Thomas Telford

Thomas Telford

Thomas Telford, die seun van 'n herder, is gebore in Westerkirk, Skotland in 1757. Op 14 -jarige ouderdom het hy as vakleerling by 'n klipkapper gestudeer. Hy werk 'n tyd lank in Edinburgh en in 1792 verhuis hy na Londen waar hy betrokke was by die bou van aanbouings aan Somerset House. Twee jaar later kry hy werk by die werf in Portsmouth.

In 1787 word hy landmeter van openbare werke vir Shropshire. Teen hierdie tyd het Telford 'n goeie reputasie as ingenieur gevestig en in 1790 die taak gekry om 'n brug oor die rivier Severn by Montford te bou. Dit is gevolg deur 'n kanaal wat die ysterwerke en kolwerye van Wrexham met Chester en Shrewsbury verbind het. Dit behels die bou van 'n akwaduk oor die rivier Dee. Op die Pontcysyllte-akwaduk het Telford 'n nuwe konstruksiemetode gebruik wat bestaan ​​uit bakke van gietijzerplate en in messelwerk vasgemaak.

Na die voltooiing van die Ellesmere -kanaal verhuis Telford terug na Skotland waar hy beheer neem oor die bou van die Caledoniese kanaal. Ander werke van Telford sluit in die Menai Suspension Bridge (1819-1826) en die Katherine's Docks (1824-1828) in Londen.

Telford was ook 'n belangrike padbouer. Hy was verantwoordelik vir die heropbou van die Shrewsbury- tot Holyhead -pad en die kusweg tussen Noord -Wallis tussen Chester en Bangor. Gedurende sy lewe het Telford meer as 1 000 myl pad gebou, insluitend die hoofweg tussen Londen en Holyhead.

Thomas Telford sterf in 1834.


Thomas Telford - Geskiedenis


Vallei van "die onberispelike herder", Eskdale

Thomas Telford is gebore in een van die mees eensame hoekies van die smal vallei van die Esk, in die oostelike deel van die graafskap Dumfries, in Skotland. Eskdale loop noord en suid, die onderkant daarvan was vroeër die westelike opmars van die Skotse grens. Naby die ingang van die dal is 'n hoë kolom wat op Langholm-heuwel opgerig is, twaalf kilometer noord van die Gretna Green-stasie van die Caledoniese spoorweg-wat baie reisigers van en na Skotland waargeneem het-'n monument vir die wyle sir John Malcolm, goewerneur van Bombay, een van die vooraanstaande inboorlinge van die distrik. Dit kyk ver oor die Engelse grenslande, wat na die suide strek, en dui die ingang aan van die bergagtige dele van die dal, wat in die noorde lê. Vanaf daardie punt na bo trek die vallei geleidelik saam, die pad kronkel langs die oewers van die rivier, op sommige plekke hoog bo die stroom, wat vinnig oor die rotsbedding daaronder jaag.

'N Paar kilometer van die onderkant van Eskdale af lê die klein hoofstad van die distrik, die stad Langholm, en daar, op die mark, staan ​​nog 'n monument vir die deugde van die Malcolm-familie in die standbeeld wat opgerig is ter nagedagtenis aan Admiraal Sir Pulteney Malcolm, 'n vooraanstaande vlootoffisier. Bo Langholm word die land heuwelagtige en heideveld. Op baie plekke is slegs 'n smal stuk grond langs die rivier beskikbaar vir bewerking totdat die vallei so lank saamtrek dat die heuwels tot by die pad daal, en daar is slegs die steil heide sye wat teen die kant af sien. lug aan weerskante, en 'n smal stroom wat langs die onderkant van die vallei tussen die rotse aan hul voete neerspring en kronkel.


Inheemse distrik van Telford

Uit hierdie kort beskrywing van die karakter van die Eskdale -natuurskoon, kan maklik aanvaar word dat die distrik baie dun is en dat dit nooit 'n groot aantal inwoners kon ondersteun nie. Voor die vereniging van die krone van Engeland en Skotland, was die belangrikste nywerheidstak in die Dale inderdaad wetteloos. Die mense wat aan die twee kante van die grens woon, het mekaar se vee as hul eie beskou, op voorwaarde dat net hulle die krag het om dit te "hef". Hulle was in werklikheid, selfs gedurende die tyd van vrede, 'n soort uitgeworpenes, teen wie die verenigde magte van Engeland en Skotland dikwels in diens was. Aan die Skotse kant van die Esk was die Johnstones en Armstrongs, en aan die Engelse was die Graemes of Netherby beide wild en wetteloos. Dit was 'n gewilde grens wat sê dat "Elliots en Armstrongs diewe ry" en 'n ou historikus sê van die Graemes dat hulle almal sterk mos-troepe was en aankomende diewe na Engeland sowel as Skotland verbied is. & Quot Die naburige hoofmanne was nie beter nie: Scott van Buccleugh, van wie die moderne hertog afstam, en Scott van Harden, die voorouer van die romanskrywer, albei bekende freebooters.

Daar staan ​​op hierdie dag aan die oewer van die Esk, net 'n paar kilometer van die Engelse grens, die ruïne van 'n ou fortalice, genaamd Gilnockie Tower, in 'n situasie wat selfs in Skotland amper nie gelyk is nie. Dit was die vesting van 'n opperhoof wat destyds in die volksmond bekend gestaan ​​het as Johnnie Armstrong.*[1] Hy was 'n magtige vryloper in die tyd van James V., en die skrik van sy naam sou tot in Newcastle-upon gestrek het -Tyne, tussen watter stad en sy kasteel op die Esk was hy gewoond om swartpos, of & quotbeskermings- en verdraagsaamheid, te hef, & quot soos dit genoem is. Die koning het egter besluit om met die sterk hand die verdorwenheid van die optogmanne neer te sit, het 'n skielike ekspedisie langs die grense gemaak en Johnnie Armstrong was so sleg om sy verskyning by sy volgelinge te maak op 'n plek genaamd Carlenrig, in Etterick Forest, tussen Hawick en Langholm, het James hom beveel om onmiddellik tereggestel te word. As Johnnie Armstrong vooraf, soos die Skotte en Kers en Johnstones van roeping, in die gevangenis was, sou hy moontlik geleef het om 'n Britse eweknie te stig, maar soos dit was, was die genie van die Armstrong -dinastie vir 'n tyd lank uitgedoof, maar om na die verloop van 'n paar eeue weer te verskyn in die persoon van die vooraanstaande ingenieur van Newcastle-upon-Tyne, die uitvinder van die Armstrong-geweer.

Die twee eeue en 'n half wat sedertdien verstryk het, het inderdaad buitengewone veranderings beleef. bemes en verryk die land wat hulle verkwistende vurigheid voorheen soveel gedoen het om te versteur en te verarm. Die hoofde van die Buccleugh en Elliot -gesin sit nou in die British House of Lords. Die afstammeling van Scott van Harden het 'n wêreldwye reputasie as digter en romanskrywer verwerf en wyle sir James Graham, die verteenwoordiger van die Graemes of Netherby, aan die Engelse kant van die grens, was een van die eerbiedwaardigste en mees gerespekteerde van Britse staatsmanne. Die grensmanne, wat vroeër sulke woedende aanvalle en uitstappies gemaak het, het mekaar nou, oor die denkbeeldige grens wat hulle verdeel, as vriende en bure beskou, en hulle ontmoet mekaar as mededingers vir oorwinning slegs op landbouvergaderings, waar hulle daarna streef om pryse te wen vir die grootste raap of die doeltreffendste maaimasjiene, terwyl die manne wat hul Johnstone- of Armstrong-kapteins as prikkers of hobbelaars na die stryd gevolg het, net soos Telford die grens oorgesteek het met die magte om pad te bou en brug te bou was 'n bron van toenemende beskawing en welstand vir die bevolking van die hele Verenigde Koninkryk.

Die gehucht Westerkirk, met sy parochiekerk en skool, lê in 'n smal deel van die vallei, 'n paar kilometer bo Langholm. Die gemeente Westerkirk is lank en smal, en sy grense is die heuweltoppe weerskante van die dal. Dit is ongeveer sewe myl lank en twee breed, met 'n bevolking van ongeveer 600 mense van alle ouderdomme. Tog is hierdie getal net soveel as wat die distrik kan ondersteun, soos blyk uit die feit dat dit so min as moontlik stil bly van die een geslag na die ander.*[3] Maar wat word van die natuurlike toename van gesinne? "Hulle wemel!" was die verduideliking wat 'n inwoner van die vallei aan ons gegee het. "As hulle tuis gebly het," het hy gesê, "moet ons almal in armoede versink word en met mekaar tussen hierdie heuwels skarrel om bloot te lewe. Maar ons boerdery het 'n gees daarbo: hulle sal nie toestem om te sink nie; hulle kyk op en ons gemeenteskole gee hulle die mag om in die wêreld te gaan, elkeen vir homself. So werm hulle weg-sommige na Amerika, sommige na Australië, sommige na Indië, en sommige, soos Telford, werk oor die grens en na Londen. & Quot

'N Mens sou skaars verwag het om die geboorteplek van die bouer van die Menai -brug en ander groot nasionale werke in so 'n onduidelike hoek van die koninkryk te vind. Miskien het dit die leser al met verbasing getref, dat nie net al die vroeë ingenieurs selfonderrig in hul beroep was nie, maar dat hulle meestal grootgemaak is op afgeleë plattelandse plekke, ver van die aktiewe lewe van groot dorpe en stede. Maar die genie is van geen plek nie, en kom ook uit die plaashuis, die boer se hut of die kudde se opstal. Vreemd, dit is inderdaad dat die manne wat ons brûe, dokke, vuurtorings, kanale en spoorweë gebou het, byna almal seuns moes wees: Edwards en Brindley, die seuns van kleinboere Smeaton, grootgemaak in sy pa landhuis in Austhorpe Rennie, die seun van 'n boer en vryhouer en Stephenson, grootgemaak in 'n kolwerdorp, 'n motor-tenter se seun. Maar Telford, selfs meer as enige van hierdie, was 'n suiwer landgetroude seuntjie en is gebore en grootgemaak in 'n vallei wat so afgesonder was dat dit nie eens kon spog met 'n groep huise van die grootte van 'n dorp nie.

Telford se pa was 'n kudde op die skaapplaas van Glendinning. Die plaas bestaan ​​uit groen heuwels wat langs die Meggatvallei lê, 'n klein brandwond wat uit die heide in die ooste daal en in die Esk val naby die gehucht Westerkirk. Die huisie van John Telford was weinig beter as 'n afdak, bestaande uit vier moddermure, omring deur 'n grasdak. Dit staan ​​op 'n draai naby die onderkant van 'n kloof wat deur die strome van baie winters op die heuwel gedra word.

Die grond strek daarvan weg in 'n lang swewende helling tot by die lug, en is groen tot bo, behalwe waar die kaal grys rotse op sommige plekke tot op die dag opduik. Van die knol af kan myle op myl van heuwels op en af ​​in die vallei gesien word, wat in en uit kronkel, soms vertakking in kleiner glans, elk met sy gorrelende turfbruin water wat uit die mosse hierbo afloop. Slegs 'n smal strook bewerkbare grond is hier en daar sigbaar langs die onderkant van die vallei, almal bo is skaapweiding, heide en rotse. By Glendinning lyk dit asof jy amper die wêreld se einde bereik het. Daar hou die pad op, en daarbo strek spoorlose heide, waarvan die eensaamheid slegs verbreek word deur die gekreun van die brandwonde op pad na die vallei daaronder, die gedruis van bye wat heuning bymekaarmaak onder die heide, die gedreun van 'n swart haan op die vleuel, die klaende kreet van die ooie tydens lamtyd, of die skerp bas van die herdershond wat die kudde bymekaarmaak vir die dam.

In hierdie huisie op die knol is Thomas Telford gebore op 9 Augustus 1757, en voor die jaar uit was hy reeds 'n weeskind. Die herder, sy vader, is in November oorlede en is begrawe op die kerkhof van Westerkirk, wat sy weduwee en haar enigste kind heeltemal agtergelaat het. Ons kan hier noem dat een van die eerste dinge wat daardie kind gedoen het, toe hy grootgeword het en 'n grafsteen kon afsny, was om een ​​met die volgende inskripsie op te rig, deur homself uitgekap en met letters oor sy vader se graf:

& quotIN GEDENK VAN
JOHN TELFORD,
WIE NA 33 JAAR LEWE
'N ONLAMBAARE HERDER,
STERF OP GLENDINNING,
NOVEMBER, 1757, & quot

'n eenvoudige maar poëtiese grafskrif, wat Wordsworth self moontlik sou geskryf het.

Die weduwee het 'n lang en harde stryd met die wêreld voor haar gehad, maar sy het dit dapper teëgekom. Sy het haar seuntjie gehad om voor te werk, en al was sy arm, moes sy hom opvoed. Sy is, soos die armes so gereeld, gehelp deur dié van haar eie toestand, en daar is geen gevoel van agteruitgang om sulke hulp te ontvang nie. Een van die risiko's van welwillendheid is die neiging om die ontvanger in die toestand van 'n aalmoeder te verlaag. Dolle uit armbakke het hierdie verstommende effek, maar 'n arme buurvrou wat 'n behoeftige weduwee in haar nood help, word as 'n vriendelike daad beskou, en is gelyk aan die karakter van beide. Alhoewel ellende soos in groot dorpe gesien word, nogal onbekend was in die vallei, was daar armoede, maar dit was eerlik sowel as hoopvol, en niemand was skaam daaroor nie. Die boere van die dale was baie primitief*[4] in hul maniere en gewoontes, en omdat hulle 'n warmhartige, maar beslis nie 'n demonstratiewe ras was nie, was hulle vriendelik teenoor die weduwee en haar vaderlose seuntjie. Hulle het hom beurte gemaak om by hulle by hulle huise te woon, en sy ma het af en toe werk gekry. In die somer het sy die ooie gemelk en hooi gemaak, en tydens die oes het sy gekuier, nie net om te lewe nie, maar ook om vrolik te wees.

Die huis waarna die weduwee en haar seun op die pinksterdag verwyder het na die dood van haar man, was op 'n plek genaamd The Crooks, ongeveer halfpad tussen Glendinning en Westerkirk. Dit was 'n grasdakbed, met twee ente waarvan die een Janet Telford (meer algemeen bekend onder haar eie naam, Janet Jackson) en haar seun Tom, en in die ander haar buurvrou Elliot, een deur was wat vir beide gemeenskaplik was.

Young Telford het 'n gesonde seuntjie grootgeword, en hy was so vol pret en humor dat hy in die vallei bekend geword het met die naam "Lag Tam." Toe hy oud genoeg was om skape op te vang, het hy by 'n familielid, 'n herder gaan woon. soos sy pa, en hy het die meeste van sy tyd saam met hom deurgebring in die somer te midde van die stilte van die natuur. In die winter het hy by die een of ander buurboer gewoon. Hy het hulle koeie opgepas of boodskappe gedoen en sy vleis, 'n paar kouse en vyf sjielings per jaar vir klompe ontvang. Dit was sy eerste loon, en namate hy ouer word, word dit geleidelik verhoog.

Maar Tom moet nou skool toe gaan, en gelukkig, al was die gemeente Westerkirk, het dit die voordeel van die bewonderenswaardige instelling, die gemeenteskool, gehad. Die wetlike voorsiening wat vroeër gemaak is vir die opvoeding van die mense in Skotland, was een van hul grootste seëninge. Deur die basiese kennis aan almal oor te dra, het die gemeenteskole in die land die kinders van die boerdery op 'n meer gelyke voet met die kinders van die rykes geplaas en in so 'n mate die ongelykhede van geluk herstel. Om 'n arm seuntjie op die lewenspad sonder onderrig te begin, is soos om 'n wedloop te begin met sy oë vasgebind of sy been vasgemaak. In vergelyking met die opgevoede seun van die ryk man, het eersgenoemde maar min kans om die wenpaal te sien.

Vir ons weeskindseun was die bloot elementêre onderrig wat by die gemeenteskool van Westerkirk aangebied is, 'n groot seën. Om dit te bemeester, was die eerste stap van die leer wat hy later moes oprig: sy eie bedryf, energie en vermoë moet die res doen. Hy het gevolglik skool toe gegaan, terwyl hy steeds in die somermaande besig was om vee te beoefen of beeste op te pas. Miskien het sy eie "fooi" gehelp om die onderwyser se huurgeld te betaal, maar dit word vermoed dat sy neef Jackson die hoofdeel van die koste van sy onderrig gedek het. Hy het nie veel geleer nie, maar in die verwerwing van die kuns van lees, skryf en figure, het hy die begin van baie geleer. Afgesien van die kwessie van leer, was daar nog 'n duidelike voordeel vir die arme seun om vrylik in die gemeenteskool met die seuns van die naburige boere en eienaars te meng. Sulke omgang het 'n invloed op die jeug se humeur, maniere en smaak, wat net so belangrik is in die opvoeding van karakter as die lesse van die meester self en Telford, dikwels in die lewe daarna met plesier verwys na die voordele wat hy behaal het uit sy vroeë skool vriendskappe. Onder die wie hy gewoond was om met die grootste trots terug te kyk, was die twee ouer broers van die Malcolm -familie, wat albei tot hoë rang gestyg het in diens van hul land William Telford, 'n jeug van groot belofte, 'n vlootchirurg, wat jonk gesterf het en die broers William en Andrew Little, waarvan die voormalige as 'n boer in Eskdale gevestig het, en die laasgenoemde, 'n chirurg, het sy sig verloor toe hy diens aan die kus van Afrika gemaak het. Andrew Little vestig hom daarna as 'n onderwyser in Langholm, waar hy onder meer generaal Sir Charles Pasley, dr. Irving, die bewaarder van die advokaatbiblioteek in Edinburgh en ander bekendes bekend maak wat bekend is buite die grense van hul geboortevallei. Telford kan sê, toe 'n ou, vol jare en eerbewyse, aan die sit was om sy outobiografie te skryf, & quot; ek onthou nog steeds met trots en plesier my geboortekerk van Westerkirk, aan die oewer van die Esk, waar ek gebore is. & Quot


Westerkirk Kerk en Skool.

*[1] Sir Waiter Scott, in sy aantekeninge by die 'Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border', sê dat die gewone mense van die hoë dele van Liddlesdale en die land wat aan hierdie dag aangrensend is, die herinnering aan Johnnie Armstrong baie hoog ag.

*[2] Dit was lank voordat die Hervorming in die afgesonderde Esk -vallei ingevloei het, maar toe dit gebeur, het die energie van die Grensers in die uiterste vorm van hul teenkanting teen die ou godsdiens verskyn. Die Eskdale-mense het net so vasberade geword in hul verbond as wat hulle voorheen in hul vrye bagasie was, en die heidene van die mos-troepe het die spook van die vervolgde predikante geword tydens die bewind van die tweede Jakobus. 'N Entjie bokant Langholm is 'n heuwel wat bekend staan ​​as' Peden's View ', en die put in die groen hol aan die voet word nog steeds' Peden's Well 'genoem-die plek waar Alexander Peden, die' profeet 'was, se toevlugsoord. die elwebosse in die holte, terwyl hy vanaf die heuweltop die vallei kon opkyk en sien of die Johnstones van Wester Hall kom. Heel aan die hoof van dieselfde vallei, op 'n plek genaamd Craighaugh, op Eskdale Muir, is een Hislop, 'n jong verbond, deur die manne van Johnstone geskiet en begrawe waar hy 'n grys plaatsteen neerslaan wat nog die plek van sy rusplek aandui. Sedertdien het daar egter stilte in Eskdale geheers, en die klein bevolking het in sy daaglikse bedryf van die een geslag na die ander in vrede gegaan. Alhoewel dit afgesonder en blykbaar deur die omliggende heuwels van die buitewêreld afgesluit is, is daar nie 'n klop uit die hart van die land nie, maar dit pulseer langs die vallei en toe die skrywer dit 'n paar jaar gelede besoek het, het hy gevind dat 'n golf van die groot vrywilligersbeweging het in Eskdale ingestroom en die & quotlads van Langholm & boor en marsjeer onder hul hoof, jong meneer Malcolm van die Burnfoot, met nog meer ywer as in die bevolkte dorpe en stede in die suide.

*[3] Die name van die families in die vallei bly byna dieselfde as driehonderd jaar gelede-die Johnstones, Littles, Scotts en Beatties wat heers bo Langholm en die Armstrongs, Bells, Irwins en Graemes laer af na Canobie en Netherby. Dit is interessant om te vind dat Sir David Lindesay in sy nuuskierige drama gepubliseer in 'Pinkerton's Scottish Poems', vol. ii., bl. 156, gee dit ongeveer driehonderd jaar gelede onder die name van die grenspersone. One Common Thift, toe hy tot straf veroordeel is, onthou dus sy grensvriende in sy sterwende toespraak:

& quotDauw! my brutere diewe van Annan,
Dit hol my in my mischeivis
Dowe! Grosaws, Niksonis en Bells,
Dikwels het ons die valse erken:

Dowe! Robsons, Howis en Pylis,
Dit in ons ambag is mony wilis:
Littlis, Trumbells en Armestranges
Baileowes, Erewynis en Elwandis,
Vinnig en vinnig handjies
Die Skotte van Eisdale, en die Gramis,
Ek het tyd om jou naam te vertel. & Quot

Telford, of Telfer, is 'n ou naam in dieselfde omgewing, herdenk in die bekende grensballade van 'Jamie Telfer van die skone Dodhead'. Sir W. Scott sê in die 'Minstrelsy' dat daar nog steeds 'n familie van Telfers is. in die omgewing van Langholm, wat voorgee dat hulle hul afkoms van die Telfers of the Dodhead afkomstig is.


Die Dunstable Northern Bypass is op 10 Mei 2017 geopen.

Die oorspronklike belyning van die A5 deur Milton Keynes is nou die V4 en maklik herkenbaar as die ou pad. Dit vorm steeds 'n beduidende plaaslike skakel in die stad, en word steeds deur die plaaslike inwoners na verwys as die A5, met die huidige omseil bekend as die "A5D" (dws: A5 -afleiding).

Die A5 het nog nooit langs Watlingstraat noord van Watford Gap geloop nie, aangesien dryfsand in die omgewing die pad onprakties vir 'n busroete gemaak het. 'N Klein gedeelte van die Romeinse pad is in 1959 herwin toe die eerste deel van die M1 gebou is. Die A5 -hooflyn was oorspronklik 'n TOTSO vir hierdie aansporing, maar is in 1997 omskep in die huidige rotonde toe die International Freight Terminal in Daventry gebou is.


Hier is 10 van die mense en plekke wat met blou plate in Shropshire gevier word:

Wilfred Owen

Wilfred Owen, een van die groot digters van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, is gebore op Plas Wilmot aan die buitewyke van Oswestry, en het later saam met sy gesin na Monkmoorweg 69 in Shrewsbury verhuis.

Blou plate op albei huise dui op sy verbintenis met die geboue.

Owen is op 25 November 1918 op 25 -jarige ouderdom vermoor, net 'n paar dae voor die einde van die konflik. Die nuus oor sy dood het sy familie op Wapenstilstandsdag bereik. Daar word gesê dat sy ma die telegram gelees het toe kerkklokke ter viering oor Shrewsbury lui.

Sommige van Owen se bekendste werke sluit in 'Anthem for Doomed Youth' en 'Dulce Et Decorum Est', hoewel slegs vyf van sy gedigte voor sy dood gepubliseer is.

Kaptein Matthew Webb

'N Jong Matthew Webb, wat in 1848 in Dawley gebore is, het leer swem in die River Severn by Coalbrookdale. Hy word die eerste persoon wat die Engelse Kanaal geswem het tydens sy tweede poging in Augustus 1875.

Op 15-jarige ouderdom het hy sy 12-jarige broer van verdrinking gered, en hy word later as 'n held geprys nadat hy die Atlantiese Oseaan ingespring het om 'n man oorboord te probeer red tydens sy tyd in die vloot.

Webb sterf op 35 -jarige ouderdom tydens 'n poging om deur die Whirlpool Rapids onder die Niagara -waterval te swem.

Hy word herdenk deur 'n blou gedenkplaat wat deur die Great Dawley Town Council aangebring is met die woorde 'Nothing Great is Easy', terwyl 'n monument vir hom ook in die middestad staan.

Billy Wright CBE

Die eerste sokkerspeler ter wêreld wat 100 internasionale pette gekry het, het grootgeword in Ironbridge, waar 'n blou gedenkplaat verlede jaar by sy kinderhuis in New Road onthul is.

Dit was die tweede gedenkplaat wat ter ere van Wright in die stad aangebring is, 20 jaar nadat die eerste op Belmontweg 33 geïnstalleer is, waar hy gebore is.

Wright het sy hele loopbaan tussen 1939 en 1959 by Wolverhampton Wanderers deurgebring, en word ook herdenk met 'n standbeeld buite Molineux, asook 'n standplaas wat na hom vernoem is.

Hy het 105 wedstryde vir Engeland gespeel, waaronder 'n rekord van 90 as kaptein, en het die jeugspan van Engeland en later Arsenal bestuur nadat hy teruggetrek het. Hy sterf in 1994, 70 jaar oud.

Mary Edwards

Mary Edwards was die eerste vroulike 'rekenaar' wat deur die Board of Longitude gewerk het om aan die British Nautical Almanac te werk.

Sy werk vanuit haar huis op Brand Lane 4, Ludlow, waar 'n blou gedenkplaat van Ludlow Civic Society in 2016 geïnstalleer is.

Edwards se man, John, het van 1773 tot sy dood in 1784 aan die almanak gewerk, toe dit aan die lig gekom het dat sy eintlik die meeste berekeninge gedoen het.

Sy is aangestel om voort te gaan met die berekening van die posisie van die son op verskillende tye van die dag, en het voortgegaan tot haar dood in 1815, 65 jaar oud.

Die klein planeet 12627 Maryedwards is ter ere van haar genoem.

Thomas Telford

Die Skotse burgerlike ingenieur en argitek Thomas Telford het so 'n prominente figuur geword in die vorming van die graafskap dat die nuwe stad Telford na hom vernoem is.

Telford word in 1787 landmeter van openbare werke in Shropshire en het toesig gehou oor die opknapping van Shrewsbury Castle, die stad se gevangenis en verskeie kerke.

Hy het ongeveer 40 brûe in die graafskap ontwerp, en in 1793 is hy aangestel om toesig te hou oor die bou van die Ellesmere -kanaal, insluitend die ontwerp van die akwadukte Chirk en Pontcysyllte.

Telford sterf in 1834. 'n Blou gedenkplaat van Bridgnorth Civic Society is by sy voormalige huis in East Castle Street aangebring, terwyl 'n tweede gedenkplaat op die Corbet Arms in Market Drayton opmerk dat Telford in 1832 daar gebly het.

St Michael's Church

'N Ander blou gedenkplaat met verwysing na Thomas Telford kan gevind word in die St Michael's Church in Madeley, wat hy ontwerp het.

Die gedenkplaat, wat deur die stadsraad geïnstalleer is as deel van Madeley Town Trail, bring ook hulde aan eerw. John Fletcher, wat op die kerkhof begrawe is.

In die 18de eeu word Fletcher een van die leidende figure van die Metodisme -beweging as 'n tydgenoot van die stigter daarvan, John Wesley.

Ander noemenswaardige grafte op die kerkhof sluit in die van die 'Nine Men of Madeley', wat in 1864 in 'n mynongeluk dood is.

Percy Thrower MBE

Percy Thrower verhuis in 1946 na Shrewsbury om die pos van parke -superintendent vir die stadsraad van Shrewsbury aan te neem.

Sy passie vir tuinmaak het gelei tot 'n lang en suksesvolle uitsaai -loopbaan by die BBC, en hy het 'n algemene naam geword en Gardener's World aangebied en in meer as 100 episodes van Blue Peter verskyn.

Hy het ook sy eie tuinsentrum geopen en verskeie boeke geskryf.

Thrower het in sy Parks Superintendent -pos gebly in Quarry Lodge tot met sy aftrede in 1974. Hy is in 1988 oorlede.

'N Blou gedenkplaat is in 2013 ter ere van hom op Quarry Lodge aangebring deur die Shrewsbury Horticultural Society ter herdenking van die 125ste Shrewsbury Flower Show.

Dr William Penny Brookes

Dit is moeilik om te glo dat die moderne Olimpiese Spele geïnspireer is deur 'n jaarlikse sportkompetisie in Much Wenlock, georganiseer deur dokter GP William Penny Brookes.

Gebore en getoë in Wilmore Street 4, is 'n blou gedenkplaat ter ere van Dr Brookes op die gebou aangebring deur die Wenlock Olympian Society.

Die jaarlikse spele wat hy in Much Wenlock in 1850 begin het, word tot vandag toe gehou. Die gebeurtenis van 1890 het die spesiale gas, baron Pierre de Coubertin, verwelkom, wat die Internasionale Olimpiese Komitee sou stig en die eerste moderne Olimpiese Spele in 1896 in Athene sou organiseer.

Maar Dr Brookes het nooit die resultaat van sy pogings gesien nie, en het gesterf net maande voor die 85 -jarige Spele in Athene.

Longmynd Hotel

Die Longmynd Hotel is in 1940 omskep in die hoofkwartier van liefdadigheid St Dunstan's - nou Blind Veterans UK - wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van sy basis in Brighton verhuis het en tot 1946 gebly het.

Byna alle Britse dienspligtiges en vroue wat in die konflik verblind is, ongeveer 700, het tyd in Church Stretton deurgebring, waar hulle opgelei is in nuwe vervaardigingsvaardighede en geleer het om sonder hul oë te lewe.

Die liefdadigheidsorganisasie het ander geboue oorgeneem om 'n ooghospitaal, akkommodasie en opleidingswerkswinkels te word. Leidrade is tussen die Longmynd -hotel en die middestad geplaas, sodat die veterane sonder begeleiding hul weg kan vind.

'N Blou gedenkplaat ter herdenking van hierdie tyd is in 2015 by die ingang van die hotel aangebring as deel van die liefdadigheidsorganisasie se 100 -jarige bestaan.

Dit is onthul deur Joan Osborne, wie se pa in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog verblind was en die gesin na Church Stretton verhuis het om braille aan die nuwelinge te leer. Dit is hier waar Joan haar oorlede man ontmoet het, die verblinde veteraan van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Bob Osborne.

'N Houttafel is in 1987 aan die mense van Church Stretton uit die liefdadigheidsorganisasie voorgehou en kan in die St Laurence's Church gevind word.

Barbara Pym

Die boek-genomineerde skrywer Barbara Pym word herdenk met 'n blou gedenkplaat op die terrein van Willowstraat 72 in Oswestry, waar sy in 1913 gebore is. Die huis is in die 1960's gesloop.

Pym het romans geskryf, insluitend 'Some Tame Gazelle', 'Excellent Women' en 'A Glass of Blessings' in die 1950's en 60's, maar haar loopbaan is in 1977 heraangestel toe sy twee keer aangewys is as die mees onderskatte Britse skrywer van die eeu in die Times Literary Supplement.

Met 'n hernieude belangstelling in Pym se werk verskyn die voorheen verwerpte roman Quartet in Autumn, wat daardie jaar op die kortlys vir die Booker -prys was.

Sy sterf in 1980, 66 jaar oud. 'N Tweede blou gedenkplaat kan gevind word op Barn Cottage in Finstock, Oxfordshire, waar Pym van 1972 tot haar dood saam met haar suster gewoon het.

Maar wat van…

Verskeie ander opvallende figure wat uit Shropshire afkomstig is, word elders in die land herdenk met blou gedenkplate, hoewel nie in hul eie land nie.

Eglantyne Jebb, stigter van die liefdadigheidsorganisasie Save the Children, is in 1876 in Ellesmere gebore. 'N Blou gedenkplaat op die voormalige St Peter's School in Marlborough dui haar tyd aan om daar te leer. Dit is verlede jaar vervang nadat hy 23 jaar per ongeluk 'Eglantyne Mary Jebb', 'n jonger familielid, herdenk het.

Mary Webb is gebore en getoë in die dorpie Leighton, en het na haar dood in 1927 bekend geword as romantiese romanskrywer en digter. Die meeste van haar werke speel in die suide van Shropshire. 'N Blou gedenkplaat is by haar voormalige huis in Weston-super-Mare te sien.

Len Murray, baron Murray van Epping Forest, was 'n Arbeidspolitikus en vakbondleier, gebore in Hadley in 1922. Hy het die TUC gelei deur die Winter van Ontevredenheid en botsings met die Thatcher -regering. Hy is in 1985 tot 'n lewensmaat geskep en sterf in 2004. 'n Blou gedenkplaat is verlede jaar by sy voormalige huis in Loughton, Essex, onthul.


Menai -erfenis

Die Thomas Telford-sentrum, die tuiste van die Menai Heritage-kantore en -uitstalling, is 'n voormalige skoolhuis wat in 2007 opgeknap is. In die vroeë 1850's het die gemeente Porthaethwy/Menai-brug die klein kerkie op Church Island, die bekende Bangor, uitgegroei. argitek Henry Kennedy het planne opgestel vir 'n nuwe kerk saam met 'n bybehorende skool-, werf- en skoolmeesterhuis, met die kerk in 'n bevelhebbende posisie met uitsig oor die ingang van die Menai -brug. Grond is geskenk deur die Marquess of Anglesey, net soos befondsing, en die skool het in 1854 geopen.

Aanvanklik was die skool 'n eenvoudige reghoekige gebou met 'n klein stoepie aan die voorkant. In 1878 is 'n uitbreiding loodreg op die agtermuur aangebring om 'n babaskool te huisves. 'N Nuwe garderobe is in 1896 bygevoeg en die voorstoep is in 1909 verleng.

Die skool was deel van die National School Movement, wat in samewerking met die gevestigde kerk probeer het om basiese onderwys te bied, in teenstelling met die Britse skole wat deur nie-konformiste gestig is. Aanvanklik fokus die leerplan hoofsaaklik op die Bybel en die kategismus, maar in die 20ste eeu is die studie van wiskunde, letterkunde en aardrykskunde bygevoeg.

Die skool kon 200 leerlinge huisves, maar was selde vol, veral nadat 'n nuwe Britse skool in 1865 in Dale Street gebou is. 'N Nuwe Raadsskool wat in 1913 op die hoek van die Holyhead- en Pentraethweg gebou is, het die studentegetalle verder uitgeput. An inspection report in 1921 cast doubt on the suitability of the building for a modern school, although the teaching was considered very good. In 1923, when the headmastership of the Council School was vacant, it was decided to merge the two schools, with the National School’s headmaster George Senogles becoming head of the Council School. On 29 March 1923 the students and teachers parcelled up all their belongings, marched down the road to the new school, then gave three cheers for the old school and three more for the new one.

After 1923 plans were put forward for other uses for the building, including as a police court house, but the original conveyance of the land from the Marquess of Anglesey stipulated that it was to be used for educational purposes. It therefore continued to be used as a Sunday School and parish hall for St. Mary’s church.

Founded in 1997, the Menai Bridge Community Heritage Trust (also known as Menai Heritage) seeks to preserve the historical and architectural heritage of Menai Bridge for the community. These aims were advanced by their purchase of the old National School in 2007, with the generous help of Menter Môn, the National Assembly, the Cemlyn Jones Trust, the Institution of Civil Engineers (Wales) and by Friends of the Trust. It was renamed after the builder of the nearby Menai Suspension Bridge, Thomas Telford.

The Centre has been fully refurbished and now has a new roof and central heating, and has all the requirements for public use, with new toilets and kitchen, a storeroom and room for meetings, lectures and events.Since its purchase, it has become a busy centre for community activities and group and school workshops. The Menai Heritage Exhibition is also housed in this building and is open to the public, telling the story of the building of the two iconic bridges over the Strait and the people involved.

We are currently developing a permanent home for the Exhibition at Princes Pier on the waterfront in Menai Bridge, for the enjoyment of local people and to encourage visitors back to the town of Menai Bridge.


History of Road Development | Roman Road | Tresaguet Construction | Metcalf Construction | Telford Construction | Macadam Construction

History of road development can be studied under the following headings:

History of Road Development

1. Early Development

The oldest mode of travel was on the footpath. Animals were widely used to transport men & materials. Later an invention of wheels resulted in the development of vehicles run by the help of animals. This type of vehicles become the most popular mode of transportation for a very long period.

2. Roman Roads

These roads are developed by the Roman Civilization among which some are still in existence.

Roman roads were built with the stone blocks of considerable thickness.

The main features of the Roman road are:

They were built straight ( with minimal slope or without slope).

They were built after soft soil is removed and a hard status was reached.

The total thickness of the construction was as high as 0.75 m to 1.2 m.

3. Tresaguet Construction

After the fall of the Roman Empire, their technique of road construction didn’t gain popularity in other countries.

Pierre Trezeguet (1716 – 1796 AD) developed several methods of road construction which were considered to be quiet advantageous and meritorious.

The main feature of his proposal was that the thickness of construction needs to be only 30 cm.

Side drainage was also provided in these roads.

4. Metcalf Construction

John Metcalf (1717-1810 AD) was engaged in road construction in England during the period when Trezeguet was working in France.

He followed the recommendations made by Robert Phillips.

Metcalf was responsible for the construction of 290 km of road in northern England.

5. Telford Construction

Thomas Telford (1751 – 1834 AD), the founder of the institution of civil engineers at London began the road construction in the early 19th century.

He believed in using a heavy foundation above the soil subgrade to keep the road foundation formed and also insisted on providing definite cross slope for the top surface of the pavement by varying the thickness of foundation on stones.

He proposed to provide cross drains at an interval of almost of 90m which were usually laid below the foundation level.

6.Macadam Construction

There are different stages of road development. But among all of them, Macadam road is the most successful type of road. Some detail features about macadam road are:

John Macadam (1756 -1836 AD) the surveyor-general of road in England put forward an entirely new method of road construction.

The macadam method is the first method based on scientific thinking.

It realized that the stresses due to wheel load get decrease at the lower layers & so it is not necessary to provide large layer pavement.

The importance of subgrade drainage and compaction was recognized. So the subgrade was compacted and was prepared with across slope (1 in 36 ).

Types of Macadam Road

There are four types of Macadam roads and they are:

In this type, broken stones are bounded with the help of stone dust and water during the construction process.

b.Traffic Bound Macadam

Broken stones or gravels are generally used as a wearing. Multi-layers of stones and gravels are provided in this type.

c.Bituminous Macadam

Bitumen is used as a binding material to bind stone chips and also to bind base and sub-base courses.

d. Cement Macadam

Cement macadam is quite similar to bitumen macadam. Cement is used as a binding material instead of bitumen.


Thomas Telford London to Holyhead Road

Having just read the newspaper report of the high speed rail link between London and Birmingham, with all of it’s attendant arguments for and against, we wondered whether Thomas Telford had to contend with much opposition when he engineered the London to Holyhead road in 1819.

Telford was a prolific engineer, responsible for over one thousand miles of roads and his major achievement was the road that would link London and Holyhead, the gateway to Ireland, via the Menai Straits and Conwy bridges.

The new high speed rail link is deemed necessary to give fast and reliable connections between the centre of the country and the rest of Europe.

The Holyhead London road was deemed necessary to link London with Ireland in the fastest and most reliable way. In fact Telford managed to reduce the journey time from 36 hours in 1808, to 26 hours 35mins in 1836, an amazing feat!

The road carved it’s way through incredibly difficult and beautiful terrain and required the demolition of ancient and beautiful buildings such as the monastic buildings associated with Shrewsbury Abbey.

Look at the Parliamentary Archives for a great piece about Thomas Telford, Engineer, a colossus of roads.


8. Dunkeld Bridge

Dunkeld Bridge over the River Tay, Perthshire.

Striding across the River Tay, Dunkeld Bridge, near the ruins of Dunkeld Cathedral, is a striking sight. It leads into the lovely small town, crossing a river which in spate carries more than twice as much water as the Thames. This was one of the first big bridges Telford built in Scotland and he chose an elegant design in stone. At one end, under the arch, you can find the rusted iron gate of the old town gaol.


Thomas Telford - History

TELFORD, THOMAS, an eminent engineer and constructor of public works, was born about the year 1755, in the parish of Westerkirk in Dumfriesshire. His outset in life was strikingly humble in comparison with its close. He began the world as a working stone-mason in his native parish, and for a long time was only remarkable for the neatness with which he cut the letters upon those frail sepulchral memorials which "teach the rustic moralist to die." His occupation fortunately afforded a greater number of leisure hours than what are usually allowed by such laborious employments, and these young Telford turned in the utmost advantage in his power. Having previously acquired the elements of learning, he spent all his spare time in poring over such volumes as fell within his reach, with no better light in general than what was afforded by the cottage fire. Under these circumstances the powers of his mind took a direction not uncommon among rustic youths he became a noted rhymster in the homely style of Ramsay and Fergusson, and, while still a very young man, contributed verses to Ruddiman’s Weekly Magazine, under the unpretending signature of "Eskdale Tam." In one of these compositions, which was addressed to Burns, he sketched his own character, and hinted his own ultimate fate –

Nor pass the tentie curious lad,
Who o’er the ingle hangs his head,
And begs of neighbours books to read
For hence arise,
Thy country’s sons, who far are spread,
Baith bold and wise.

Though Mr Telford afterwards abandoned the thriftless trade of versifying, he is said to have retained through life a strong "frater-feeling" for the corps, which he showed in a particular manner on the death of Burns, in exertions for the benefit of his family. Having proceeded to London in quest of work, he had the good fortune to be employed under Sir William Chambers in the building of Somerset house. Here his merit was soon discovered by the illustrious architect, and he experienced promotion accordingly. We are unable to detail the steps by which he subsequently placed himself at the head of the profession of engineering but it is allowed on all hands that his elevation was owing solely to his consummate ability and persevering industry, unless we are to allow a share in the process to the singular candour and integrity which marked every step in his career. His works are so numerous all over the island, that there is hardly a county in England, Wales, or Scotland, in which they may not be pointed out. The Menai and Conway bridges, the Caledonian canal, the St Katharine’s docks, the Holyhead roads and bridges, the Highland roads and bridges, the Chirke and Ponteysulte aqueducts, the canals in Salop, and great works in that county, of which he was surveyor for more than half a century, are some of the traits of his genius which occur to us, and which will immortalize the name of Thomas Telford.

The Menai bridge will probably be regarded by the public as the most imperishable monument of Mr Telford’s fame. This bridge over the Bangor ferry, connecting the counties of Caernarvon and Anglesea, partly of stone and partly of iron, on the suspension principle, consists of seven stone arches, exceeding in magnitude every work of the kind in the world. They connect the land with the two main piers, which rise fifty-three feet above the level of the road, over the top of which the chains are suspended, each chain being 1714 feet from the fastenings in the rock. The first three-masted vessel passed under the bridge in 1826. Her topmasts were nearly as high as a frigate, but they cleared twelve feet and a half below the centre of the roadway. The suspending power of the chains was calculated at 2016 tons. The total weight of each chain, 121 tons.

The Caledonian canal is another of Mr Telford’s splendid works, in constructing every part of which, though prodigious difficulties were to be surmounted, he was successful. But even this great work does not redound so much to his credit as the roads throughout the same district. That from Inverness to the county of Sutherland, and through Caithness, made not only, so far as respects its construction, but its direction, under Mr Telford’s orders, is superior in point of line and smoothness, to any part of the road of equal continuous length between London and Inverness. This is a remarkable fact, which, from the great difficulties he had to overcome in passing through a rugged, hilly, and mountainous district, incontrovertibly establishes his great skill in the engineering department, as well as in the construction of great public communications.

Mr Telford was not more remarkable for his great professional abilities than for his sterling worth in private life. His easiness of access, and the playfulness of his disposition, even to the close of life, endeared him to a numerons circle of friends, including all the most distinguished men of his time. For some years before his death, he had withdrawn himself in a great measure from professional employment, and amused his leisure by writing a detailed account of the principal works he had planned, and lived to see executed. He died September 9, 1834, in his seventy-ninth year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

The Life of Thomas Telford
Civil engineer with an introductory history of roads and travelling in Great Britain
by Samuel Smiles

"Let us travel, and wherever we find no facility for
travelling from a city to a town, from a village to a
hamlet, we may pronounce the people to be barbarous"
--Abbe Raynal

"The opening up of the internal communications of a
country is undoubtedly the first and most important
element of its growth in commerce and civilization"
--Richard Cobden

The present is a revised and in some respects enlarged edition of the 'Life of Telford,' originally published in the 'Lives of the Engineers,' to which is prefixed an account of the early roads and modes of travelling in Britain.

From this volume, read in connection with the Lives of George and Robert Stephenson, in which the origin and extension of Railways is described, an idea may be formed of the extraordinary progress which has been made in opening up the internal communications of this country during the last century.

Among the principal works executed by Telford in the course of his life, were the great highways constructed by him in North Wales and the Scotch Highlands, through districts formerly almost inaccessible, but which are now as easily traversed as any English county.

By means of these roads, and the facilities afforded by railways, the many are now enabled to visit with ease and comfort magnificent mountain scenery, which before was only the costly privilege of the few at the same time that their construction has exercised a most beneficial influence on the population of the districts themselves.

The Highland roads, which were constructed with the active assistance of the Government, and were maintained partly at the public expense until within the last few years, had the effect of stimulating industry, improving agriculture, and converting a turbulent because unemployed population into one of the most loyal and well-conditioned in the empire-- the policy thus adopted with reference to the Highlands, and the beneficial results which have flowed from it, affording the strongest encouragement to Government in dealing in like manner with the internal communications of Ireland.

While the construction of the Highland roads was in progress, the late Robert Southey, poet laureate, visited the Highlands in company with his friend the engineer, and left on record an interesting account of his visit, in a, manuscript now in the possession of Robert Rawlinson, C.E., to whom we are indebted for the extracts which are made from it in the present volume.

EARLY ROADS AND MODES OF TRAVELLING

Chapter I. Old Roads
Roads as agents of civilization, Their important uses, Ancient British trackways or ridgeways, The Romans and their roads in Britain, Decay of the Roman roads, Early legislation relating to highways, Roads near London, The Weald of Kent, Great Western roads, Hollow ways or lanes, Roads on Dartmoor, in Sussex, at Kensington.

Hoofstuk II. Early Modes of Conveyance
Riding on horseback the ancient mode of traveling, Shakespear's description of travelling in 'Henry IV.', Queen Elizabeth and her coach, Introduction of coaches or waggons, Painful journeys by coach, Carriers in reign of James I, Great north Road in reign of Charles I, Mace's description of roads and travellers stage-coaches introduced, Sobriere's account of the Dover stage-coach, Thoresby's account of stage-coaches and travelling, Roads and travelling in North Wales, Proposal to suppres stage-coaches, Tediousness and discomforts of travelling by coach, Pennant's account of the Chester and London stage, Travelling on horseback preferred, The night coach, Highway robbers and foot-pads, Methods of transport of the merchandize pack-horse convoys, Traffic between lancashire and Yorkshire, Signs of the pack-horse.

Hoofstuk III. Influence of Roads on Society
Restricted intercourse between districts, Local dialects and customs thereby preserved, Camden's fear of travelling into the barbarous regions of the North, Rev. Mr Brome's travels in England, Old Leisure, Imperfect postal communication, Hawkers and pedlars, Laying in stores for winter, Household occupations, Great fairs of ancient times, Local fairs, Fair on Dartmoor, Primitive manners of Dartmoor District.

Hoofstuk IV. Roads in Scotland last centuary
Poverty of Scotland, Backwardness of agriculture, Idleness of the people, Andrew Flecher's description of Scotland, Slavery of colliers and salters, Improvements in agriculture opposed, Low wages of the labouring population, State of the Lothians and Ayrshire, Wretched states of the roads, Difficulty of communication between districts, Coach started between Edinburgh and Glasgow, Carrier's perils between Edinburgh and Selkirk, Dangers of travelling in Galloway, Lawlessness of the Highlands, Picking and lifting of cattle, Ferocity of population on the Highland Border, Ancient civilization of Scotland.

Chapter V. Travelling in England last century
Progress made in travelling by coach, Fast coaches established, Bad state of the roads, Foreigners' accounts of travelling in England, Herr Moritz's journey by the basket coach, Arthur Young's description of English roads, Palmer's mail coaches introduced, The first 'Turnpike' roads, Turnpike riots, The rebellion of 1745, Passing of numerous highway Acts, Road-making thought beneath the dignity of the engineer.

Hoofstuk VI. John Metcalf, road-maker
Metcalf's boyhood, His blindness, His boldness, Becomes a Musician, His travels, Journey on foot from London to Harrogate, Joins the army as musician in the rebellion of 1745, Adventures in Scotland, Becomes travelling merchant and horse dealer, Begins road-making, Builds a bridge, His extensive road contracts in Yorkshire and Lancashire, Manner of making his surveys, His skill in road-making, His last road--his death, Roads in the south of England, Want of roads on Lincoln Heath, Land lighthouses, Dunstan pillar, Rapid improvement in the roads, Application of steam, Sydney Smith on improved facilities of communication.

THE LIFE OF THOMAS TELFORD

Chapter I. Eskdale
Eskdale, Langholm, Former lawlessness of the Border population, Jonnie Armstrong, Border energy, Westerkirk, Telford's birthplace, Glendinning, Valley of the Meggat, The 'unblameable shepherd', Telford's mother, Early years, Laughing Tam, Put to school, His school-fellows.

Hoofstuk II. Langholm--Telford a Stonemason
Telford apprenticed to a stonemason, Runs away, Re-apprenticed to a mason at Langholm, Building operations in the district, Miss Pasley lends books to young Telford, Attempt to write poetry, Becomes village letter-writer, Works as a journeyman mason, Employed on Langholm Bridge, Manse of Westerkirk, Poem of 'Eskdale', Hews headstones and doorheads, Works as a mason at Edinburgh, Study of architecture, Revisits Eskdale, His ride to London.

Hoofstuk III. Arrives in London
Telford a working man in London, Obtains employment as a mason at Somerset House, Correspondence with Eskdale friends, Observations on his fellow-workman, Propses to begin business, but wants money, Mr. Pulteney, Becomes foreman of builders at Portsmouth Dockyard, Continues to write poetry, Employment of his time, Prints letters to his mother.

Hoofstuk IV. Becomes Surveyor for the County of Salop
Superintends repairs of Shrewsbury Castle, Appointed Surveyor for County of Salop, Superintends erection of new gaol, Interview with John Howard, His studies in science and literature, Poetical exercises, Fall of St. Chad's Church, Shrewsburg, Discovery of the Roman city of Uriconium, Overseer of felons, Mrs. Jordan at Shrewsbury, Telford's indifference to music, Politics, Paine's 'Rights of Man', Reprints his poem of 'Eskdale'.

Chapter V. Telford's First Employment as an Engineer
Advantages of mechanical training to an engineer, Erects Montford Bridge, Erects St. Mary Magdalen Church, Bridgenorth, Telford's design, Architectural tour, Bath, Studies in British Museum, Oxford, Birmingham, Study of architecture, Appointed Engineer to the Ellesmere Canal.

Hoofstuk VI. The Ellesmere Canal
Course of the Ellesmire Canal, Success of the early canals, The Act obtained and working survey made, Chirk Aqueduct, Pont-Cysylltau Aqueduct, Telford's hollow walls, His cast iron trough at Pont-Cysylltau, The canal works completed, Revists Eskdale, Early impressions corrected, Tours in Wales, Conduct of Ellesmere Canal navigation, His literary studies and compositions.

Hoofstuk VII. Iron and other Bridges
Use of iron in bridge-building, Design of a Lyons architect, First iron bridge erected at Coalbrookdale, Tom paine's iron bridge, Wear iron bridge, Sunderland, Telford's iron bridge at Buildwas, His iron lock-gates and turn-bridges, Projects a one-arched bridge of iron over the Thames, Bewdley stone bridge, Tougueland Bridge, Extension of Telford's engineering buisness, Literary friendships, Thomas Campbell, Miscellaneous reading.

Hoofstuk VIII. Highland Roads and Bridges
Progress of Scotch agriculture, Romilly's account, State of the Highlands, Want of roads, Use of the Caschrom, Emigration, Telford's survey of Scotland, Lord Cockburn's account of the difficulties of travelling, the North Circuit, Parliamentary Commission of Highland Roads and Bridges appointed, Dunkeld Bridge built, 920 miles of new roads constructed, Craigellachie Bridge, Travelling facilitated, Agriculture improved, Moral results of Telford's Highland contracts, Rapid progress of the Lowlands, Results of parish schools.

Hoofstuk IX. Telford's Scotch Harbours
Highland harbours, Wick and Pulteney Town, Columnar pier work, Peterhead Harbour, Frazerburgh Harbour, Bannf Harbour, Old history of Aberdeen, its witch-burning and slave-trading, Improvements of its harbour, Telford's design carried out, Dundee Harbour.

Chapter X. Caledonian and other Canals
Canal projected through the Great Glen of the Highlands, Survey by James Watt, Survey by Telford, Tide-basin at Corpach, Neptune's Staircase, Dock at Clachnaharry, The chain of lochs, Construction of the works, Commercial failure of the canal, Telford's disappointment, Glasgow and Ardrossan Canal, Weaver Navigation, Gotha Canal, Sweden, Gloucester and Berkeley, and other canals, Harecastle Tunnel, Birmingham Canal, Macclesfield Canal, Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal, Telford's pride in his canals.

Hoofstuk XI. Telford as a road-maker
Increase of road-traffic, Improvement of the main routes between the principal towns, Carlisle and Glasgow road, Telford's principles of road-construction, Macadam, Cartland Crags Bridge, Improvement of the London and Edinburgh post road, Communications with Ireland, Wretched state of the Welsh roads, Telford's survey of the Shrewsbury and Holyhead road, Its construction, Roads and railways, London and Shrewsbury post road, Roads near London, Coast road, North Wales.

Hoofstuk XII. The Menai and Conway Bridges
Bridges projected over the Menai Straits, Telford's designs, Ingenious plan of suspended centering, Design of a suspension bridge over the Mersey at Runcorn, Design of suspension bridge at Menai, The works begun, The main piers, The suspension chains, Hoisting of the first main chain, Progress of the works to completion, The bridge formally opened, Conway Suspension Bridge.

Hoofstuk XIII. Docks, Drainage, and Bridges
Resume of English engineering, General increase in trade and population, The Thames, St. Katherine's Docks, Tewkesburg Bridge, Gloucester Bridge, Dean Bridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow Bridge, Telford's works of drainage in the Fens, The North Level, The Nene Outfall, Effects of Fen drainage.

Hoofstuk XIV. Southey's tour in the Highlands
Southey sets out to visit the Highlands in Telford's company, Works at Dundee Harbour, Bervie Harbour, Mitchell and Gibbs, Aberdeen Harbour, Approach to Banff, Cullen Harbour, The Forres road, Beauly Bridge, Bonar Bridge, Fleet Mound, Southey's description of the Caledonian Canal and works, John Mitchell, Takes leave of Telford, Results of Highland road-making.


Thomas Telford is Born

Today in Masonic History Thomas Telford is born in 1757.

Thomas Telford was a Scottish architect and engineer.

Telford was born on August 9th, 1757 in Glendinning, Scotland. His father passed away when he was only a few months old. He was raised in poverty by his mother. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a stonemason. Some of his earlies works can still be seen on the bridge across the River Esk in Langholm.

By the age of 25 Telford had moved to London and had gained new skill as an architect, despite being self-taught. He was able to get jobs designing and managing various building projects.

In 1787 Telford became the Surveyor of Public Works in Shropshire. At the time civil engineering was virtually unheard of, so he worked establishing his reputation as an architect. His reputation was cemented locally in 1788 when he was called to consult about a leaky roof on the local church. He warned that the church was in imminent danger of collapse. Three days later the church collapsed. As the Surveyor of Public Works, Telford was in charge of various projects, mostly involving bridges.

In 1793, Telford&rsquos reputation in Shropshire led to him being appointed to oversee several canal constructions around Scotland. In 1801 he devised a master plan to improve communication across the Scottish Highlands. This included roads, canals, harbors bridges and churches. The project lasted 20 years.

In 1806, Telford was asked to help design a canal by the King of Sweden. He traveled to Sweden to oversee some of the larger excavations for the project. He would in 1821, become a foreign elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

In his later years, Telford worked on the Colossus Road, a road that stretched from London to Holyhead. Much of the road would become the A5. He would also design the &lsquoTelford Church&rsquo. In 1823 an act of Parliament provided £50,000 for the construction of churches around Scotland. The structures could not cost more than £1,500 each. Telford designed a church that could be built for around £750. Of the 43 that were planned, 32 were built.

In 2011, Telford was one of seven inaugural inductees to the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame.


Kyk die video: Caledonian Canal