Adolf Hitler - Geskiedenis

Adolf Hitler - Geskiedenis

Adolf Hitler

1889- 1945

Duitse diktator, massamoordenaar

Die Duitse diktator Adolf Hitler het sy loopbaan begin as 'n aspirant -kunstenaar. Hy was egter onsuksesvol in sy artistieke pogings, en het uiteindelik tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog by die Duitse weermag aangesluit.

Hy is gewond en het twee ysterkruise gekry. In 1919 stig hy die National Socialist (Nazi) Party. Sy poging om die Beierse regering in 1923 omver te werp, misluk en lei tot 'n gevangenisstraf wat hom die geleentheid gebied het om sy politieke filosofie te verwoord in 'n boek getiteld Mein Kampf ("My Struggle").

In 1933 neem hy die bewind en begin met die onmiddellike herbewapening van Duitsland. Hitler het ook 'n reeks antisemitiese beleid ingestel wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die uitwissing van meer as ses miljoen Jode in Europa.

Hitler het Duitsland eiehandig in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gelei. Tot aan die einde van die oorlog en die laaste Russiese aanval op Berlyn, het Hitler streng beheer oor alle aspekte van die Duitse weermag behou.

Met die nederlaag van Duitsland verseker, pleeg Hitler selfmoord in sy bunker.


Adolf Hitler se stamboom

Adolf Hitler se stamboom is ingewikkeld. U sal sien dat die van "Hitler" baie variasies bevat wat dikwels byna uitruilbaar gebruik is. Sommige van die algemene afwykings was Hitler, Hiedler, Hüttler, Hytler en Hittler. Adolf se pa, Alois Schicklgruber, het sy naam op 7 Januarie 1877 verander na "Hitler" - die enigste vorm van die van wat sy seun gebruik het.

Sy onmiddellike stamboom is gevul met veelvuldige huwelike. Kyk in die bostaande prentjie noukeurig na die huweliksdatums en die geboortedatums van die vele familielede van Hitler. Verskeie van hierdie kinders is onwettig of slegs 'n paar maande na die huwelik gebore. Dit het aanleiding gegee tot baie geskille, soos die omstrede kwessie of Johann Georg Hiedler die vader van Alois Schicklgruber was of nie (soos uitgebeeld in die grafiek hierbo).


Adolf sy politieke platform, die Twenty Five Points,

Adolf Hitler was verantwoordelik vir meer boosheid en lyding as enige ander man in die moderne geskiedenis. Daar was baie gebeurtenisse gedurende sy leeftyd wat die gevolg was van wat later in die geskiedenis sou gebeur.

Adolf Hitler is gebore in Braunau Am Inn, Oostenryk, op 20 April 1889. As kind het hy baie swak gevaar in sy studies, maar het nie die hoërskool voltooi nie. Hy was 'n groot kunstenaar en akteur.

Hy het aansoek gedoen om toelating tot die Akademie vir Beeldende Kunste in Wene, maar is verwerp weens 'n gebrek aan talent. ’ (Andreas Dorpalen, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia) Hy het niemand toegelaat om hom te weerhou van wat hy wou bereik nie. Hy was die grootste pubic spreker in sy tyd.

Later gebeurtenisse onthul dat Hitler boos was en sy eie spesifieke kultuur en ras wou skep. Van 1909 tot 1913 woon Hitler in die armer distrikte van Wene en beweeg van plek tot plek. As 'n jong seun verafgod hy die priesters en oorweeg dit twee jaar lank om self priester te word. ’ (http: // www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/boyhood.htm) In 1913 verhuis hy na München, Duitsland, om militêre diens in die Hapsburg -ryk te vermy, wat hy verag het. Adolf Hitler het in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vir Duitsland gedien. Hy is tydens die Battle Of The Somme beseer en is in die hospitaal opgeneem. Nadat hy vrygelaat is, is hy aangestel as diensplig in München, Duitsland.

Hy was geskok oor die gebrek aan kommer en teenoorlogse houding onder Duitse burgers. Hy het die Jode baie daarvan beskuldig en hulle as 'n sameswering beskou om onrus te versprei en die Duitse oorlogspoging te ondermyn. Hierdie idee van 'n sameswering teen die oorlog wat Jode betrek, sou 'n obsessie word om by te voeg tot ander antisemitiese opvattings wat hy in Wene verkry het, wat lei tot 'n steeds groter wordende haat vir Jode. ’ (http://www.historyplace.com /worldwar2/riseofhitler/warone.htm) Nadat die oorlog geëindig het en Duitsland in puin gelê het, is korporaal Adolf Hitler beveel om 'n klein groepie, bekend as die Duitse arbeidersparty, in September 1919 te ondersoek, sodat Hitler dit bygewoon het.

'N Man het voorgestel dat die Duitse deelstaat Beiere uit Duitsland wegbreek en 'n nuwe Suid -Duitse nasie saam met Oostenryk stig. Dit het Hitler woedend gemaak en hy het die man vir vyftien ononderbroke minute les gegee. Een van die stigters fluister, “.

..hy ’s het die gawe van die gab gekry. Ons kan hom gebruik.

” Die lede verwelkom Hitler in hul groep in 1919 en Hitler aanvaar. Dit was een van die eerste stappe om die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te veroorsaak. Hitler het gou die middelpunt van aantrekkingskrag in die groep geword, en het mense stadig na hul groep gelok. Hy was ook die hoofspreker van die German Workers ’ Party. In sy toesprake het Hitler teen die Verdrag van Versailles gepraat en 'n antisemitiese lesing gelewer en die Jode die skuld gegee vir die probleme van Duitsland. Die Duitse Workers ’ Party het sy politieke platform ontwikkel, die Twenty Five Points, wat die verwerping van die Verdrag van Versailles insluit. Hy het die vyf -en -twintig punte verklaar tydens 'n vergadering in München, waar tweeduisend mense bygewoon het.

Hitler het vroeg in 1921 leier van die Nazi -party geword. In die somer van 1920 het Hitler die simbool gekies, wat tot vandag toe moontlik die berugste in die geskiedenis is, die hakekors. Hitler hernoem sy party later tot die National Socialist German Workers ’ Party, wat kortliks Nazi's genoem word. Om meer gewildheid vir homself en sy partytjie te kry, is hy na Berlyn. Op hierdie tydstip beskou die lede van sy party Hitler as hoogs arrogant, selfs diktatoriaal.

Hitler jaag terug na München en weerstaan ​​hulle deur op 11 Julie 1921 sy uittrede uit die party aan te kondig. Hulle besef dat die verlies van Hitler die einde van die Nazi -party sou beteken. Hitler het die oomblik aangegryp en aangekondig dat hy sou terugkeer op voorwaarde dat hy voorsitter word en diktatoriale magte kry. Die oorblywende lede van die Nazi -party het uiteindelik teruggesak en die vraag van Hitler is gestem. Die resultaat was 543: 1 ten gunste van Hitler. Op 29 Julie 1921 word Adolf Hitler voorgestel as Fhrer van die Nazi Party. In April 1921 het die Europese geallieerdes van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog 'n wetsontwerp aan Duitsland voorgelê wat eis ($ 33 ​​miljard) vir skade wat in die oorlog veroorsaak is, wat Duitsland begin het.

Duitsland het in noodlottige skuld beland en honger -onluste het uitgebreek. Teen November 1923 was die Nazi's, met 55 000 volgelinge, die grootste en beste georganiseerde. Die Nazi -party eis optrede wat Hitler geweet het dat hy moet optree of die leierskap van sy party kan verloor.

Sy party het 'n plan ontwikkel. Die plan was om die leiers van die Beierse regering te ontvoer en hulle met geweld te dwing om Hitler as hul leier te aanvaar. Om 8:30 op 8 November 1923 het SA troepe onder leiding van Hermann Gring die plek omring. Hierdie poging tot oorname was die Nazi -rewolusie bekend. Hitler het die drie hoogste amptenare van die Beierse regering in 'n agterkamer gelas en hulle meegedeel dat hulle saam met hom 'n Nazi -rewolusie sou aankondig en deel van die nuwe regering sou word. Die amptenare het onwillig ingestem, maar was in die geheim nie opreg nie.

Later het die drie in die geheim ontsnap uit die gebou. Die volgende oggend het Hitler en sy Nazi's wanhopig na München opgeruk en probeer om dit oor te neem, maar dit het misluk. Hitler is aangekla van Verraad en is skuldig bevind. Sy straf was vyf jaar, wat in ses maande in aanmerking kom vir parool. Terwyl hy agter tralies was, skryf hy die eerste bundel van 'n boek, Mein Kampf (“My Struggle ”), waarin hy sy politieke en rasse -idees in brutaal komplekse besonderhede uiteensit, wat beide dien as 'n bloudruk vir toekomstige optrede en as 'n waarskuwing vir die wereld. In sy boek verdeel Hitler mense in kategorieë wat gebaseer is op fisiese voorkoms, om hoër en laer ordes of soorte mense vas te stel.

Bo, volgens Hitler, is die Germaanse man met sy ligte vel, blonde hare en blou oë. Hitler verwys na hierdie tipe persoon as 'n Ariër. Hy beweer dat die Ariër die hoogste vorm van menslike of meesterras is. Die magtigste eweknie van die Ariër word deur die Jood verteenwoordig. ” 'n Paar dae voor Kersfees 1924 is Hitler na nege maande uit die tronk vrygelaat. Toe Hitler 39 jaar oud was, het hy verlief geraak op sy niggie Geli Raubal (was die dogter van sy halfsuster), wat amper die helfte van Hitler was. Hulle het 'n romantiese lewe gehad, maar toe hul verhouding probleme ondervind, het Geli haarself doodgeskiet.

Hitler het uiters depressief geraak. Tydens die Groot Depressie het Hitler geweet dat die mense wanhopig was en na hom sou luister, sodat hy besluit het om vir president te wees. Op die verkiesingsdag 14 September 1930 het die Nazi's meer as agtien persent van die totaal ontvang en was hulle dus geregtig op 107 setels in die Duitse Reichstag. In die presidentsverkiesing wat op 13 Maart 1932 gehou is, het Hitler dertig persent van die stemme gekry, terwyl Hindenburg nege en veertig persent gekry het. Hitler word kanselier van Duitsland op 30 Januarie 1933. Sy doel was om demokrasie te beëindig en diktatuur te vestig, en toe president Paul von Hindenburg in Augustus 1934, word Hitler die onbetwiste diktator van Duitsland. Politieke vyande is deur die duisende gearresteer, opgesluit en gemartel.

Hitler het Oostenryk en Tsjeggo-Slowakye in 1938-1939 oorgeneem en die Duitse militêre mag opgebou tot op die punt dat dit gereed was om oorlog te waag. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het uiteindelik in 1939 uitgebreek toe Hitler Pole binnegeval het. Hitler het baie Duitse oorwinnings gelei. Sy grootste militêre onderneming van alles was die inval in die Sowjetunie, wat misluk het. Hitler het geweier om terug te trek, wat veroorsaak het dat hy die reeds verowerde lande verloor het.

Adolf Hitler het op 3 April 1945 selfmoord gepleeg toe Russiese troepe reeds in die vernietigde strate van Berlyn geveg het. Sy lewenslange stryd om Duitsland en die res van Europa te oorheers, die moorde op miljoene Jode en sy doel om wraak te neem op die oorwinnaars van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, sou diep in die geskiedenisboeke ingeprent wees.


Adolf Hitler gewond in Britse gasaanval

Onder die Duitsers wat op 14 Oktober 1918 in die Ieper Salient in België gewond is, is korporaal Adolf Hitler, tydelik verblind deur 'n Britse gasdop en ontruim na 'n Duitse militêre hospitaal in Pasewalk, Pommeren.

Die jong Hitler is vir die Oostenrykse militêre diens aangestel, maar weier om gebrek aan fiksheid terwyl hy aan die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in die somer van 1914 in München gewoon het, en vra spesiale toestemming om as Duitse soldaat aan te meld. As lid van die 16de Beierse Infanterieregiment het Hitler in Oktober 1914 na Frankryk gereis.

In die loop van die volgende twee jaar het Hitler deelgeneem aan sommige van die felste stryd van die oorlog, waaronder die Slag van Neuve Chapelle, die Tweede Slag van Ieper en die Slag van die Somme. Op 7 Oktober 1916, naby Bapaume, Frankryk, is Hitler in die been gewond deur 'n dopontploffing. Gestuur om te herstel naby Berlyn, keer hy terug na sy ou eenheid teen Februarie 1917. Volgens 'n kameraad, Hans Mend, is Hitler toegespreek oor die sombere toestand van moraal en toewyding aan die saak aan die tuisfront in Duitsland: “He sit in die hoek van ons gemors en hou sy kop tussen sy hande in diep nadenke. Skielik spring hy op en hardloop opgewonde rond en sê dat ondanks ons groot gewere ons die oorwinning sou ontken, want die onsigbare vyande van die Duitse volk was 'n groter gevaar as die grootste kanon van die vyand. ”

Hitler het die volgende jaar meer aanhalings vir dapperheid verdien, waaronder 'n Ysterkruis 1ste klas vir persoonlike dapperheid en algemene verdienste in Augustus 1918 omdat hy self 'n groep Franse soldate vasgevang het wat in 'n skulpgat weggekruip het tydens die laaste Duitse offensief aan die Wesfront. Die besering in Oktober het egter 'n einde gemaak aan Hitler se diens in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Hy verneem van die Duitse oorgawe terwyl hy in Pasewalk herstel het. Woedend en gefrustreerd deur die nuus — ”I steier en struikel terug na my saal en begrawe my seer kop tussen die komberse en kussing ” — Hitler het gevoel dat hy en sy medesoldate deur die Duitse volk verraai is. In 1941 onthul Hitler as fuhrer in watter mate sy loopbaan en die verskriklike nalatenskap daarvan deur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gevorm is, en skryf dat ek my ervarings aan die voorkant van die huis saamgebring het. gemeenskap. ”


Adolf Hitler - Geskiedenis

Deur Charles Whiting

Adolf Hitler was lief vir kinders. Voordat die oorlog al sy energie opgebruik het, het hy die hele tyd kinders by sy vakansiehuis op die "berg" vermaak. Deur die jare het sy hoffotograaf, professor Heinrich Hoffmann, hele albums gevul met foto's van die Meester en kinders.

Dit is natuurlik duidelik dat hulle blond moes wees en 'n vinnige glimlag moes kry toe hy hul hande stap, buk om met die kleintjies te praat en oor hul heldergeel hare te klop. Alhoewel die Meester en die meeste van sy bewonderende hof donkerkop was, was hulle ideaal die blonde Ariese ras.

Hy was ook lief vir honde, veral Duitse herders. Sommige van sy hof het beweer dat hy meer lief was vir honde as vir mense. Selfs op die hoogtepunt van sy mag toe hy oor die hele Europa regeer het, van Noord -Afrika tot Noorweë en van die Engelse kanaal tot die Kaukasus, het hy sy eie honde persoonlik opgelei. Die magtigste man op die vasteland vind dit blykbaar nie vernederend om voor een van sy hondjies te sien hardloop nie, 'n stok in sy mond dra om aan die jong hond te demonstreer hoe hy so 'n voorwerp moet dra.
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Ondanks sy status as een van die vier magtigste mans ter wêreld, bly hy die eenvoudige mens van die mense. Hy het op 'n spartaanse kinderbed geslaap, nie veel beter as dié van sy soldate nie. Hy het 'n wit katoenhemp aangehad, 'n kamerpot vir sy behoeftes gedurende die nag gebruik, en toe dit baie koud op die berg was, trek hy 'n outydse slaapdoek aan om sy kop warm te hou.

Adolf Hitler groet die familie van die Rykse minister van Bewapening Albert Speer laat in 1942. Twee van die drie kinders is jong Albert en Hilde Speer.

Hy het 'n afsku van sterk waters, maar soms kon hy 'n glas sjampanje drink of op warm dae 'n bier. Dit was dieselfde met kos. Weereens het hy hom nie toegegee aan die ryk kos en eksotiese buitelandse geregte wat baie in sy verhewe posisie geniet het nie. Hy was eerder 'n vegetariër en het hom by die huislike groente gehou wat in sy eie kweekhuise op die berg verbou is - wortels, ertjies, preie en dies meer. Maar as hy gedwing word, sou hy 'n bredie eet wat gemaak is met die goedkoopste vleissnitte of 'n sny ham wat op die boer uit die skenkel gesny is.

'N Obsessie met gesondheid

Sommige het gesê dat hy seksuele probleme het. Kwaadwillige tale het volgehou dat hy fisies en sielkundig onvoldoende was. Maar hy het ten minste twee bekende minnaresse gehad, en die bediendes wat hom en sy laaste minnares, Eva Braun, op die berg bespied en hul bed in die oggend ondersoek het nadat hulle daar geslaap het, het altyd gesê dat hulle genoeg bewyse uit die lakens het om te bewys die verhouding was heeltemal normaal.

Diegene wat die Meester naak gesien het, het getuig dat hy redelik voldoende was in die omgewing. As die Meester piekniek hou van die berg af, een van sy grootste plesiere, urineer hy teen die bome saam met die res van die mannetjie -gevolg, wat natuurlik geïnteresseerd was in die meester se fisiese skenking. Nie een van hulle het ooit berig dat hy in die kwartaal ontbreek nie.

Daar is egter opgemerk dat hy baie bekommerd was oor sy eie gesondheid - hy was 'n hypochondriak. Hy het duiseligheid, winderigheid, maag- en borspyn, nekpustels en beperkende verlamming gehad, en uiteindelik het hy tot 60 pille per dag geneem. Terselfdertyd was hy ook baie bekommerd oor die gesondheid van sy onderdane.

Op 'n foto wat vir propagandadoeleindes vrygestel is, berei Hitler hom voor om 'n stok te gooi tydens 'n sessie met Muck, een van sy Duitse herders.

Die gevolg was dat hy maatreëls ingestel het wat vreemd kontemporêr is. Hy het kankerregisters bekendgestel, die eerste wat nuwe gevalle van die siekte opgemerk het (voorkoms en nie net noodlottige gevalle soos in ander lande gebruiklik was nie). Plaagdoders wat arseen bevat, wat kanker kan veroorsaak, is verbied. Uiteraard word rook misgekyk en Duitsland was die eerste wat veldtogte teen rokery ingestel het.

Die meester se ideologie bevorder dieet met minder suiker, vet en vleis en minder blikkieskos. Volgens die wet moes daardie groot Duitse stapelvoedsel, brood, 'n minimum persentasie volgraanmeel bevat. Loodgevoerde tandepasta-buise is verbied. Hitler was basies vegetariër, net soos sy SS -hoof, Heinrich Himmler, wat selfs sy eie groentetuin gehad het.

Teen 1941 is die gevare van rook in skole geleer, en 60 stede verbied rook in hul openbare vervoerstelsels. Een jaar later, te midde van die totale oorlog, was die Meester bekommerd oor walvisse en skryf: "Die toenemende verbruik van walvisolie verminder die bevolking van walvisse." Hoe omgewingsvriendelik kan jy word?

'N Man van uiterste teenstrydighede

Wat kan 'n mens maak van so 'n man, so modern in sy denke, wat op baie maniere die eienskappe bevat wat ons geleer word om in ons eie tyd te bewonder - die vegetariër, wat veldtogte teen bestralingsgevare en tabak ingestel het (Hitler se Duitsland het die eerste in die wêreld gehad) Instituut vir 'Tabaksgevaarnavorsing' aan die Universiteit van Jena) wat sy staatskantore en navorsingsfasiliteite gebruik het om die nasionale 'kiemplasma' te beskerm, die voorloper van ons eie genetiese erfenis?

Was dit dieselfde man wat 'n groot oorlog teen Europa gedwing het, wat tot 30 miljoen sterftes gelei het? Kan hierdie liefhebber van honde en jong blonde kinders werklik 'n golf van massa-antisemitisme instel wat met die Holocaust geëindig het? Hoe kan Hitler, wat die jag verafsku het en sy eie volgelinge, veral Luftwaffe -hoof Hermann Göring, gekritiseer het omdat hy toegegee het aan die skiet van voëls en die doodmaak van wilde varke, duisende mans, vroue en kinders afgestuur het en uiteindelik deur die honderde duisende, om in die oonde van sy konsentrasiekampe gelikwideer te word?

Hitler buig om 'n Duitse seuntjie met groot oë wat inheemse lederhosen dra, te groet op hierdie propagandafoto, wat wyd versprei is in Duitsland en in die buiteland. Let op die goedkeurende volwassenes wat op die agtergrond sit.

Kan so 'n vooruitskouende, welwillende moderniteit hand aan hand gaan met hierdie Middeleeuse, amper patologiese wreedheid? In die geval van Adolf Hitler, die nuwe meester van Duitsland sedert 1933, kan dit. En dit is in werklikheid nie so moeilik om te begryp nie. Hitler, soos so baie van sy generasie, is in die loopgrawe van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vier jaar lank in die loopgrawe wreedaardig gewond en tydelik verblind. chaotiese nuwe Duitse Republiek. Soos soveel ander van die "Front Generation" die "stoppelbakke", soos hulle hulself noem, het hy gevoel dat hy verraai is deur die sosialiste en die Joodse plutokrate wat hy glo nou hierdie nuwe dekadente Duitsland bestuur.

Dus, terwyl hy die nuwe idees in die 1920's opgeneem het (en daar moet onthou word dat die destydse Duitsland 'n voorloper van die moderniteit op feitlik elke gebied was), val Hitler en vele ander terug in die wrede kultuur van 'n ouer Duitsland. Teen die tyd dat Hitler en sy volgelinge aan bewind gekom het, was daar 'n soort polariteit van twee uiterstes wat baie buitelanders raaiselagtig gevind het en dan afweer. Hoe kon die Nazi -wagte in konsentrasiekampe 'n tipiese Duitse Kersfees, vol met al sy sentimentaliteit en kitsch, aan sommige van die kinders in hul toesig gee en dan dieselfde kinders 'n dag of wat later na die oonde stuur?

Die Bourgeois Berghof

Dit was weinig anders toe Hitler sy vakansiehuis in die Beierse Alpe bou, wat later die tuiste van sy hof geword het. Haus Wachenfeld, later die Berghof genoem nadat Hitler dit opgeknap het, was 'n bisarre versnit van die grandiose - 'n natuurlike verhoog wat opgestel is vir een van Wagner se pompeuse operas - en die alledaagse. Sy groot vensters bied asemrowende panoramiese uitsigte oor die omliggende pieke. Maar die argitektuur daarvan was 'n Beierse voorstad: geruite tafeldoeke, houtstoele met hartjies daarin, piouterborde en drinkbekers op die rakke. Die dekor was miskien weelderig, maar die algehele effek was nie smaaklik nie, maar burgerlik.

Op die Berghof waar sy hof meestal gehou is, was die leefstyl van die Führer ook teenstrydig. Daar kan hy beroemde politici, staatshoofde, selfs 'n voormalige koning van Brittanje, nog tussen staatsaangeleenthede ontvang, Hitler se dae by die Berghof was 'n eentonige ronde vervelige maaltye, dom Hollywood-films (die gunsteling van die meester was Charles Laughton in Die privaat lewe van Henry VIII en Gary Cooper in Die lewens van 'n Bengaalse danser) en vervelige uurlange monoloë.

“ Ontleding van die persoonlikheid van Adolph Hitler ”

Maar daar was 'n ander geheime kant van Adolf Hitler, wat in 2003 ontdek is. In 1943 het generaal William "Wild Bill" Donovan, hoof van die American Office of Strategic Services (OSS), die voorloper van die moderne Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 'n hoogs geheime verslag oor Hitler opgedra. Dertig eksemplare van die verslag wat deur Henry Murray opgestel is, is bykans 60 jaar later aan die Cornell -universiteit in Ithaca, New York, gevind.

Die verslag het die titel "Analise of the Personality of Adolph Hitler." Murray bied 'n prentjie van Hitler aan wat verskil van die vriendelike, eenvoudige hondliefhebbende persona wat hy aan die vooroorlogse wêreld voorgehou het. Op grond van psigoanalise en verklarings van Hitler se voormalige intimate soos "Putzi" Hanfstaengl en Otto Strasser, wat na die Verenigde State gevlug het, het Murray gesê dat Hitler aan neurose, histerie, paranoia, oedipale neigings en skisofrenie ly.

Hitler ontspan op die terras by Berchtesgaden
met sy bekendste troeteldier, Blondi. Die Duitse herder is later vergiftig tydens 'n toets van die sterkte van die Führer se sianied.

Twee jaar voor Hitler se selfmoord sluit Murray af met 'n wonderlike versiendheid: 'Daar is 'n kragtige dwang in hom om homself en die hele Duitsland op te offer aan die wraakgierige vernietiging van die Westerse kultuur, om te sterf en die hele Europa saam met hom in die afgrond te sleep.'

Murray bespiegel dat Hitler kan sorg dat hy vermoor word, of hy sal terugtrek na sy bunker en homself skiet. Die plan van die Duitse generaals om Hitler in Julie 1944 te vermoor, het misluk. Uiteindelik het Hitler, soos bekend, selfmoord gepleeg in 1945. Murray se taak was ook om na die oorlog maniere voor te stel om die Duitsers in 'n vredeliewende nasie te omskep. Hy verdoesel nie sy oortuiging dat die Duitse volk Hitler se skuld gedeel het nie. Hy het geskryf: 'Hierdie halfgod het amper presies voldoen aan die behoeftes, verlange en gevoelens van die meerderheid Duitsers.'

Adolf Hitler en “The Mountain People ”

Dit was die Meester, wat 'n soort Nazi -maffia op die berg om hom vergader het. Mettertyd sou hy en hulle die grootste deel van Europa verower van die Engelse kanaal tot by die Oeralberge. Hulle soldate sou geweldige oorwinnings behaal deur die Britte, die Amerikaners, die Russe en 'n aantal kleiner nasies te beveg. Op 'n indirekte manier sou hulle die Britse, Franse en Nederlandse ryke verbreek en die Koue Oorlog begin, waaruit die Verenigde State as die wêreld se supermoondheid sou ontstaan. Maar hierdie Nazi-maffia, "The Mountain People" soos hulle hulself noem, gedomineer deur die megalomane Hitler, bly in wese 'n groep tweederangse paddas. Nadat Hitler dood was, het sy volgelinge weggesmelt asof hulle nog nooit bestaan ​​het nie.

Wyle Charles Whiting was self 'n veteraan van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en daarna die skrywer van talle bekroonde boeke oor die onderwerp.


U gids tot Adolf Hitler: sleutelfeite oor die Nazi -diktator

Hy is een van die bekendste - maar beledigende - figure in die geskiedenis. Maar hoeveel weet jy van die Duitse diktator Adolf Hitler? Hier is alles wat u moet weet oor die Nazi -leier, van sy opkoms tot die bewind tot die waarheid oor sy dood in Berlyn in 1945.

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 5 Februarie 2021 om 09:31

Adolf Hitler is een van die bekendste-en geminagde-figure in die geskiedenis. Hy was die hoofargitek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, nadat hy aan die bewind gekom het as die leier van die Nazi -party in die 1920's. Sy antisemitiese beleid lei tot die dood van meer as ses miljoen Jode tydens die Holocaust, wat sy reputasie as een van die berugste mans in die geskiedenis bevestig het.

Hier is u gids vir die Duitse diktator - van sy vroeë lewe toe hy in Oostenryk grootgeword het tot sy bewind en uiteindelik die dood tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ...

Hitler: belangrike feite

Gebore: Adolf Hitler is gebore op 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, Oostenryk.

Oorlede: Hitler sterf op 30 April 1945 in 'n Berlynse bunker, 56 jaar oud, deur selfmoord

Bekend vir: Om die leier van die Nazi -party te wees en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te begin. Adolf Hitler vervang Anton Drexler as partyvoorsitter van die Nazi Party in Julie 1921, en kort daarna verwerf hy die titel führer ("leier"). Hy was kanselier van Duitsland vanaf 30 Januarie 1933, en Führer en kanselier saam vanaf 2 Augustus 1934. Sy styging aan bewind het gelei tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die dood van meer as ses miljoen Jode tydens die Holocaust.

Familie: Adolf Hitler was die vierde van ses kinders gebore aan Alois Hitler (1837–1903) en sy derde vrou, Klara (1860–1907). Sy volbroers en susters is: Gustav, Ida, Otto, Edmund en Paula, maar hy het ook twee halfbroers-Alois Jr en Angela-uit sy pa se vorige huwelike gehad. Alois, wat buite -egtelik was, het 'n geruime tyd die naam van sy ma, Schicklgruber, gedra, maar teen 1876 het hy sy familie -aanspraak op die van 'Hitler' gevestig. Adolf Hitler self het nooit 'n ander van gebruik nie.

Vroeë kinderjare: Die grootste deel van Hitler se kinderjare was in Linz, Oostenryk. Hy het 'n moeilike verhouding met sy pa gehad, met baie van hul argumente wat fokus op Hitler se weiering om hom op skool te gedra. Hy was egter baie lief vir sy ma, wat in 1907 oorlede is.

Onderwys: Hitler het 'n gemengde opvoeding en word deur baie historici oor die algemeen as 'n middelmatige student beskou. Alhoewel sy pa wou hê dat sy seun 'n loopbaan in sy eie voetspore moes volg, het Hitler by 'n doeanekantoor ander idees gehad. Die spanning het toegeneem toe Alois Hitler na die Realschule ('n tipe hoërskool) in Linz in September 1900 en Hitler het swak gevaar. Hitler het later voorgestel dat dit 'n opsetlike daad namens hom was: hy het doelbewus sleg gevaar om sy pa te wys dat hy sy droom om 'n kunstenaar te word, moet nastreef.

Die vertelling hou nie heeltemal op as u in ag neem dat Hitler se opvoedkundige prestasie na Alois se dood in Januarie 1903 nog meer versleg het nie. Hy studeer verder aan 'n ander skool in Steyr, waar hy sy eindeksamen moes aflê voordat hy vertrek, sonder die bedoeling om sy opleiding verder te neem.

Is ons meer gefassineer deur Hitler as enige ander diktator?

Hitler is in talle boeke, TV -reekse en films gedenk. Waarom is ons dan gefassineer deur die Nazi -diktator?

"In die mees voor die hand liggende sin lyk die antwoord duidelik: Hitler was die hoofskrywer van die verwoestendste oorlog en die verskriklikste volksmoord wat die wêreld nog geken het," verduidelik professor Ian Kershaw - een van die wêreld se voorste kenners oor die Nazi -leier, wat glo dat ons volgehoue ​​beheptheid met Hitler veel verder gaan as 'n konvensionele belangstelling in historiese figure van groot mag en invloed.

Was Hitler 'n goeie skilder?

Terwyl leiers, waaronder Winston Churchill en George W Bush, as 'n post-politiek stokperdjie besig was met skilder, het 'n jong Adolf Hitler die rekeninge as 'n werkende kunstenaar van 1910–14 betaal. Hy het hoofsaaklik gefokus op poskaarte en advertensies - en genoeg verdien om 'n bestaan ​​te onderhou en deur koshuise in Wene te beweeg.

Hy was egter tegnies middelmatig. Hy het die eksamen vir die Algemene Skool vir Skilderkuns aan die Weense Akademie vir Beeldende Kunste gedruip, deels vanweë sy stryd om die menslike gestalte te vang. Die tweede keer dat hy aansoek gedoen het, is sy voorbeeldtekeninge van so 'n swak gehalte beskou dat hy nie eers tot die toelatingseksamen toegelaat is nie.

Sommige mag redeneer dat Hitler se kuns ook vreemd voetganger was in 'n radikale era van Picasso en Van Gogh. As 'n ywerige leser van geskiedenis en mitologie, en met 'n gedagte wat oorborrel van politieke gedagtes, is dit ietwat verbasend dat hierdie woedende buitestaander vaal poskaarttonele van geboue en landskappe geskilder het.

As skildery nie sy sterkpunt was nie, kon Hitler se werklike krag gevind word in sy redenaarsvaardighede. "Hy was natuurlik 'n meesterlike demagoog - die basis van sy vroeë oorheersing binne die Nazi -party," verduidelik professor Kershaw. 'Meer as enige ander hedendaagse Duitse politikus, het hy in 'n taal gepraat wat die woede en vooroordeel van sy gehoor verwoord het.

Volgens Kershaw was hy ook baie wyd gelees: 'Sy uitstekende geheue het hom in staat gestel om inligting oor baie onderwerpe te onthou. Dit het nie net die mense om hom en ander wat reeds vatbaar was vir sy boodskap beïndruk nie. ”

Wat het Hitler tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gedoen?

Hoewel Adolf Hitler in die middel van die twintigerjare was met die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1914, het hy aanvanklik probeer om diensplig te vermy. Toe hy ingeroep is, het hy die mediese dokter misluk. Hy het steeds in uniform beland en hom by die Beierse (deel van die Duitse) leër aangesluit.

Hitler het in hierdie leër gedien tydens die Eerste Slag van Ieper. Volgens Hitler is sy regiment van 3 600 tydens die geveg tot 611 verminder en was hy een van slegs 42 oorlewendes uit sy kompanie van 250 man. Een van sy rolle was dié van 'n loopgraaf. Hy is ook gewond by die Somme en is twee keer bekroon met die Ysterkruis vir dapperheid, een keer op aanbeveling van 'n Joodse kameraad.

Toe, in die nag van 13–14 Oktober 1918, raak korporaal Hitler vasgevang in 'n mosterdgasaanval deur die Britte. Hy het die res van die oorlog herstel van tydelike blindheid en geleer van die oorgawe van Duitsland in 'n militêre hospitaal, hoewel daar 'n idee is dat Hitler hierdie verhaal opgemaak het en dat hy in werklikheid behandel is vir 'histeriese amblyopie', 'n psigiatriese siekte bekend as 'histeriese blindheid'. Dit was gedurende hierdie tyd, beweer Hitler later in sy politieke manifes Mein Kampf (die eerste keer gepubliseer in 1925), dat "die idee by my opgekom het dat ek Duitsland sou bevry, dat ek dit goed sou maak".

Wanneer het Hitler die eerste keer by die politiek betrokke geraak?

Hitler verskyn laat in 1919 vir die eerste keer op die politieke toneel in die Duitse stad München as spreker vir die regse Duitse Arbeidersparty (DAP). Die DAP het sy naam verander na NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) in Februarie 1920, voordat Hitler in Julie 1921 amptelik as partyvoorsitter oorgeneem het. Die party, wat volgens Hitler gebrek aan rigting was, is ook op hierdie tydstip 'Hitler's Nazi Party' genoem, maar Hitler self was nie eintlik buite Beiere bekend nie tot baie later.

Gedurende die vroeë 1920's het Hitler doelbewus 'n mate van misterie rondom homself gehandhaaf. He refused to let unofficial photographers take his picture, instead opting to employ his own personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann, who produced a series of bestselling books of pictures that portrayed the Nazi leader as an aloof intellectual. “They aimed to show Hitler as a man of the people and, at the same time, the political philosopher of genius in lofty isolation, among the mountains that surrounded his Alpine retreat near the town of Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, as he pondered Germany’s future and bore the entire burden of responsibility on his shoulders,” explains Professor Kershaw. The creation of the ‘Hitler mystery’ was a masterful move of PR, utilised at a time when other politicians did not pay too much attention to such tactics.

How did Hitler rise to power?

Hitler’s first official grasp for power took place in November 1923. He and his supporters attempted to seize political power in Munich, as a prelude to a takeover in Berlin. Around 2,000 Nazis took part in the violent daytime coup, which became known as the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch.

What happened during the Beer Hall Putsch?

Hitler led his Nazi movement in a daytime march through central Munich, which was intended as a show of force, aiming at seizing power in Bavaria and then in Berlin a reprise of Mussolini’s March on Rome, which had brought the Fascist leader to power the previous year.

But, after sweeping aside a number of police pickets, Hitler’s marchers finally met their match by the Feldherrnhalle on the Odeonsplatz, where a detachment of Bavarian police refused to back down and fired on the column. In the mêlée, 14 Nazis were killed along with one unlucky waiter nearby, who was caught in the cross-fire. Two other Nazis were killed elsewhere in the city, but Hitler – wrenched to the ground by a dying man beside him and shielded by his loyal bodyguard, Ulrich Graf – escaped with only a dislocated shoulder. Despite its failure, the Putsch would become the founding legend of the Nazi movement.

When the coup collapsed, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. The subsequent trial was a complex affair – as historian Roger Moorhouse explains: “Hitler probably should have been sent for trial to the constitutional court at Leipzig, but Munich’s political establishment was keen to keep the matter ‘in house’, for fear of giving oxygen to the rumours of official complicity with the Nazis. So, with a tame, sympathetic judge – Georg Neithardt – presiding, the trial opened in the Munich infantry school on 26 February.

“Those hoping for Hitler’s political demise were to be disappointed. He expertly played the court, assisted by Neithardt, and so reached a much wider audience than he had ever reached before. By the end of the trial, he had a national following for the first time, and had emerged as the undisputed leader of the German radical right.”

Hitler served just nine months of his five-year prison sentence at Landsberg Prison. Following his release, he was forbidden from making public speeches but continued speaking to private audiences and gained a reputation as a formidable orator. By the 1930s he had cultivated an elaborate public profile, selling a “novel vision” to his followers and the wider German public. “Hitler was offering national redemption, a ‘new Germany’, a ‘new man’, a ‘new Jerusalem’,” says Moorhouse.

The Nazi party gradually grew in numbers throughout the late 1920s – and by July 1932, they had transformed from a small, revolutionary party to the largest elected party in the Reichstag (German parliament). They did this primarily through the use of effective propaganda, with support from the from the Sturmabteilung (SA), otherwise known as the Brownshirts, a paramilitary wing of the NSDAP.

Rise to dictator

Once Hitler had established himself as a key player in the German political scene of the 1930s, consolidation of his power as a diktator happened rather quickly. He achieved this with a “twin-track approach”, according to historian Richard J Evans.

The first track involved convincing the right-wing government that Hitler should rule Germany by decree. This was agreed by conservatives who were largely motivated by a desire to crush the Communist Party. “In November 1932, the Social Democrats and Communists together had more votes and seats than the Nazis, but they were also deadly enemies of each other and couldn’t get their act together to stop the Nazis. Hitler used legal or quasi-legal powers of the government, particularly the president’s power to rule by decree in a state of emergency,” explains Evans.

Listen: Historian Frank McDonough discusses the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, covering the period from the start of the Third Reich to the early months of World War Two

On 23 March 1933, the Reichstag was persuaded by Hitler – through a mixture of threats and inducements – to vote for an Enabling Law that meant that the cabinet (Hitler and the ministers) had the power to issue legislation without reference to the president or to the Reichstag, thereby giving them dictatorial powers.

The second track involved “mass, brutal violence” on the streets. During this time, between 100,000–200,000 people were put into concentration camps or ‘roughed up’ and released on condition of not engaging in politics.

Where did Hitler get his ideas?

According to historian Richard J Evans, Hitler drew his political ideas from a variety of sources: “from a version of Social Darwinism that saw society and international relations as a sort of struggle of races for the survival of the fittest from Arthur de Gobineau, a French theorist who invented the pseudoscientific idea of race theory from Russian émigrés from the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, who brought with them the idea that Bolshevism and communism were creations of the Jewish race from a certain amount of what’s called ‘geopolitics’, which was invented by an American.”

Mein Kampf

Hitler wrote his book Mein Kampf (or ‘My Struggle’) during his nine months imprisoned in Landsberg Prison in 1924.

It is a strange book – part Nazi manifesto, part rose-tinted autobiography, with excursions into Hitler’s theories on race, antisemitism, anti-Bolshevism, anti-capitalism, the uses of propaganda and the failings of democracy. It is famously turgid in style, so crammed with Hitler’s verbose musings that one reviewer dubbed it “Sein Krampf” (“His Cramp”).

Understandably, perhaps, sales of Mein Kamf were initially rather sluggish after the book was published in 1925, but they picked up as Hitler’s political stock rose. By 1933, it had sold some 300,000 copies, and would sell some 12 million more in the years that followed, providing Hitler with a handsome personal income, which – among other things – funded his purchase of the Berghof, his residence above Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps.

Sales of the book have continued after his death, and particularly since its copyright expired in the 2015 (which also marked the 70th anniversary of the Hitler’s death).

Why did Hitler hate the Jews?

Anti-Semitism was at the heart of Nazi ideology, but what inspired Hitler’s hatred of the Jews and prompted the creation of a system that ultimately led to the systematic rounding up and killing of some six million people?

Hitler obviously did not invent modern anti-Semitism, which has roots in the Middle Ages. By the 13th century, for example, rules enacted across Europe obliged Jews to wear an identifying badge to distinguish them from non-Jews’. And in medieval Europe specifically, anti-Jewish hostility was exemplified by the concept of ‘the blood libel’, the accusation that Jews were murdering Christian children as part of their Passover rituals.

Although we don’t know how early Hitler formed his opinions of Jewish people, he himself states that he felt anti-Jewish while working as a painter in Vienna – a city with a large Jewish population – before the First World War. “For me this was a time of the greatest spiritual upheaval I have ever had to go through,” he writes in Mein Kampf. “I had ceased to be a weak-kneed cosmopolitan and became an anti-Semite.” Some historians have since suggested that Hitler created this narrative of himself as an early anti-Semite retrospectively – and Mein Kampf should certainly be understood in the context of its purpose as propaganda. Perhaps rather curiously, one of Hitler most loyal patrons while he lived in Vienna as a young artist was a Jew called Samuel Morgenstern.

What is clearer is that Hitler’s anti-Semitism intensified following Germany’s defeat during the First World War, in which he served as an ordinary soldier on the western front and was decorated for bravery. The defeat had come as a shock to many Germans, who believed that they had been on course to win following the Spring Offensive and victory over Russia in 1918. Following the Allied victory, harsh penalties were imposed on Germany including the loss of certain territories and reparations were demanded, through the Treaty of Versailles.

Like many of his contemporaries, Hitler decided that the reason Germany lost the war was the weak will of the Kaiser, who was deposed in 1918. According to Richard J Evans, speaking on the Geskiedenis Ekstra podcast, “Hitler believed that the Weimar Republic, which succeeded the Kaiser’s Germany, was a Jewish creation, and democracy was something Jewish. These were all complete fantasies. But the effect of the First World War was decisive, including on Hitler’s anti-Semitism and his belief the Jews were to blame for everything bad that had happened.”

Was Hitler Christian?

To read and hear Hitler’s public rhetoric in his early days in politics, it would be easy to think that Adolf Hitler had a connection to Christianity, albeit a warped one. Adolf Hitler had been born to a strongly Catholic mother, after all, and had been baptised. He certainly identified as a Christian in speeches and in his book, Mein Kampf.

But any declarations of religious faith were mere propaganda. Hitler received the sacrament of confirmation only at his mother’s behest, and after leaving his family home never returned to church. So when he called himself a Christian in speeches and Mein Kampf, it was in the name of political expediency, to win over an overwhelmingly Christian Germany.

Once in power, Hitler’s attitude towards the Church hardened. The Nazis pushed his ‘Positive Christianity’ movement, which rejected traditional doctrine and anything deemed ‘too Jewish’ (such as the divinity of Jesus) while espousing their master-race ideology.

What was Hitler’s relationship with Eva Braun?

Eva Braun (1912–1945) was the long-term companion of Adolf Hitler. The pair married on 29 April 1945 – just one day before they both died by suicide.

German historian Heike B Görtemaker notes that Braun was much more than a passive figure in the Nazi regime. “All members of the Berghof circle, including Eva Braun, were not just witnesses, but convinced of the Nazi ideology,” she writes. “Although it cannot be verified that Braun knew about the Holocaust – and all surviving members of Hitler’s inner circle later denied knowledge – Braun, like all others, was at least informed about the persecution of the Jews, depriving them of any civil rights.”

Was Braun in love with Hitler? It is almost impossible to identify her true feelings, says Görtemaker. However Braun’s closest friend, Herta Schneider, “declared in 1949 that Braun had been in love with Hitler”.

Where did Hitler live?

Hitler maintained three residences during the Third Reich: the Old Chancellery in Berlin his Munich apartment and Haus Wachenfeld (later the Berghof), his mountain home on the Obersalzberg. All three were thoroughly renovated in the mid-1930s and facilitated the creation of a new, sophisticated persona for the führer.

“Media depictions of Adolf Hitler at home – reading, walking his dogs and enjoying fine artwork – were used by the Nazi regime to create a favourable public image of the führer,” writes Professor Despina Stratigakos.

How did Hitler die?

During the last months of the Second World War – and as the prospect of losing the war became ever more apparent – Hitler withdrew into his bunker in Berlin. It was “the last station in his flight from reality”, wrote the Führer’s favoured architect, Albert Speer. Hitler continued to deliver orders from the bunker, including one that dictated his body should be incinerated upon the event of his death (he had heard about the treatment of fellow dictator Benito Mussolini’s body, who had been strung up in a public square in Milan).

On 20 April 1945, Hitler’s 56th birthday, the first enemy shell hit Berlin. Soviet troops soon entered the city – and by 30 April 1945, Hitler was dead.

It is generally accepted that Hitler shot himself, although accounts differ as to whether he also bit down on a cyanide capsule. Following his death by suicide, Hitler’s body and that of his long-term mistress Eva Braun, whom he had married a day earlier and who had herself injected cyanide, were removed from the bunker, doused in petrol and set alight.

Rachel Dinning is the digital section editor at Geskiedenis Ekstra


Adolf Hitler

Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H1216-0500-002 / CC-BY-SA

Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kampf. His 𔄙,000 Year Reich” barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Students will learn:

1. Facts about Hitler’s life and the historical events which occurred during that time.

2. Hitler’s view of history, his theory of race, and his political goals.

3. Hitler’s use of anti-Semitism to advance his career and to consolidate power.

4. How a political leader was able to manipulate the political system in a democracy and obtain autocratic power.

CHAPTER CONTENT

Hitler’s Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, who was described by his housemaid as a “very strict but comfortable” man. Young Adolf was showered with love and affection by his mother.

When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father’s two previous marriages.

Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery’s coat of arms’ most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf’s dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf’s father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period.

By 1900, Hitler’s talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university preparatory “gymnasium” or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father’s decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there.

Adolf’s father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work.

In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.

Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan’s pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for the homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists. It was during this period that he developed his prejudices about Jews, his interest in politics, and debating skills. According to John Toland’s biography, Adolf Hitler, two of his closest friends at this time were Jewish, and he admired Jewish art dealers and Jewish operatic performers and producers. However, Vienna was a center of anti-Semitism, and the media’s portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler’s fascination.

In May 1913, Hitler, seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich, the capital of Bavaria, following a windfall received from an aunt who was dying. In January, the police came to his door bearing a draft notice from the Austrian government. The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading conscription. Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate. Upon reporting to Salzburg for duty, he was found “unfit…too weak…and unable to bear arms.”

Hitler’s World War I Service

When World War I was touched off by the assassination by a Serb of the heir to the Austrian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Hitler’s passions against foreigners, particularly Slavs, were inflamed. He was caught up in the patriotism of the time, and submitted a petition to enlist in the Bavarian army.

After less than two months of training, Hitler’s regiment saw its first combat near Ypres, against the British and Belgians. Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery. He rose to the rank of lance corporal but no further. In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital. After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918.

Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries. Some Jews were leaders of these abortive revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists. On November 9th, the Kaiser abdicated and the Socialists gained control of the government. Anarchy was more the rule in the cities.

Free Corps

The Free Corps was a paramilitary organization composed of vigilante war veterans who banded together to fight the growing Communist insurgency which was taking over Germany. The Free Corps crushed this insurgency. Its members formed the nucleus of the Nazi “brown-shirts” (S.A.) which served as the Nazi party’s army.

Weimar Republic

With the loss of the war, the German monarchy came to an end and a republic was proclaimed. A constitution was written providing for a President with broad political and military power and a parliamentary democracy. A national election was held to elect 423 deputies to the National Assembly. The centrist parties swept to victory. The result was what is known as the Weimar Republic. On June 28, 1919, the German government ratified the Treaty of Versailles. Under the terms of the treaty which ended hostilities in the War, Germany had to pay reparations for all civilian damages caused by the war. Germany also lost her colonies and large portions of German territory. A 30-mile strip on the right bank of the Rhine was demilitarized. Limits were placed on German armaments and military strength. The terms of the treaty were humiliating to most Germans, and condemnation of its terms undermined the government and served as a rallying cry for those who like Hitler believed Germany was ultimately destined for greatness.

German Worker’s Party

Soon after the war, Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit, and was assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker’s Party. At the time, it was comprised of only a handful of members. It was disorganized and had no program, but its members expressed a right-wing doctrine consonant with Hitler’s. He saw this party as a vehicle to reach his political ends. His blossoming hatred of the Jews became part of the organization’s political platform. Hitler built up the party, converting it from a de facto discussion group to an actual political party. Advertising for the party’s meetings appeared in anti-Semitic newspapers. The turning point of Hitler’s mesmerizing oratorical career occurred at one such meeting held on October 16, 1919. Hitler’s emotional delivery of an impromptu speech captivated his audience. Through word of mouth, donations poured into the party’s coffers, and subsequent mass meetings attracted hundreds of Germans eager to hear the young, forceful and hypnotic leader.

With the assistance of party staff, Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points. This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920, with over 2,000 eager participants. After hecklers were forcibly removed by Hitler supporters armed with rubber truncheons and whips, Hitler electrified the audience with his masterful demagoguery. Jews were the principal target of his diatribe. Among the 25 points were revoking the Versailles Treaty, confiscating war profits, expropriating land without compensation for use by the state, revoking civil rights for Jews, and expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began.

The following day, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were published in the local anti-Semitic newspaper. The false, but alarming accusations reinforced Hitler’s anti-Semitism. Soon after, treatment of the Jews was a major theme of Hitler’s orations, and the increasing scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment, and the humiliation in the war, found a willing audience. Jews were tied to “internationalism” by Hitler. The name of the party was changed to the National Socialist German Worker’s party, and the red flag with the swastika was adopted as the party symbol. A local newspaper which appealed to anti-Semites was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Hitler raised funds to purchase it for the party.

In January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany to settle a reparations dispute. Germans resented this occupation, which also had an adverse effect on the economy. Hitler’s party benefited by the reaction to this development, and exploited it by holding mass protest rallies despite a ban on such rallies by the local police.

The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members, many of whom were victims of hyper-inflation and found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble. The price of an egg, for example, had inflated to 30 million times its original price in just 10 years. Economic upheaval generally breeds political upheaval, and Germany in the 1920s was no exception.

Die München Putsch

The Bavarian government defied the Weimar Republic, accusing it of being too far left. Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists and the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution. The following day, he led 2,000 armed “brown-shirts” in an attempt to take over the Bavarian government. This putsch was resisted and put down by the police, after more than a dozen were killed in the fighting. Hitler suffered a broken and dislocated arm in the melee, was arrested, and was imprisoned at Landsberg. He received a five-year sentence.

Mein Kampf

Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term. While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf. It was partly an autobiographical book (although filled with glorified inaccuracies, self-serving half-truths and outright revisionism) which also detailed his views on the future of the German people. There were several targets of the vicious diatribes in the book, such as democrats, Communists, and internationalists. But he reserved the brunt of his vituperation for the Jews, whom he portrayed as responsible for all of the problems and evils of the world, particularly democracy, Communism, and internationalism, as well as Germany’s defeat in the War. Jews were the German nation’s true enemy, he wrote. They had no culture of their own, he asserted, but perverted existing cultures such as Germany’s with their parasitism. As such, they were not a race, but an anti-race.

“[The Jews’] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people,” he wrote. On the contrary, the German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs.

Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them. By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia (which was under the control of Jewish Marxists, he believed) and the Slavic countries. This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a “FÅhrer” called upon to rebuild the German Reich.

A second volume of Mein Kampf was published in 1927. It included a history of the Nazi party to that time and its program, as well as a primer on how to obtain and retain political power, how to use propaganda and terrorism, and how to build a political organization.

While Mein Kampf was crudely written and filled with embarrassing tangents and ramblings, it struck a responsive chord among its target those Germans who believed it was their destiny to dominate the world. The book sold over five million copies by the start of World War II.

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Once released from prison, Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms. Using demagogic oratory, Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews and Communists, and to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years.

Hitler’s Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote in the 1930 elections. In 1932, Hitler ran for President and won 30% of the vote, forcing the eventual victor, Paul von Hindenburg, into a runoff election. A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his political support. He was appointed to that office in January 1933.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler was the consensus successor. With an improving economy, Hitler claimed credit and consolidated his position as a dictator, having succeeded in eliminating challenges from other political parties and government institutions. The German industrial machine was built up in preparation for war. By 1937, he was comfortable enough to put his master plan, as outlined in Mein Kampf, into effect. Calling his top military aides together at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937, he outlined his plans for world domination. Those who objected to the plan were dismissed.

Hitler Launches the War

Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Hitler’s army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, sparking France and England to declare war on Germany. A Blitzkrieg (lightning war) of German tanks and infantry swept through most of Western Europe as nation after nation fell to the German war machine.

In 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with the Soviet Union in August 1939. Several early victories after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, were reversed with crushing defeats at Moscow (December 1941) and Stalingrad (winter, 1942-43). The United States entered the war in December 1941. By 1944, the Allies invaded occupied Europe at Normandy Beach on the French coast, German cities were being destroyed by bombing, and Italy, Germany’s major ally under the leadership of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had fallen.

Hitler’s Last Days

Several attempts were made on Hitler’s life during the war, but none was successful. As the war appeared to be inevitably lost and his hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders, he killed himself on April 30, 1945. His long-term mistress and new bride, Eva Braun, joined him in suicide. By that time, one of his chief objectives was achieved with the annihilation of two-thirds of European Jewry.

VOCABULARY

– The absence of government or law in a society.

– A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing. Free Corps – A paramilitary organization of German World War I veterans who organized to oppose Communist insurgency.

– A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant. Hitler’s title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.

– A foreign policy which includes the taking of territory by force or coercion.

Lebensraum (Living Space) – A German term indicating the Germans’ imperialistic designs on Europe. It also refers to the additional territory deemed necessary to the nation for its economic well-being.

– “My Struggle” in German. A book written by Hitler while in prison which became the standard work of Nazi political doctrine.

– The abbreviation for National Socialist German Worker’s Party. The fascist dictatorship under Adolf Hitler in Germany from 1933-1945.

– Describing an organization which operates in the style of an army, but in an unofficial capacity, and often in secret, such as the S.A. Putsch – A revolt or uprising.

– Payments made by a defeated country to the victors to make amends for losses suffered.

– The Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers), also known as the “brown-shirts.” It was the Nazi paramilitary arm under the command of Ernst Rîhm. It was active in the Nazi battle for the streets against members of other German political parties and was notorious for its violent and terroristic methods.

– An ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross which was adopted by the Nazi party as its logo in the 1920s.

Third Reich – The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler’s name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).

Weimar Republic – The German democratic government from 1919-1934 formed after Germany’s defeat in World War I. Its capital was located in Berlin.

ACTIVITIES

  • Research the early childhood of several left-wing and right-wing dictators. Are there any similarities?
  • Compile a list of demagogues in U.S. history. What issues were they promoting, and to what prejudices did they appeal?
  • Research Hitler’s family tree. How valid are the views of some historians that Hitler had Jewish ancestors who did not pass Hitler’s test for being of “pure Aryan” stock?
  • View a videotape of a speech by Hitler with English subtitles. Would the content of this speech have any relevance today? Follow this speech with an “instant analysis” network TV broadcast. If television had been available and had covered Hitler’s speeches, how different would the coverage have been in Hitler’s Germany compared to that which would occur in the United States today?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • If Hitler were alive and able to visit your classroom today, what questions would you ask him? How would you think he would have answered these questions?
  • Why did ex-soldiers join the Free Corps?
  • Why was it significant that Hitler and the German Workers’ Party were able to purchase a newspaper?
  • Why was it significant that The Protocols were published in a newspaper?
  • Who owns the various newspapers which are available in your community, including those distributed for free?
  • How influential are newspapers in shaping the opinions of those who read them?

EVALUATION

  1. swastika
  2. fuhrer
  3. Mein Kampf
  4. Demagogue
  5. Lebensraum
  6. putsch
  7. S.A.

2. What was the Third Reich, and what were the first two “Reichs”?

3. What was the Weimar Republic, and how did its type of government differ from what succeeded it under Adolf Hitler?

4 What was the “Free Corps” and what role did it play during the political upheavals in post-World War I Germany?

5. What were the economic conditions in Germany during Hitler’s rise to power?

6. Name three of Hitler’s foreign policy goals, as outlined in Mein Kampf.

7. What did Hitler discuss at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937?

8. What were Hitler’s first three territorial objectives? Describe whether they were taken politically or militarily.

9. How and when did Hitler die, and what was the status of the Third Reich at the time?

10. Describe Hitler’s views about the Jews and how he came to hold these views.


The Führer

Before Adolph Hitler claimed it as his personal title, Führer simply meant “leader” or “guide” in German. It was also used as a military title for commanders who lacked the qualifications to hold permanent command. Since its connotation to Nazi Germany, führer is not used in political context anymore, but may be combined with other words to mean “guide.” For instance, a mountain guide would be called a Bergführer, with “berg” meaning “mountain.”

Führer as Hitler’s Title

Adolph Hitler claimed the word “Führer” as an unique name for himself and started using it when he became chairman of the Nazi Party. It was at the time not uncommon to call party leaders “Führer” but usually the word had an addition to indicate which party the leader belonged to. When adopting it as a single title, Hitler may have been inspired by Austrian politician, Georg von Schonerer who also used the word without a qualification and whose followers also made use of the “Sieg Heil” greeting.

After the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which gave Hitler absolute power for four years, he dissolved the president’s office and made himself the successor of Paul von Hindenburg. This was however in breach of the Enabling Act, and Hitler did not use the title as “president” but called himself “Führer and Chancellor of the Reich.” He would, after that often make use of the title in combination with other political leadership positions he took, for instance ” Germanic Führer” or “Führer and Supreme Commander of the Army”


President and Führer

In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming in second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions and removing communists, conservatives, and Jews.

Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5 elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of chancellor to become führer ("leader") of Germany.


The Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler, seated on the left with a thick moustache, was an obscure personality in 1919. (Image: Everett Collection/Shutterstock)

There was absolutely nothing in the background of Adolf Hitler to lead one to suspect that this was a man with any special talents or any particular claim on the public’s attention.

He happened to attend a meeting of the DAP as a young corporal of the German army. The speech in this meeting left a great impression on the young man, and within a short amount of time, he joined the DAP.

Hitler’s Birth and Family

Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 in the town of Braunau am Inn. His father, Alois Hitler, was the illegitimate son of a woman named Schicklgruber, and before Adolf’s birth, he changed his name to Hitler.

It was probably one of the best things that happened to Hitler’s political career, since “Hail Schicklgruber” would not have had quite the same political clout.

There was a good deal of speculation during the Third Reich by enemies of Hitler, and then later, speculation that Alois Schicklgruber’s father was Jewish. But there’s no evidence to substantiate this.

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A Deep Bond between Mother and Son

Adolf Hitler’s mother cultivated his interest in art. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Adolf Hitler had a typical sort of Austrian upbringing. His father was a minor bureaucrat in the old Austrian system. He was a distant father who liked to spend most of his time down at the pub enjoying a beer with his fellows.

He would come home—Hitler had a younger sister—but he didn’t spend very much time with the children, certainly not with Adolf.

Hitler formed a very strong attachment to his mother, who was everything his father wasn’t. She was loving and giving, spent time with him, and cultivated his and his sister’s interest in art.

He carried a photograph of his mother with him when he went off to Vienna, when he went in the army, and all the way through the war. The photograph of his mother was still on his desk in the bunker when he committed suicide in 1945.

Hitler and the Loss of His Mother

His mother’s death in 1907 was a great blow to the young Hitler. She had supported him in many ways and she had cultivated his interest in going to the Viennese Academy of Art. Shortly after his mother died he did, in fact, attempt to enroll in the academy.

In a series of competitive examinations, he was not admitted. Probably, he’d never really considered the possibility that his artwork would be turned down at the academy. It’s significant that one of the things the instructors at the academy noted was that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Hitler’s As a Young Artist in Vienna

In Vienna, he adopted the lifestyle of a young artist. He spent most of his days hanging around the cafes in Vienna drinking coffee. Hitler was a teetotaler and a vegetarian.

He sat around there’s no indication that he read in any systematic fashion. His reading seems to have been comprised of pamphlets—political agitation of the sort that was found in Vienna in those pre-World War I days. One of the central themes of Viennese politics in this period was anti-Semitism.

The Milieu of Anti-Semitism and Hitler

The old Austrian Empire was a hotbed of anti-Semitism, with its Polish population, its Czech population, and into the southeast, it had a much larger Jewish presence than in Germany proper.

Certainly, the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, was a major anti-Semite and had organized anti-Semitism in Vienna. Hitler seems to have been quite impressed with him and with this sort of milieu of anti-Semitism.

He developed characteristics there, too, that would be typical of him for the rest of his career: a kind of indolence, this sense of—even though he wasn’t an artist—wanting the lifestyle of one with these bizarre hours, staying up very late, sleeping until noon, and going to the cafes.

Hitler During the Great War

Then in 1914 came the event that would change his life and would have the greatest effect on his political ideas and his future—the outbreak of the Great War.

Hitler wrote Mein Kamph when he was in prison in 1924. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Hitler described in Mein Kampf, the book that he wrote in prison in 1924, of being there in front of the Rathaus in Munich when the declaration of war was read out, and that he was wild with enthusiasm. He said it was the happiest day of his life.

The war would bring Hitler, as he said, the happiest years of his life. For the first time, he felt that he belonged he was committed he was involved in a society of peers. His fellows saw him as something of an oddball.

He didn’t visit the houses of prostitution in France, where he was stationed, as most of them did. He never seemed to receive mail from home, they said. He was a loner, read things—pamphlets and so on.

He was quiet, and would be furious with them for their going off to be with French women of ill repute: he said the nationality was as important as the breach of traditional morality.

Hitler Decides to Join Politics

In August 1918, Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action. He was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job. Then in 1918, he was wounded in a mustard gas attack on Ypres and temporarily blinded. He was sent back to a hospital in northern Germany for recovery.

He was still blinded at this point, and it was there, while he was recovering, that he heard the announcement that Germany had signed an armistice, that the war was over, and that Germany was defeated. He claimed in the writing of Mein Kampf that, then and there, he decided to become a politician.

Common Questions about the Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action in August 1918.

Adolf Hitler didn’t pass the series of competitive examinations at the academy. The instructors at the academy noted that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Adolf Hitler was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job.


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