Hugh Glass

Hugh Glass

Hugh Glass is gebore in ongeveer 1800. Van sy vroeë lewe is min bekend, behalwe dat sy gesin oorspronklik uit Ierland afkomstig was en dat hy waarskynlik deur Pawnee Indiane gevange geneem is toe hy 'n jong man was.

Op 13 Februarie 1822 plaas William Ashley 'n advertensie in die Missouri Gazette en openbare adviseur waar hy 'n beroep doen op 100 ondernemende mans om 'die rivier Missouri op te klim' om deel te neem aan die bontversamelingsonderneming. Diegene wat ingestem het om by die partytjie aan te sluit, was Glass, Jim Beckwourth, Tom Fitzpatrick, David Jackson, William Sublette, James Bridger en Jedediah Smith.

Glass het 'n reputasie ontwikkel as 'n harde en moedige bergman. Hy is by Arickara gewond, maar het herstel en was een van diegene wat Ashley se eerste ekspedisie oorleef het.

In Augustus 1823 is Glass erg deur 'n beer geteister. Die leier van die party, Andrew Henry, het James Bridger en John Fitzgerald agtergelaat om na hom om te sien. Hulle het oortuig geword dat hy nie kan lewe nie en nadat hy sy geweer en toerusting geneem het, het hy hom verlaat. Toe Bridger en Fitzgerald Henry inhaal, het hulle berig dat Glass aan sy beserings beswyk het.

Glass het egter sy bewussyn herwin en deur wilde bessies en wortels te eet, het hy daarin geslaag om langs die kant van die Grootrivier te kruip. Met die hulp van inheemse Amerikaners het Glass uiteindelik Fort Kiowa bereik. Glass het nou besluit om Bridger en Fitzgerald op te spoor en dood te maak. Glass het Bridger uiteindelik gevind, maar besluit om hom te vergewe weens sy ouderdom. Hy het ook ontdek dat Fitzgerald by die weermag aangesluit het en nie meer in die streek woon nie.

Glass het nou weer as bergman lewe gekry. Later het hy 'n dierejagter geword wat voedsel verskaf aan mense in Fort Union.

Hugh Glass is in 1833 deur inheemse Amerikaners vermoor terwyl hy op die Yellowstone -rivier was.

Verlede lente het die Duitsers groot tente in 'n oop ruimte in die Lager gebou. Vir die hele goeie seisoen het elkeen meer as 1 000 man voorsien: nou is die tente afgehaal, en meer as 2 000 gaste het in ons hutte gekom. Ons ou gevangenes het geweet dat die Duitsers nie van hierdie onreëlmatighede hou nie en dat daar binnekort iets sal gebeur om ons aantal te verminder.


Geskiedenis ’s Badasses: Hugh Glass

Laaste keer op Geskiedenis ’s Badasses, het ons die vrou gedek wat bekend staan ​​as die “Spanish Joan of Arc ”: Agustina of Aragon. Sy was net u gemiddelde meisie wat gedurende die 1800's geleef het, maar haar groot moed teen die onmoontlike kans van Napoleon se inval in Spanje het duisende Spaanse soldate geïnspireer om te veg vir oorwinning.

Hierdie keer het ons 'n all-American badass vir jou gekry met die naam Hugh Glass. Sy verhaal is verewig in gewilde legendes en in twee rolprente. Die eerste: Man in die wildernis (1971), die tweede: Die Revenant (2015), met Leonardo DiCaprio in 'n opvoering wat die akteur 'n Oscar, BAFTA en Golden Globe sou verower. Die flieks vertel die ongelooflike verhaal van die oorlewing van Hugh Glass en#8217 nadat hy deur sy metgeselle agtergelaat is en aangeval is deur 'n grizzlybeer in die woestyn van Suid -Dakotan. Hy het op sy eie 200 myl na Fort Kiowa getrek, sonder voorrade of wapens, en uiteindelik het hy huis toe gekom.

Vroeë lewe

Daar is nie veel bekend oor die vroeë lewe van Hugh Glass nie. Hy is iewers in 1783 in Pennsylvania gebore aan Skotse-Ierse immigrante uit Ulster, in die huidige Noord-Ierland.

Die meeste van die verhale wat ons oor sy vroeë lewe het, kom uit die populêre legende. Die verhale lui dat hy in 1816 deur seerowers gevange geneem is en twee jaar saam met hulle deurgebring het. Hy het ontsnap deur na die kus van Texas te swem. Ander verhale sê dat hy deur die Pawnee -stam gevange geneem is, baie jare by hulle gewoon het en uiteindelik met 'n Pawnee -vrou getrou het.

Wat ons wel weet, is dat Hugh Glass in 1821, toe hy ongeveer 38 jaar oud was, in St. Louis aangekom het met verskeie afgevaardigdes van Pawnee wat daarheen ontbied is om met verteenwoordigers van die Amerikaanse regering te vergader.

Verstrengel Met 'n Grizzly Beer

Sy werklike verhaal begin in 1822. Generaal William Henry Ashley het 'n advertensie in die Missouri Gazette en openbare adverteerder. Die advertensie was op soek na 'n korps van honderd man om die rivier Missouri “ in 'n pelshandelonderneming te huur. Baie beroemde bergmanne het aangesluit, waaronder John Fitzgerald, David Jackson en Jedediah Smith.

Die groep was op reis deur die Missouri in 1823. Hulle was besig om rond te soek by die vurke van die Grand River, naby die Shadehill Reservoir in Suid -Dakota, op soek na wild. Glass het sy eie sake met die res van die groep bedoel toe hy per ongeluk 'n grysbeer, a ma grizzlybeer, om spesifiek te wees, met twee welpies.

Sy het aangekla, hom gebyt, gemoker en Glass op die grond vasgemaak. Tog het hy met die hulp van sy ekspedisielede daarin geslaag om die beer dood te maak. Hy is verskriklik verslae en bewusteloos gelaat. Generaal Ashley het nie gedink dat hy sou oorleef nie.

Die generaal het twee vrywilligers gevra om by Glass te bly. Hulle wag totdat hy sterf en gee die man 'n behoorlike begrafnis. Twee mans stap vorentoe, met die naam Fitzgerald en Bridger. Hulle het die graf van Hugh gegrawe toe die partytjie met die rivier afloop.

Na bewering het 'n groep Arikara, 'n stam verbonde aan die Mandan en Hidatsa, op die paar neergesak en hulle aangeval. Dit was wat Bridger en Fitzgerald vir die partytjie gesê het toe hulle hulle later inhaal. Hulle het Hugh Glass laat vaar, sy geweer, mes en ander toerusting geneem en hom laat sterf.

Al wat Glass geweet het toe hy wakker word, was dat hy verlate was, sonder wapens, kos of toerusting. Sy been is gebreek, sy kopvel is oopgeskeur, sy keel is deurboor, sy wonde is erg, en hy was 200 kilometer van die naaste Amerikaanse nedersetting: Fort Kiowa.

Wat het hy gedoen? Het hy daar gelê en gesterf? Nie Hugh Glass nie!

Op grond van die wilskrag was Glass vasbeslote om nie te sterf nie. Hy het sy eie been gesit, hom toegedraai in die enigste ding wat sy kamerade vir hom agtergelaat het: 'n beervel by wyse van 'n grafskerm, en begin op sy hande en knieë na Fort Kiowa kruip.

Dit sou hom ses weke neem. Thunder Butte was sy baken. Van daar af kruip hy suid na die Cheyenne -rivier, waar hy daarin slaag om 'n vlot saam te gooi. Hy dryf stroomaf na Fort Kiowa en oorleef op wilde bessies en wortels.

Om gangreen uit sy besmette wonde te voorkom, het hy maaiers laat dooie vleis eet. Ondanks sy beserings het hy twee wolwe van 'n bisekalf weggejaag. Daardie dag het hy soveel as moontlik van die rou vleis geëet.

Op pad af, ontmoet hy 'n groep vriendelike inheemse Amerikaners. Hulle het hom 'n nag lank vasgehou, 'n beerskil op sy rug vasgewerk om sy blootgestelde wonde te bedek, en vir hom kos en wapens gegee.

Uiteindelik het hy na Fort Kiowa gekom. Glass het daar gestrand en van sy wonde herstel, maar sodra hy herstel is, was hy nie klaar nie. Hy was op soek na die twee mans wat hom verlaat het.

Hy het Bridger gevind, maar die storie lui dat hy hom vergewe het omdat hy nog net 'n kind was. Fitzgerald was 'n bietjie minder gelukkig. Hy het Fitzgerald by Fort Atkinson in Nebraska gevind en hom sy geweer laat terugstuur. Glass het die man se lewe gespaar, maar vir hom gesê dat as hy ooit die weermag sou verlaat, hy hom sou doodmaak.

Ander verhale

U sou dink dat Hugh Glass na so 'n avontuur sy begeerte sou gehad het om te verken, maar hy het dit nie gedoen nie. Hy keer terug na Ashley ’s Hundred en gaan in 1824 op soek na 'n nuwe vangroete.

Tydens die reis is hulle deur Arikara aangeval. Twee van die party is dood. Glas het oorleef deur agter 'n paar rivierklippe te skuil. Hy het teruggekeer na die tuisbasis in Fort Kiowa deur by 'n groep Sioux aan te sluit en saam met hulle huis toe te reis.

Dood

Hugh Glass het die res van sy lewe as trapper en pelshandelaar deurgebring. In 1833 word hy deur Arikara op die oewer van die Yellowstone -rivier vermoor. Sy verhaal is gewild in legendes en mites as 'n bewys van moed teen onmoontlike kans en die krag van die menslike gees om te oorleef in die lig van gevaar.


Niemand weet of Hugh Glass werklik 'n Pawnee -vrou gehad het nie. Baie rekeninge dui daarop dat hy tyd by die Pawnee gewoon het, maar daar is geen werklike ooreenkoms oor hoe lank hy saam met hulle geleef het, onder watter omstandighede, waarom hy vertrek het of as hy ooit getroud is nie. En van wat ons weet, het hy geen kinders gehad nie ...

'N Pawnee earth lodge in 1873


The Revenant (2015)

Ja. Die Revenant ware verhaal bevestig dat dit een van die min feite oor Hugh Glass is wat ons beslis weet. Hy was 'n grensman en bontvangster. In 1823 teken hy aan vir 'n ekspedisie wat ondersteun word deur generaal William Henry Ashley en majoor Andrew Henry, wat saam die Rocky Mountain Fur Company in 1822 gestig het (Henry word uitgebeeld deur Domhnall Gleeson in Die Revenant). Ashley het 'n advertensie in die Missouri Gazette & Public Advertiser op soek na "ondernemende jong mans." Dit was tydens hierdie pelsvangs-ekspedisie dat Hugh Glass deur 'n grizzlybeer aangeval is, 'n gebeurtenis wat Glass se verhaal in 'n Legende van die Grens verander het. Dit is onduidelik hoeveel van die legende waar is, aangesien die verhaal gereeld met elke hervertelling versier is. -Telegraph.co.uk

Het Hugh Glass die slagoffers beveel om hul bote te verlaat en na die Arikara -geveg die berge in te gaan?

Het Hugh Glass werklik 'n inheemse Amerikaanse vrou gehad?

Min is bekend oor die lewe van die regte Hugh Glass voor die beeraanval in 1823. Die meeste is veronderstellings, insluitend sy huwelik met 'n inheemse Amerikaanse vrou, op wie hy vermoedelik verlief geraak het nadat hy gevange geneem is en 'n paar jaar saam met Pawnee -Indiane gewoon het. Namate sy legende gegroei het, het sy uitgebreide agtergrond ook gegroei, waaronder hy ook ontvoer is deur die Frans-Amerikaanse seerower Jean Lafitte, 'n lot wat hy na 'n paar jaar na bewering kon ontsnap deur aan die skip te spring en te swem naby die huidige Galveston, Texas. Ons weet wel dat Glass 'n ervare grensman en 'n bekwame jagter was, maar waar en hoe hy daardie talente opgedoen het, raai iemand. -HistoryBuff.com

Is die ware Hugh Glass deur 'n beer aangeval?

Ja, hoewel daar geen ooggetuieverslag bestaan ​​nie, Die Revenant ware verhaal onthul dat dit in die somer van 1823 gebeur het, vyf maande nadat Glass aangesluit het by 'n bontvang-ekspedisie in Suid-Dakota wat deur majoor Andrew Henry en William Henry Ashley gefinansier is. Die slagoffer het naby die oewer van die Grand River plaasgevind toe Glass onverwags op 'n grysbeer en haar twee welpies afgekom het. Die moederbeer het aan sy kopvel geskeur, sy keel gesteek, sy been gebreek en talle snye gelaat. Sy mede -jagters het sy geskreeu gehoor en hulle te hulp gesnel en meer as een koeël gebruik om die beer te laat val. -Telegraph.co.uk

Het Hugh Glass 'n gedokumenteerde verslag van die beeraanval agtergelaat?

Nee, ten minste is niks gevind nie. Ons weet wel dat Hugh Glass geletterd was uit 'n oorlewende brief wat hy aan die ouers van mede -pelsjagter John Gardner geskryf het, wat tydens 'n ontmoeting met die vyandige Arikara -stam in 1823 vermoor is (Geskiedenis Net). Die papiere van sommige van sy base dokumenteer hom as 'n moeilike werknemer om in toom te hou. Hy het egter niks anders agtergelaat om sy lewe akkuraat te dokumenteer nie, en daar is geen direkte ooggetuie oor die beeraanval nie.

Die verhaal van die aanval verskyn die eerste keer in die openbaar in 'n 1825 Philadelphia literêre tydskrif, geskryf deur 'n plaaslike prokureur op soek na literêre sukses. Dit versprei oor die Verenigde State in koerante en ander tydskrifte en word vinnig 'n legende van Frontier. Glass se verhaal het die onderwerp geword van die 1915 -gedig "The Song of Hugh Glass" deur John Neihardt en ten minste 'n halfdosyn boeke. Die Ierse akteur Richard Harris vertolk Glass in die trippy -rolprent uit 1970 Man in die wildernis, wat ook John Huston vertolk het. -HistoryBuff.com

Ek het gehoor dat Leonardo DiCaprio se karakter deur 'n beer in die film verkrag word, is dit waar?

Fox, die ateljee agter Die Revenant, het ten sterkste ontken dat daar ooit 'n grafiese verkragtingstoneel was waarin DiCaprio se karakter en 'n beer betrokke was. Die omstrede verhaal, getiteld "DiCaprio Raped by Bear in Fox Movie", verskyn die eerste keer op die Drudge -verslag 'n paar weke voor die vrystelling van die film. Dit blyk egter dat die nuusberig moontlik 'n bietjie sensasioneel was. Die bron, 'n artikel oor Showbiz 411, sê die volgende: "Die beer gooi glas om op sy maag en molesteer hom- droë bult hom eintlik- terwyl hy hom amper verslind." Dit blyk nie sin te maak nie, aangesien die beer 'n sy was, nie 'n hy nie.

Het lede van sy jagspan werklik Hugh Glass vir die dood agtergelaat?

Ja. In die oortuiging dat Hugh Glass sterfwonde opgedoen het tydens sy ontmoeting met die beer, het die ekspedisie se leiers twee mans betaal om agter te bly totdat Glass sterf. Dit is gedoen om hom 'n Christelike begrafnis te gee. Hierdie manne was John Fitzgerald en die jonger Jim Bridger, uitgebeeld in die film deur Tom Hardy en Will Poulter. Hulle het etlike dae by Glass gebly (die presiese getal wissel). Nadat hy gesien het dat sy liggaam weier om te sterf, Die Revenant die ware verhaal bevestig dat hulle hom in 'n vlak graf geplaas het, sy wapens versamel en op pad was om weer by die ekspedisie aan te sluit. -Telegraph.co.uk

Het die werklike verhaal in die winter plaasgevind?

Is CGI gebruik, of het hulle regtig in die moeilike omgewings verfilm?

Direkteur Alejandro G. I & ntilde & aacuterritu het van die begin af duidelik gemaak dat rekenaargegenereerde beelde nie as 'n standplaas vir afgeleë plekke gebruik sou word nie. Hy het ook daarop aangedring om in natuurlike lig te skiet. 'As ons op die groen skerm beland met koffie en almal lekker kuier, sal almal gelukkig wees, maar die film is heel waarskynlik 'n stuk kak,' het hy gesê Die Hollywood Reporter. As gevolg hiervan het sommige lede van die bemanning die opnames verlaat, sonder om die moeilike omgewings te hanteer, wat temperature van -13F (-25C) insluit (T elegraph.co.uk ). Die verfilming het plaasgevind in British Columbia, Alberta, Montana en die suide van Argentinië.

Het hulle werklik die seun van Hugh Glass vermoor?

Nee. In Die Revenant Die moord op Glass se seun van die gemengde ras deur John Fitzgerald (Tom Hardy) laat hom toe om 'n wraakreis te begin. Hierdie deel van die film is pure fiksie, aangesien daar geen bewyse is dat Glass enigsins kinders gehad het nie, nog minder 'n seun wat voor sy oë geslaan is. -HistoryBuff.com

Het Hugh Glass werklik in dierekarkasse geslaap?

Voor die vrystelling van die film het die akteur Leonardo DiCaprio opslae gemaak toe hy gesê het dat hy in 'n dierekarkas geslaap het en rou bisonslewer geëet het om die karakter te help beliggaam. Terwyl die slaap in 'n dierekarkas nie 'n heeltemal ongewone oorlewingstaktiek is nie (avonturier Bear Grylls het in 'n takbok geslaap en in 'n kameelkarkas op sy vertoning gekruip Man vs Wild), of die regte Hugh Glass dit gedoen het of nie, is nie bekend nie, maar dit dra beslis by tot die legende (die meeste weergawes van die verhaal noem dat glas eet van karkasse, wat meer waarskynlik is).

Ander meer verregaande besonderhede rondom Glass se reis om te oorleef, het verskyn in verskillende verhale van sy verhaal. Dit sluit in 'n grizzlybeer wat maaiers uit Glass se wonde lek en Glass doodmaak en 'n ratel eet. Laasgenoemde is beslis moontlik, maar daar is min twyfel dat die ander die gevolg is dat Glass se verhaal 'n paar keer te veel gespin is.

Hoe ver het die regte Hugh Glass gekruip nadat hy vir dood agtergelaat is?

Het die regte Hugh Glass wraak geneem?

Nee. In navorsing Die Revenant ware verhaal, het ons geleer dat Hugh Glass wel John Fitzgerald en Jim Bridger, die mans wat hom verlaat het, ingehaal het, maar hy het hulle vergewe in plaas daarvan om gewelddadige wraak te eis. Daar moet weer op gelet word dat hierdie mans nooit Glass se seun in die werklike lewe vermoor het nie, sodat vergifnis makliker sou gekom het.

Wat presies is 'n "revenant?"

In die eenvoudigste terme is 'n 'revenant' 'n dooie gees wat lewendig word om die lewendes te terroriseer. Wat die film betref, oorleef Hugh Glass (Leonardo DiCaprio) die beeraanval, kruip uit die vlak graf waarin hy agtergebly het, en kom metafories weer lewendig om diegene wat hom verraai het, te terroriseer en sê later: "Ek is nie bang om sterf meer. Ek het dit al gedoen. "

Hoe was Hugh Glass se lewe in die jare na die beeraanval?

Min is bekend oor Hugh Glass se latere jare, maar ons weet wel dat hy as jagter by die monding van die Yellowstone -rivier gewerk het, in diens van Fort Union. -Daaglikse pos aanlyn

Is Hugh Glass werklik deur Indiërs vermoor?

Die Revenant Onderstaande onderhoud bevat Leonardo DiCaprio wat die film se uitmergelende opname bespreek.


Hugh Glass, die ware verhaal van "The Revenant"

Geïnspireer deur ware gebeure, Die Revenant, met Leonardo DiCaprio in die hoofrol, vertel die verhaal van oorlewing en wraak op die grens. Lees verder om te leer oor die ware verhaal van Hugh Glass, die man wat dit alles geïnspireer het.

Daar is baie verhale oor die wonderlike ervarings van die bergmanne en die pelsvangers van die vroeë 19de eeu wat groter is as die lewe. Niemand oortref egter die sage van Hugh Glass se merkwaardige stryd om die lewe nadat hy 'n grizzly -aanval oorleef het nie. Dit is een van die wonderlikste verhale wat uit die hele Westward Movement verskyn het. Trouens, dit het die onlangse film van Leonardo diCaprio geïnspireer, Die Revenant. Hollywood het die vryheid geneem met die verhaal, maar so naby as wat mondelinge tradisie vertrou kan word, volg die werklike verhaal van Hugh Glass, die ware verhaal van Die Revenant.

Die lewe van Glass voordat hy 'n bergman word, is in geheimsinnigheid gehul. Sommige weergawes laat hom as seerower vaar onder die berugte Jean Lafitte. Dit is egter 'n bekende feit dat hy by die Ashley-Henry-bontvangersbrigade aangesluit het toe hy ongeveer 40 was, ouer as middeljarig vir sy tyd. Die Ashley-Henry-partytjie het in die lente van 1823 St. Louis verlaat en op pad na die Missouri-rivier na die “Shining Mountains ” —the Rockies — op soek na bewervelle. Binne 'n kort rukkie is 'n groep van Arikara op hulle afgestorm, en 15 van hul getalle is dood en “ld Hugh, ” soos Glass genoem is, in die been gewond.

Teen die somer vaar die vangers versigtig oor die land, met oë oop vir tekens van vyandiges. En daar was ander gevare in die berge wat gedreig het om 'n man se lewe uit die weg te ruim, en grizzlies — “ld Ephraim, ”, soos die vangers dit noem — hoog op die lys staan. 'N Volwasse grizzly het 'n hoogte van 12 voet hoog gestaan ​​en 'n driekwart ton geweeg. Selfs as 'n man 'n beeraanval oorleef het, het hy gewoonlik fisiese herinneringe aan die ontmoeting gehad. Die legendariese Jedediah Smith self was die tweede beste in 'n wedstryd met 'n kwaai grizzly, wat hom met verskeie gebreekte ribbes laat, en 'n groot deel van sy kopvel en een oor wat aan 'n vel vel hang. Hy het kalm toesig gehou oor die montering van sy gesig met steke van rou vel, maar hy sou die herinneringe aan die ontmoeting tot sy dood bewaar.

Op hierdie stadium beteken die gebrek aan dokumentasie dat ons vir die res van die verhaal op mondelinge tradisie staatmaak. Volgens die legende, het Hugh Glass sy been nou gesond geword en het voor die brigade naby die vurke van die Grand River gesoek, toe hy in 'n bos kom om bessies te jag. Hy het dadelik 'n soggie gril en haar twee welpies raakgeloop. Terwyl die beer regop en opgestaan ​​het, skiet Glass direk in haar bors. Sy wapen met een skoot wat nou nutteloos is, het hy opgestaan, maar die beer het hom skielik onwrikbaar ingehaal en haar kloue op die ongelukkige vanger laat val.

Alhoewel hy met sy mes weggejaag het, was hy nie 'n wedstryd vir die dier nie. Teen die tyd dat Glass ’ se kamerade hom te hulp kom, het die dier sy gesig tot op die been gesny en lang, gapende wonde op sy arms, bene en bolyf oopgemaak. Die slagoffers het verskeie balle in die dier geskiet en dit uiteindelik langs die inerte glas neergebring.

Glas was skaars lewendig. Sy asemhaling was moeisaam, en hy het erg gebloei uit 'n aantal ernstige wonde. Die ander slagoffers het hom so gemaklik moontlik gemaak en verwag dat hy op enige oomblik sou verval. Toe hy egter die nag en die komende dae oorleef, sonder enige merkbare verbetering, besluit majoor Henry dat die party moet voortgaan om die moontlikheid van 'n Indiese aanval te vermy. Hy het aangebied om twee mans $ 40 elk te betaal — die ekwivalent van twee of drie maande ’ betaal — om by Glass te bly totdat hy sterf, en om dan die res van die partytjie in te haal.

Die twee mans wat die pos aanvaar het, was John Fitzgerald, 'n ervare trapper, en 'n jeugdige met die naam Jim Bridger. Toe hulle saamtrek, het die twee 'n koue kamp opgerig, in hul buffelklere gaan sit en gewag dat die ou sterf. Maar Glass hou vas en asemhalend. Na byna 'n week het Fitzgerald desperaat geword om die brigade in te haal. Hy het die jong Bridger oortuig dat daar niks is om te verdien deur hul lewens verder in gevaar te stel nie, en nadat hy Glass, geweer, mes en al sy moontlikhede geneem het, het hulle hom alleen laat sterf.

Ongelooflik het Glass sy bewussyn herwin. Hy het genoeg saamgekom om sy situasie te besef, en nadat hy homself by 'n nabygeleë fontein na die water gesleep het en 'n paar buffelbessies uit 'n laag hangende bos gehaal het, het hy sy geskeurde liggaam na die heil begin sleep, wat in hierdie geval Fort was Kiowa, 'n handelspos ongeveer 250 myl ver. Hy het nie die middele of die krag gehad om kos te soek nie, en daarom het hy hom op wortels en die verrottende vleis van ou doodgemaak wat hy teëgekom het toe hy deur die droë, stomp vlaktes van die huidige Suid-Dakota kruip. Op 'n stadium het hy 'n ratel versadig en opgeswel gevind van 'n onlangse moord, en nadat hy sy kop met 'n rots geslaan het, het hy die vleis in water geweek en homself gevoed.

Glass het bereken dat hy 'n myl per dag afgelê het tydens 'n kruip, en hy het geweet dat hy beter moes doen as hy sou oorleef. Hy het vir die eerste keer sedert die beeraanval gestaan ​​nadat hy 'n trop wolwe sien neerval het en 'n buffelkalf voed. Omdat hy besef het dat hy sonder sy vleis sou sterf, het hy opgestaan ​​en op 'n lang stokkie leun en op die wolwe geskree totdat hulle hul dood gelaat het. Glas het etlike dae langs die kalf gebly en sy organe en vlees gegorrel en geleidelik weer van sy krag teruggekry. Toe die vleis so galsterig geword het dat dit nie meer eetbaar was nie, het Glass verder gegaan, regop geloop en 10 kilometer per dag afgelê.

Op sy trek het hy die dood in 'n buffel gestamp en byna ontdek deur 'n verbygaande groep Arikara. Ongelooflik, na sewe weke in die wildernis, steier hy in Fort Kiowa, tot die verbasing van die fort -handelaar. Om hom teen alle kanse lewend te hou was die onblusbare drang om te lewe, sy wildernisvaardighede en die onwrikbare begeerte om wraak te neem. Hy was vasbeslote om die vergelding te eis van die twee mans wat alles wat hy besit, geneem het en hom in die natuur laat sterf het.

Na verdere herstel het Hugh deelgeneem aan 'n ekspedisie na die Mandan-dorpe, waar hy meegedeel is dat die Ashley-Henry-onderneming by Fort Henry oorwinter. Omdat hy geweet het dat Fitzgerald en Bridger onder die party sou tel, vertrek hy middel Desember na die fort. Op Oujaarsaand, toe 'n storm buite die mure woed, het die onthullende vangers binne gereageer op 'n gedempte gestamp op die hek. Hulle maak dit oop vir 'n wraithlike, ysbedekte, byna bevrore Hugh Glass.

Die vakansie -vrolikheid het skielik opgehou toe Glass raas, “Waar's Fitzgerald en Bridger? ”

Hy het gesê dat Fitzgerald opgehou het en by die weermag aangesluit het as 'n verkenner, wat hom 'n federale werknemer gemaak het en onaantasbaar was. Vir Glass om hom nou dood te maak, sou dit wees om sy eie teregstelling uit te nooi. Bridger skuil egter in 'n hoek, oorweldig deur skuld en skaamte. Toe hy sien hoe jonk die seuntjie was en toegelaat het dat hy sterk beïnvloed is deur Fitzgerald, het Glass die jeug se lewe gespaar nadat hy hom stewig gekou het. Jim Bridger het die les ter harte geneem en het een van die mees gevierde lokvalle, gidse en verkenners in die Weste geword.

Hugh Glass keer terug na sy lewe en sy legende het oor die hele land versprei. Die rekening is ongetwyfeld mettertyd verbeter, wat die ou Westerse gesindheid weerspieël, en enige storie wat u nie net kan verbeter nie, is die moeite werd om te vertel ’! ” Ou Hugh het uiteindelik ondergaan 10 jaar later, tydens 'n Arikara -aanval. Sy ou vyande het uiteindelik die ou gevangene doodgemaak en afgeskaal, maar nie voordat sy naam 'n geëerde plek in die panteon van Westerse legendes gevind het nie.


Wie was Hugh Glass?

© 2015 Twentieth Century Fox

Die eerste geskrewe verslag van die bergman Hugh Glass se probleme kan gevind word in 'n brief wat 'n mede -jagter, Daniel Potts, in 1824 aan vriende uit die Ooste geskryf het. was byderhand vir die inligtingsessie van 'n afdeling van jagters en bergmanne wat teruggekeer het van 'n geveg met die inheemse Amerikaners van Arikara. Nadat hy aan sy korrespondent gesê het wat die mans in die skermutseling gebeur het, het Potts geskryf dat 'n man van die groep "byna almal deur 'n wit beer geskeur is en terloops sonder 'n geweer agtergelaat is." Hierdie jagter in "peas" was Hugh Glass.

Sedert Potts sy brief geskryf het, is die minimale besonderhede van Glass se verhaal tientalle kere uitgesprei en materiaal verskaf vir koerantartikels en tydskrifsketse 'n epiese gedig, 'n paar romans, 'n biografie, 'n baie vroeë 1970's film Michael Punke se boek uit 2002 Die Revenant en nou die Alejandro González Iñárritu -film, wat uit die boek aangepas is en sy naam kry. Die film is trots op 'n gevoel van elementêre tydloosheid, maar in werklikheid moes die film, soos elke hervertelling van die Glass -mite, aansienlike vlees op die bergmens se bene sit. En so het elke generasie die glas geskep wat dit die meeste bevredig. Waar was Glass, en wat vertel ons weergawe ons oor onsself?

Dit is wat ons weet oor die historiese glas. In 1823 het hy saam met 'n partytjie onder leiding van William Ashley die Missouri -rivier opgetrek, en daarna geskei met 'n groep onder leiding van Ashley se vennoot Andrew Henry, wat die Yellowstone -rivier gesoek het. Hulle was op die Grand River, op die grens tussen Noord- en Suid -Dakota, toe Glass, wat vooruit gestuur is om vleis te gaan soek vir hul aandete, 'n beer in 'n ruigtjie teëkom. Die beer ruk hom oop en hy bly aan die lewe vasklou. Uit vrees dat die Arikaras die partytjie sou vind as hulle sou bly, het Henry twee mans - waarskynlik, hoewel beslis nie, Jim Bridger en 'n metgesel met die naam Fitzpatrick - met Glass agtergelaat om hom te begrawe toe hy onvermydelik sterf. Die twee vertrek na vyf dae, toe hul vrees hulle oorwin en hulle oortuig het dat hy op pad was na die dood, het hulle die geweer van Glass en die “possibles” (oorlewingsvoorrade) saamgeneem. Hulle het Henry hierdie items gewys as bewys van die dood van die man.

Glas het tien dae wakker geword en by 'n veer gerus en daarna 350 myl gekruip na Fort Kiowa, aan die Missouri-rivier, in die suidoostelike deel van die huidige Suid-Dakota. Daarna reis hy na Henry se pos by die aansluiting van die Bighornrivier en die Yellowstone. Teen hierdie tyd het hy blykbaar die idee om wraak op Bridger te laat vaar en slegs 'n wrok teen Fitzpatrick gehad - hoewel ons nie weet hoekom nie. Hy is na Fort Atkinson op soek na Fitzpatrick, maar sy steengroef het aangekom en is deur die weermag beskerm. Glass kry sy geweer terug, en dit was die einde van die saak. Hy is uiteindelik vermoor, blykbaar deur die Arikaras, naby die Missouri -rivier, in 1833.

Dit is wat ons weet. Buiten hierdie basiese storielyn, het ons borduurwerk. Het die beer twee kleintjies by haar gehad? Het Ashley die mans geld aangebied om by hul gewonde vriend te bly? Bridger het 'n beroemde bergman geword, maar wie was Fitzpatrick? Wat was die verhouding tussen Bridger en Fitzpatrick met Glass? Wie was Glass, in elk geval? Was hy 'n voormalige matroos wat 'n seerower geword het, soos 'n mens dit wil hê? Wat het daartoe gelei dat hy hierdie werk wou neem, op 'n gevaarlike plek wou woon en hierdie gevaarlike werk wou doen? Waarom het hy wraak gesoek? En waarom het hy uiteindelik Bridger vergewe, indien nie Fitzpatrick nie?

Ek het die historikus Jon T. Coleman gevra wat hy dink oor die manier waarop die nuwe film hierdie vrae beantwoord. Coleman is die skrywer van Hier lê Hugh Glass: A Mountain Man, a Bear, and the Rise of the American Nation-'n boek wat die min besonderhede van die Glass -verhaal bevat en verduidelik wat die man vir die Amerikaners van die 19de eeu kon beteken het. "Dit is vir my moeilik om in die modus van 'O, jy het dit nie reggekom nie, jy het dit nie reggekry nie' te kom toe die Hugh Glass -verhaal van die begin af 'n sirkus was," het Coleman gesê.

Die sirkus het begin met James Hall, 'n prokureur en aspirant -skrywer wat na Illinois verhuis het om verhale oor die Amerikaanse Weste te oes. In 1825 het Hall, nadat hy die Glass -verhaal van 'n "informant" gesien het wat Glass dit in 'n grensfort sien vertel het, 'n skets met die titel "The Missouri Trapper" geskryf en daarin geslaag om dit in 'n Philadelphia -koerant te laat publiseer Die Port Folio. Hier is die ongelooflike opening van die skets: "Die uiteenlopende lotgevalle van diegene wat die bogenoemde kenmerke dra, wat ook al hul deugde of nadele is, moet volgens die algemene beginsels van die mensdom ons simpatie opeis, terwyl hulle nie bewondering kan wek nie." Die stuk was 'n argument vir die hardheid en taaiheid van bergmanne - 'n 'verslag uit die Weste' wat bedoel was om stedelike gehore te vermaak en hulle goed te laat voel oor die soort mans wat die nuwe republiek produseer. Die skets van Glass of Hall, wys Coleman op, het geen innerlike lewe nie, behalwe 'n gevoel van 'ridderlikheid' wat hom daartoe gelei het om wraak te neem. Die geestelike pyn wat hy in latere inkarnasies ondergaan, is nie teenwoordig nie; die drama lê slegs in die trauma wat sy liggaam verduur.

Hall eindig sy skets met Glass, wat in sy wraak gedwarsboom word en sy geweer terugkry: "Dit het die toorn van Hugh Glass, wat my informant verstom het, verstom met sy wonderlike vertelling, die gapende rang en lêer van die garnisoen." Dit is 'n kenmerk van Amerikaanse "bergmanne" wat verlore geraak het in die Punke -boek en die film Iñárritu: Hulle was veral wispelturig, hard en aktief deelnemers aan die maak van hul eie mites. Die Punke -weergawe van Glass praat skaars - sy larinks het die beer se kloue in die pad gesteek. Daarteenoor beskryf kontemporêre bronne Glass as 'n prolix -storieverteller, nie as 'n stom uithouvermoë nie. 'Miskien was hy 'n kunstenaar in eie reg,' het Coleman vir my gesê. 'En die kuns begin, die vervaardiging van die verhaal begin kort nadat dit gebeur het. Dit was nie asof dit in die geskiedenis gebeur het nie, en skielik het mense dit opgetel en in fiksie begin verweef, dit was amper onmiddellik. Mense het daaroor begin uitbrei en daarvan iets groter gemaak as wat dit was. ”

Kort nadat Hall "The Missouri Trapper" gepubliseer het, het herhalings van die Glass -verhaal in koerante en boeke verskyn. Die 19de -eeuse glas was 'n nuuskierigheid, net soos ander egte en fiktiewe bergmanne, trappers en rivierbote wat in die pers geliefd was: Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, James P. Beckwourth, Mike Fink, Jedediah Strong Smith, John Colter, Sut Lovingood. In die middel van die 19de eeu was die Oosterlinge wat deurdrenk was van die ideologie van openbare lot en Amerikaanse uitsonderlikheid, verhale soos Glass 'katnip. The new United States—especially the distant, powerful landscape of the American West, just “uncovered” by Lewis and Clark a few decades before—bred pragmatic, iron-tough men like Glass, who were capable of standing up to a grizzly bear and living to tell the tale. Surely the country was something special.

It’s ironic, Coleman points out in his book, that it’s the “marginal people laboring in far-off places” who came to be this era’s American heroes: men cheerfully working in a dangerous occupation, whose lives were cheap. For Coleman, Glass’ vulnerability intrigues him almost more than his strength. He writes of this time in history:

If 19 th -century writers for magazines and newspapers thought of Glass as a wild man who laughed at death, in the early 20 th century, as the closed frontier proceeded toward modernization, the man swaddled in a bearskin was transformed into something closer to a role model. As Coleman writes, before the 20 th century, the mountain man was a figure to be admired but not necessarily to be trusted. He was too slippery, telling tall tales and living by his own code, outside of society’s strictures this made him colorful but dubious. It took some historical distance for a fictional Glass to become an icon of moral rectitude, as well as physical strength.

In 1915, more than 80 years after Glass’ death, John Neihardt, a writer and poet probably best known for his 1932 book Black Elk Speaks, made the Glass story into an epic poem. The Song of Hugh Glass uses Glass’ relationship with Bridger as the propellant for its action. In the poem, Bridger becomes the ingénue “Jamie,” and he and Glass, who’s written as a much older man, have a May-December friendship that’s described as something like a love affair. Glass is taciturn (“the grudging habit of his tongue”) except when he’s with Jamie, who he has taken under his wing and offered to teach the ways of the mountain man. After Glass wakes up and before he realizes that he’s been abandoned, Neihardt has him long to see Jamie again: “To look again upon the merry eyes/ To see again the wind-blown golden hair.”

The driving force of the Neihardt poem is Glass’ anger at, and then forgiveness of, Jamie. At the end, in a climax that owes something to the conventions of sentimental literature, Glass finds Jamie being cared for in a Native American teepee, languishing with an illness brought on by his guilt at having left his friend out of cowardice. Because of the sickness, the younger man is temporarily blind and doesn’t know who Glass is they talk of the Bible, and eventually Glass reveals himself. They reconcile in a tearful reunion. The 1915 Glass turns out to be a good man, willing to set aside his rancor in favor of love.

Neihardt’s introduction to the poem, written to young readers, holds clues to his intentions. “The tremendous mood of heroism that was developed in our American West during [the period of the fur trade] is properly a part of your racial inheritance and certainly no less important a part than the memory of ancient heroes,” he writes. “Indeed, it can be shown that those men—Kentuckians, Virginians, Pennsylvanians, Ohioans—were direct descendants, in the epic line, of all the heroes of our Aryan race that have been celebrated by the poets of the past.” The racial language here is common in early 20 th -century writing, but, read in modern context, it points toward something important about the Glass story. The tale is about whiteness, about men moving about in a Native American world that already had its own politics and economy, largely viewing them as obstacles to be surmounted or allies to be used for survival, food, or sex. The fact that Neihardt sees such a story as integral to the “racial inheritance” of white readers reminds us how white the Glass story has always been.

In the middle of the 20 th century, Glass emerged again, this time as the centerpiece of a story of a man at war with the whole concept of civilization. In Frederick Manfred’s 1954 book, Lord Grizzly, the mountain man is talkative as all heck, though the reader may wish he weren’t some of the dialect used, while historically sourced, is distractingly comical. Of the many versions of Glass, Manfred’s may be the one who’s easiest to psychoanalyze: Manfred gives his hero a full backstory and many loud opinions. The book was a best-seller and a finalist for the National Book Award that year, indicating that it tapped into its own time on levels both critical and commercial.

Appropriately for an era that was (contra popular conceptions of the 1950s) quite concerned about its own tendency toward social conformity, Manfred’s Glass is a man who is against society and everything that goes with it: laws, rules, and white women’s ways. Glass has a Native American wife, Bending Reed, and he reflects on her attitude toward him: “He thought it a good thing that from birth on Indian women were taught to serve their lord and master. They knew exactly how to arouse the man in him. They knew how to keep a brave man brave.” He refuses to shave his beard, which his boss asks him to do, because it’s a sign of manhood (here comes some of that dialect): “We made a mistake when we let the wimmen talk us inta kissin’ ‘em, smoozlin ‘em face to face. The Indian wimmen never did it and was the better for it. And then we made a mistake when we let them talk us into shavin’ so we’d look like nice little boys again. It’s not wonder the country is so full of wet-behind-the-ears greenhorn kids.”

The abandoners, in Lord Grizzly, are young Bridger and a Fitzgerald who’s written as a slick pragmatist who is too smart for his own good. Glass eventually forgives Bridger (not before coming to the brink of gouging his eyes out, a common fighting tactic in the early 19 th century), but Fitz’s betrayal bothers him more. Thinking, during his long crawl, about Fitz’s motivations for leaving him, he decides it makes sense that a man with some education would do such a thing.

Glass defines himself as the opposite of this “bookman,” in one passage imagining himself as the Biblical Esau to Fitz’s Jacob. Jacobs, he thinks, are “Rebekah favorites, mama boys, she-rip sissies who stayed behind in the settlements to do squaw’s work, the smooth men back home who ran shops and worked gardens and ran factories.” Not Glass. “No, if anything he was an Esau, a hairy man and a man’s man and a cunning hunter, a man of the prairie and the mountains.” This “Lord Grizzly” was self-aware, conscious of his own place in the order of things the difference between him and the kinds of people who would publish humorous sketches about him in Philadelphia magazines was something he considered and treasured.

Who is the 21 st -century Glass? Over the past few years, Glass has become a totem of lost American masculinity, often recycled to point out the weakness of contemporary men, who could never have done what he did. He’s been named “Badass of the Week.” The hosts of the comedy podcast The Dollop, which told his story last year, turned Glass’ persistence into a commentary on their own comparative lack of mettle. With the Iñárritu movie, hailed for its brutality, Glass joins a pantheon of 21 st -century antiheroes whose physical pain only makes them stronger. Leonardo DiCaprio’s Glass is a silent, grunting, man’s man, up against a nemesis, Fitzgerald (Tom Hardy), who is not ambivalently motivated or misguided but downright sleg.

Another way to look at it: Our Glass is a harbinger of things to come. “I see Glass being a guide to the future as much as to the past,” Coleman told me. Glass, Coleman said, is often used as instructional material in survivalist literature a tale of the frontier reimagined as a vision of the post-apocalypse, his resourcefulness and grit recast as an object lesson for those who make it to the other side. Glass’ trek is reminiscent of the journey of the protagonist in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road: a dismal drag across unpromising wastelands. You would hardly recognize the sly tale-teller, the sainted forgiver, or the thoughtful rebel in this grim, determined man.


Inhoud

Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the size of the United States nearly doubled and the fur trade quickly sought to profit from the unexplored new territory. Forts sprung up along rivers and overland trails to act as parts of a burgeoning factory system. The factory system was a nationally funded and operated trade network, in which Indigenous People would meet at certain forts and exchange furs for finished goods. The American government had hoped that nationalizing the fur trade would prevent the debauchery caused by the trading of alcohol with the natives. [ aanhaling nodig ] The factory system eventually failed for many reasons. First, the men working the factories were ex-military men and not experienced fur traders. These men often mishandled the furs resulting in major profit shifts. Second, the government failed to stop all private traders who bribed natives with alcohol. Eager to get access to liquor, the natives would break treaties with the government to get it. [ aanhaling nodig ] Lastly, the factories were not permitted to give gifts to natives or assimilate into native culture as many private fur traders could. Miscegenation was a major uniting force between private fur traders and natives that strengthened their relationship. [4]

With the demise of the factory system, private companies emerged and made large sums of money. Included in these were Manuel Lisa of the Missouri Fur Company and John Jacob Astor of the American Fur Company. These men were two of the richest men in America during this time. These private companies established forts that acted as rest stops for trappers. Among the most well-regarded forts was Fort Kiowa, also known as Fort Lookout.

Fort Kiowa was constructed in 1822 by Joseph Brazeau Jr. of the Berthold, Chouteau, and Pratte French Company. Brazeau fortified the

20,000-square-foot complex with a blockhouse and watchtower to guard against Crow and Sioux attacks. [5] Fort Kiowa soon became known as the jumping-off point for the 1823 trading expedition known as "Ashley's Hundred", which included traders Hugh Glass and Jim Bridger. Several months after the journey began, Glass was brutally attacked by a grizzly bear. Glass was able to kill the bear, but suffered many serious life-threatening wounds in the process. Two of Glass’ companions were instructed to remain with Glass until he died, and then bury him before reuniting with the rest of the party. However, the pair were allegedly chased off by a group of Arikaree natives, and Glass was left alone to die.

Bridger returned to the hunting party and reported to his commander that Glass had perished. However, Glass survived and was able to set his own wounds and crawl more than 200 miles back to Fort Kiowa. This feat and others where pioneers such as Adam Helmer showed perseverance despite harsh challenges in the wild have maintained a special place in the folklore of the American West. [6]

In 1827, Bernard Pratte purchased Fort Kiowa from Brazeau and made significant improvements. Pratte added several four room log houses, a storehouse, and a smith shop. Furthermore, Pratte encircled the fort with a wooden picket fence roughly twenty or thirty feet high to prevent Native attacks. Thus fortified, Fort Kiowa was expanded into a major trading post for Natives in the region. [7]

Later in the same year, John Jacob Astor purchased Fort Kiowa from Pratte for his rapidly expanding American Fur Company. Astor, who was the first multi-millionaire in America, bought Fort Kiowa to establish his presence in the upper Missouri and to further his monopoly on the American fur trade. Astor found the upper Missouri river area to be extremely prosperous. However, in the late 1830s, Astor’s American Fur Company was forced to abandon Fort Kiowa as the once lucrative fur trading business was no longer profitable due to several factors. First, there was a scarcity of beaver caused by rapid overhunting by intruding trappers. Second, there was a lack of public demand in America and Europe for pelts, as a new style, silk hats, was gaining prominence. Lastly, the intrusion of American trappers on what natives perceived as their land angered native tribes who began to revolt against the trappers. As supply and demand both declined, fur trading in America faced extinction. [8]

In 1840, Joseph LaBarge, a former steamboat captain, bought Fort Kiowa as a wintering post and Indian Agency. LaBarge housed many Indian agents whose job was to monitor and control trade between Native tribes and Euro-Americans. These agents lost popularity among the latter, who tended to view them as exploiters of the Native peoples, corrupt leaders who acted in their own interests. Popular opinion was relatively accurate as many Indian Agents were replaced during the 1840s after corruption was discovered. Under LaBarge’s ownership, Fort Kiowa was an unsuccessful venture, and as a result he abandoned it within the year. LaBarge is the last known inhabitant of Fort Kiowa.

Fort Kiowa is currently underwater, possibly submerged under a dam reservoir, Lake Francis Case. The area where Fort Kiowa once stood is recognized as a National Historic Fort of South Dakota. [ twyfelagtig - bespreek ] Fort Kiowa is advertised as a tourist attraction in which adventure-seeking tourists can follow the same path Hugh Glass did in 1823. [ twyfelagtig - bespreek ]

The 2015 film The Revenant is based on the life of Hugh Glass. [1]


Mountain Man Hugh Glass: The History of the Revenant

The Revenant, staring Leo DiCaprio and directed by Alejandro G. Iñárritu, tells the story of a frontiersman on a fur trading expedition in the 1820s who must fight for survival after being mauled by a bear and left for dead by members of his own hunting team. It is based on the book The Revenant by Michael Punke, which itself is based on the story of an actual man named Hugh Glass.

There is very little about Hugh Glass that actually known outside of the fact that he was one of the “mountain men” who, during the turn of the 19 th century were drawn out west in pursuit of the lucrative business of fur-trapping. Now, when Europeans came over from the new world, they found themselves awash in animals which they could use for fur trade (mainly beavers). From the boom in resources was developed a new trade of people named “mountain men”. The mountain man was a rare bred (there was usually only about 200-300 total) of person who braved the wild, hostile Native Americans, and the elements for months at a time before they returned to civilization. They even had their own system of medicine, called “frontier medicine, to deal with any injuries that may occur. Sure enough, though, by the 1800s they had hunted the beaver population in the Eastern portion of the country to near extinction. But luckily the United States had just invested in the Louisiana Purchase, which opened up St. Louis to the Rocky Mountains to these trappers. Hugh Glass was one of the men who ventured west to seek his fortune.

The Story of the Revenant (do not continue reading if you want to avoid spoilers …. of American History)

What we do know about Hugh Glass is that he joined a fur-trading expedition organized by William Henry Ashley to journey from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains in 1823. While the expedition was in Montana, they build a post named Fort Henry, in hopes of trading with the Arikara Indians. However, the post was instead attacked and the expedition lost 11 people, with 13 other sustaining injuries. To gather supplies and get reinforcements for the endangered post, Ashley led a party of survivors, with Glass being one of them. On the way, however, the expedition was attacked by a Grizzy Bear and Glass was mauled to near death. Ashley ordered two men to stay behind and wait for Glass to either recover or die and to bury him. As the days went on and Glass refused to die, the two men, Bridger and Fitzgerald, grew antsier that they would fall too far behind the expedition to be able to catch up. They decided it would be best to leave Glass, and to take with them all of his weapons and equipment (which would be proof the other expedition members that Glass had died, because in the mountains you don’t waste gear on a corpse). Unfortunately for them, Glass somehow survived and made it 250 miles to a local post with his neck slashed, back torn up, and leg broken. During that time, he crawled, fought off wolves, covered his wounds in clay, and thought about what he would the two men who abandoned him [Check out the Time Magazine article “How could Leonardo DiCaprio’s Character Have Survived the Revenant”].

To find out if Hugh Glass ever did get his revenge on Fitzgerald and Bridger, check out either the movie or book version of The Revenant. You can also find several of resources on him at our library or by requesting books from another library.

Additional Resources

Books from Other Libraries (to order these books you will need to fill out the Request a Book from Another Library form)

The Song of Hugh Glass by John G. Neihardt

The Song of Hugh Glass celebrates the American fur trade west of the Mississippi in the early nineteenth century. The lives and adventures of the early fur traders and trappers who crossed the Missouri River are told with unforgettable vigor and magnificence by the brilliant epic poet John G. Neihardt. As he tells it, this was an age of individualism in our national historical epic, a time of the struggles and triumphs of solitary men more than communities.

Lord Grizzly by Frederick Manfred

Hunter, trapper, resourceful fighter, and scout, Hugh Glass was just another rugged individual in a crowd of rugged men until he was mauled by a grizzly bear and left for dead by his best friends. They never expected to see him again. But they did, and he was not just Hugh Glass any more. He was Lord Grizzly.

Pirate, Pawnee, and mountain man the saga of Hugh Glass by John Meyers

Before his most fabulous adventure (celebrated by John G. Neihardt in The Song of Hugh Glass and by Frederick Manfred in Lord Grizzly), Hugh Glass was captured by the buccaneer Jean Lafitte and turned pirate himself until his first chance to escape. Soon he fell prisoner to the Pawnees and lived for four years as one of them before he managed to make his way to St. Louis. Next he joined a group of trappers to open up the fur-rich, Indian-held territory of the Upper Missouri River. Then unfolds the legend of a man who survived under impossible conditions: robbed and left to die by his comrades, he struggled alone, unarmed, and almost mortally wounded through two thousand miles of wilderness.

Here Lies Hugh Glass: A Mountain Man, A Bear and the Rise of the American Nation by Jon T. Coleman

In the summer of 1823, a grizzly bear mauled Hugh Glass. The animal ripped the trapper up, carving huge hunks from his body. Glass’s fellows rushed to his aid and slew the bear, but Glass’s injuries mocked their first aid. The expedition leader arranged for his funeral: two men would stay behind to bury the corpse when it finally stopped gurgling the rest would move on. Alone in Indian country, the caretakers quickly lost their nerve. They fled, taking Glass’s gun, knife, and ammunition withthem. But Glass wouldn’t die. He began crawling toward Fort Kiowa, hundreds of miles to the east, and as his speed picked up, so did his ire. The bastards who took his gear and left him to rot were going to pay.


Anniversary of little-known Revenant-style film…

This year marks the 50 th anniversary of a film which it’s star – Richard Harris – described as his ‘Genesis’.

The late Hollywood legend played the leading role in Man in the Wilderness, a 1971 movie about a scout who is attacked by a bear and left for dead by his colleagues.

As in The Revenant, Harris’ character – Zachary Bass – recovers and goes in search of revenge for his abandonment.

The reason it has a familiar ring to it is that it too is based, somewhat more loosely, on the legend of Hugh Glass.

None of the names from Man in the Wilderness are historically accurate, but (spoiler alert) there is an interesting end to the film that is more faithful to Glass’s experience.

Upon finally confronting the men who left him to die, Bass elects not to enact his revenge. It’s a worthy doff of the cap to historical accuracy.

Filming began in April 1971, and was shot in the Spanish region of Soria for just three months before its release on November 24 1971.

“This movie is Genesis to me,” Harris said ahead of the premiere.

“It’s my apocalypse. It’s a very special and very personal statement about a man struggling for personal identity, looking for God and discovering Him in the wilderness, in leaves and trees.

“It’s all the things that the young people, and we, are missing today.”

Remarkably, throughout the entire 104-minute movie, Harris has only nine lines of dialogue.


Bastardized History: the True Odyssey of Hugh Glass vs. “The Revenant”

The true odyssey of Hugh Glass is a stupendously-thrilling action drama of one man’s tenacity to survive under the most horrific conditions that also serves as a lofty modern morality teaching of how redemption, forgiveness and transcendence can overcome the use of brute violent retribution and revenge. Unfortunately, the Glass odyssey needs no further violent sensationalism for the sheer sake of sensationalism, factual distortion or revisionist history as portrayed by Hollywood’s latest action drama – The Revenant.

The Revenant, based in part on Michael Punke’s The Revenant: A Novel of Revenge, claims to be a true story, loosely-based on the legend of Hugh Glass, a Scots-Irish American frontiersman who, in 1823, was among the first Europeans to explore the Upper Missouri River in present-day Montana, North & South Dakota and Platte River area of Nebraska.

However, every time another violent action Hollywood film comes along, such as The Revenant, and employs the disclaimer of being “loosely-based” on the truth, it’s a sure-fire red flag warning that Hollywood is about to again play fast and loose with the historical record, as written by its Director Alejandro Inarritu and Screen Writer Mark Smith who’ve employed their own brand of artistic license in The Revenant.

Serious students of Western American frontier history, and especially that of The Saga of Hugh Glass, are all too aware of this given reality in Hollywood film-making, as reflected by the oft commonly heard dismissive critique – “What else do you expect? That’s Hollywood!” Yet such a disclaimer shouldn’t always let Hollywood off the hook so easily from being accountable to the actual factual record of whatever it is that is being portrayed.

When this writer, for one, first learned of the production of The Revenant, a wave of great excitement and anticipation welled up because of what the Saga of Hugh Glass represents to not only Americans but people the world over in the 21 st century, plagued as we all are by so much terror, violence and retribution because the Hugh Glass epic is one of the most remarkable folk hero tales of human survival, endurance and resourcefulness that culminated in a lofty parable of how retribution and revenge can turn into forgiveness and transcendence. Yet The Revenant seemingly totally missed this most critically-important conclusion to the Hugh Glass epic tale.

Alhoewel The Revenant does make a credible attempt to factually document various aspects of the account, as much as is possible, given the many disparities and contradictions in the Hugh Glass folk legend, several serious fabrications are embedded within the film that are flat-out falsehoods that inexcusably detract from the authenticity of the film.

For starts, though Hugh Glass is known to have lived with the Pawnee Indians years before he joined the General Ashley Fur Expedition in 1823, some nineteen years after the Lewis & Clark Expedition, and learned many survival skills from the Pawnee that held him in good stead during his eventual harrowing survival tale, he did nie have a Pawnee teenage son who accompanied him on the Ashley Expedition as portrayed in The Revenant. Furthermore, the son was not killed by John Fitzgerald when he and Jim Bridger stayed back with Hugh Glass after he had been mauled by a grizzly bear and lay on the verge of death. When Fitzgerald and Bridger eventually abandoned Hugh Glass, thinking he was already dead or near-death, and stripped him of all the weapons, equipment and clothing he would need for his ultimate survival that alone created enough burning desire and motivation in Hugh Glass to fuel his basic instinct to survive and inflict retribution upon the two frontiersmen. No other contrived cinematic device was needed. So the film’s contrived murder scene between John Fitzgerald and the Pawnee youth was totally unnecessary artistic license, apparently inserted solely for the purpose of pandering to yet more sensationalized, senseless murder and violence to sell more movie tickets.

Perhaps the most grievous historical transgression of all made by Director Inarritu and Screenwriter Mark Smith was when they inserted the blatantly untrue scene of a vicious knife fight that ensued between Hugh Glass and John Fitzgerald that, in point of fact, never even happened. This fantastical make-believe violent scene totally denigrates and negates the most powerful moral of the Hugh Glass saga that forgiveness can ultimately transcend revenge. Hugh Glass never did kill John Fitzgerald after he survived his harrowing wilderness ordeal where he had to crawl and stumble for months over several hundred miles of wild plains before floating on a makeshift raft several hundred miles more down the Missouri River until he reached Fort Kiowa that was located near present-day Chamberlain, South Dakota. Once he had sufficiently recovered his health, Glass then traveled for the next two years hundreds of miles more to the U.S. Army Post at Fort Atkinson, Iowa where Fitzgerald by then had enlisted in the U.S. Army’s Sixth Brigade, to confront him and retrieve the rifle that Fitzgerald had originally taken from him. Since Fitzgerald was a U.S. soldier Hugh Glass quickly realized that if he killed him, Glass himself would have been executed for killing a soldier. So Glass constrained his desire for revenge and instead was satisfied when Fitzgerald returned his rifle. Glass furthermore also travelled hundreds of miles more to track down Jim Bridger to where he was in Montana but also, in the end, forgave him for his cowardly deed because of his youth at the time. So The Revenant totally missed the whole redeeming point to this epic tale when it bastardized the ending with Hugh Glass’ murder of Fitzgerald.

One last glaring transgression was the decision to film The Revenant in the frozen wastelands of Canada’s Far North. The Hugh Glass survival story actually took place on the plains and prairies of present-day Montana, North & South Dakota and Platte River area of Nebraska, not the snow-bound, heavily wooded, rugged mountainous terrain of Canada. The choice of such a setting further detracts from the authenticity of the real story had it otherwise been filmed in some more appropriate setting.

Over the years, the Glass survival odyssey has been novelized and embellished in numerous books and dramas, among which include:

* The Song of Hugh Glass that appeared in “A Cycle of the West”, a collection of five epic poems (called “Songs”), written over a thirty year span by John G. Neihardt. Each poem written as enjambled heroic couplets. Written in 1915, The Song of Hugh Glass is one of the five songs brilliantly recounted by Neihardt.

* The Deaths of the Braves, written by John Myers

* Lord Grizzly, written by Frederick Manfred

* The Saga of Hugh Glass: Pirate, Pawnee & Mountain Man, written by John Myers Myers

* Man in the Wilderness, the 1971 action film starring Richard Harris

* Apache Blood, the 1975 film also loosely-based on the Glass story of revenge (Directed by Vern Piel, starring Dewitt Lee)

Most creative treatments of the High Glass story have focused solely or mainly on the aspect of revenge. But in the current 21 st century, with so much rampant terror, violence and revenge being carried out against peoples everywhere, what the world desperately needs most at this moment are not more books and films that herald revenge but that instead herald forgiveness and transcendence. Ongelukkig, The Revenant falls far short!


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