Stephen Austin in die tronk deur Mexikane

Stephen Austin in die tronk deur Mexikane

Deur die spanning wat tot opstand en oorlog sou lei, te verhoog, sit die Mexikaanse regering die Texas koloniseerder Stephen Austin in Mexico City in die tronk.

Stephen Fuller Austin was 'n onwillige revolusionêr. Sy pa, Moses Austin, het in 1821 toestemming van die Mexikaanse regering gekry om 300 Anglo-Amerikaanse gesinne in Texas te vestig. Toe Moses gesterf het voordat hy sy planne besef het, het Stephen die nuwe Texas -gemeenskap oorgeneem en gevestig aan die onderkant van die Colorado- en Brazosrivier. Periodieke omwentelinge in die regering van die jong Mexikaanse Republiek het Austin gedwing om voortdurend na Mexiko -stad terug te keer, waar hy vir die regte van die Amerikaanse koloniste in Texas gepleit het, wat hul belange as koloniale stigter verteenwoordig. Tog was Austin vol vertroue dat 'n Anglo-Amerikaanse staat binne die grense van die Mexikaanse nasie kon slaag.

Mexikaanse owerhede was minder seker. Ontsteld oor die toenemende aantal voormalige Amerikaners wat na Texas migreer (8000 alleen in Austin se kolonies teen 1832) en gerugte wat die VSA van plan was om die streek te annekseer, het die Mexikaanse regering in 1830 begin om immigrasie te beperk. Hoewel Austin skuiwergate gevind het wat hom toelaat om die beleid te omseil. , het die Mexikaanse beleid baie Anglo-Amerikaanse koloniste kwaad gemaak wat reeds 'n lang klagte teen hul verre regering gehad het. In 1833 het 'n groep koloniale leiers vergader om 'n grondwet op te stel wat 'n nuwe Anglo-gedomineerde Mexikaanse staat Texas sou skep deur te skei van die Mexiko-gedomineerde Coahuila-gebied waaraan hy voorheen gekoppel was. Die koloniste het gehoop dat hulle, deur die invloed van inheemse Mexikane, wie se kultuur en lojaliteit nouer aan Mexiko-stad gekoppel was, doeltreffender te kan verminder vir hervormings in Amerikaanse styl.

Nadat hulle 'n nuwe grondwet uitgehaal het, het die koloniale leiers Austin beveel om na Mexico City te reis om dit aan die regering voor te stel, tesame met 'n lys ander eise. Austin het toegegee aan die wil van die mense, maar president Santa Ana het geweier om Texas 'n aparte status van Coahuila te verleen en Austin in die tronk gegooi op die vermoede dat hy opstand aanwakker het. Toe hy uiteindelik agt maande later in Augustus 1835 vrygelaat word, vind Austin dat die Anglo-Amerikaanse koloniste op die rand van opstand was. Hulle eis nou 'n Republiek van Texas wat heeltemal van die Mexikaanse nasie sou breek. Terughoudend het Austin sy hoop laat vaar dat die Anglo Texans op een of ander manier deel van Mexiko kan bly, en hy begin voorberei op oorlog. Die jaar daarna het Austin gehelp om die Texaanse rebelle tot die oorwinning oor die Mexikane te lei en het hy gehelp met die totstandkoming van die onafhanklike Republiek van Texas. Verslaan deur Sam Houston in 'n bod vir die presidentskap van die nuwe nasie, het Austin in plaas daarvan die pos van staatsekretaris aangeneem. Hy is later dieselfde jaar in die amp dood.


Biografie van Stephen F. Austin, stigter van Texaanse onafhanklikheid

Stephen F. Austin (3 November 1793 - 27 Desember 1836) was 'n prokureur, setlaar en administrateur wat 'n sleutelrol gespeel het in die afstigting van Texas uit Mexiko. Hy het namens die Mexikaanse regering, wat die geïsoleerde noordelike staat wou bevolk, honderde Amerikaanse gesinne na Texas gebring.

Vinnige feite: Stephen F. Austin

  • Bekend vir: Sleutelrol in die Amerikaanse kolonisering van Texas en die afstigting van Mexiko
  • Gebore: 3 November 1793 in Virginia
  • Ouers: Moses Austin en Mary Brown Austin
  • Oorlede: 27 Desember 1836 in Austin, Texas
  • Onderwys: Bacon Academy, Universiteit van Transsylvanië
  • Eggenoot: Geen
  • Kinders: Geen

Aanvanklik was Austin 'n ywerige agent vir Mexiko, maar later het hy 'n vurige vegter geword vir die onafhanklikheid van Texas en word hy vandag in Texas onthou as een van die belangrikste stigters van die staat.


Brief van J. Miguel Falcón aan Miguel Arciniega, 1833

Nadat hy in 1823 'n empresario geword het, werk Stephen Austin ywerig saam met die Mexikaanse regering om sy koloniste en regte te beskerm. Tien jaar na sy aankoms in die huidige Texas, en 182 jaar gelede vandag, dui hierdie brief op dat hy gearresteer word, 'n einde aan sy dae as 'n betroubare diplomaat.

Austin het maande lank met amptenare in Mexikostad onderhandel om hulle te oortuig dat Texas sy eie staat moet wees. Texas was toe deel van die gesamentlike staat Coahuila y Tejas, en die belange daarvan was dikwels swaarder as die groter en beter verteenwoordig Coahuila. Die hoofstad van die staat, Saltillo, was 500 myl van Austin's Colony, ver verwyderd van die behoeftes van die koloniste. Uiteindelik, in frustrasie, skryf Austin in Oktober 1833 aan die stadsraad van San Antonio en moedig hulle aan om met ander dorpe saam te werk om 'n plaaslike regering onafhanklik van Coahuila te reël.

Die stadsraad het die brief van Austin en rsquos aan die Mexikaanse regering oorgedra. Mexikaanse amptenare beskou Austin & rsquos -woorde as 'n daad van verraad. Ek het hierdie brief aan San Antonio alcalde Jos & eacute Miguel de Arciniega, J. Miguel Falc & oacuten, die staatsekretaris van Coahuila y Tejas, beveel dat Austin en rsquos gearresteer moet word.

Ek lê u heerlikheid 'n afskrif van 'n brief wat Don Estevan F. Austin op 2 Oktober verlede jaar van [Mexico City] aan die [stadsraad] van u stad gestuur het, by. Dit bevat beslis ondermynende idees wat 'n skandalige rewolusie in die departement kan bevorder, veral as [Austin] dit regkry om in [San Felipe de Austin] te verskyn.

Austin was bitter oor sy arrestasie. In sy tronkdagboekinskrywing van 22 Februarie 1834 skryf hy:

& ldquo Wat 'n aaklige straf is eensame opsluiting, sit in 'n kerker met skaars lig om iets te onderskei. As ek 'n misdadiger was, sou dit een ding wees, maar ek is nie een nie. Ek is vasgevang en neergeslaan, maar my bedoeling was suiwer en korrek. & Rdquo


Beantwoord hierdie vraag

Geskiedenis

Wat was die belangrikste oorsaak en gevolg van die Mexikaanse Revolusie? die onvermoë van die kommunistiese party om die ekonomie te verbeter, het gelei tot 'n nuwe demokratiese hervorming, die misbruik van mag deur die monargie het gelei tot die afskaffing van oorerflike

Sosiale studies

1. Watter kenmerk maak die Mexikaanse plato betekenisvol? A. Dit is die tuiste van die meeste van die belangrikste stede in Mexiko. B. Dit is die ylbevolkte gebied van Mexiko .-------- C. Dit het die langste kuslyn in Mexiko. D. Dit is die droogste

Sosiale studies

Watter van die volgende beskryf Brittanje se rede vir die vestiging van 'n kolonie in Australië akkuraat? A. om katoenplantasies te vestig B. om 'n militêre basis in die Stille Oseaan te skep C. om handel te dryf met die Aborigines ** D. om te vestig

watter stelling beskryf die beste hoe 'n sewentiende -eeuse Europese portret (soos die mona lisa) verskil van 'n ou Mexikaanse portail (soos balspel (?) kunstenaar? a. Antieke Mexikaanse portrette was gewoonlik olieverfskilderye,

Sosiale studies

Watter een van die volgende was een van die oorsake van die Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog? A. Die Verenigde State het Texas geannekseer. B. Mormone het na die Mexikaanse gebied verhuis. C. President Polk het Texas gekoop. D. Mexiko het aangebied om Kalifornië te verkoop.

Watter stelling beskryf die beste hoe 'n Europese portret uit die sewentiende eeu (soos die mona lisa) verskil van 'n ou Mexikaanse portail (soos balspel (?) Kunstenaar? A. Antieke Mexikaanse portrette was gewoonlik olieverfskilderye,

Sosiale studies beantwoord enige plz

1. Waarom het die interaksie tussen die setlaars in Texas en die Mexikaanse regering mettertyd ontwikkel en verander? 2. Hoe het Manifest Destiny 'n uitwerking op die posisie van die Amerikaanse regerings op die versoek van die Texans om geannekseer te word? 3. Hoekom was

Geskiedenis

Die Middelkolonies was 'n Nederlandse gebied wat bestaan ​​uit grond tussen noord en suid. A. Mexikaanse kolonies B. Engelse kolonies C. Kanadese kolonies of D. Franse kolonies.

Geskiedenis Hulp?

Watter rol het Stephen Austin gespeel in die nedersetting van Texas deur Amerikaanse koloniste? Hy het Santa Anna se leër verslaan en dit veilig gemaak vir koloniste in die streek. Hy het Amerikaanse koloniste in Texas oortuig om hul onafhanklikheid te verklaar

Spaans

Watter gewilde Mexikaanse gereg gebruik gevulde poblano -chili? A. guacamole B. chiles rellenos C. Mexikaanse warm sjokolade

Sosiale studies - Herpos vir lieveheersbeestje

Wat is die algemene oorsaak van die Mexikaanse en Sentraal -Amerikaanse diaspora A. kulturele verspreiding b. armoede c. kolonisasie d. oorlogvoering Ek glo sy armoede B Watter kenmerk maak die Mexikaanse plato betekenisvol? A. Dit is die tuiste van


3 Januarie 1834 Stephen Austin in die tronk deur Mexikane

In die hoop om van bankrotskap te herstel met 'n gewaagde koloniseringsplan, vergader Moses Austin met die Spaanse owerhede in San Antonio om toestemming te vra vir 300 Anglo-Amerikaanse gesinne om hulle in Texas te vestig.

'N Boorling van Durham, Connecticut, Austin was 'n suksesvolle handelaar in Philadelphia en Virginia. Nadat hy berigte gehoor het van ryk loodmyne in die Spaanse beheerde streke in die weste, het Austin in 1798 toestemming van die Spaanse gekry om grond te ontgin in 'n gebied wat nou in die deelstaat Missouri is. Austin het vinnig 'n loodmyn, smelter en stad op sy erf gebou, en sy myn het meer as 'n dekade lank 'n vaste wins behaal. Ongelukkig het die ekonomiese ineenstorting na die oorlog van 1812 die hoofmark vernietig en bankrot gelaat.

Austin was vasbeslote om sy fortuin te herbou, en besluit om sy ervaring met die Spaanse te gebruik en 'n Amerikaanse kolonie in Texas te probeer vestig. In 1820 reis hy na San Antonio om 'n grondtoelaag aan te vra van die Spaanse goewerneur, wat hom aanvanklik van die hand gewys het. Austin het volgehou en is uiteindelik toestemming verleen om 300 Anglo -gesinne op 200.000 hektaar Texas grond te vestig.

Van blydskap het Austin onmiddellik na die Verenigde State begin om koloniste te werf, maar hy het siek geword en is op die lang terugreis oorlede. Die taak om die reëlings vir die kolonie van Texas in Austin te voltooi, het sy seun, die veteraan Stephen Fuller Austin, gekry. Die jonger Austin het die onderste dele van die Colorado -rivier en die Brazos -rivier gekies as die plek vir die kolonie, en die eerste koloniste het in Desember 1821 begin aankom. Gedurende die volgende dekade het Stephen Austin en ander koloniseerders byna 25 000 mense na Texas gebring, die meeste van hulle Anglo-Amerikaners.

President Santa Ana het geweier om Texas 'n aparte status van Coahuila te verleen en op 3 Januarie 1834 het Austin in die gevangenis gegooi op die vermoede dat hy tot opstand aanleiding gegee het. Hy is uiteindelik agt maande later in Augustus 1835 vrygelaat. Altyd meer lojaal aan die Verenigde State as aan Mexiko, het die setlaars uiteindelik uit Mexiko gebreek, met Austin in beheer van die troepe om die onafhanklike Republiek van Texas in 1836 te vorm. Nege jaar later, hulle het die suksesvolle beweging gelei om van Texas 'n Amerikaanse staat te maak.


Die gevangenisstraf van Stephen F. Austin

1834 word geopen met die arrestasie van Stephen F. Austin weens verraad as gevolg van 'n ontstekingsbrief wat hy in Oktober 1833 geskryf het terwyl hy in Mexikostad namens die Texaanse koloniste 'n versoekskrif aan die federale regering gedoen het. Austin, wat in Saltillo gearresteer is, is daarna terug na Mexico City vervoer, waar hy in 'n ou Spaanse Inkwisisie -gevangenis opgesluit was. Alhoewel dit oorspronklik in afsondering was met beperkte toegang tot die buitewêreld, onthul Stephen F. Austin se tronkkorrespondensie en tydskrifte baie oor die politieke klimaat in Mexiko en die staat Texas in die jaar voor die revolusie. Teen die tyd dat Austin in September 1835 na Texas terugkeer, het die politieke situasie in Mexiko dramaties verander en was Texas op die rand van oorlog.

Austin se reis na Mexico City in 1833 is gekleur deur die voortdurende politieke onrus van Mexiko. Hy het herhaaldelik sy frustrasie uitgespreek oor die spoed waarmee die regering beweeg en die gebrek aan skynbare belangstelling oor die stand van sake in Texas. Hierdie frustrasie, tesame met die oortuiging dat onrus onder die Texas -bevolking, Austin aangespoor het om op 2 Oktober 1833 'n brief aan die ayuntamiento van Béxar het die regering daar aangespoor om die proses te begin om 'n aparte staatsregering te organiseer. Dit was hierdie brief wat die basis vorm vir Austin se arrestasie.

Die eerste maande van Austin se gevangenisstraf was taamlik somber. Hy is in afsondering opgesluit in 'n sel wat hy as 'n kerker beskryf het. Hy is af en toe toegelaat om in die tronk te loop vir oefening, maar het andersins in sy sel geïsoleer gebly. Austin het skaars kos gekry en geen toegang tot lees- of skryfmateriaal nie. Aanvanklik was sy enigste besoekers Vader Michael Muldoon, 'n Ierse priester wat gedurende 1831–32 in Texas deurgebring het, en sy aangestelde advokaat, wat binne enkele weke drie keer verander het. Vader Muldoon het namens Austin opgetree om leesstof te bekom. Austin se toestand het in Mei 1834 ietwat verbeter toe sy eensame opsluiting opgehef is en hy met sy medegevangenes kon kommunikeer. Austin is op 25 Desember 1834 op borgtog uit die tronk ontslaan met die belofte dat hy nie die stad sou verlaat nie.

Terwyl Austin in die tronk was, het die Mexikaanse vise -president, Valentín Gómez Farías, kolonel Juan Nepomuceno Almonte op 'n inspeksietoer na Texas gestuur. Almonte se openbare instruksies was om die koloniste gerus te stel oor die stabiliteit van die Mexikaanse regering en om hul klagtes aan te hoor en aan die federale regering oor te dra. Boonop het Almonte ook privaat instruksies gehad om die getalle en die verdeling van wapens in Texas op te let en om verhoudings met lojaliste aan te kweek. Austin het geglo dat die verslag van Almonte oor Texas 'n impak op sy situasie sou hê, en hoewel Austin aanvanklik geglo het dat die verslag nie positief sou wees nie, was hy aangenaam verras om uit te vind dat die verslag van Almonte eintlik redelik gunstig was vir beide Austin en Texas. [1] Alhoewel sy amptelike verslag bemoedigend was, het Almonte op 20 Mei 1834, terwyl hy nog in Texas was, 'n brief geskryf waarin hy aangeraai het dat Austin in bewaring gehou word totdat 2 000 troepe na Texas verskuif kon word om die vrede daar te handhaaf. [2]

Austin se briewe aan Texas het die koloniste gemaan om stil te bly en enige revolusionêre praatjies te laat vaar. Die Texaanse koloniste het meestal die advies van Austin gevolg. As gevolg van die Anahuac -versteurings in 1832 het Texans polities begin identifiseer met een van die twee faksies - die War Party en die Peace Party. [3] Die Oorlogsparty het gewapende konflik met Mexiko bevoordeel en baie het ook 'n beroep op onafhanklikheid gedoen. Die Vredesparty was 'n meer gematigde reaksie op die konflik tussen Texans en die toenemend gesentraliseerde Mexikaanse regering en koloniste wat hulle met hierdie faksie vereenselwig, wou in die algemeen hê dat Texas deel van Mexiko moet bly. Stephen F. Austin was 'n sterk voorstander van vrede, wat sy arrestasie in Saltillo des te merkwaardiger gemaak het. Uit vrees vir die veiligheid van Austin het lede van die Vredesparty gedurende 1834 en 1835 sterk gepleit dat Texaanse koloniste kalm moet bly in die lig van die sentralisering van Santa Anna van die Mexikaanse regering. Lede van beide partye was verheug oor die terugkeer van Austin na Texas, soos Gail Borden nege jaar later onthou het: 'Destyds in San Felipe bekend was dat Austin aan ons oewers aangekom het, het beide die oorlogs- en vredesparty die gebeurtenis as 'n gebeurtenis beskou verenig die mense en bring een aksie, wat dit ook al mag wees - Hulle het gesê 'as kol Austin vir vrede is, is ons vir vrede, as hy vir oorlog is, is ons vir oorlog' '[4]

Austin se ervarings in Mexiko het 'n groot invloed gehad op sy gevoelens rakende die Mexikaanse regering en die toekoms van Texas. By sy terugkoms in Texas het hy 'n toespraak gehou tydens 'n ete in Brazoria om sy tuiskoms te vier. In sy opmerkings beskryf Austin die probleem waarmee die mense van Texas te kampe het:

'Die revolusie in Mexiko loop ten einde. Die doel is om die regeringsvorm te verander, die federale grondwet van 1824 te vernietig en 'n sentrale of gekonsolideerde regering tot stand te bring. Die state moet in provinsies omskep word. Of die mense van Texas instem tot hierdie verandering of nie, en hul grondwetlike en gevestigde regte geheel of gedeeltelik moet prysgee onder die grondwet van 1824, is 'n baie belangrike vraag wat 'n doelbewuste oorweging van die mense vereis. "[5]

Verder het Austin sy oortuiging uitgespreek dat die grondwet van 1824 die mense van Texas "spesiale en gedefinieerde regte" gee en dat hierdie regte nie afgestaan ​​kan word nie "tensy dit uitdruklik deur die mense van Texas gemagtig is". [6] Austin beaam daarom die oproep wat ander aan die mense van Texas gedoen het om 'n algemene konsultasie te hou om te bepaal of hulle met die herstrukturering van die Mexikaanse regering van 'n republikeinse tot gesentraliseerde nasie saamstem of nie.

Beplan is dat 'n algemene raadpleging op 15 Oktober 1835 in San Felipe de Austin gehou sal word. Voordat die afgevaardigdes egter kon vergader, het vyandelikhede op 2 Oktober 1835 in die stad Gonzales te kampe gekry toe koloniste teen federale troepe gestuur om 'n kanon te gaan haal. Die konsultasie het uiteindelik in November 1835 vergader en 'n Oorsigverklaring uitgereik wat hul verbintenis tot die Grondwet van 1824 handhaaf en die sentralisering van die Mexikaanse regering verwerp. Onafhanklikheid sou vier maande later verklaar word.

[1] Stephen F. Austin. ”Austin vir Thomas F. McKinney.” in Die Austin Papers, Vol 3, geredigeer deur Eugene Barker (Austin: University of Texas, 1927), p.11.

[2] Eugene Barker. Die lewe van Stephen F. Austin. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1926), p. 384.

[3] Alhoewel Texans al in 1832 begin identifiseer het met die politieke filosofieë van die War and Peace -partye, word hierdie terme eers in 1835 formeel gebruik.

[4] Gail Borden, 6 Feb 1844. In Die Austin Papers, Vol 3, geredigeer deur Eugene Barker (Austin: University of Texas, 1927), p.115.

[5] Stephen F. Austin. "Toespraak van kolonel Austin Gelewer op 8 September 1835 tydens 'n openbare ete in Brazoria, gehou ter ere van sy terugkeer na Texas." in Die Austin Papers, Vol 3, geredigeer deur Eugene Barker (Austin: University of Texas, 1927), p.117.


Stephen Austin in die tronk deur Mexikane - GESKIEDENIS

Santa Anna (volle naam Antonio de Padua Mar & iacutea Severino L & oacutepez de Santa Anna y P & eacuterez de Lebr & oacuten) het die verkiesing van 1833 as liberaal met die grootste meerderheid in die geskiedenis gewen. Die vise -presidentskap het gegaan aan Valentin Gomez Farias, 'n liberale politikus van intellektuele onderskeiding. Santa Anna het minstens 'n dekade lank die presidentskap agterna gesit, maar sodra hy dit reggekry het, het hy dit gou uitgehou om die daaglikse bestuur van die land aan sy vise -president oor te laat terwyl hy teruggetrek het na sy landgoed Manga de Clavo in Vera Cruz. was president van Mexiko tydens elf nie -opeenvolgende geleenthede (1833, 1834, 1835, 1839, 1841 - 1842, 1843 - 1844 en 1847) oor 'n tydperk van 22 jaar.

Farias, begin met twee groot hervormings, die van die kerk en die van die leër. Om die onnodige invloed van die weermag te bekamp, ​​het hy die grootte daarvan verminder en militêre fuero's afgeskaf. Die kerk het gesê dat sy sy preke tot geestelike aangeleenthede moet beperk. Onderwys sou uit die kerk geneem word. Die Universiteit van Mexiko is gesluit omdat sy fakulteit geheel en al uit priesters bestaan. Die totale rykdom van die kerk is geskat op 180 miljoen pesos. Nuns en priesters is toegelaat om hul geloftes vooruit te dra.

Die kerk, weermag en ander konserwatiewe groepe het saamgespan teen hierdie hervormings. Hulle het 'n beroep op Santa Anna gedoen wat ingestem het om die beweging teen sy vise -president te lei en alle Farias -hervormings te herroep en hom uit die amp ontslaan. Hy het verklaar dat Mexiko nie gereed is vir demokrasie nie en is op die punt om 'n caudilloïstiese staat te bou (dit word gewoonlik in Engels vertaal as 'leier' of 'hoof', of meer pejoratief, krygsheer, 'kwiktator' of 'sterkman', 'Caudillo' is die term wat gebruik word om na charismaties te verwys populistiese leiers onder die mense). Om die mag te verseker, het Santa Anna sy voormalige liberale weë weggegooi en 'n konserwatiewe sentralis geword.

Op grond van argiewe in Mexiko, Spanje, Brittanje en Texas sowel as gepubliseerde bronne, verskaf Fowler 'n broodnodige korrektief aan bestaande indrukke van Santa Anna met hierdie gebalanseerde en goedgeskrewe werk

Gran Teatro de Santa Anna

Die ou grondwet van 1824 is afgeskaf en 'n nuwe, die grondwet van 1836 is uitgevaardig. Die Siete Leyes (of sewe wette) is uitgevaardig, waarin slegs diegene met 'n sekere inkomste kon stem of amp kon beklee. Die kongres is ontbind. Staatsmilisies is ontbind. Die presidensiële termyn is verleng van vier jaar tot agt. Santa Anna was besig om sy mag te konsentreer. Die presidensie het tussen 1833 en 1855 36 keer van eienaar verander. Die leër het in hierdie tyd groter geword tot 'n staande leër van 90 000 en alhoewel die land onder buitensporige belasting gely het, was die tesourie steeds bankrot. Korrupsie was wydverspreid. Santa Anna het 'n miljoenêr geword. Sy grondbesit teen 1845 was 483 000 hektaar groot. Hy gooi galaballe en laat operahuise en teaters bou, soos die Gran Teatro de Santa Anna. Sy amptelike titel was ' sy rustigste hoogheid ' en hy het homself ook die & quot Napoleon van die Weste gestileer. ' Sy borste en standbeelde was in Mexiko te vinde.

Presidensie van Santa Anna en buitelandse ingryping

Verskeie state het in opstand gekom ná hierdie dade van Santa Anna: Coahuila y Tejas, San Luis Potos & iacute, Quer & eacutetaro, Durango, Guanajuato, Michoac & aacuten, Yucat & aacuten, Jalisco, Nuevo Le & oacuten, Tamaulipas en Zacatecas. Verskeie van hierdie state het hul eie regerings gevorm, die Republiek van die Rio Grande, die Republiek van Yucatan en die Republiek van Texas. .753 kaliber Britse ' Bruin Bess ' muskiete en Baker .61 gewere. Na twee ure se gevegte, op 12 Mei 1835, het die Santa Anna's Army of Operations die Zacatecan -burgermag verslaan en byna 3000 gevangenes geneem. Santa Anna het sy leër toegelaat om Zacatecas vir agt en veertig uur te verslaan. Nadat hy Zacatecas verslaan het, was hy van plan om na Coahuila y Tejas te gaan

Opstand van Texas 2 Oktober 1835 tot 21 April 1836

Gedurende die koloniale periode was die groot gebied van Texas (268,584 vierkante myl) een van die noordelike koloniale provinsies van Nieu -Spanje. Die eerste Europeërs in die omgewing, die Franciskaanse sendelinge en vroeë Spaanse setlaars in die vroeë tot middel 1700's het aanvalle deur Apaches, Comanches en ander Indiese stamme ondervind. , San Antonio, Nacogdoches, Goliad en andere, wat dateer uit die tyd van die vroeë Spaanse kolonisasie, of wat gegroei het rondom die missies wat deur die Franciskaanse broeiers opgerig is vir die bekering en beskawing van die Indiane.

'N Goedgeskrewe geskiedenis van die Texas-rewolusie en die gebeure daarna.

Aan die begin van die 1800's was daar slegs 7 000 setlaars. Spanje wou die gebied koloniseer, en het in 1821 Moses Austin toestemming gegee om as empresarios by ongeveer 300 Katolieke gesinne in Texas te woon.

In 1820 vertrek hy na Texas. Hy is aanvanklik koud ontvang deur goewerneur Martinez van San Antonio, maar met behulp van die Baron de Bastrop, 'n Pruisiese offisier, wat onder Frederik die Grote gedien het, en daarna in diens van Mexiko was, het hy 'n gunstige verhoor gekry oor sy voorstel om 'n kolonie emigrante uit die Verenigde State in Texas te vestig. Die petisie van Austin is aan die sentrale regering gestuur, en hy is terug huis toe. Op die roete is hy beroof en gestroop deur sy medereisigers, en na groot blootstelling en ontbering, wat twaalf dae lank op eikels en pekanneute bestaan, bereik hy die kajuit van 'n setlaar naby die Sabine-rivier. Hy het veilig by die huis aangekom en begin met die voorbereidings vir die verskuiwing na Texas, maar sy blootstelling en ontbering het hom verswak, en hy het gesterf as gevolg van 'n verkoue in sy sewe-en-sewentigste jaar, wat sy sterwende bevel aan sy seun, Stephen, oorgelaat het sy projek uitvoer.

Mexiko het onafhanklik geword en die seun van Moses, Steven Austin, het dieselfde reg gekry en nadat advertensies vir setlaars in New Orleans 300 (later die ' ou 300 ') gesinne gelei het om 'n toelae op die Brazosrivier te betaal. gevolg deur 'n groot toevloei van Amerikaners na Texas aangetrek deur die goedkoop grond (tien sent per akker) in vergelyking met $ 1,25 per hektaar in die VSA. Koloniste het ook 'n 7 -jaar vrystelling van belasting gekry.

Die lewe in die nuwe land was rof, terwyl hulle by die werk waak teen die Indiërs, wat rondgehou het om die vee te steel, soms 'n nagaanval op 'n kajuit gemaak het, of 'n enkele eensame veewagter of reisiger vermoor en geskrap het. Die Mexikane het niks gedoen om die kolonie te beskerm of te regeer nie. Die setlaars het 'n wetskode opgestel vir die regspleging en die beslegting van burgerlike geskille. Die landtitels is behoorlik aangeteken en 'n plaaslike burgermag is gereël. Austin was die oppergesag, die regter en kommandant. In 1827 was New Orleans wakker van die ligas wat Mexiko aan diegene gee wat in Texas sou koloniseer. Teen 1827 het 12 000 Amerikaners in Texas gewoon. Teen 1835 was daar 30 000 Amerikaners en slegs ongeveer 8 000 Mexikane.

Baie misdadigers uit Mexiko en die Verenigde State het na die ooste van Texas gevlug om reg te ontkom. Bedrieglike skuldenaars wat die kabalistiese briewe & quot G. T. T. & quot Gone to Texas, op hul hortjies gekryt het. Die outlaws van die neutrale grond organiseer hulself in groepe, en veg oor grondtitels en om politieke oorheersing, en begin in 1826 'n oorlog teen die Mexikaanse owerhede onder leiding van Hayden Edwards, 'n empresario, wie se kontrak vernietig is weens die konflikte wat ontstaan ​​het tussen die aansprake van sy koloniste en die oorspronklike Mexikaanse inwoners en plakkers. Dit word 'The Fredonian War' genoem, 'is maklik onderdruk, Austin en sy koloniste neem deel aan die Mexikaanse owerhede.

Die Mexikaanse regering het geglo dat die Amerikaners in die Mexikaanse samelewing geïntegreer kan word, maar die samelewings was te verskillend en die spanning het toegeneem. Die meeste Amerikaners het Protestant gebly, selfs al kon hulle deur die moties van Katoliek wees as hulle ondervra word deur Mexikaanse amptenare en min mense die moeite doen om Spaans te leer .

Een van die belangrikste griewe teen Mexiko deur die Texane was dat dit 'n aanhangsel by die staat Coahuila was. Uiteindelik het 3 verteenwoordigers in die staatswetgewer (uit 12) 'n aankoop gekry wat deur Coahuilans maklik uitgestem is oor belangrike aangeleenthede. Appèlhowe was geleë in die verre Saltillo. Die Amerikaners wou hê dat Texas 'n aparte staat van Coahuila moes wees, maar nie onafhanklik van Mexiko nie en 'n eie hoofstad sou hê. Hulle het geglo dat 'n nader ligging van die hoofstad korrupsie kan stuit en ander regeringsaangeleenthede sal vergemaklik.

Steven Austin het na Mexico -stad gereis met 'n petisie waarin hy gevra het vir aparte staatskaping van Coahuila. dit is nie goedgekeur nie en hy skryf 'n woedende brief aan 'n vriend, wat daarop dui dat Texas uit Mexiko sou slaag. Die brief is onderskep en hy het 18 maande in die tronk gesit.

Die Amerikaners het ook toenemend ontnugter geraak oor die Mexikaanse regering. Baie van die Mexikaanse soldate wat in Texas gestaan ​​het, was veroordeelde misdadigers wat die keuse gekry het om tronk toe te gaan of in die weermag in Texas te dien. Mexiko het die godsdiensvryheid nie beskerm nie, maar vereis dat koloniste hul aanvaarding van die Rooms -Katolisisme belowe het. Die Amerikaanse setlaars kon nie die gewasse verbou wat hulle wou nie, maar soos ander burgers van Mexiko moes doen, groei die gewasse wat Mexikaanse amptenare voorskryf, wat in Mexiko herverdeel moes word. Die kweek van katoen was destyds winsgewend, maar die meeste setlaars was nie toegelaat om dit te verbou nie, en die wat wel was, is soms in die gevangenis gesit.

Die Mexikaanse regering het redes om bekommerd te wees oor die groeiende Amerikaanse bevolking in Texas. President Adams en president Jackson het aangebied om die gebied te koop. waarvan die van John Long van Tennessee wat Texas binnegeval het met 'n privaat leër en Nacogdoches in beslag geneem het en homself as president van die Republiek van Texas verklaar het. Lang se leër is later deur die Mexikane verslaan, maar dit het meer steun in die VSA getrek vir verkry Texas.

President Guerrero het die emaksiproklamasie in 1829 uitgevaardig deur die tjek -immigrasie na Texas uit Amerika, wat meestal deur Amerikaners uit die suide met slawe was. Die meeste Amerikaners het hul slawe lewenslank omgeskakel in bediendes wat hulself onder die knie gekry het om dit te vermy. Teen 1836 was daar ongeveer 5 000 slawe in Texas.

In 1830 word alle toekomstige immigrasie uit Amerika deur president Anastasio Bustamente verbied, alhoewel duisende deur die poreuse grense gestroom het. Bustamente het ook begin met voorbereidings deur van Texas 'n strafkolonie te maak deur duisend soldate, meestal misdadigers en gevangenes, na stasies in die land te stuur.

Santa Anna het geglo dat die toestroming van Amerikaanse immigrante na Texas deel was van 'n plan van die VSA om die streek oor te neem. en die Mexikaanse garnisoene is versterk. Mexikaanse kolonisasie van Texas is aangemoedig.

Die laaste strooi vir Amerikaners in Texas was die vernietiging van Santa Anna van die Federale Grondwet van 1824 en was bevrees dat hulle onder 'n tiran sou leef sonder om 'n verteenwoordiging te hê. baie Mexikaanse liberale. Die aktiefste hiervan was Lorenzo de Zavala, leier van die Mexikaanse kongres in 1823. Die Texans kies onafhanklikheid en kies David Burnet as president en Zavala as vise -president.

'N Groot deel van Mexiko, gelei deur die state Yucatan, Zacatecas en Coahuila, het dadelik opgestaan ​​in opstand van die optrede van Santa Anna. Santa Anna het die rebelle twee jaar lank onderdruk. Onder die Liberale vaandel het die Mexikaanse staat Zacatecas in opstand gekom teen Santa Anna. Die opstand is wreed verpletter in Mei 1835. As 'n beloning het Santa Anna sy soldate toegelaat dat twee dae van verkragting en plundering in die hoofstad van Zacatecas burgerlikes deur duisende vermoor is. Santa Anna het ook die ryk Zacatecan -silwermyne by Fresnillo geplunder.

Daarna beveel hy sy swaer, generaal Martin Perfecto de Cos, om na Texas te marsjeer en 'n einde te maak aan die versteurings teen die staat. die onafhanklikheidsparty. Maar na die nietig verklaring van die Grondwet van 1824, het die gevangenisstraf van Austin en die nuus van wat by Zacatecas gebeur het, 'n meerderheid die onafhanklikheidsbeweging ondersteun.

On September 20, General Cos landed at Copano with an advance force of about 300 soldiers bound for Goliad, San Antonio and San Felipe de Austin.

Austin was released in July, having never been formally charged with sedition, and was in Texas by August. Austin saw little choice but revolution. A consultation was scheduled for October to discuss possible formal plans to revolt, and Austin sanctioned it.

Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, who was stationed in San Antonio, ordered the Texians to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. The Texians refused. Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales, there were just eighteen Texians to oppose him. Unable to cross, Castañeda established a camp, and the Texians buried the cannon and called for volunteers. Two Texian militias answered the call. Colonel John Henry Moore was elected head of the combined revolutionary militias, and they dug up the cannon and mounted it on a pair of cartwheels. A Coushatta Native American entered Castañeda&rsquos camp and informed him that the Texians had 140 men.

Come and Take It Cannon - The Birth of Texas

On October 1, 1835, at 7 p.m., the Texians headed out slowly and quietly to attack Castañeda&rsquos dragoons. At 3 a.m. they reached the camp, and gunfire was exchanged. There were no casualties except for a Texian who had bloodied his nose when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. The next morning, negotiations were held, and the Texians urged Castañeda to join them in their revolt. Despite claiming sympathy for the Texian cause, he was shocked by the invitation to mutiny, and negotiations fell through. The Texians created a banner with a crude drawing of the disputed cannon and the words "Come and take it" written on it. Since they had no cannon balls, they filled it with scrap metal and fired it at the dragoons. They charged and fired their muskets and rifles, but Castañeda decided not to engage them and led the dragoons back to San Antonio. Thus the war had begun

Next, the Texans captured Bexar, under the defence of General Cos. When General Austin gave his army of volunteers the boring task of waiting for General Cos&rsquo army to starve, many of the volunteers simply left. Throughout November 1835, the Texian army dwindled from 800 to 600 men, and the officers began to bicker about strategy and why they were fighting against the Mexicans. Several officers resigned, including Jim Bowie , who went to Gonzales. The siege of Bexar, which began on October 12, 1835, would demonstrate how little leadership the Texan "Army" had. Austin had been appointed Commander of all the Texan forces, but his talents were not well suited for military life.

The siege ended on December 11 with the capture of General Cos and his starving army, despite Austin's leadership. The Mexican prisoners were paroled and sent back to Mexico after being made to promise not to fight again.

The early victories of the Texans were greatly attributed to their effective hunting rifles, which could fire at distant targets and with more accuracy than the smooth bore muskets of the Mexican infantry.

The remaining Texan army, poorly led, and with no collective motivation, prepared to advance towards Matamoros, hoping to sack the town. Although the Matamoros Expedition , as it came to be known, was but one of many schemes to bring the war to Mexico, nothing came of it. On November 6, 1835, the Tampico Expedition under José Antonio Mexía left New Orleans , intending to capture the town from the Centralists. The expedition failed. These independent missions drained the Texan movement of supplies and men, bringing only disaster for months to come.

Santa Anna decided to take the counter-offensive. General Cos informed Santa Anna of the situation in Texas, and the general proceeded to advance north with his Army of Operations , a force of about 6,000. The army had gathered in San Luis Potosí and soon marched across the deserts of Mexico during the worst winter recorded in that region. The army suffered hundreds of casualties, but it marched forward, arriving in Texas months before it was expected. Taking Bexar (San Antonio ), the political and military center of Texas, was Santa Anna's initial objective

The defenders inside the Alamo awaited reinforcement. "At dawn on the first of March, Capt. Albert Martin, with 32 men (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony, passed the lines of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo, never more to leave them. These men, chiefly husbands and fathers, owning their own homes, voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to six thousand strong, to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors, in a fortress doomed to destruction." No further reinforcement arrived.

On March 6, 1836 the 13-day siege of the Alamo ended. Among the dead were three men destined to become martyrs and heroes: David Crockett, James Bowie and William B. Travis. Cries of Remember the Alamo! would eventually fuel an American victory over Mexico. The Alamo and its defenders grew into enduring symbols of courage and sacrifice in the face of overwhelming odds. Controversy has always been part of the history and legend of the Alamo. Whether they hold traditional or revisionist views, people are passionate about their opinions.

Were Crockett, Travis and Bowie a "Holy Trinity" or less than perfect human beings?

Why were Tejanos like Juan Seguin, who fought for Texas liberty alongside the Anglos, virtually ignored in history books until recently?

Did Travis draw a line in the sand?

How many defenders were really there, and how many attackers?

Did everyone die, or were there survivors?

The Alamo was defended by about 183-189 men under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. Most of the Alamo defenders were white men of Spanish ancestry. Numerous sick and wounded from the siege of Bexar, perhaps raising the Texan military total to around 250, as well as non-combatants were also reported present afterwards. The Battle of the Alamo ended on March 6 after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed. The alcalde of San Antonio reported cremation of 182 defenders' bodies one defender's burial by a Mexican army relative was allowed. Santa Anna's army casualties have been estimated as about 600 - 1000 troops&mdashthe quoted number of Mexican soldiers killed varies greatly. The defense of the Alamo proved to be of no military consequence for the Texan cause, but its martyrs were soon hailed as heroes. The most important result during this time was the 1836 Convention signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico, on March 2.

Soon, Santa Anna divided his army and sent flying columns across Texas. The objective was to force a decisive battle over the Texan Army, now led by General Sam Houston.

General José Urrea marched into Texas from Matamoros, making his way north following the coast of Texas, thus preventing any foreign aid by sea and opening up an opportunity for the Mexican Navy to land much needed provisions. Urrea's forces were engaged at the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2, 1836, which would soon lead to the Goliad Campaign. General Urrea was never defeated in any engagement his forces conducted in Texas.

General José Urrea was never defeated in battle during the Texas revolution

At Goliad, Urrea's flying column caught Colonel James Fannin's force of about 300 men on the open prairie at a slight depression near Coleto Creek and made three charges at a heavy cost in Mexican casualties. Overnight, Urrea's forces surrounded the Texans, brought up cannon and reinforcements, and induced Fannin's surrender under terms the next day, March 20. About 342 of the Texan troops captured during the Goliad Campaign were executed a week later on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836, under Santa Anna's direct orders, widely known as the Goliad Massacre .

"The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. Until this episode Santa Anna's reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man, rather than a cruel one. together with the fall of the Alamo, branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas, the United States, and even Great Britain and France, thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution .

This 360-degree video is the full film by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) about the Goliad Massacre, which took place in March 1836. It is an important, yet often-overlooked, moment in the pursuit of Texas independence.

Houston immediately understood that his small army was not prepared to fight Santa Anna out in the open. The Mexican cavalry, experienced and feared, was something the Texans could not easily defeat. Seeing that his only choice was to keep the army together enough to be able to fight on favorable grounds, Houston ordered a retreat towards the U.S. border, and many settlers also fled in the same direction. A scorched earth policy was implemented, denying much-needed food for the Mexican army. Soon, the rains made the roads impassable, and the cold season made the list of casualties grow in both armies.

Santa Anna's army, always on the heels of Houston, gave unrelenting chase. The town of Gonzales could not be defended by the Revolutionaries, so it was put to the torch. The same fate awaited Austin's colony of San Felipe. Despair grew among the ranks of Houston's men, and much animosity was aimed towards him. All that impeded Santa Anna's advance were the swollen rivers, which gave Houston a chance to rest and drill his army.

Events moved at a quick pace after Santa Anna decided to divide his own flying column and race quickly towards Galveston , where members of the Provisional Government had fled. Santa Anna hoped to capture the Revolutionary leaders, and put an end to the war, which had proven costly and prolonged. Santa Anna, as dictator of Mexico, felt the need to return to Mexico City as soon as possible. Houston was informed of Santa Anna's unexpected move. Numbering about 700, Santa Anna's column marched east from Harrisburg, Texas . Without Houston's consent, and tired of running away, the Texan army of 900 moved to meet the enemy. Houston could do nothing but follow. Accounts of Houston's thinking during these moves is subject to speculation as Houston held no councils of war.

On April 20, both armies met at the San Jacinto River. Separating them was a large sloping ground with tall grass, which the Texans used as cover. Santa Anna, elated at finally having the Texas Army in front of him, waited for reinforcements, which were led by General Cos. On that same day, a skirmish was fought between the enemies, mostly cavalry, but nothing came of it.

To the dismay of the Texans, Cos arrived sooner than expected with 540 more troops, swelling Santa Anna's army to over 1,200 men. Angered by the loss of opportunity and by Houston's indecisiveness, the Texas Army demanded to make an attack. About 3:30 in the afternoon on April 21, after burning Vince's Bridge, the Texans surged forward, catching the Mexican army by surprise. Hours before the attack, Santa Anna had ordered his men to stand down, noting that the Texans would not attack his superior force. Also, his army had been stretched to the limit of endurance by the ongoing forced marches. His force was overwhelmed by Texians pushing into the Mexican camp. An 18-minute-long battle ensued, but soon the defenses crumbled and a massacre ensued.

On April 21, 1836, Texas won its independence when an outnumbered Texas Army defeated Mexican forces on the plains of San Jacinto. The monument built in remembrance of the battle stands on the flat Texas wetlands along the Houston ship channel. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the history of Texas, a soaring monument to commemorate a small battle with huge consequences

Popular folk songs and legends hold that during the battle, Santa Anna was busy with and was distracted by a comely mixed race indentured servant, immortalized as 'The Yellow Rose of Texas.'

Santa Anna's entire force of men was killed or captured by Sam Houston's heavily outnumbered army of Texans only nine Texans died. This decisive battle resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico.

Santa Anna was captured when he could not cross the burned Vince's Bridge, and he was brought before Houston, who had been wounded in the ankle. Santa Anna agreed to end the campaign. General Vicente Filisola, noting the state of his tired and hungry army, marched back to Mexico, but not without protests from Urrea. Only Santa Anna had been defeated, not the Army of Operations, and Urrea felt that the campaign should continue, but Filisola disagreed.

Santa Anna surrenders at San Jucinto

With Santa Anna a prisoner, his captors forced him to sign the Treaties of Velasco ( one public, one private ) on May 14. The public treaty was that he would not take up arms against the republic of Texas .The private treaty was to recognize Texas's independence . The initial plan was to send him back to Mexico to help smooth relations between the two states. His departure was delayed by a mob who wanted him dead. Declaring himself as the only person who could bring about peace, Santa Anna was sent to Washington, D.C., by the Texan government to meet President Jackson in order to guarantee independence of the new republic. But unknown to Santa Anna, the Mexican government deposed him in absentia thus, he no longer had any authority to represent Mexico.

After some time in exile in the United States, and after meeting with U.S. president Andrew Jackson in 1837, he was allowed to return to Mexico aboard the USS Pioneer to retire to his magnificent hacienda in Veracruz, called Manga de Clavo .

When Santa Anna returned to Mexico, the Mexican legislature declared the treaties null and void since they were signed while the president was prisoner . Mexico was too disturbed by its own internal troubles to mount a serious invasion of Texas .

Texas became a republic after a long and bloody fight, but it was never recognized as such by Mexico. The war continued as a standoff.

Santa Anna re-emerged as a hero during the Pastry War in 1838. He was re-elected President, and soon after, he ordered an expedition led by General Adrian Woll , a French soldier of fortune, into Texas, occupying San Antonio, but briefly. There were small clashes between the two states for several years afterward. The war with Texas did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846.

In 1838, Santa Anna discovered a chance to redeem himself from his Texan loss, when French forces landed in Veracruz, Mexico

Republic of Yucatán and the Republic of Rio Grande

After Santa Anna annulled the Federalist constitution of 1824, they were many revolts against the centralisation of power, two actually formed republic besides Texas, the Yucatan and the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas formed the Republic of Rio Grande .

Flag of the Republic of Yucatán

In 1840, the local Yucatan Congress approved a declaration of independence. Santa Anna refused to recognize Yucatán's independence, and he barred Yucatán ships and commerce in Mexico and ordered Yucatán's ports blockaded. He sent an army to invade Yucatán in 1843. The Yucatecans defeated the Mexican force, but the loss of economic ties to Mexico deeply hurt Yucatán commerce. Yucatan became part of Mexico again in 1843 .the central government rescinded earlier concessions and in 1845 Yucatán again renounced the Mexican government, declaring independence effective 1 January 1846.

Cult of the speaking Cross

When the Mexican-American War broke out, Yucatán declared its neutrality.In 1847 the so-called " Caste War " ( Guerra de Castas ) broke out, a major revolt of the Maya people against the misrule of the Hispanic population in political and economic control. When Mexico was preoccupied with the war with America, many Maya united under the Mayan-Christian cult of the Speaking Cross to reclaim there land from the whites (dzul ) .This was a cult of a cross carved in a tree in the Yucatan that bore a resemblance to the Maya tree of life, La Ceiba .The Mayans took over the peninsula and almost took the last white stronghold of Merida, when the Mayans abandoned the fight to plant .By 1855, the whites had retaken most of the Yucatán, but some parts remained in control of the cult of the Speaking Cross until the early 20th century .

The Mayan Cult of the Talking Cross: Mexico Unexplained

The government in Mérida appealed for foreign help in suppressing the revolt, with Governor Méndez taking the extraordinary step of sending identical letters to Britain, Spain, and the United States, offering sovereignty over Yucatán to whatever nation first provided sufficient aid to quash the Maya revolt. The proposal received serious attention in Washington, D.C.: the Yucatecan ambassador was received by US President James K. Polk and the matter was debated in the Congress ultimately, however, no action was taken other than an invocation of the Monroe Doctrine to warn off any European power from interfering in the peninsula.

In 1848 Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula almost became part of the United States.

After the end of the Mexican-American War, Governor Barbachano appealed to Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera for help in suppressing the revolt, and in exchange Yucatán again recognized the central government's authority. Yucatán was again reunited with Mexico on 17 August 1848.

The Republic of Rio Grande flag

On January 17, 1840 a constitutional convention was held at the Oreveña Ranch near Laredo. Here it was decided that the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas would withdraw themselves from Mexico and would form their own federal republic with Laredo as the capital. After the loss the Battle of Morales the republic moved its capital to Victoria, Texas . There was support from the new Republic of Texas for the Republic of the Rio Grande and 140 Texans joined the republics army .In November, representatives of Generals Canales and Arista met to discuss the war. During this meeting, the Mexican government offered General Canales the position of brigadier general in the Mexican army in exchange for his abandoning the cause of the Republic of the Rio Grande. General Canales accepted the offer on November 6. Upon this event, the Republic of the Rio Grande failed.

The Republic of the Rio Grande: Mexico Unexplained

In 1838, France demanded compensation for a French pastry chef whose stock was eaten by Mexican troops in 1828. For years Mexico failed to resolve the matter and France demanded 600,000 pesos in payment and when payment. Mexico had also defaulted on millions of dollars worth of loans from France. Diplomat Baron Deffaudis gave Mexico an ultimatum to pay, or the French would demand satisfaction. When the payment was not forthcoming from president Anastasio Bustamante (1780&ndash1853), the king sent a fleet under Rear Admiral Charles Baudin to declare a blockade of all Mexican ports from Yucatán to the Rio Grande, to bombard the Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, and to seize the port of Veracruz. Virtually the entire Mexican Navy was captured at Veracruz by December 1838. Mexico declared war on France. France blockaded Vera Cruz with 26 ships and 4,000 troops . Mexico agreed to pay, but France upped the ante to 800,000 pesos for the cost of the blockading fleet. This was too much for the Mexicans, who sent a few thousand troops to the old fortress of San Juan de Ulua . Thus began the Pastry War .Santa Anna arrived on December 4 . The French landed 3,000 troops and Santa Anna personally led the troops in the street fighting that followed .Santa Anna was wounded in the left leg and had his leg amputated below the knee .The French were driven back to their ships and agreed to their earlier demand of 600,000 pesos.Santa Anna was able to use his wound to re-enter Mexican politics as a hero.

A French pastry chef known only as Monsieur Remontel complained to King Louis-Philippe of France that his pastry shop had been looted, and the Mexican government had refused to pay for the damages. The stolen pastry was used as a casus belli for a French intervention that would have a lasting impact of the history of Mexico.

The Pastry War: Every 5 Days

Soon after, Santa Anna was once again asked to take control of the provisional government as Bustamante's presidency turned chaotic. Santa Anna accepted and became president for the fifth time. Santa Anna took over a nation with an empty treasury. The war with France had weakened Mexico, and the people were discontented. Also, a rebel army led by Generals Jose Urrea and José Antonio Mexía was marching towards the Capital, at war against Santa Anna. The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Mazatlán, by an army commanded by the president himself.

Santa Anna's rule was even more dictatorial than his first administration. Anti-Santanista newspapers were banned and dissidents jailed. In 1842, a military expedition into Texas was renewed, with no gain but to further persuade the Texans of the benefits of American annexation.

His demands for ever greater taxes aroused ire, and several Mexican states simply stopped dealing with the central government, Yucatán and Laredo going so far as to declare themselves independent republics. With resentment ever growing against the president, Santa Anna once again stepped down from power. Fearing for his life, Santa Anna tried to elude capture, but in January 1845 he was apprehended by a group of Indians near Xico, Veracruz, turned over to authorities, and imprisoned. His life was spared, but the dictator was exiled to Cuba.

In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. Santa Anna wrote to Mexico City saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency, but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had in the past. President Valentín Gómez Farías was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Meanwhile, Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives of the United States, pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U.S. naval blockades, he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price. Once back in Mexico at the head of an army, Santa Anna reneged on both of these agreements. Santa Anna declared himself president again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the United States invasion.

In 1851, Santa Anna went into exile in Kingston, Jamaica, and two years later, moved to Turbaco, Colombia. In April 1853, he was invited back by rebellious conservatives, with whom he succeeded in retaking the government. This reign was no better than his earlier ones. He funneled government funds to his own pockets, sold more territory to the United States (see Gadsden Purchase), and declared himself dictator for life with the title "Most Serene Highness". The Ayutla Rebellion of 1854 once again removed Santa Anna from power.

Despite his generous payoffs to the military for loyalty, by 1855 even his conservative allies had enough of Santa Anna. That year a group of liberals led by Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort overthrew Santa Anna, and he fled back to Cuba. As the extent of his corruption became known he was tried in absentia for treason and all his estates confiscated. He then lived in exile in Cuba, the United States, Colombia, and St. Thomas. During his time in New York City he is credited as bringing the first shipments of chicle, the base of chewing gum, to the United States, but he failed to profit from this, since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires, which was tried without success. The American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States, Thomas Adams, conducted experiments with the chicle and called it "Chiclets," which helped found the chewing gum industry. Santa Anna was a passionate fan of the sport of cockfighting. He would invite breeders from all over the world for matches and is known to have spent tens of thousands of dollars on prize roosters.

In 1874 he took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Mexico. Crippled and almost blind from cataracts, he was ignored by the Mexican government when the anniversary of the Battle of Churubusco occurred. Santa Anna died in Mexico City two years later, on June 21, 1876, penniless and heartbroken.


Stephen Austin imprisoned by Mexicans - HISTORY

American settlement in Texas began with the encouragement of first the Spanish, and then Mexican, governments. In the summer of 1820 Moses Austin, a bankrupt 59-year old Missourian, asked Spanish authorities for a large Texas land tract which he would promote and sell to American pioneers.

The request by Austin seemed preposterous. His background was that of a Philadelphia dry goods merchant, a Virginia mine operator, a Louisiana judge, and a Missouri banker. But early in 1821, the Spanish government gave him permission to settle 300 families in Texas. Spain welcomed the Americans for two reasons--to provide a buffer against illegal U.S. settlers, who were creating problems in east Texas even before the grant was made to Austin, and to help develop the land, since only 3,500 native Mexicans had settled in Texas (which was part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas).

Moses Austin did not live to see his dream realized. On a return trip from Mexico City, he died of exhaustion and exposure. Before he died, his son Stephen promised to carry out the dream of colonizing Texas. By the end of 1824, young Austin had attracted 272 colonists to Texas, and had persuaded the newly independent Mexican government that the best way to attract Americans was to give land agents (called empresarios) 67,000 acres of land for every 200 families they brought to Texas.

Mexico imposed two conditions on land ownership: settlers had to become Mexican citizens, and they had to convert to Roman Catholicism. By 1830 there were 16,000 Americans in Texas. At that time, Americans formed a 4-to-1 majority in the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas, but people of Hispanic heritage formed a majority in the state as a whole.

As the Anglo population swelled, Mexican authorities grew increasingly suspicious of the growing American presence. Mexico feared that the United States planned to use the Texas colonists to acquire the province by revolution. Differences in language and culture had produced bitter enmity between the colonists and native Mexicans. The colonists refused to learn the Spanish language, maintained their own separate schools, and conducted most of their trade with the United States.

To reassert its authority over Texas, the Mexican government reaffirmed its Constitutional prohibition against slavery, established a chain of military posts occupied by convict soldiers, restricted trade with the United States, and decreed an end to further American immigration.

These actions might have provoked Texans to revolution. But in 1832, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a Mexican politician and soldier, became the president of Mexico. Colonists hoped that he would make Texas a self-governing state within the Mexican republic. But once in power, Santa Anna proved to be less liberal than many Texans had believed. In 1834, he overthrew the constitutional government of Mexico, abolished state governments, and made himself dictator. When Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to try to settle the grievances of the Texans, Santa Anna imprisoned him in a Mexican jail for a year.

On November 3, 1835, American colonists adopted a constitution and organized a temporary government, but voted overwhelmingly against declaring independence. A majority of colonists hoped to attract the support of Mexican liberals in a joint effort to depose Santa Anna and to restore power to the state governments, hopefully including a separate state of Texas.

While holding out the possibility of compromise, the Texans prepared for war by electing Sam Houston commander of whatever military forces he could muster. Houston, one of the larger-than-life figures who helped win Texas independence, Houston had run away from home at the age of 15 and lived for three years with the Cherokee Indians in eastern Tennessee. During the War of 1812, he had fought in the Creek War under Andrew Jackson. At 30 he was elected to the House of Representatives and at 34 he was elected governor of Tennessee. Many Americans regarded him as the heir apparent to Andrew Jackson.

Then, suddenly, in 1829, scandal struck. Houston married a woman 17 years younger than himself. Within three months, the marriage was mysteriously annulled. Depressed and humiliated, Houston resigned as governor. After wandering about the country as a near derelict, he returned to live with the Cherokee in present day Arkansas and Oklahoma.

During his stay with the tribe, Houston was instrumental in forging peace treaties among several warring Indian nations. In 1832, Houston traveled to Washington to demand that President Jackson live up to the terms of the removal treaty. Jackson did not meet his demands, but instead sent Houston unofficially to Texas to keep an eye on the American settlers and the growing anti-Mexican sentiment.

In the middle of 1835, scattered local outbursts erupted against Mexican rule. Then, a band of 300-500 Texas riflemen, who comprised the entire Texas army, captured the Mexican military headquarters in San Antonio. Revolution was underway.

Soon, the ominous news reached Texas that Santa Anna himself was marching north with 7,000 soldiers to crush the revolt. In actuality, the army of Santa Anna was not particularly impressive it was filled with raw recruits, and included many Indian troops who spoke and understood little Spanish. When Houston learned that the initial goal of Santa Anna was to recapture San Antonio, he ordered San Antonio abandoned. But, 150 Texas rebels decided to defend the city and made their stand at an abandoned Spanish mission, the Alamo. The Texans were led by William Travis and Jim Bowie, and included the frontier hero David Crockett.

For twelve days, Mexican forces lay siege to the Alamo. Travis issued an appeal for reinforcements, but only 32 men were able to cross Mexican lines. Legend has it that on the evening of March 5, 1836, Travis, realizing that defense of the Alamo was futile, drew a line in the dirt with his sword. Only those willing to die for Texas independence, Travis announced to the garrison, should step across the line and defend the Alamo. All but two men did. One refused to cross the line, and another, Jim Bowie, too sick to move from his cot, called over some friends and had them carry him across the line.

At 5 a.m., March 6, Mexican troops scaled the walls of the mission. By 8 a.m., the fighting was over. 183 defenders lay dead--including several Mexican defenders who had fought for Texas independence. (Seven defenders surrendered and were immediately executed, and approximately 15 persons survived, including an American woman and her child). Mexican forces soaked the bodies of the defenders in oil, stacked them like cordwood outside the mission, and set them ablaze.

If the Alamo was a military defeat, it was a psychological victory. The Mexican troops of Santa Anna suffered l,550 casualties--eight Mexican soldiers died for every defender. "Remember the Alamo" became the battle cry of the Texas War of Independence.

Two weeks after the defeat at the Alamo, a group of Texas surrendered to Mexican forces outside of Goliad with the understanding that they would be treated as prisoners of war. But Santa Anna set aside the agreement. Instead, he ordered more than 350 Texans shot.

The defeats gave Sam Houston time to raise and train an army. Volunteers from the American South flocked to his banner. On April 21, his army of less than 800 men surprised Santa Anna and his army as it camped out on the San Jacinto River, east of present-day Houston. The next day, the army led by Houston captured Santa Anna himself and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texas its independence--a treaty that was never ratified by the Mexican government because it was acquired under duress.

For most Mexican settlers in Texas, defeat meant that they would be relegated to second-class social, political, and economic positions. The new Texas Constitution denied citizenship and property rights to those who failed to support the revolution. All persons of Hispanic ancestry were considered in the "denial" category unless they could prove otherwise. Consequently, many Mexican landowners fled the region.


Stephen Austin imprisoned by Mexicans - HISTORY

Military Desk
Santa Anna dies in Mexico City
MEXICO CITY (1876) On this date in 1876, former General and President of Mexico, Santa Anna, dies of old age in Mexico City. It was Santa Anna who brought the Mexican Army into Texas to put down the Texas Revolution, defeating Wm Travis at the Alamo, Fannin at Goliad, and showed no mercy in his advance against the Texas. After his defeat at San Jacinto, Santa Anna was sent to Washington to assist Texas in petitioning for American Statehood for Texas. He was eventually given safe passage back to Mexico, where he died at the ripe old age of 80.

National Desk
Soviet Spy held at McAllen facility
MCALLEN (1957) On this date in 1957, Rudolf Ivanovich Abel was flown from New York to Brownsville, then driven to McAllen, TX. He was detained and questioned by the FBI as a soviet spy. In August, 1957, Abel is flown to New York to stand trial for espionage. Four years later in Berlin, he was part of a prisoner swap with the Soviet Union, for U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers, whose plane was shot down over Soviet air space in May 1960.


Time Periods:

Die volgende, aangepas uit die Chicago Manual of Style, 15de uitgawe, is die voorkeuraanhaling vir hierdie inskrywing.

Eugene C. Barker and James W. Pohl, Revised by Mary L. Scheer, &ldquoTexas Revolution,&rdquo Handboek van Texas Online, accessed June 25, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/texas-revolution.

Uitgegee deur die Texas State Historical Association.

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