USS Pastores - Geskiedenis

USS Pastores - Geskiedenis

Pastore

(AF-16: dp. 12.650; 1. 486'6 "; b. 55 '; dr. 14'6"; s. 15.5
a. 4 5 ", 2 1-stukke.)

Pastores is in 1913 deur Workman Clark, Ltd., Belfast, Ierland gebou; verkry deur die Vloot van United Fruit Company 1 Mei 1918; en in opdrag van 6 Mei 1918.

Pastores was een van ontelbare handelskepe wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur die vloot gehuur is om Amerikaanse troepe na Europa te vervoer, deur onderzeese besmette waters. Pastores het in die laaste maande van 1917 met hierdie diens begin, en tydens haar vroeë vlootdiens het sy verskeie duikbote teëgekom.

Sy het op 20 Desember 1917 in New York in konvooi vertrek, en sy was in Januarie 1918 900 myl van die kus van Frankryk af, toe 'n duikboot agteruit verskyn. President Grant, een van die skepe van die konvooi, het 1 skoot op die sub geskiet, wat nie weer gesien is nie. Op 9 Januarie, nadat die konvooi deur 'n verwoester -begeleier in die Baai van Biseay vergesel is, het 'n duikboot aangeval; die konvooi het 15 skote op die boot geskiet, wat nie weer gesien is nie. U-bote het 'n goeie dag gehad teen handelsvaart. Pastores het weer duikbote gesien tydens konvooioorgange in Augustus en September.

Na die einde van die oorlog het Pastores troepe na die Verenigde State teruggevoer. Sy is uit diens geneem en is teruggestuur na die United Fruit Co. van wie die vloot haar weer gehuur het. Op 23 Januarie l9i2 het die vloot haar weer op 'n kaalboot oorgeneem, en sy het op 13 Februarie 1942 weer diens as AF-16, kapt. L. Andrews in bevel. Pastores, wat dien as 'n voorraadwinkel, het voedsel en oorlogsmateriaal vir die Geallieerdes vervoer. Pastores, wat in 1942 onder ComService Force Atlantic gedien het, het na die onderbesmette Karibiese Eilande gegaan. Op 16 Junie het sy 36 oorlewendes van SS Arkansas, slagoffer van 'n subpak, opgetel. Later die maand het sy die Italiaanse tenkwaens Arcola en Taigeter gestop, maar na ondersoek laat hulle verbygaan. Pastores het kragte op Trinidad, Kuba, Bermuda en ander Karibiese eilande voorsien van vars kos en met volle suiker na die Verenigde State teruggekeer. Pastores het hierdie plig voortgesit totdat hy in November 1943 deur die Panamakanaal gegaan het om by die oorlog teen Japan aan te sluit.

Die skip het in 1944 van San Francisco en Pearl Harbor afgestuur en haar afgekoelde en bevrore vrag na die vegvloot en kusbasisse in die Elliee-, Gilbert-, Marshall- en New Hebrides -eilande afgelaai. Sy stop vroeg in Oktober by Espiritu Santo, Milne Bay, Finsehhafen en Biak met vars vakansievoorrade uit San Francisco en laai haar vrag af by San Pedro Bay, Leyte. Die eerste "koeler" by die Leyte -golf ná die inval, het sy aangekom voordat die ontvangsfasiliteite op die strand gereed was en sodoende die Japannese vliegtuie ontwyk totdat sy kon aflaai.

Vanaf San Pedro Bay het sy na die Admiralties en Nieu -Seeland gegaan. Byna 'n jaar lank het sy voedselvoorrade na die hawens van Ne ~r Guinea, die Filippyne, Palaus, Admiralties, Solomons en Russell -eilande vervoer. Met die einde van die oorlog in sig, het sy na Pearl Harbor gegaan, waar sy die nuus van die oorwinning ontvang het. In Oktober vertrek sy uit San Francisco met vars vakansiekos vir die magte op Leyte.

Terugkeer na San Francisco, het Pastores op 14 Maart 1946 buite werking gestel en is hy na W.S.A. Sy is op 28 Maart 1946 uit die Naval Vessel Register geslaan en is verkoop aan Walter W. Johnson Co. vir die sloop van 19 Desember 1946.


Ter herinnering aan George Rentz, 'n in Libanon gebore pastoor wat homself opgeoffer het vir sy manne in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Baie Amerikaanse mans en vroue het hul lewe vir hul land prysgegee en ongelooflike sterkte en dapperheid in die gesig van oorlog getoon. Libanon kan aanspraak maak op een besonder buitengewone man onder die helde van die land.

George Snavely Rentz is gebore in Libanon vir William en Catherine Rentz, oorspronklik van Pottsville, op 25 Julie 1882. Sy kinderjare was in Kansas, maar hy keer terug na Libanon vir sy hoërskooljare. In 1903 studeer hy aan Pennsylvania College in Gettysburg (nou Gettysburg College). Daarna volg hy die Princeton Theological Seminary in New Jersey, studeer daar in 1909 en word daarna in die ring van Northumberland georden.

Rentz het in die daaropvolgende jare na sy tuisvallei teruggekeer en as predikant by plaaslike kerke in Hershey, Welsh Run en Harrisburg gedien. Hy trou in 1911 met Rebekah Klepper en saam maak hulle vier kinders groot.

Toe die VSA die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1917 betree, is Rentz, in die middel van die 30's, aangestel as tydelike waarnemende kapelaan met die rang van luitenant, volgens die Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC) webwerf. Na die oorlog het Rentz sy betrokkenheid by die vloot voortgesit, as kapelaan vir verskillende skepe gedien en verskeie promosies behaal, en uiteindelik die titel van gewone kapelaan met rang van bevelvoerder in 1924.

Aan die einde van 1940 het Rentz oorgeplaas na die USS Houston, 'n cruiseskip van die Stille Oseaan, en na berig word was hy baie gewild onder die bemanningslede. Vir die volgende jaar het hy homself generies en entoesiasties toegewy aan die welsyn van die skipoffisiere en -manne, volgens die NHHC.

Die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor aan die einde van daardie tydperk in Desember 1941 het die Amerikaanse toetreding tot die oorlog laat neerkom, en die USS Houston, onder kaptein Albert Rooks, seil die Stille Oseaan -teater in as die vlagskip van die Asiatiese Vloot.

Die skip was 'n kort rukkie betrokke by verskeie gevegte voordat sy haar lot ontmoet het tydens die Slag van Sunda Straat, in die vroeë oggendure van 1 Maart 1942. Die USS Houston, saam met die Australiese kruiser HMAS Perth, was besig om te herstel van die vroeëre Slag van die Java -see. Die twee skepe bevind hulle onverwags in die minderheid deur 'n mag van die keiserlike Japannese vlootskepe. Na ure se ruil is die HMAS Perth gesink, kort daarna gevolg deur die USS Houston.

Die oorlewendes van die laasgenoemde sink, insluitend Rentz, bevind hulle op 'n oorvol vlot met verskeie mans wat nog sonder reddingsbaadjies in die water ronddwaal, waaronder die seeman 1ste klas Walter Beeson, wie se 20ste verjaardag op 'n slegter tyd nie kon kom nie.

Rentz besluit. Hy besluit om sy plek op die klein vlot en sy reddingsbaadjie prys te gee aan een van die ander wat nog in die wrak gesukkel het. Nie een het sy aanbod aanvanklik aanvaar nie. Uiteindelik trek hy sy baadjie uit, gly in die water, bid 'n gebed vir die oorblywende oorlewendes en swem die see in. Beeson, wat onwillig die baadjie aangeneem het, het later die woorde van die 59-jarige kapelaan onthou voordat hy vertrek het: 'Julle is jonk, julle lewe is voor julle, ek is oud en het dit baie geniet.'

Volgens die NHHC was Beeson die enigste van die mans op die vlot wat die oorlog oorleef het; die ander het gesterf voor dagbreek of is dood nadat hulle as krygsgevangenes geneem is.

Tot 2021 was Rentz die enigste vlootkapelaan wat postuum met die vlootkruis toegeken is, die tweede hoogste eer agter die Medal of Honor. Thomas Conway het hom in Januarie vanjaar vergesel. Die kaptein van die USS Houston, Albert Rooks, is terloops postuum bekroon met die erepenning wat hy op die brug doodgemaak het en het met die skip afgegaan na uitstekende leiding tydens sy gevegte.

Die offerande van Rentz is deur die jare onthou. In 1966 is die nuwe Reuter -orrel van die Derry Presbyterian Church in Hershey — waar Rentz van 1913 tot 1916 bedien het, in sy naam opgedra. Die instrument is onlangs verplaas na 'n kerk in Memphis, Tennessee, aangesien Derry Presbyterian besig is met die installering van 'n nuwe orrel.

Die Rentz -naam word ook ver buite die Susquehanna -vallei onthou. In die 1980's het die vloot Rentz vereer met die naam van 'n nuwe fregat, die USS Rentz, wat in 1983 van stapel gestuur is en die jaar daarna in gebruik geneem is. By die seremonie was oorlewendes van die USS Houston wat sink en Jean Lansing, die dogter van George Rentz, wat ook die skip geborg het. Na dekades se gebruik is sy doelbewus in 2016 in die westelike Stille Oseaan ingesink.

Die helmteken van die USS Rentz is hieronder ingesluit. Die ontwerp bevat 'n skild met 'n kruissimbool, wat weerspieël die geloof van Rentz en 'n eenvoudige frase. “Dread Naught ” verwys nie na die tipe slagskip nie, maar die veel ouer, letterlike term “dread niks: ” om niks te vrees nie.

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Onthou die Eerste Wêreldoorlog: Amerikaanse troepeskepe kom eers in Frankryk aan

Kort nadat die Verenigde State die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betree het, is die bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse konvooi -operasies beveel om die Amerikaanse ekspedisiemagte (AEF) te organiseer en na Frankryk te begelei. Met die bedreiging van vyandelike duikbote, het Amerikaanse skepe wat die Atlantiese Oseaan oorsteek beskerming nodig. Vier kruisers, 13 vernietigers, twee gewapende seiljagte en twee brandstoftenkwaens het vroeg in Junie 1917 in die hawe van New York vergader om as begeleiers te dien. Hulle sou 14 stoomskepe en drie vlootvervoere na Frankryk konvooi met vragte soldate, materiaal, trekdiere en voorrade. Teen die einde van die oorlog het meer as 75 persent van die Amerikaanse troepe deur die New York -hawe gegaan op pad na Europa.

Binne 'n rukkie is die vervoerskepe bymekaargemaak vir die vervoer van troepe, toegerus met radio's en gewapen. Die Verenigde State het selfs gebruik gemaak van Duitse skepe wat geïnterneer is of waarop beslag gelê is ná die oorlogsverklaring. Die Amerikaanse regering moes buigsaam en doeltreffend wees om troepe en voorrade vinnig in Europa te kry. Teen 14 Junie was die skepe gereed om te vaar.

Die kruiser USS Seattle en die vernietigers USS Wilkes, Terry, Roe, en later het die Fanning as 'n groot begeleier gedien na die USS Tenadores, Saratoga, Havana, Pastores en DeKalb, 'n gevange Duitse gewapende handelaar. (Handelsman is 'n naam wat gegee word aan 'n skip, tenkwa of vragskip wat die bedoeling het om goedere en voorrade te vervoer, nie militêre troepe nie). Hulle bevele het hulle na die hawe van Brest, Frankryk, gestuur. Laataand op 22 Junie het torpedo's deur die konvooi geloop en verskeie skepe skaars vermis. Luitenant T. VanMetre van die vernietiger USS Wilkes gebruik vroeë passiewe sonar om die geluide van nabygeleë U-bote te onderskei. Die skepe versprei soos beplan en hergroepeer die oggend van die 23ste. Marines op die DeKalb was bewus van die aanval, maar sommige soldate het die voorval misgeloop. 'N Soldaat van die Eerste Divisie het berig: "Daaglikse gerugte het versprei dat duikbote naby is, maar niemand het dit gesien nie." Die vloot het later die kongres oor die voorval opgemerk.

Op die middag van die 24ste het die konvooi ontmoet met bykomende Amerikaanse vernietigers wat in Queenstown, Ierland, gestasioneer was. Hulle het die skepe na Frankryk begelei, waar Franse vliegtuie gesien kan word wat na duikbote patrolleer. As gevolg van U-bote uit die hawe van Brest, het hulle eerder na Saint-Nazaire gegaan. Die stampvol troepeskepe het veilig aangekom, wat die soldate, matrose en mariniers 'n groot gevoel van verligting gegee het.

Op 26 Junie het die landing begin toe weermagstewedore aan wal gegaan het om voor te berei vir aflaai. Kompanie K van die 28ste Infanterieregiment was die eerste AEF -infanterie -eenheid wat sy voet in Frankryk gesit het. Die res van die 28ste, en die 16de Infanterieregiment kom ook die dag aan wal, net soos 'n deel van die 5de Mariene Regiment. Dit was 30 Junie voordat die hele kontinent aan wal gebring kon word. As gevolg van die beknopte hawe het dit 'n paar dae stowe geneem wat deur Marines bygestaan ​​is om alle diere, materiaal en voorrade aan wal te bring.

Eerste eenhede om te land in St. Nazaire in volgorde van aankoms:

• 16de Infanterieregiment
• 18de Infanterieregiment
• 26ste Infanterieregiment
• 28ste Infanterieregiment
• 5de Mariene Regiment
• Army Field -hospitaal nr. 13
• Ambulansmaatskappy No.13
• Kompanie C 2de veldseinbataljon

Die eerste eenhede aan wal het drie myl opgeruk na kamp nr. 1, 'n plek wat haastig deur Duitse krygsgevangenes gebou is. Die burgemeester van Saint-Nazaire verwelkom die Amerikaners, wat die burgers van die klein hawedorp verstom het. Plaaslike Franse orkeste het ter ere van die Amerikaners gespeel, en Amerikaanse regimentbande het die kompliment teruggegee. Kort na hul aankoms het die Franse versoek dat Amerikaners op 4 Julie in Parys optrek as 'n simbool van die toetrede van die Verenigde State tot die oorlog. Die 2de Bataljon van die 16de Infanterieregiment het 'n verruklike verwelkoming in Parys ontvang van Franse burgers en regeringsamptenare.


USS Pastores - Geskiedenis


Hierdie bladsy is deel van my webblaaie oor die prentkaartjies van WW I -troepeskepe. Hierdie bladsy beskryf die troepeskepe self en 'n bietjie oor hul geskiedenis.

Ek het 'n afskrif van 'n boek met die titel 'N Geskiedenis van die vervoerdiens deur vise -admiraal Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. Dit is in 1921 gepubliseer en beskryf die ongelooflike inspanning wat nodig was om miljoene Amerikaanse troepe na Frankryk en weer terug huis toe te vervoer. Verskeie tabelle en illustrasies uit die boek is beskikbaar by my webrekening deur die skakels op hierdie bladsy te volg. Hierdie inligting kan help as u op soek is na 'n spesifieke skip of die statistieke agter hierdie groot oorlogspoging wil sien.

Let daarop dat die inhoud van hierdie boek aanlyn beskikbaar is: Aanlyn kopie van 'N Geskiedenis van die vervoerdiens deur vise -admiraal Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. U kan u eie eksemplaar aflaai en meer te wete kom oor hierdie fassinerende geskiedenis, en die skepe en manne wat deel uitgemaak het daarvan.

Passasierslyste

Ancestry.com bied 'n soekenjin wat kan help om 'n spesifieke dienspersoon met 'n troepeskip te verbind.

Lys van skepe

Die volgende beelde is geskandeer uit die boek hierbo genoem. Hierdie bladsye bevat 'n lys van die skepe waarmee troepe na Frankryk oorgeneem is. Hierdie skepe het ook deelgeneem aan die terugkeer van die troepe. Enige van die Duitse skepe wat hier gelys is, is in beslag geneem deur die VSA nadat dit in die oorlog in 1917 ingegaan het. (Let op dat ander Duitse skepe gebruik is om troepe terug te stuur, maar die skepe is aan die VSA gegee as deel van die na-oorlogse herstelwerk. ) Elke reël is so geformateer: NAAM VAN VEILING [tonnage], Oorsprong van skip, 'Draaie:', Aantal omkerings, 'Px:', Totale passasiers na Europa vervoer, Datum waarop hierdie skip troepe begin vervoer het (maand, dag-jaar as '17' of '18' vir 1917 of 1918).

Aeolus [22000], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 24770, 4-17 aug.

Agamemnon [30000], oud-Duits, draai: 10, Px: 36097, 21-17 aug.

Amerika [41500], oud-Duits, beurte: 9, Px: 39768, 6-17 Augustus

Antigone [15000], oud-Duits, beurte: 8, Px: 16526, 5-17 September

Calamares [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 5, Px: 7657, 9-18 April

Covington [41500], oud-Duits, draai: 6, Px: 21628, 28-17 Julie

De Kalb (Aux. Cruiser) [14280], oud-Duits, draai: 11, Px: 11334, 12-17 Mei

Finland [22000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 5, Px: 12654, 26-18 April

Geo. Washington [George Washington] [39435], voormalige Duitsers, draai: 9, Px: 48373, 6-17 September

Great Northern [14000], Am-Passenger, draaie: 10, Px: 28248, 1-17 November

Hancock [10000], mariene vervoer, draaie: 2, Px: 1438, ---

Harrisburg [15000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 9855, 29-18 Mei

Henderson [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 10, Px: 16352, 24-17 Mei

Huron [15000], oud-Duits, beurte: 8, Px: 20871, 25-17 Julie

K. der Nederlanden [Koningin der Nederlanden] [13600], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 3, Px: 6283, 4-18 April

Kroonland [22000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 5, Px: 14125, 25-18 April

Lenape [7000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 6, Px: 8975, 24-17 April

Leviathan [69000], oud-Duitser, beurte: 10, Px: 96804, 25-17 Julie

Louisville [14000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 9247, 27-18 April

Madawaska [15000], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 17931, 27-17 aug

H. R. Mallory [11000], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 9756, 17-18 April

Mantsjoerije [26500], Am-Passenger, draai: 4, Px: 14491, 25-18 April

Martha Washington [14500], oud-Duitser, beurte: 8, Px: 22311, 2-18 Januarie

Matsonia [17000], Am-Passenger, draaie: 6, Px: 13329, 1-18 mrt.

Maui [17500], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 11042, 6-18 Maart

Mercurius [16000], oud-Duits, draai: 7, Px: 18542, 3-17 Augustus

Mongolië [26695], Am-Passenger, beurte: 5, Px: 19013, 8-18 Mei

Mount Vernon [32130], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 33692, 28-17 Julie

Noordelike Stille Oseaan [12500], Am-Passenger, draai: 9, Px: 20711, 1-17 November

Orizaba [13000], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 15712, 27-18 Mei

Pastores [13000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 6, Px: 9928, 6-18 Mei

Plattsburg [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 8776, 25-18 Mei

Pocahontas [14500], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 20503, 25-17 Julie

Powhatan [17000], oud-Duits, draai: 7, Px: 14613, 16-17 aug

Pres. Grant [President Grant] [33000], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 39974, 2-17 Augustus

Pres. Lincoln [President Lincoln] [29000], oud-Duits, draai: 5, Px: 20143, 25-17 Julie

Prinses Matoika [17500], oud-Duits, draai: 6, Px: 21216, 27-18 Mei

Rijndam [22070], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 6, Px: 17913, 1-18 Mei

Siboney [11250], Am-Passenger, draai: 7, Px: 20219, 8-18 April

Sierra [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 1, Px: 1712, 1-18 Julie

Susquehanna [16950], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 18345, 5-17 September

Tenadores [10000], Am-Passenger, draai: 13, Px: 15698, 17-18 April

Von Steuben [22000], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 14347, 9-17 Junie

Wilhelmina [13500], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 11053, 26-18 Jan.

Zeelandia [12950], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 5, Px: 8349, 3-18 April

Dieselfde tabel as hierbo, maar gesorteer volgens die aantal troepe wat hanteer is. Hierdie inligting kan nuttig wees vir versamelaars, aangesien daar 'n verband kan wees tussen die aantal troepe en die aantal moontlike poskaarte en briewe wat van hierdie skepe gekoop en/of gestuur is. Sommige van hierdie skepe het tydens die oorlog baie, baie min passasiers vervoer.

Leviathan [69000], oud-Duitser, beurte: 10, Px: 96804, 25-17 Julie

Geo. Washington [George Washington] [39435], voormalige Duitsers, draai: 9, Px: 48373, 6-17 September

Pres. Grant [President Grant] [33000], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 39974, 2-17 Augustus

Amerika [41500], oud-Duits, beurte: 9, Px: 39768, 6-17 Augustus

Agamemnon [30000], oud-Duits, draai: 10, Px: 36097, 21-17 aug.

Mount Vernon [32130], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 33692, 28-17 Julie

Great Northern [14000], Am-Passenger, draaie: 10, Px: 28248, 1-17 November

Aeolus [22000], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 24770, 4-17 aug.

Martha Washington [14500], oud-Duitser, beurte: 8, Px: 22311, 2-18 Januarie

Covington [41500], oud-Duits, draai: 6, Px: 21628, 28-17 Julie

Prinses Matoika [17500], oud-Duits, draai: 6, Px: 21216, 27-18 Mei

Huron [15000], oud-Duits, beurte: 8, Px: 20871, 25-17 Julie

Noordelike Stille Oseaan [12500], Am-Passenger, draai: 9, Px: 20711, 1-17 November

Pocahontas [14500], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 20503, 25-17 Julie

Siboney [11250], Am-Passenger, draai: 7, Px: 20219, 8-18 April

Pres. Lincoln [President Lincoln] [29000], oud-Duits, draai: 5, Px: 20143, 25-17 Julie

Mongolië [26695], Am-Passenger, beurte: 5, Px: 19013, 8-18 Mei

Mercurius [16000], oud-Duits, draai: 7, Px: 18542, 3-17 Augustus

Susquehanna [16950], oud-Duits, draai: 8, Px: 18345, 5-17 September

Madawaska [15000], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 17931, 27-17 aug

Rijndam [22070], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 6, Px: 17913, 1-18 Mei

Antigone [15000], oud-Duits, beurte: 8, Px: 16526, 5-17 September

Henderson [10000], Marine Transport, Turns: 10, Px: 16352, 24-17 Mei

Orizaba [13000], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 15712, 27-18 Mei

Tenadores [10000], Am-Passenger, draai: 13, Px: 15698, 17-18 April

Powhatan [17000], oud-Duits, draai: 7, Px: 14613, 16-17 aug

Mantsjoerije [26500], Am-Passenger, draai: 4, Px: 14491, 25-18 April

Von Steuben [22000], oud-Duits, draai: 9, Px: 14347, 9-17 Jun.

Kroonland [22000], Am-Passenger, Draai: 5, Px: 14125, 25-18 April

Matsonia [17000], Am-Passenger, draaie: 6, Px: 13329, 1-18 mrt.

Finland [22000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 5, Px: 12654, 26-18 April

De Kalb (Aux. Cruiser) [14280], oud-Duits, draai: 11, Px: 11334, 12-17 Mei

Wilhelmina [13500], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 11053, 26-18 Jan.

Maui [17500], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 11042, 6-18 Maart

Pastores [13000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 6, Px: 9928, 6-18 Mei

Harrisburg [15000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 9855, 29-18 Mei

H. R. Mallory [11000], Am-Passenger, Draai: 6, Px: 9756, 17-18 April

Louisville [14000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 9247, 27-18 April

Lenape [7000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 6, Px: 8975, 24-17 April

Plattsburg [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 4, Px: 8776, 25-18 Mei

Zeelandia [12950], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 5, Px: 8349, 3-18 April

Calamares [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 5, Px: 7657, 9-18 April

K. der Nederlanden [Koningin der Nederlanden] [13600], Dutch Chartered, Turns: 3, Px: 6283, 4-18 April

Sierra [10000], Am-Passenger, Draaie: 1, Px: 1712, 1-18 Julie

Hancock [10000], mariene vervoer, draaie: 2, Px: 1438, ---

In beslag geneem op Duitse liners

'N Aantal Duitse seevaartuie is deur die VSA aan die begin van die Europese oorlog (1914) geïnterneer. Hulle is in beslag geneem toe die VSA die oorlog betree het (1917) en het so vinnig as moontlik na troepeskepe omgeskakel, aangesien die VSA nie oor voldoende kapasiteit beskik om troepe te vervoer nie. Die skepe is, indien van toepassing, hernoem uit hul Duitse name. Die lys word gelei deur die stad waarin hulle geïnterneer is. Elke lyn gee 'n lys van die skeepsnaam, met die [oorspronklike Duitse skeepsnaam] en die (tonnemaat) van die skip.

Aeolus [Grosser Kurfurst] (13102)

Agamemnon [Kaiser Wilhelm II] (19361)

Geo. Washington [George Washington] (19361)

Huron [Frederich der Grosse] (10771)

Leviathan [Vaterland] (52820)

Madawaska [Koenig Wilhelm] (9410)

Pocahontas [Prinses Irene] (10893)

President Grant [President Grant] (33000 (boek in fout gee 18172))

President Lincoln [President Lincoln] (29000 (boek in fout gee 18172))

Covington [Cincinnati] (16339)

Mount Vernon [Kronprinzessin Cecile] (19503)

Von Steuben [Kronprinz Wilhelm] (14008)

Die volgende tabelle toon die name van die skepe, beide die oorspronklike Duitse en Amerikaanse naam. LET WEL dat hierdie tabel nie Duitse skepe toon wat as na-oorlogse herstelwerk geneem is nie.

Voormalige Duitse (vroeë) troepeskipname

George Washington (George Washington)

Frederich der Grosse (Huron)

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Agamemnon)

Kronprinz Wilhelm (Von Steuben)

Kronprinzessin Cecile (Mount Vernon)

President Grant (president Grant)

President Lincoln (president Lincoln)

Prinses Irene (Pocahontas)

Dieselfde tabel, maar gesorteer volgens die Amerikaanse skeepsnaam:

Kaiser Wilhelm II (Agamemnon)

George Washington (George Washington)

Frederich der Grosse (Huron)

Kronprinzessin Cecile (Mount Vernon)

Prinses Irene (Pocahontas)

President Grant (president Grant)

President Lincoln (president Lincoln)

Kronprinz Wilhelm (Von Steuben)

Buitelandse skepe

'N Aantal buitelandse skepe is ook gebruik om Amerikaanse troepe en personeel van en na Frankryk te verskuif.

Duca Degli Abruzzi (Italiaans)

Skepe word slegs gebruik vir terugkeer van troepe

Hierdie lyste is lank, en daarom is dit na hul eie webwerf verskuif. Kyk: skepe wat Amerikaanse troepe na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog terugbesorg het.

Sommige beelde is beskikbaar van hierdie skepe. Die Naval Historical Center hou inligting oor alle bekende skepe wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot gebruik word of 'n deel daarvan is. Volg die bogenoemde skakel en gebruik hul 'soek' -funksie om beelde van skepe te vind soos: Kersvader Olivia, Pannonia , en Kentuckian.


USS Pastores - Geskiedenis

Die onderneming het sy bestaan ​​te danke aan 'n kaptein Baker wat in 1870 'n groep mynwerkers van Boston na Venezuela vervoer het op sy hulpskeuter TELEGRAPH en in Port Morant, Jamaika, op sy reis na die huis gereis het om 'n vrag te vind om sy uitgawes op die noordwaartse reis te betaal. Hy het daar 160 stingels onryp piesangs gekoop vir $ 40 wat hy in Jersey City vir $ 320 verkoop het. Die jaar daarna keer hy terug na Jamaika en begin piesangs na Boston stuur. Hy koop geleidelik meer en groter skoeners en koop ook piesangaanplantings in Jamaika. 'N Werksooreenkoms is ooreengekom met Atlas SS Co, Liverpool tot 1901 toe dit deur Hamburg America Line gekoop is. In 1884 stig Baker saam met J. H. Freeman en A. Preston die Boston Fruit Co en koop hulle eie stoomskip en verkoop in 1889 hul oorblywende skoeners. Boston Fruit Co. het in 1899 saamgesmelt met toonaangewende operateurs in die vrugtehandel om die United Fruit Company van New Jersey te vorm. Die maatskappy het voortgegaan om uit te brei na Karibiese gebiede en Sentraal -Amerikaanse gebiede en om mededingende ondernemings op te neem. Hulle het in 1906 'n halwe aandeel in Standard Fruit Co gekoop, maar het 'n teiken geword van antitrustwette en is gedwing om dit in 1908 te verkoop. In 1909 verkoop hulle ook hul aandele in die Atlantic Fruit Co en word beveel om hulself te verkoop aandele in die Bluefields SS Co. Teen 1910 het UFC 'n beherende belang in die Britse Elders & Fyffes Co verkry en skepe is gereeld tussen die twee vloote oorgeplaas. United Fruit het in 1929 met Cuyamel Fruit Co saamgesmelt. In 1970 is United Fruit Co opgeneem in United Brands en het daarna sy Amerikaanse vaartuie verkoop. Alle skepe wat deur die firma besit word, is toe onder die Hondurese vlag geregistreer onder die eienaarskap van Empresa Hondurena de Vapores, Tela, Honduras. United Brands is in die 1980's deur Chiquita Brands International, Cincinnati, oorgeneem en besit die grootste vloot piesangbote ter wêreld, maar nie een van hulle vaar nou onder die Amerikaanse vlag nie.

Die vlootlys bevat passasiers- en vragvaartuie wat deur die United Fruit Company besit word deur sy Amerikaanse, Britse, Nederlandse, Hondurese en Panamese rederye wat direk bedryf word, plus tydskepte - Noorse, Britse, Duitse en Deense. Dit sluit nie Elders & Fyffes -skepe in wat nie direk onder United Fruit Co. gewerk het nie (Sien Elders & Fyffes) Vir 'n geskiedenis van die United Fruit Company, sien http://www.unitedfruit.org/

Baie dankie aan Ted Finch vir sy hulp met die insameling van hierdie data. Die volgende lys is uit verskillende bronne onttrek. Dit is nie 'n allesomvattende lys nie, maar moet slegs as 'n gids gebruik word. As u meer wil weet oor 'n vaartuig, besoek die skeepsbeskrywings (ter plaatse) of Immigrantskip webwerf.

VERENIGDE BUITELANDSE VLAGMATERYE

Nederlands Koninklijke West Indische Maildienst.
Caraibische Scheepvaart Maats (van Nievelt & Goudriaan & Co.)
Brits Unifruitco
Tropical Fruit Co.
Atlas S.S.Co.
Hondurese Empresa Hondurena de Vapores.
Panamese Balboa S.S.Co.

Roetes: Amerikaanse ooskus en die hawens van New Orleans en die Golf na die Karibiese Eilande, Sentraal -Amerika en Colombia.

Trechter:
Buff trechter met 'n breë rooi band onder swart bokant. Rooi band bevat groot wit diamant.

TheShipsList & reg ™ - (Swiggum) Alle regte voorbehou - Kopiereg en kopieer 1997 -hede
Hierdie bladsye mag vrylik gekoppel word aan maar nie op enige manier gedupliseer word sonder skriftelike toestemming van.
Laaste opgedateer: 23 November 2006 en onderhou deur M. Kohli


Pastore

Die pastore was skaapmanne, gewoonlik van Spaanse oorsprong uit New Mexico, wat gedurende die 1870's en vroeë 1880's met hul kuddes langs die Kanadese rivier en sy sytakke gevestig het. Alhoewel hulle slegs 'n kort tydjie gebly het, het hulle 'n beduidende impak op die samelewing en landbou van die Texas Panhandle gehad. Aangesien talle skape teen 1874 die beskikbare reekse in New Mexico feitlik oorskry het, het die pastore begin kyk na die Llano Estacado met sy welige riviervalleie en skynbaar eindelose grasvelde. Selfs voor 1874 het 'n paar gewaagde Indiese en Mexikaanse skaapwagters waarskynlik op 'n seisoenale basis hul kuddes langs die boonste Kanadese tot in die ooste van die huidige Oldham County opgepas. Soms het hulle die ou kampeerplekke cibolero en Comanchero gebruik waarop hulle rotsskuilings opgerig het. In hul soeke na die beste gras- en waterreisiger pastore Daar word vermoed dat hulle groot kringe gemaak het en soms die ou Indiese handelsroetes tot in die ooste soos Palo Duro Canyon of verder gevolg het. Dikwels sou verskeie groot troppe gelyktydig oor die kring reis onder die wakende oog van a mayordomo, wat met behulp van goed opgeleide skaaphonde die beweging van die skape gelei het terwyl hy van die een kudde na die ander ry. Hoewel swak gewapen en dus maklike teikens vir nomadiese krygers, is die pastore het gewoonlik redelik vreedsame betrekkinge met die Vlakte -stamme geniet. Tog was hulle versigtig vir enige Indiërs wat moontlik hul inbraak wou hê. Gedurende die 1860's het 'n klein groepie gesinne uit New Mexico 'n nedersetting op die Kanadese onder Parker Creek op 'n plek in Oldham County gevestig, maar hulle het net 'n kort tydjie gebly. Kort na die burgeroorlog het 'n skaapman met die naam Antonio Baca na bewering 30 000 koppe in die omgewing van die huidige Oklahoma Panhandle gehardloop, maar as gevolg van die moontlike Indiese gevaar is hierdie verbygaande pastore het nooit lank gebly nie. Na die Rooi Rivieroorlog, toe die nomadiese Indiane tot hul bedenkinge beperk was, pastore begin die Panhandle meer gereeld infiltreer. Sommige van hulle het handel gedryf met jagpartye van Indiërs wat met permitte van die federale regeringsagente die paar oorblywende buffels in die omgewing gesoek het. Die pastore het beeste en handelsware uit Las Vegas en ander dorpe in New Mexico verruil vir perde en watter items die Indiërs ook al kon bied. Hierdie handel het geleidelik afgeneem namate vellejagters die eens talle buffelkuddes uitgeroei het.

Waarskynlik die eerste belangrike party van pastore om hulle in die Panhandle te vestig, is gelei deur die broers Ventural en Justo Borrego, wat die gebied moontlik reeds in 1874 gevestig het, maar dit toe net so laat vaar het toe die Rooi Rivieroorlog uitgebreek het. Eers vroeg in die lente van 1876 het die Borregos verskeie gesinne van Taos na 'n plek naby die suidelike oewer van die Kanadese ongeveer 'n kilometer suid van Atascosa Springs gebring. Daar het hulle 'n plein, dit wil sê, 'n enkele rots- en adobe -huise, en klipskaapkrale opgerig rondom twee klein butte naby die oewer 100 meter verder. Kort hierna het Juan Dominquez en sy gesin hul adobes langs die Borrego -plein gebou. Van die voetheuwels bo Las Vegas af kom 'n karavaan van carretas gelei deur Jesús Marie Trujillo. Sy plein is opgerig op die spruit wat sy naam agt kilometer stroomop van sy aansluiting met die Kanadese dra. Die grootste groep van pastore kom saam met die karavaan van Casimero Romero uit Mora County in November 1876. Nadat hy die winter gekampeer het in 'n katoenhoutbos by 'n draai in die Kanadese naby sy samevloeiing met Rica Creek, het Romero sy adobe -huis naby Atascosa Creek gebou. Verskeie goed natgemaakte bronne en 'n breë vega (weide) beskerm deur heuwels, lê naby hierdie plek, wat die stad Tascosa geword het. Agapito Sandoval het 'n perseel gekies aan Consiño Creek, aan die noordoewer van die Kanadese agt kilometer stroomaf van die Romeros. Eugenio Romero, 'n broer van Casimero, en sy twee seuns het 'n plek op Rita Blanca Creek, in die huidige Hartley County noordwes van Tascosa, gekies en die Romero Springs -gemeenskap begin. In die lente van 1877, as 'n woord van die oorvloedige gras, vloeiende fonteine ​​en duidelike spruite in die Kanadese breek, het dit New Mexico bereik. pastore, waaronder Isidro Sierna en Miguel Garcia, hul gesinne ingebring. Teen 1878 het Mariano Montoya sy plein geleë by die kruising van Punta de Agua en Rita Blanca -spruite, en gou het die familie van José Piedad Tafoya, die destydse dekaan van Comancheros, by hom aangesluit.

Benewens die pleine in die Tascosa -omgewing, is ander elders langs die Kanadese pouses opgerig. Salinas Plaza, vernoem na 'n nabygeleë soutmeer wat lank reeds 'n waardevolle bron van die mineraal vir beide Indiërs en Nieu -Meksikane was, was die westelikste, geleë in 'n sanderige gebied in die huidige Oldham County naby die New Mexico -lyn, op 'n tyd was dit tuis aan ongeveer vyf en twintig Mexikaanse gesinne. Juan Chavez, 'n voormalige cibolero, vestig nog 'n plein by die monding van 'n skilderagtige canyon naby die Kanadese noordoewer, 'n paar kilometer noordoos van Salinas. Die Chavez -groep het hul eie groente, spanspekke en graan benewens vee grootgemaak, en later het Narcisco Gallegos 'n winkel daar geopen. 'N Derde plein, Tecolote, was ook naby die New Mexico -lyn oorkant die Kanadese vanaf Chavez geleë. There was also a plaza established on the old Comanchero campsite at Tecovas Springs in Potter County southeast of Tascosa, and a smaller one at Joaquin Spring, on the west bank of a small tributary, later became noted for its saloon. In all, over a dozen plazas dotted the Canadian Valley, most of them in the area of Oldham County. These settlements usually consisted of several houses, all built out of thin, flat native sandstone held together by adobe mortar, with walls around eighteen inches thick and containing beehive-shaped adobe hearths. Irrigation ditches, or acequias, were dug to divert water from nearby creeks and springs to cultivated gardens. Sheep corrals, also of sandstone, were erected nearby, and many empleados of various pastores resided in crude dugout shelters.

Along with the Hispanics, a few Anglo-American pioneers moved into the Canadian Valley. Back in 1874 Henry Kimball and Theodore Briggs had been among a party of soldiers from Fort Union who participated in a buffalo hunt on the Canadian. Finding the area to their liking, the two men, both of whom had married native Hispanic women, vowed to settle there as soon as their enlistments had expired. Accordingly, Kimball and his family followed the Romeros to Atascosa Creek, where he built a one-room house near its junction with the Canadian. At a nearby spring Kimball set up a blacksmith shop, thus becoming the Panhandle's first resident farrier. Among other things he planted several cottonwood saplings he had collected on the Canadian. Briggs and his family arrived soon afterward and on Romero's suggestion chose a site protected by high bluffs on Rica Creek a mile and a half above the Canadian and six miles west of the Romero plaza. Sometime late in 1876 the Casper brothers from California brought their flocks to the upper waters of the Red River, and by 1878 the New Zealand Sheep Company, owned by James Campbell and A. B. Ledgard, had established its headquarters on Rita Blanca Creek northwest of Tascosa. The Canadian Valley thus took on the aspects of a boom as sheepmen vied for the best pastures and watering places. Most of the sheep the pastores brought in were probably a cross between the Spanish chaurro and Merino breeds, which adapted well to the harsh Panhandle environment. At first the majority of pastores utilized the old Spanish transchumante system of moving flocks annually between summer and winter ranges. Early in the spring, the sheep were trailed out of the Canadian Valley onto the plains' pastures by lambing time and kept there until the later months, when they usually were trailed back to the valley by shearing time larger blocks, however, were sheared while still on the range and the wool transported to market directly by wagon. Since abundant grass and sufficient water were quite scarce during dry periods, sheep grazing circuits extended for miles into the Red River basin as far southeast as Tule and Quitaque canyons and beyond into the upper Brazos drainage area. Jesús Perea ran 30,000 sheep to Tahoka Lake and the Yellowhouse and Blanco canyons. Since he needed a tremendous amount of grazing land and water for such a large flock, Perea scattered them widely over much of the South Plains. Portions of the Panhandle region, particularly the northeastern area that was infested with locoweed and the dry, arid southwestern reaches, proved totally unsuitable for sheep raising. As more ranches crowded the region, grazing circuits became more fixed. Sommige pastores erected crude stone pens on the open range to shelter themselves and their flocks, while others like Casimero Romero carried portable wooden sheepfolds with them. During the winter the sheep were bedded inside the stone and adobe corrals near the plazas sometimes grassy areas protected by bluffs were fenced in. Sheep owners like Perea with larger flocks often divided labor among four types: the shepherd, or pastor, who watched over a flock of roughly 1,500 head was the lowest in rank over him was a vaquero who picked out the watering places and grazing areas for the day. A caporal supervised several vaqueros, while the mayordomo, who was in charge of the caporales, ran the entire operation. These large operations maintained their flocks in bands of 2,500 to 3,000 head, with two or three herders to each band. Hirelings, many of whom were Pueblo and Navajo Indians, were reportedly paid as high as $15.00 a month, with board around $4.75. Most of the sheep along the Canadian, however, were raised in smaller flocks for which the owner performed most of the tasks himself, including shearing and lambing.

Life in the Panhandle plazas was simple, unhurried, and little different from what the pastores had known in New Mexico. Shepherds and their dogs kept a sharp eye out for coyotes and wolves during the day and at night drove their flocks into the protection of the corrals. A few cattle, horses, goats, and chickens were also kept around the plazas. Fishing, hunting, trapping, cockfights, and rooster races were favorite pastimes one favorite game was La Pelota, a crude form of field hockey. Fiestas featuring lively, all-night bailes (dances) with Latin flavor also added zest for living and attracted everyone from miles around visitors included cowboys from neighboring cattle spreads who anxiously sought chances to dance with lovely senoritas and freely indulge in their hosts' spicy foods and strong drinks. Indians from New Mexico and the Indian Territory who came by to trade also provided an occasional break from an otherwise monotonous existence. Since the plazas were largely isolated except for the military road between forts Elliott and Bascom, the pastores were initially ignored by the Texas state officials in Austin and thus had neither taxes to pay nor any urgent obligations to the outside world.

Die pastores faithfully adhered to the Catholicism they had known in their homeland. Although there was no organized church in Tascosa prior to the late 1880s, Fr. Clemente Payron from New Mexico's Chaperito Mission made frequent visits to the Panhandle plazas, where he conducted masses and administered the sacraments. Usually the visiting priest stayed at the Romero home. Sometime in 1877 a shady Frenchman who called himself Padre Green came to the Panhandle and established a sheep ranch on Rita Blanca Creek twelve miles south of present Channing. Claiming that he was a Catholic priest collecting for the church, Green began demanding a 10 percent tithe from the settlers, usually 100 sheep for each 1,000 a sheepman possessed. While he seldom performed any clerical functions and failed to deliver his tithes to the church, Green built up a vast flock and produced an abundance of wool, which he kept in a large adobe shed he had constructed on the Rita Blanca before carrying it to market. Prior to 1880 he sold his holdings and left the Canadian Valley in search of greater opportunities.

Even as the pastores were building their plazas, other forces were rapidly developing that would soon end their almost tranquil existence. The cold-blooded murder of the Casner brothers and their Navajo herdsman by Sostenes l'Archeveque in late 1876 and the wave of violence that followed caused several pastores and their families to flee back to New Mexico in terror of "those Californians," as they called the vengeful John and Lew Casner. The Gunter and Munson firm from Sherman surveyed the area in the late 1870s. What was more, by 1880 several wealthy New Mexico merchants and ranchers in Albuquerque, Las Vegas, and other places had begun drifting their large flocks onto the Panhandle. Gebruik die partido system of sharing profits from wool clip, these partidarios often crowded out the ranges of the smaller sheepmen. Although some pastores like Mariano Montoya and Antonio Baca found new markets in Kansas and Colorado, the influx of free range cattle outfits into the area brought a new and greater challenge to land ownership and use. While Charles Goodnight restricted his operations to the eastern Panhandle, other cattlemen like Ellsworth Torrey, Thomas S. Bugbee, David T. Beals, and W. H. Bates established their headquarters and grazed their herds along the Canadian breaks. As early as 1877, George W. Littlefield bought out Henry Kimball and turned the latter's home, along with his Cottonwood Springs, into the LIT Ranch headquarters. Coupled with the cattlemen's arrival, a period of drought caused others like Jesus Trujillo to abandon their plazas by 1878. Although nearly 400 pastores with roughly 108,000 sheep were reported in the Panhandle by the 1880 census, these numbers dropped drastically during the next decade, until by 1890 there were only 10,000 sheep in the entire area. Laws restricting the movements of itinerant pastores to prevent the spread of scab and other diseases were passed by the Texas legislature during the 1870s and 1880s. With the organization of Oldham County in 1880, taxes were imposed on the sheepmen. While some of the New Mexican settlers, like Mariano Montoya and Juan Chavez, were elected to various offices in the new county government, the populace and culture of their Anglo neighbors soon came to dominate their environment. Tascosa quickly grew into a booming, rowdy cowtown as more businessmen like George J. Howard, James E. McMasters, Mickey McCormick, and the brothers John and Will Cone moved in. The abandoned Trujillo plaza was taken over by Charles and Frank Sperling and turned into a stage stop on the mail line between Mobeetie and Las Vegas.

The final blow to the pastores' plazas came with the advent of barbed wire fencing to the Panhandle in the early 1880s. When William M. D. Lee , who detested sheep, began buying up ranch land along the Canadian in 1882, he occasionally resorted to threats and bribery to coerce the sheepmen into moving their flocks back to New Mexico. By 1884 most of the plazas had been vacated and either had been cleared away or were being used as line camps by the LE and ranches LS. Casimero Romero, having lost many of his sheep to a blizzard, sold the remainder and operated his own freighting business from Tascosa to Dodge City, Kansas, until 1896. Antonio Trujillo switched to cattle after one cowman accused Trujillo's sheep of infecting his horses with mange. Agapito Sandoval remained at his plaza on Corsino Creek until 1887. Throughout this period of rapid change there had been no open warfare between cattlemen and sheepmen in the Canadian valley. As the first group to actually settle the Texas Panhandle, the pastores had located valuable watering places, further developed the old trade routes previously used by Comancheros and hide hunters, and encouraged others to move permanently onto the isolated ranges. What was more, they proved that sheep could be raised successfully in the area and showed, though not to the cowmen's immediate satisfaction, that both sheep and cattle could share the same pastures. To this day many of the creeks, canyons, and other geographical features along the Canadian retain their Spanish names. Several stone ruins of plazas and sheep corrals still dot the sites, mostly on private ranch properties, along the breaks in Oldham County, and the old Frying Pan Ranch spring house in western Potter County is believed to be the last remnant of that plaza.


The scandals that brought down the Bakkers, once among US's most famous televangelists

Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker once held a multimillion-dollar TV empire.

ɽivinely UNFAITHFUL' - the 2-hour 20/20 event - Tonight at 9/8c on ABC

An encore presentation of this "20/20" report will air TONIGHT, Friday, Dec. 20, at 9 p.m. ET on ABC

Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker were among the most famous televangelists in America, living a life of luxury with multiple houses, expensive cars and more money than God, when their empire all came crashing down amid sex and financial scandals.

But in the years following the demise of their ministry, the Bakkers didn't let a prison sentence, the loss of their massively popular multimillion-dollar TV network, the closure of their "Christian version of Disneyland" theme park, financial ruin, a divorce and being the butt of many "Saturday Night Live" jokes keep them down - or away from the spotlight.

By the mid-'70s, the Bakkers were becoming household names through their TV show, "The PTL Club" -- PTL stood for "Praise the Lord" or “People That Love.” Initially it aired on a small North Carolina station owned by media mogul Ted Turner.

"What [Bakker] really wanted to do. was create a Christian version of 'The Tonight Show'," said John Wigger, author of “PTL: The Rise and Fall of Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker’s Evangelical Empire.” "Which was really the first of Bakker's big innovations, the Christian talk show."

The Bakkers purchased airtime on TV stations across the United States, Wigger said, in order to run their various programs. In 1978, Jim Bakker created a satellite network to distribute his paid programming more efficiently and widely.

To fund his enterprise, the Bakkers hosted telethons and asked viewers to sign up for monthly pledges to become “PTL Club” partners.

"Instead of us running a commercial and being paid for that commercial, we just went directly to our viewers and said, 'If you like what you see, help us’. All of your favorite shows are asking you to give them money by buying their products. It's no different,'" said former PTL security chief Don Hardister.

The money, according to Hardister, came pouring in.

"We had a cash office and at times there was certainly more money in than. I could imagine," he said." "People would send us mink coats, diamond rings, deeds. I mean, we got all sorts of donations."

By the mid-'80s, the Bakkers, who had two children by then, had built a multimillion-dollar empire.'

"What we didn't realize was this would come to an end," Hardister said. "I never dreamed that it would come to an end."

The income from their satellite network allowed the Bakkers to purchase a total of 2,300 acres of land for a new venture -- a 500-room hotel and waterpark complex they called Heritage USA, located in Fort Mill, South Carolina.

"Bakker had always been fascinated by Walt Disney," he said. "He sat back and said, 'Why can't we have a Christian version of Disneyland?"

Bakker asked followers to give $1,000 for "lifetime partnerships" that would entitle them to an annual three-night stay at the Heritage Grand hotel, but this would be one of the first of many cracks in the Bakkers' empire.

"Problem is, there were way too many people giving $1,000, not nearly enough hotel rooms," said Mark Becker, a reporter for Charlotte-based ABC affiliate WSOC-TV, who reported on the Bakkers.

"He sold more than 66,000 lifetime partnerships in the Heritage Grand, which amounted to more than 100 percent occupancy in that hotel," Wigger said.

Then in January 1987, Jim Bakker had just broken ground on a $100-million dollar ministry center he dubbed the Crystal Palace when Wigger said, "Tammy Faye had a breakdown."

Hardister said he was with Tammy Faye when it happened.

"They left me in the house alone with Tammy, and that's when she started hallucinating," he said. "And I couldn't believe I'm there by myself with this lady and she'd taken her clothes off, and Tammy didn't do that kind of stuff around me. We all knew she had some prescription drug problems."

Two months later, the Bakkers disclosed to their viewers in a videotaped message that Tammy Faye was being treated for drug dependency. But then they were rocked again when their hometown newspaper, The Charlotte Observer, published an expose revealing Jim Bakker had a sexual encounter more than 6 years earlier with Jessica Hahn, a young church secretary from Long Island, New York.

Hahn later claimed that in December 1980, when she was 21 years old, Jim Bakker allegedly sexually assaulted her. The ministry then paid more than $200,000 in hush money. Jim Bakker disputed her account of a sexual assault and years later, he wrote in his book, "I Was Wrong," that the sex was consensual.

"The way Jessica Hahn later described her sexual encounter with Jim Bakker sounds very much like rape," Wigger said. "She later told me that she doesn’t really feel comfortable talking about it in those terms, but she also clearly didn’t believe that it was consensual."

Needing to lay low at the time, Jim Bakker resigned from PTL and turned to Jerry Falwell, another well-known televangelist and minister, to step in and run the ministry until the Hahn scandal blew over.

"Bakker said [to Falwell], 'I'd like you to take the helm of PTL and hold it together. I need to take some time with my wife and family,'" said Mark DeMoss, a former Falwell spokesman.

But what Falwell didn't know at the time, Wigger said, was that PTL was "deeply in debt."

"Leveraged to the point of collapse. they're bleeding two million dollars a month," he said. "The other thing that comes to light is that [Jim] Bakker allegedly had a number of same-sex relationships."

At a press conference in May 1987, Falwell said the Bakkers were no longer fit to lead PTL, accusing Jim Bakker of being secretly gay and claimed that Tammy Faye Bakker made a long list of demands in order for them to give up plans to come back to PTL that included large annual salaries, two cars, a maid for one year and a furnished house on a lake, among other things.

The Bakkers too went on a media tour. In a May 1987 interview with Ted Koppel for "Nightline," Tammy Faye didn't deny making that list of demands.

"He [Falwell] asked us what we felt that, after all these years of the ministry, of leaving the ministry, what we should have," she told Koppel at the time. "And you know, when you're negotiating --"

"You start out at the top," Jim Bakker finished for her.

Reflecting on that interview today, Koppel said, "Over the years, I did over 6,000 'Nightlines,' that was number one. Not in my heart . but in terms of what had the greatest appeal to the greatest number of people. That was it."

The government began reviewing PTL’s finances, as well as the spending and compensation of the Bakkers and other top PTL officials. At one point, the Bakkers’ vast portfolio included several homes, a private jet, two Rolls Royces, a Mercedes Benz, expensive clothes and an air-conditioned doghouse.

"It was quite a lengthy investigation," said former ABC News correspondent Rebecca Chase. "But ultimately culminated in significant indictments. for Jim Bakker and all of his lieutenants."

Meanwhile, Jessica Hahn went on to pose for "Playboy" magazine multiple times and made several appearances on "The Howard Stern Show" that continued for years afterward.

Jim Bakker was indicted in 1988 on eight counts of mail fraud, 15 counts of wire fraud and one count of conspiracy.

"Tammy Faye was not indicted," said Suzanne Stevens, a former WSOC-TV anchor who covered the Bakkers. "But that was the big talk: How could she have not known? She was wearing fur coats, she was wearing rings."

Even Bakker’s trial, which took place before federal Judge Robert Potter, was marred by drama.

"One of the witnesses the prosecution called was Steve Nelson, and Nelson's department at PTL had been in charge of collecting the data on lifetime partnerships, so Nelson knew that Jim Bakker knew the lifetime partnership program was oversold," Wigger said.

During his testimony, Nelson collapsed on the stand and had to be taken to the hospital.

"When he fainted, it was this silence and. a voice from the audience came [up and said], 'Oh, he's giving his life to God,' . and Bakker's attorney called him [Jim Bakker] up, 'Jim, Jim,' as if there's going to be a miracle, he can bring him back to life," said Jerry McJunkins, who was one of several court sketch artists covering the trial.

"Jim literally thought [Nelson] had died," added Hardister.

The next day, Jim Bakker "had a psychological breakdown," Wigger said, saying he was hallucinating that “the reporters outside the courtroom looked to him like giant bugs."

"He was curled up underneath his attorney's couch," Hardister said. "I think the weight of that trial and the weight of everything that he had done, good and bad, just crushed him."

Judge Potter ordered Bakker to be committed to a psychiatric ward in a federal prison and the trial was put on hold.

Six days later, Jim Bakker emerged, ready to take the stand in his own defense.

On Oct. 5, 1989, a jury found Bakker guilty on all 24 counts. He was sentenced to 45 years in prison and ordered to pay a $500,000 fine.

Jim Bakker filed an appeal, arguing that his sentence was too long for the crimes. In 1991, the appellate court upheld his conviction but granted him a sentence-reduction hearing, during which he was granted a reduced prison sentence from 45 years down to eight years. He ended up serving almost five years of that sentence before being paroled in 1994.

While Jim Bakker was in prison, Tammy Faye filed for divorce. Shortly thereafter, she married Roe Messner, the contractor who built Heritage USA. But after the financial fallout of PTL, Messner was sentenced in 1996 to 27 months in federal prison for bankruptcy fraud.


USS Pastores - History

Quem Pastores Laudavere is a Latin Christmas carol found in a manuscript dating back to the 14 th century. It is here performed by the Taverner Choir

Quem pastores laudavere,
Quibus Angeli dixere,
Absit vobis jam timere,
Natus est Rex gloriæ.

Ad quem Reges ambulabant,
Aurum, thus, myrrham portabant,
Immolabant hæc sincere,
Leoni victoriæ.

Exultemus cum Maria,
In Cœlesti Hierarchia,
Natum promat voce pia,
Dulci cum melodia.

Christo Regi, Deo nato,
Per Mariam nobis dato,
Merito resonet vere,
Laus honor et gloria.


English Translation:

The One who the shepherds praised,
And about whom the Angels told:
'Abandon your present fears,'
The King of Glory is born.

To Him the Kings walked,
Carrying gold, frankincense and myrrh,
Offering them religiously,
For the Lion's victory.

Let us rejoice with Mary,
In union with the Celestial Hierarchy,
Singing a pious song to the Newborn,
That be sweet in its melody.


Pastores, Los

Los pastores (pronounced lohs pah-STOH-rays) means "the shepherds" in Spanish. This is the name given to a Mexican folk drama that tells the story of the shepherds' pilgrimage to the newborn Christ child. The play is also referred to as La Pastorela, which means "the pastoral" or "the country story" in Spanish. Performances of this play usually take place in mid to late December. The Gospel according to Luke (2:8-20) states that an angel announced Jesus' birth to a group of shepherds and encouraged them to make a pilgrimage to Bethlehem. The shepherds went to Bethlehem and found the Christ child, confirming the words of the angel. The story told in Los Pastores is loosely based on this Bible passage.

The roots of the Shepherds'Play can be traced back to the mystery or miracle plays of medieval Europe (see also Nativity Play). These plays began as brief interludes during church services in which the clergy enacted simple versions of Bible stories and religious doctrines. These liturgical dramas began sometime around the tenth and eleventh centuries. The clergy used them to teach elements of the Christian religion to a largely illiterate population. The plays proved popular and, eventually, folk performers began to stage them in public arenas. Many changes accompanied this shift. The new folk dramas embroidered the original plots, adding humorous and racy dialogue, characters, and events. These innovations caused the Church to ban these performances in the fifteenth century.

Many of these plays dealt with the stories behind the Christian holidays and were performed on those days. The Shepherds' Play was one of a number of stories enacted at Christmas time. During the fifteenth century several Spanish authors developed elaborate written versions of The Shepherds' Play, or Los Pastores. These plays featured coarse and comical shepherds who entertained audiences by responding to the great events surrounding the Nativity with fear, greed, and confusion. In fact, the amusing antics of the shepherds nearly eclipsed the solemn story of the Nativity.

In the sixteenth century Spanish missionaries came to Mexico to convert the native peoples to Christianity. The Native Americans not only came from very different cultural backgrounds than did the Spanish, but also spoke very different languages. In order to bridge this gap the missionaries decided to use mystery plays to teach them Bible stories. They introduced Los Pastores sometime during the sixteenth century.

Like the mystery plays of medieval Europe, Los Pastores eventually passed from the hands of the clergy and the church grounds to the hands of the people and the public plaza. This transition produced similar results. Although the basic outline of the story remained the same, the play continued to evolve along the same lines it had followed in Europe. Over time new characters and events were added to the play. The drama evolved into a comedy in which the Devil tries to distract the dull-witted shepherds from their quest and heaven's angels intercede to keep the oafish pilgrims on course.

Plot and Characters

Although the plots may vary somewhat according to local traditions, a number of main characters appear in every version of the play. The starring roles go to the shepherds. They are portrayed as lazy, thickheaded, and easily distracted from their quest by opportunities to eat, sleep, or flirt. In fact, these less-than-heroic shepherds must be coaxed and even argued into setting out on their pilgrimage. At some point they encounter an elderly though spunky hermit. The hermit helps keep the shepherds on their course and entertains the audience with his sharp tongue. A scheming Devil appears throughout the play, sometimes disguised to fool the shepherds and sometimes in a traditional red costume complete with horns and a tail. He and his minions attempt to lure the shepherds away from their pilgrimage by appealing to all their weaknesses.

Often, the play also includes the angel Gabriel, who announces Jesus'birth to the shepherds, and the archangel Michael, who descends from heaven to protect the shepherds from the Devil's temptations. Sometimes a host of angels must battle a squadron of devils in order to protect the boorish travelers. At last, however, the shepherds arrive in Bethlehem and present their gifts to the Holy Family. The play ends with the Devil conceding defeat.

Local townspeople, schools, and even semi-professional acting groups present versions of Los Pastores. The drama is usually staged in some public place, like a plaza or a church, but may also be presented at someone's home. It may last anywhere from half an hour to several hours. Actors use dialogue, song, dance, verse, costume, and melodramatics to convey the story. This Mexican folk drama may be found in numerous towns and cities in the United States, especially in areas where many Mexican Americans live, such as the southwestern states. Some American folklorists point out, however, that fewer and fewer folk performances are given each year. Instead, the tradition is being carried on by professional and semi-professional actors. The city of San Antonio, Texas, at one point hosted dozens of amateur troupes dedicated to the presentation of Los Pastores. Today only one amateur group remains, bringing about twenty performances a year to churches, missions, or people's backyards between Christmas Eve and Candlemas, February 2. In addition, the San Antonio Conservation Society presents the public with a more formal, professional version of the play each year at the city's San José Mission.


USS Pastores - History

In the mid-to-late nineteenth century sheep herders, or pastores, from New Mexico extensively pastured their flocks in the western section of present Cimarron County and contiguous areas in present eastern New Mexico, the Texas Panhandle, southwestern Kansas, and southeastern Colorado. A part of the Great Plains called the High Plains, the region offered vast, continuous grasslands in the watersheds of the Cimarron, Beaver (North Canadian), and "South" Canadian rivers, which headed in northeastern New Mexico and drained the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles. Playa lakes also dotted the landscape. Abundant gramma, little bluestem, and buffalo grasses provided ample forage for bison and antelope and later for domesticated herd animals.

The New Mexico sheep industry, a major aspect of the economy, dated from the sixteenth century when Spanish settlers had brought herds north from Mexico. Although all social classes might own sheep, by the early nineteenth century this resource became concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy menin the central part of the province. Central New Mexico, however, offered too few pastures to sustain large flocks, but the free-range grassland to the east could support hundreds of thousands of woolybacks.

Well known to the ranchers and merchants of New Mexico, much of the eastern grassland lay within a transportation corridor leading from New Mexico to the middle United States. The Santa Fe–Missouri trade, which developed in the 1820s, used the Cimarron Cut-off of the Santa Fe Trail, which crossed through present Union County, New Mexico, and Cimarron County, Oklahoma. New Mexico ciboleros, or buffalo hunters, and comancheros, or traders to the Comanche, conducted their activities throughout the grasslands. The Santa Fe–Missouri connection also provided New Mexicans with a market for wool and woven goods, and thus the Santa Fe trade was a major stimulus to the sheep industry. In the 1830s Josiah Gregg, chronicler of the Santa Fe Trail, observed and later described in detail in Commerce of the Prairies (1834) his encounter with shepherds and their flocks in the High Plains. In addition, breeding-stock sheep and sheep destined for slaughterhouses were driven from central New Mexico through Las Vegas and eastward along the Santa Fe Trail for sale in Kansas and Nebraska. Because these activities took place, in the last half of the nineteenth century numerous Hispanic communities, or placitas, developed near the trail's path through present Union and Cimarron counties.

Sheep herding was systematically arranged as a vertical organization of responsibility. The owner, or patron, hired an experienced sheep man to be mayordomo, in charge of the entire pasturage operation. He hired mid-level managers called caporales, who hired vaqueros, or riders, who each supervised three herders, or pastores, who actually raised and cared for the sheep. "Wages" generally consisted of part of the increase in the flock and part of the wool, like sharecropping. Each pastor handled two to three thousand sheep. After spring lambing in east-central New Mexico, the pastor moved the herd eastward into the distant grasslands. In summer and autumn the flock traversed a wide circuit through the grassy plains around the Cimarron and Canadian rivers and returned westward to the mountain valleys for the winter. Sheep needed grass but could survive without much water pastores carried their own water and food. Die pastores established various "base camps," often building small houses and corrals of native stone, when available.

Prominent New Mexico sheep-raising families were grazing their flocks using the pastures of eastern New Mexico and the Oklahoma Panhandle after the mid-nineteenth century. Bartolome Baca, who had received a land grant southeast of Albuquerque in 1819, had established a large sheep operation in present Valencia County. In addition, the Luis Maria Cabeza de Baca family had grants in central and eastern New Mexico and in Colorado and was apparently using pastures in present Union County and in the Public Land Strip (or Neutral Strip, No Man's Land, Oklahoma Panhandle) at least by the late 1860s. Local historians maintain that an owner or mayordomo named José Albino Baca (the surname may actually be Cabeza de Baca) was reportedly responsible for twenty-five thousand sheep pastured annually in present Cimarron County. He employed sixty men, his pastores including Juan Cruz Lujan, Francisco Lujan, Ramon Bernal, and possibly Benito Baca, Jose Vicente Baca, and Juan Bernal. According to a 1935 interview with Juan Lujan, the headquarters of the herd was located around Carrizo Creek and Road Canyon. He indicated that the range of pasturage included Cimarron County and "'as far west as Folsom, New Mexico,'" in far western Union County. Die pastores established various sheep camps, and according to photographic evidence of structures in Cimarron County, often used local "sheep-pen" sandstone to built huts and corrals. Scattered ruins identified in a 2002 survey and excavation in the area of Black Mesa suggests that some may have kept semipermanent placitas. The herders used the eastern pasturages until the late 1870s when incoming cattlemen reportedly paid the Baca family to keep their sheep in New Mexico. Circa 1885 Juan Cruz Lujan turned a sheep camp on Corrumpa Creek into his own ranch. He was joined by his brothers Francisco, Lorenzo, and Alejandro, who came from Mora County, New Mexico. Turn-of-the-century photographs show that the Lujan ranch had a flat-roofed adobe house with a large addition, a chapel, and New Mexico–style, beehive-shaped baking ovens. The primary market for Lujan's wool and lambs lay in Trinidad, Colorado.

The descendants of the pastores continued to live and ranch in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The 1900 and 1910 U.S. Censuses recorded sizeable concentrations of Hispanic stock raisers, including the Lujans, in Harrison Township of Cimarron County. In 1899 a widely circulated newspaper report asserted that a "colony of three hundred New Mexicans" were raising sheep there, and approximately 125 individuals (25 surnames) are represented in the 1900 census. As late as 1920 and 1930 Juan Cruz Lujan still appeared in the census as a sheep rancher he died in Cimarron County in 1943. Although Anglo-Americans in the area primarily raised cattle, some raised sheep in Cimarron and adjoining counties. In 1906 more than a hundred New Mexican pastores were "imported" into Beaver County to care for flocks owned by Anglo sheep ranchers. By 1907 statehood Cimarron County numbered 9,011 sheep, more than any other Oklahoma county, and fully 25 percent of the new state's sheep population.

The Hispanic presence in Cimarron County remains visible in local place-names that include Carrizo, Castañeda (at Wolf Mountain, on the Santa Fe Trail), Cimarron, Delfin, Hidalgo, and Nieto Junction. Geographical designations include Corrumpa, Cienquilla, Tesesquite, Carrizozo, and Carrizo creeks, and Trujillo Springs. In the twentieth century some of the environment that served as pasture in the four-state area was preserved as the Rita Blanca National Grassland in Texas and Oklahoma, the Kiowa National Grassland in New Mexico, and the Comanche National Grassland in Kansas.

Bibliografie

H. Allen Anderson, "Pastores," in The New Handbook of Texas History, red. Ron Tyler (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1995).

Magdalena Lujan Baca and Connie Espinosa Pendergast, "Sheep Ranchers in No Man's Land [typescript]," Vertical File, Cimarron Heritage Center, Boise City, Oklahoma.

Paul H. Carlson, "Panhandle Pastores: Early Sheepherding in the Texas Panhandle," Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 52 (1980).

Ezra A. Carman et al., Special Report on the History and Present Condition of the Sheep Industry of the United States, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1892).

Gary Gress, "From Maverick Lands to Managed Lands: Ranching and School Lands in Cimarron County, Oklahoma" (Ph.D. diss., University of Oklahoma, 2002).

Berenice Jackson, Man and the Oklahoma Panhandle (North Newton, Kans.: Mennonite Press, 1982).

Charles L. Kenner, New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969).

George Rainey, "A Visit with an Old Spaniard," in No Man's Land (Enid, Okla.: George Rainey, 1937).

Edward Norris Wentworth, America's Sheep Trails (Ames: Iowa State College, 1948).

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Aanhaling

Die volgende (volgens Die Chicago Manual of Style, 17de uitgawe) is die voorkeuraanhaling vir artikels:
Dianna Everett, &ldquoPastores,&rdquo Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van Oklahoma, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=PA029.

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