you. Determine whether she has education and experience in treating canine aggression, as this expertise isn’t required for CPDT certification.

Can Aggression Be Cured?

Pet parents of aggressive dogs often ask whether they can ever be sure that their dog is “cured.” Taking into account the behavior modification techniques that affect aggression, our current understanding is that the incidence and frequency of some types of aggression can be reduced and sometimes eliminated. However, there’s no guarantee that an aggressive dog can be completely cured. In many cases, the only solution is to manage the problem by limiting a dog’s exposure to the situations, people or things that trigger her aggression. There’s always risk when dealing with an aggressive dog. Pet parents are responsible for their dogs’ behavior and must take precautions to ensure that no one’s harmed. Even if a dog has been well behaved for years, it’s not possible to predict when all the necessary circumstances might come together to create “the perfect storm” that triggers her aggression. Dogs who have a history of resorting to aggression as a way of dealing with stressful situations can fall back on that strategy. Pet parents of aggressive dogs should be prudent and always assume that their dog is NOT cured so that they never let down their guard.

Are Some Breeds More Aggressive Than Others?

It’s true that some breeds might be more likely to bite if we look at statistics gathered on biting and aggression. There are many reasons for this. One likely reason is that most dog breeds once served specific functions for humans. Some were highly prized for their guarding and protective tendencies, others for their hunting prowess, others for their fighting skills, and others for their “gameness” and tenacity. Even though pet dogs of these breeds rarely fulfill their original purposes these days, individuals still carry their ancestors’ DNA in their genes, which means that members of a particular breed might be predisposed to certain types of aggression. Despite this, it’s neither accurate nor wise to judge a dog by her breed. Far better predictors of aggressive behavior problems are a dog’s individual temperament and her history of interacting with people and other animals. You should always research breeds to be sure that the breed or breed mix you’re interested in is a good fit for you and your lifestyle. However, the best insurance policies against aggression problems are to select the best individual dog for you.


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