Moltke -klas gevegskruisers

Moltke -klas gevegskruisers

Moltke -klas gevegskruisers

Die Moltke -klas gevegsruisers was 'n aansienlike verbetering op die reeds indrukwekkende von der Tann, die eerste so 'n skip wat vir die Duitse vloot vervaardig is. Die werk aan die nuwe ontwerp was teen Mei 1907 goed aan die gang, tien maande voordat met die bou van die gebou begin is von der Tann. Die nuwe skepe is ontwerp om aan dieselfde vereistes as die vroeëre skip te voldoen, vir 'n vinnige vaartuig wat onafhanklik kon optree, maar ook in staat was om by die geveg aan te sluit in enige botsing met die Britse gevegsvloot. As gevolg hiervan was hulle baie beter gepantser as hul Britse ekwivalente (en effens beter as von der Tann).

Alhoewel die Algemene Vlootafdeling agt groter gewere wou gebruik, is dit omvergewerp en die skepe van die Moltke -klas was gewapen met tien 11.1 -kanonne. Dit is in vyf torings gedra - een voorkant, twee opgestapelde midskepe en 'n supervuurpaar aan die agterkant. Hierdie gewere kon 3 salpe per minuut afvuur (ten minste sodra die regte afstand gevind is). Die twee skepe het 810 skulpe gedra, genoeg vir 80 volle salpe (of ses en twintig minute se vuur op volle spoed).

Soos von der Tann, het die slagoffers van die Moltke -klas twee sekondêre bewapeningstipes gedra, met twaalf 88,9 mm gewere, bykomend tot hul hoofgewere. In teenstelling hiermee het die Britse gevegkruisers 'n enkele kaliber sekondêre gewere (4in in die Indefatigable -klas) gedra. Gedurende die oorlog is die meeste van die 88 mm kanonne verwyder, en sommige is vervang met 88 mm Flak L/45 lugafweergewere.

Die twee skepe is volgens dieselfde ontwerp gebou om die spanning op die ontwerpafdelings van die vloot te verminder, wat reeds baie besig was met die ontwerp van Duitsland se dreadnoughts. Albei is gebou deur Blohm & Voss, wat die kontrak vir die tweede skip gekry het nadat hy 'n baie lae bod gemaak het om die eerste skip te bou. Ten spyte hiervan kos dit elk meer as 40 miljoen punte - as die vaartuig gedefinieer word as die grootste skip wat 'n land in groot hoeveelhede kan bou, was dit beslis nie kruisers nie!

Soos met die von der Tann die kruisers van die Moltke -klas het swaarder wapens gedra as hul Britse ekwivalente, wydverspreid oor die skip. Hulle gordel was 10.7 duim dik om die sentrale vesting en 4in dik daarbuite, op 'n tydstip toe die Britse gevegskrywers op sy beste 6in pantser gehad het. As die twee soorte gevegsbrekers op Jutland bots, sou hierdie verskil in gordelpantsering in werklikheid nie deurslaggewend wees nie. Die gevegte het op 'n lang afstand plaasgevind, met skulpe wat van bo af op die gepantserde dekke getref het. In geen geval was die dek- of rewolwerpansering voldoende nie, en beide Britse en Duitse skepe sou hul torings beskadig. Die belangrikste verskil was dat die Duitsers teen 1916 hul roetines vir die hantering van kordiete verbeter het, sodat die gevolglike brande nie hul tydskrifte kon bereik nie.

SMS Goeben is in 1912 na die Middellandse See gestuur om die Duitse belange tydens die Balkanoorloë te beskerm. Sy was nog daar toe die Eerste Wêreldoorlog uitbreek, met die ligte kruiser Breslau. Nadat hulle die Franse Algerynse hawens Bone en Philippeville gebombardeer het, ontduik hulle 'n mag Britse slagoffers en bereik die Dardanelle op 10 Augustus. Die twee Duitse skepe is daarna aan Turkye aangebied om beman te word en offisiere deur Duitse offisiere. Hulle spandeer die grootste deel van die oorlog in die Swart See, voordat hulle in Januarie 1918 'n laaste uitstappie na die Egeïese See maak. Goeben is amptelik aan Turkye oorhandig en het tot 1971 oorleef.

SMS Moltke het 'n eerder tradisionele loopbaan gehad en het tydens die oorlog by die verkenningsmagte van die Groot Vloot gedien. Sy het by Dogger Bank en Jutland baklei en albei in 'n goeie toestand oorleef. Sy het ook 'n torpedo -oorlewing in Augustus 1915 oorleef. In April 1918, tydens 'n stryd teen die Britse Skandinawiese konvooie, het sy ernstige enjinskade opgedoen nadat 'n skroef weggevlieg het, en daarna getorpedeer was terwyl sy sleep. Alhoewel sy die ervaring oorleef het, was sy van April tot begin September buite aksie. Die Moltke was een van die Duitse skepe wat op 19 Junie 1919 by Scapa Flow gestamp is.

Verplasing (gelaai)

25,300t

Vinnigste spoed

25,5 ks

Bereik

4,120 seemyl op 14kts

Pantser - dek

3.2in-1in

- gordel

10.7in-4in

- skote

8in-4in

- battery

8in-6in

- Barbette

9in-1.2in

- torings

9in-2,4in

- konntoring

14in-3.2in

Lengte

611ft 11in

Bewapening

Tien 280 mm (11.1in) SKL/50 gewere
Twaalf 150 mm (5.9in) SKL/45 gewere
Twaalf 88 mm (3.45 duim) SKL/45 gewere
Vier 500 mm (19.7in) ondergedompelde torpedobuise

Bemanning komplement

1053 normaal
1355 op Jutland

Van stapel gestuur

1910-1911

Voltooi

1912

Skepe in die klas

SMS Moltke
SMS Goeben

Boeke oor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog | Onderwerpindeks: Eerste Wêreldoorlog


Moltke-klas gevegskruiser

Die Moltke klas was 'n klas van twee "all-big-gun" gevegkruisers [a] van die Duitse keiserlike#8197Navy wat tussen 1909–1911 gebou is. SMS genoem Moltke en SMS Goeben, [b] hulle was soortgelyk aan die vorige gevegskruiser Von  der  Tann, maar die nuwer ontwerp bevat verskeie inkrementele verbeterings. Die Moltkes was effens groter, vinniger en beter gepantser, en het 'n ekstra paar gewere van 28 cm (11 in) gehad.

Beide skepe het tydens World  War  I gedien. Moltke het deelgeneem aan verskeie groot gevegte met die res van die High  Seas  Fleet, insluitend die gevegte van Dogger  Bank en Jutland in die Noord  See, en die Slag  van  die  Golf  van  Riga en Operasie#8197 Balties  See. Aan die einde van die oorlog, Moltke is geïnterneer by die meerderheid van die High Seas Fleet by Scapa   Flow terwyl die lot oor die skepe tydens vredesverdragonderhandelinge bespreek is. Die skepe is op 21 Junie 1919 geroei om hul beslaglegging deur die Geallieerdes te voorkom.


Moltke-klas gevegskruiser

Die Moltke -klas was 'n klas van twee gevegsruisers van die Duitse keiserlike vloot wat tussen 1909–1911 gebou is. Met die naam SMS Moltke en SMS Goeben, was hulle soortgelyk aan die vorige gevegskruiser Von der Tann, maar die nuwer ontwerp het verskeie inkrementele verbeterings gehad. Die Moltkes was effens groter, vinniger en beter gepantser, en het 'n ekstra 28 cm -gewere gehad. Beide skepe het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen. Die skepe is op 21 Junie 1919 gestamp om te voorkom dat hulle deur die Geallieerdes in beslag geneem word. Goeben is ná die oorlog deur die nuwe Turkse regering behou. Sy bly aktief by die Turkse vloot totdat sy op 20 Desember 1950 uit diens gestel word. Die skip

Oor die slagoffer van die Moltke-klas in kort

Die Moltke -klas was 'n klas van twee gevegsruisers van die Duitse keiserlike vloot wat tussen 1909–1911 gebou is. Met die naam SMS Moltke en SMS Goeben, was hulle soortgelyk aan die vorige gevegskruiser Von der Tann, maar die nuwer ontwerp het verskeie inkrementele verbeterings gehad. Die Moltkes was effens groter, vinniger en beter gepantser, en het 'n ekstra 28 cm -gewere gehad. Beide skepe het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen. Die skepe is op 21 Junie 1919 gestamp om te voorkom dat hulle deur die Geallieerdes in beslag geneem word. Goeben is ná die oorlog deur die nuwe Turkse regering behou. Sy bly aktief by die Turkse vloot totdat sy op 20 Desember 1950 uit diens gestel word. Die skip is in 1971 aan M. K. E. Seyman verkoop om dit te skrap. Sy is op 7 Junie 1973 na die afbrekers gesleep, en die werk is in Februarie 1976 voltooi. In 1952, toe Turkye in 1952 by die NAVO aangesluit het, het die skip die rompnommer B70 gekry. Dit is tevergeefs te koop aangebied aan die Wes -Duitse regering in 1963. Eersgenoemde is toegeken aan die boujaar 1908–09, terwyl laasgenoemde vir die boujaar 1909–10 toegeken is. Die kiel is op 7 Desember 1908 gelê en op 7 April 1910 as SMS Moltk gelanseer. Die naam van die skip was veldmaarskalk Helmuth von moltke, die stafhoof van die Pruisiese leër in die middel van die 19de eeu. Nadat sy ingerig is, is die romp op 28 Maart 1911 gelanseer, en sy is op 28-uit-uit 1911 in gebruik geneem.

Sy het by die Ottomaanse Ryk gedien as lid van die Sentrale Magte totdat sy uit die vlootregister op 14 November 1954 geskrap is. Sy is nou 'n museumskip in Istanbul, Turkye, met die naam “Moltk ” of “Geben ” ter ere van die voormalige veldhoof van die weermag, veldmaarskalk von Moltkel, wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in aksie dood is. Sy het ook as opleidingsskip by die Duitse vloot gedien. Sy is bewaar in die Museum of Naval History and Science in Düsseldorf, Duitsland, waar sy te sien is as deel van 'n permanente versameling vlootmemorabilia. Sy het 'n topsnelheid van 24,5 knope en 'n uitstekende wapenbeskerming gelykstaande aan of hoër as Von derTann's en 'n pantserdikte van 1,5 meter. Die vaartuig is in Februarie 1973 geskrap nadat dit aan 'n Duitse onderneming verkoop is. Sy bly vandag in die versameling van die museum, maar is gesny en word gebruik om 'n museummuseum in die stad Duesseldorfer, Duitsland, te huisves. Die rompnommer van die skip is B70, en dit word tans deur die Duitse Museum vir Militêre Geskiedenis en Kultuur as museumvaartuig gebruik. Die naam van die skip se romp is Gibraltar ”, na die Slag van die Golf van Riga, wat in 1914 in die Oossee plaasgevind het.


DIE MOLTKE -KLAS

Moltke. Sy was toegerus met tien kanonne van 28 cm wat aan weerskante binne 'n breë boog opgelei kon word. Die antitorpedo -nette, wat aanvanklik op die meeste kapitaalskepe aangebring is, is tydens die oorlog verwyder weens hul beperkte doeltreffendheid en swaar hantering.

Goeben in La Spezia vroeg in 1914. Aangesien Italië deel was van die Triple Alliance, het Goeben geregtig op toegang tot Italiaanse vlootbasis totdat sy vroeg in Augustus 1914 haar neutraliteit verklaar het. Haar belangrikste ondersteuningshawe in die Middellandse See was egter die Oostenrykse basis van Pula aan die Adriatiese See.

Moltke, 1914

Goeben, 1912

By die omskrywing van die ontwerpe van Grosse Kreuzer 'G' en 'H', wat in die bouprogramme van 1908 en 1909 ingesluit is, het die RMA die fout wat Brittanje begaan het, vermy, wat nie beduidende verbeterings ten opsigte van die Invincibles in die klas gemaak het nie. In vergelyking met Von der Tann was die nuwe Duitse gevegskrywers in werklikheid baie groter, toegerus met 'n kragtiger hoofbattery en beter beskerm. Dit was moontlik danksy die verhoogde begroting wat aan strydkruisers toegewys is, wat gestyg het van R36,7 miljoen in 1907 tot R44,1 miljoen in elk van die twee daaropvolgende jare.

Ontwerp, konstruksie en koste

Die ontwerpproses van Grosse Kreuzer 'G' het in April 1907 begin. Gekonfronteer met die alternatiewe om oor te skakel na 'n groter kaliber (30,5 cm) hoofgeweer, soos in die nuwe slagskepe van die Helgoland -klas, of om die aantal bestaande 28cm -gewere te verhoog, Tirpitz en Departement K kies laasgenoemde. Aangesien Brittanje 'n groter aantal gevegskrywers bou as Duitsland, was dit inderdaad raadsaam om 'n groter aantal gewere te hê, eerder as om hul kaliber te verhoog. Boonop het die RMA geag dat die 28 cm voldoende was om selfs gevegskepe aan te pak.

Aanvanklik is die 28 cm SK L/45 gekies en 'n voorlopige ontwerp - genaamd 'G2i' - vir 'n gevegskruiser van 22 000 ton, toegerus met vyf tweeling torings en wat 24 tot 24,5 knope kan ontwikkel, is op 28 Mei 1907 deur die Kaiser goedgekeur. Die omskrywing van die projek het stadig voortgegaan, vanweë die vele veranderings wat geleidelik aangebring is en die oorbelasting van die werk wat Departement K beïnvloed het. Op 'n stadium is daar selfs oorweeg om Grosse Kreuzer 'G' te herbou as 'n herhaling van Von der Tann om tyd te bespaar. bekendstelling van verbeterings aan die volgende skip, Grosse Kreuzer 'H'. Hierdie voorstel is egter tersyde gestel, en op 15 Mei 1908 besluit Tirpitz dat Grosse Kreuzer 'G' en 'H' identies moet wees. Op 17 September het die RMA die bou van 'G' toevertrou aan die werf van Blohm & amp; Voss, wat die laagste bod ingedien het in afwagting om die kontrakte vir beide skepe te wen. Die bevel vir die eerste gevegskruiser is op 28 September onderteken en op 8 April 1909 verseker Blohm & amp Voss ook die kontrak vir Grosse Kreuzer 'H'.

Moltke11 is op 7 Desember 1908 neergelê, op 7 April 1910 gelanseer en gereed verklaar vir die aanvaardingstoetse op 30 September 1911. Sy tree in diens op 31 Maart 1912. Goeben12 is op 12 Augustus 1909 neergelê, op 28 Maart 1911 gelanseer, verklaar gereed vir aanvaardingstoetse op 2 Julie 1912 en in gebruik geneem op 2 Augustus. Moltke het R44,08 miljoen gekos, versprei oor vier begrotingsjare (1908-11), en soos volg verdeel: romp en aandrywing, R29,15 miljoen gewere, R14 miljoen en torpedo-bewapening, R0,93 miljoen. Die koste van Goeben was byna identies: R44,125 miljoen bo 1909-12.

Algemene kenmerke

Die belangrikste ontwerpkenmerke van die Moltke -klas (totale lengte 186,6 m, balk 29,4 m, ontwerpverskuiwing 22,979 t) was grootliks beter as dié van Von der Tann. Veral die groter omvang van die romp veroorsaak 'n algehele toename van ongeveer 3,600 ton in die ontwerpverplasing. Die tabel op bladsye 156-7 toon verplasing, afmetings en die belangrikste kenmerke van die skepe. Hierdie algehele toename was te wyte aan verskeie funksies. 1.000 ton kom van 'n romp wat fyner was aan die punte en wyer tussenskepe. 'N Bykomende 1000 ton was te wyte aan 'n groter vryboord en die installering van 'n ekstra 28 cm -rewolwer en die gevolglike verlenging van die skip se sitadel het 'n toename van 900t veroorsaak. Die installering van kragtiger masjinerie het 'n bykomende 450t tot gevolg gehad, en uiteindelik was groter ammunisieopberging verantwoordelik vir 100t.

Die romp is in die lengte verdeel in vyftien waterdigte kompartemente en horisontaal in ses dekke. Uitgebreide kompartementering en 'n dubbele bodem wat 78% van die romplengte strek, bied beskerming onder water. Daarbenewens was daar langslangse skote wat verdere kom-mentalisering in die sentrale en agterste gedeeltes van die romp verskaf het. Daar was twee gange langs die romp se kante in die boonste, onderste platform en houdekke, wat van ongeveer die voorste ketelkamers na 'C' -toringmagasyn loop. Nog twee middel gange, net in die boonste platformdek, loop langs die ketelkamers.

Die voorspeler het saggies opgestyg tot 7,6 m ver vorentoe, terwyl dit agteruit tot by die supervuurtoring voortgesit het. Die vryboord is met ongeveer 1 m verhoog op die batterydek, maar verminder op die agterkant. Die stam was amper reguit, in plaas van die uitgesproke ramboog wat op Von der Tann aangebring is.

Die voorste bobou het die belangrikste beheertoring, twee gewere van 8,8 cm, die kaartkamer en die brug en die vlagbrug ingesluit. Die agterste deel van hierdie opbou ondersteun die voorste tregter, wat hoër was as die agterste tregter omdat dit 'n kap gehad het. Die voormast was net voor die voorste tregter. Twee soekligplatforms is aan elke kant van die voorste tregter aangebring. Die lugopeninge vir die ketels was aan die onderkant daarvan geleë, wat ook twee grendels ondersteun het vir die hantering van die diensbote. Die agterste bobou het die sekondêre toring en 'n roosterraam met twee platforms wat elk twee soekligte ondersteun.13 Dit is agter, eerder as aan die kante van die agterste trechter, geïnstalleer om dit weg te beweeg van die flits en ontploffing van die 28 cm -vleuel torings. Die agterste tregter was nie toegerus met 'n buitenste laag nie, aangesien dit nie meer nodig was nie, aangesien die agterste soekligte op afsonderlike platforms beweeg is. Aan die voet van die agterste tregter was die luginlate vir die ventilasie van die onderste dekke.

Die vate van die 28 cm -gewere was 1,4 m langer as die van Von der Tann, as gevolg van die oorgang van 45 na 50 kaliber. Dit het gelei tot 'n ooreenstemmende toename van die dwarsradius, wat dus die posisie van die tregters moes aanpas, met 'n gevolglike toename in lengte van die skip se vesting. Die oorspronklike ontwerp het besorgdheid oor traliemaste voorgehou wat verband hou met die groter volume van hierdie strukture, hul stabiliteit in geval van treffers en moontlike inmenging in die werking van die W/T -toerusting, het gelei tot die aanvaarding van metaalpaalmaste. Na 1914 is 'n brandbestrydingsposisie bygevoeg op die voormas. Die Moltkes is toegerus met kielkeëls om stabiliteit te verbeter. Ses turbo-kragopwekkers het 1500 kW by 225V verskaf, wat die beligting- en kommunikasiestelsels en die opleidingservo-meganismes van die groot kaliber torings aandryf. Die turbo-kragopwekkers was gehuisves in vier dinamokamers, twee langs die middellyn en die ander bakboord en stuurboord van die voorste enjinkamer, in die boonste platformdek. W/T -pasvorm was dieselfde as op Von der Tann. Anti-torpedo nette is oorspronklik aangebring, maar dit is in 1916 verwyder.

Die metasentriese hoogte van Moltkes was 3,01 m. Die hoek van maksimum stabiliteit was 34 ° en die hoek waarteen stabiliteit verdwyn, was 68 °. Aanvulling het drie-en-veertig offisiere en 1 010 mans ingesluit toe hulle as vlagskip gedien het; daar was nog dertien offisiere en twee-en-sestig mans.

Die toename in verplasing het 'n aansienlike versterking van die Moltkes -beskerming moontlik gemaak, vergeleke met Von der Tann. Die swakheid wat die dunner wapenrusting van die barbette agter die hoofwapengordel verteenwoordig, is egter nie uitgeskakel nie. Die hoofgordel, bestaande uit KC -staalplate, strek oor 112m tussen die barbette van die voorste en die naaste groot kaliber torings. Die maksimum dikte was 270 mm op 'n hoogte van 175 cm, waarvan 35 cm onder die waterlyn was. Die gordel het opwaarts toegeneem tot 200 mm op die batterykapvlak (of op die boonste dek buite die vesting) en tot 130 mm aan die onderkant, 175 cm onder die waterlyn. Die hoofband is met 200 mm skote voor en agter gesluit. Buiten die hoofgordel, strek die pantser na die boog en agterstewe met 'n verminderde dikte van 100 mm.

Die sitadel wat die gewere van 15 cm omhul het, is beskerm deur 'n sywapen van 150 mm tussen die boonste en die batterydek en is deur skote van dieselfde dikte toegemaak. Die sybeskerming van die hoof toring was 350 mm, met 'n dak van 80 mm. Die agterkant van die toring het 'n sybeveiliging van 200 mm en 'n dak van 50 mm. Die wapenrusting van die belangrikste geweertorings was onveranderd van Von der Tann (230 mm voor, 180 mm sye en 90 mm plat dakke). Die dikte van die barbettes was 200-230 mm bo die hoofband, maar dit is verminder tot 80 mm agter die pantser van die battery en tot 30 mm agter die hoofband. Horisontale beskerming was 75 mm binne die sitadel, ewe verdeel tussen die boonste, battery en gepantserde dekke. Die dikte van die skuins kante van die pantserdek was 50 mm. Buite die sitadel is beskerming deur die gepantserde dek gebied, met 'n dikte tussen 50 en 75 mm. 'N Lang torpedoskot het 3,75 m binne die hoofband geloop met 'n dikte van 30 mm, wat tot 50 mm aan die kante van die ammunisietydskrifte toegeneem het.

Moltke en Goeben was toegerus met vier-en-twintig steenkoolaangedrewe Schulz-Thornycroft-ketels. Hulle is gehuisves in groepe van drie in agt geskeide kamers te midde van skepe. Die waterdigte kompartement wat 'B' -toringmagasyn bevat en 'n paar hulpapparatuur het die twee voorste ketelkamers van die agterste ketelkamers geskei. Op hul beurt is dit in ses kompartemente verdeel, wat verkry is deur twee aangrensende ketelkamers met twee langsskote te verdeel.

Stoom is teen 16 atm opgewek en het twee groepe Parsons-turbines gevoed, met soveel asse wat toegerus is met drie-lomp propellers, 3,74 m in deursnee. Die Moltkes het, net soos Von der Tann, twee langskottels in die lengte, wat die enjinkamers in bak- en stuurboordkompartemente verdeel het. Die twee voorste enjinkamers het die HP -turbines gehuisves, wat die buitenste asse aangedryf het. Die agterste enjinkamers het die MP -turbines gehuisves wat die binneste asse geloop het.

Die ontwerpkrag was 52 000 pk, wat 25,5 knope teen 260 opm bied. Hierdie waarde is aansienlik oorskry tydens spoedtoetse, waarin Moltke 85,782 pk teen 332 rpm bereik het en 'n topsnelheid van 28,07 knope. Goeben behaal 85,661 pk teen 330 rpm en 28 knope. Die ontwerp van steenkoolstowwe was 1000 ton, die maksimum 3 100 ton, en uithouvermoë was 4 120 myl teen 14 knope. Na 1916 is die ketels toegerus met teeroliespuite, wat die swak gehalte van die beskikbare steenkoololie -kapasiteit van 200 ton vermy.

Moltke en Goeben het twee roere in tandem gehad. Aangesien die roere 12 meter van mekaar af was, het hierdie uitleg die bestuurbaarheid teen stadige spoed en die oorlewing van die skip verhoog. Dit het egter ook die skip se draai -deursnee teen 'n stadige snelheid aansienlik verhoog. As u op volle roer draai, kan die spoedverlies 60%bereik, terwyl die helling 9 ° kan bereik.

Die hoofbewapening bestaan ​​uit tien 28 cm L/50 gewere in vyf Drh. LC/08 tweelingbevestigings: 'n boogtoring ('A'), twee agterkant ('C' superfiring oor 'D') en twee vleuel torings ('B' na stuurboord en 'E' na bakboord) .14 Soos in Von der Tann, met hierdie uitleg kon 'n volle breedte van tien gewere binne 'n wye boog (ongeveer 75 °) aan beide kante geskiet word. Die hoogte van die geweer -as was 8,79 m bo die waterlyn vir die voorwaartse rewolwer, 8,43 m vir die vleuel torings en 8,61 m en 6,25 m vir die agterste torings. Elke montering weeg ongeveer 445 ton en het 'n bemanning van sewentig.

Die hoogte van die gewere met 'n groot kaliber was -8 °/+13,5 °, 6,5 ° minder as Von der Tann. Daarom was die maksimum bereik beperk tot 18,100m.15 Toe die maksimum hoogte in 1916 tot 16 ° verhoog is, is die reikwydte uitgebrei tot 19,100m. As Yavuz (oud-Goeben) is die maksimum hoogte verder verhoog tot 22,5 °, sodat sy die nuutste Russiese slagskepe, gewapen met gewere van 30,5 cm, wat in die Swart See werk, kan hanteer. Die gewere van Yavuz kon dan 'n maksimum reikwydte van 21 700 m bereik. Danksy die groter lengte van die vat in vergelyking met die 28 cm L/45, het die nuwe geweer die 302 kg AP -dop afgevuur met 'n snelsnelheid van 880 mps en die ooreenstemmende snoet energie van 116.9MJ. Die maksimum vuurtempo was drie rondes per minuut, terwyl die gewig van die volle breedte (tien rondtes) 3,020 kg was. Ammunisie -uitrusting beloop 810 rondtes. Die kapasiteit van die tydskrifte was 150 rondtes vir die vleuel en die naaste torings en 180 rondes vir die ander twee torings.

Die sekondêre battery het bestaan ​​uit twaalf L/45 -kanonne van 15 cm op MPL C/06 -houers, aan beide kante van die skeepsvesting. Elke geweer se as was 5 m bo die waterlyn. Ammunisie was 150 rondes per geweer (1 800 in totaal). Twee kanonne van 15 cm is in Mei 1915 uit Yavuz verwyder en gebruik om die vesting van In Tepe, aan die Dardanelles, te versterk.

Om te verdedig teen torpedobote en vernietigers, was die Moltkes aanvanklik gewapen met twaalf 8,8 cm L/45 vlootgeweer: vier is naby die boeg geplaas, twee in die voorkant en vier in die agterste opbou, en twee op die boonste dek, agter die die 15 cm battery. Hierdie gewere van 8,8 cm is eers verminder tot agt, wat die booggewere verwyder het omdat dit oorstroom is toe die skip op volle snelheid gestoom het, en nog vier gewere in 1916 verwyder is. Die oorblywende 8,8 cm gewere is vervang deur vier AA -gewere op MPL C/13 enkelsnit houers, wat op die agterste bobou aangebring is. Ammunisie -uitrusting vir hierdie gewere beloop 3,200 rondes (200 per geweer). Moltke en Goeben was ook toegerus met vier torpedo -buise van 50 cm lank (een vorentoe, een agter en twee op die breë kant), met elf torpedo's.

In April-Mei 1912 het Moltke saam met die ligte kruisers Stettin en Bremen 'n besoek aan die Verenigde State gebring. In Julie het sy die Kaiser se seiljag begelei tydens 'n besoek aan St. Terug in Duitsland het Moltke op 23 Junie 1914 die vlagskip van 1. Aufklärungsgruppe geword en so gedien totdat admiraal Hipper sy vlag na die nuwe Seydlitz oorgeplaas het. Moltke is op 24 November 1918 by Scapa Flow geïnterneer en deur haar bemanning op 21 Junie 1919. Sy is grootgemaak in Junie 1927 en is in 1927-9 in Rosyth geskrap.

In Oktober 1912, na die uitbreek van die Eerste Balkanoorlog, besluit Duitsland om 'n vlootafdeling na die Middellandse See te stuur om invloed in die gebied uit te oefen. Op 4 November vaar Goeben, begelei deur die ligte kruiser Breslau, van Kiel na Konstantinopel, waar hulle op 15 November aankom. Aan die einde van die oorlog in Mei 1913 was die skepe veronderstel om na die Duitse waters terug te keer, maar die heropening van vyandelikhede tydens die Tweede Balkanoorlog het hierdie idee verdryf. Op 28 Junie 1914, op die dag waarop aartshertog Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo vermoor is, was Goeben besig om in die oostelike Middellandse See te vaar, vanwaar sy onmiddellik vir herstelwerk op die Oostenryk-Hongaarse vlootbasis van Pola (vandag Pula in Kroasië) seil. Goeben is op 16 Augustus 1914 formeel na Turkye oorgeplaas en herdoop tot Yavuz Sultan Selim. Die Duitse bemanning het egter steeds die gevegskruiser beman tot November 1918. Yavuz het tot 20 Desember 1950 in diens gebly onder die Turkse vlag, toe sy in reserwe geplaas is. In 1954 uit die vlootregister verwyder, word sy in 1963 aan Duitsland aangebied, met die voorstel om van haar 'n drywende museum te maak. Na die verwerping van hierdie idee deur die Duitse regering, is Yavuz in 1971 verkoop vir ontmanteling en in 1973-6 geskrap.


Moltke -klas gevegskruisers - Geskiedenis

Die wêreld het onder baie oorloë gely. Ons het 'n aansienlike aantal mense verloor en verskillende dinge uit oorloë geleer. Alhoewel oorlog soos vernietiging en konflik lyk, leer ons baie dinge uit 'n oorlog. Daar is tot dusver twee belangrike oorloë, waaronder die eerste en die tweede wêreldoorlog. Ons het ook 'n paar ander gevegte gehad tussen verskillende lande en gebiede. Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is geïsoleer tussen 1914 en 1918. Dit was die grootste oorlog van daardie tyd. Alle vorige oorloë was nie op sy vlak nie. Verskeie tipes gevorderde wapens en voertuie is in hierdie oorlog gebruik. Hierdie oorlog is begin met slegs 'n paar misverstande en tegnologiese vooruitgang. Maar dit was uiteindelik die gevaarlikste oorlog van alle tye. Volgens studies en geskiedenis sterf meer as 16 miljoen mense tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Dit was regtig 'n groot verlies. Die rede vir so 'n verlies was die groot aantal lande wat by hierdie oorlog betrokke was. Italië, die Verenigde State, Rusland en Frankryk was die provinsies wat saam geveg het. Hierdie lande was teen die sentrale moondhede. Sentrale moondhede sluit Bulgarye, Duitsland, Oostenryk en die Ottomaanse ryk in.

In so 'n groot oorlog was 'n paar wonderlike wapens en masjiene in gebruik. Diegene is destyds as die beste beskou. Dit bevat ook slagskepe wat 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Daar was honderde oorlogskepe wat gebruik is om teen die vyande te veg. Al hierdie slagskepe was briljant gelaai met swaar masjinerie. Daar was ook die nuutste wapens en wapens. As u 'n ware fan is van oorlogsmasjinerie, is u op die regte plek. Vandag bespreek ons ​​'n paar van die groot slagskepe van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

FS Bouvet

FS Bouvet was een van die beste slagskepe wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebruik is. Dit is 'n paar jaar gelede deur die Franse vloot gebruik voordat die eerste wêreldoorlog begin het. Dit is gebruik vir verskillende opdragte, besendings en ander vlootopdragte. Daar was twee weergawes van die FS Bouvet -slagskip. Die geboortedatum van FS Bouvet is 1898. Net na 'n tydjie nadat dit vrygestel is, het die Franse vloot egter 'n paar funksies verander. Daarna is daar baie aanpassings aangebring. Hulle het 'n beter wapenvermoë, tenkvermoë en bondgenoot se veiligheid bygevoeg. Al hierdie dinge het die vermoëns van die skip verhoog.

Die gemiddelde spoed van FS Bouvet was 18 knope. Dit was goed genoeg in vergelyking met ander soortgelyke slagskepe. Dit het 'n bemanningskapasiteit van 710 en 'n aansienlike vermoë om tenks en ander oorlogsmasjiene te neem. Dit was onder andere die beste skip. Later is dit in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur die Franse vloot gebruik, en hulle het die beste uit hierdie skip gekry.

HMS onvermoeibaar

HMS onvermoeibaar

Kom ons praat oor HMS Indefatigable slagskip wat deur die Britse vloot gebruik is. Dit is gebou in 1911. Sy ontwerp was destyds een van die beste modelle. Die ontwerp van die slagskip van die vroeë 1900's het HMS Indefatigable beïnvloed. Hulle is spesiaal geskep vir uiteindelike oorlogservarings. Dit is bedryf deur die Britse vloot en is na die bekendstelling daarvan vir verskeie doeleindes gebruik. HMS Indefatigable is bygevoeg in die lys van alle beskikbare slagskepe.

Met 4x skagte, massiewe wapenintegrasie en 'n groot bemanning, was HMS Indefatigable 'n skip wat nie kan verslaan nie. Daar was baie gewere op die verskillende dekke van die skip gemonteer. Daar was ook raketwerpers en goed geplaasde middelskepe. Dit was 'n wonderlike skip, aangesien dit verskeie ander skepe verslaan het sonder enige probleme. Die gemiddelde spoed was 25 knope. Die bemanningskapasiteit was 800. Sy goeie omvang was ook een van die beste slagskepe wat die Britse vloot gehad het.

Benedetto Brin

Benedetto Brin

Benedetto Brin was 'n Italiaanse slagskip wat wyd gebruik is in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Dit is gelanseer in 1901. Dit was gebaseer op die Regina Margherita -klas. Die klas is spesiaal gebou vir konflikte met oop water. Hierdie slagskip het wonderlike vermoëns. Van skeepsvermoë tot wapenintegrasie, Benedetto Brin was perfek. Dit het ook alle prosedures vir bemanningsveiligheid gehad. Sy totale lengte was 139 meter. Dit het die vermoë om die maksimum snelheid van 20 knope te bereik.

Die hoofkenmerk van hierdie slagskip was 12-duim-gewere wat hierdie skip nie verslaan het nie. Hierdie 12-duim-gewere is ontwerp vir uiterste konflikte en situasies. Die bemanning het die boot met hierdie gewere hanteer. Verder was die ander wapenskapasiteit goed genoeg om hierdie skip onderweg te maak. Beskerming is as 'n topprioriteit beskou terwyl dit gemaak is. Dit het dus genoeg wapens gehad om die bemanning aan boord te beskerm. Ongelukkig verloor dit 'n groot deel van die ontploffing wat deur die sabotasie op die bord veroorsaak is.

HMS Bellerophon

HMS Bellerophon

HMS Bellerophon was die voorste klas slagskip van die Royal Navy UK. In hierdie slagskip is al die gevorderde tegnologieë gebruik om die Duitser te verslaan. Hierdie slagskip het ook ander skepe in die oopwateroorlog verslaan. Dit was gereed om in 1907 deur die Royal Navy gebruik te word. Die bemanningskapasiteit was ongeveer 735. Die lengte van HMS Bellerophon was 527 voet. Dit was een van die vinnigste slagskepe van die Royal Navy. Dit is spesiaal ontwerp vir vlootoorlogvoering om ander skepe te verslaan.

In vergelyking met ander skepe, het dit meer dekruimte, meer wapenintegrasie. Dit het ook gevorderde maniere om die vinnigste moontlike spoed tydens die konflik te kry. Geen ander slagskip het die vermoë gehad om die gewere van HMS Bellerophon te stop nie. Daar was 'n aantal swaar gewere op die dek wat gebruik is om die opponent binne sekondes af te haal. Hierdie skip het 'n groot deel van die Duitse vloot vernietig. Dit beteken dat HMS Bellerophon 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die wêreldoorlog 1. Dit was alles te danke aan sy ongelooflike krag en uitstaande kenmerke.

FS Bretagne

FS Bretagne was 'n slagskip wat deur die Franse vloot gebruik is. Dit is op 21 April 1913 gelanseer. Dit was een van die drie skepe wat vir vlootdoeleindes gelanseer is. Al die drie skepe was in gebruik vir verskeie oorloë, veral tydens die eerste wêreldoorlog. Die lengte was 166 meter en die bemanningsvermoë van 1133. Dit was een van die beste slagskepe by die Franse vlootdok. Die beste ding met FS Bretagne was die geweerkapasiteit en integrasie daarvan. Verskeie groot gewere was daar op die voorste dek wat dit teen die vyandelike aanval moes verdedig.

Nog 'n groot voordeel van die FS Bretagne -slagskip was die veiligheid van die bemanning. Dit is ontwerp om vir lang tye te bly, selfs in die oop wateroorlog. FS Bretagne is deur die Britse koninklike vloot gesink, wat ook die lewe van meer as 1000 matrose geneem het. Die Franse vloot het destyds die nuutste wapens en toerusting geneem om dit te bou. Dit was 'n wonderlike vegskip saam met die ander twee skepe wat ook daarmee gebruik is. Ongelukkig kon dit nie baie lank duur nie en is dit deur die Britse koninklike vloot in die oorlog vernietig.

Giulio Cesare

Giulio Cesare was an Italian battleship which was launched in 1911. Giulio Cesare was a first-class battleship which served both world wars. It had the length of 186 meters, and the beam was 28 meters. It was a mighty battleship. Its design was able to work in tough conditions. Several navy technologies were also included such as guns, shields, and missiles.

The best thing about Giulio Cesare battleship was its power. Its power was 31000 horsepower. It tells us how powerful its engines were. Such incredible engines gave it the capability of working with the fastest speed. The crew capacity of this battleship was 1000. In world war one, Giulio Cesare played a vital role. It also served the second world war. yet the activities were considerably less in the second world war. Later on, this battleship was passed to the Soviets. However, we can say that Giulio Cesare battleship served the Italian royal navy for a long time.

IJN Fuso

IJN Fuso was a dreadnought battleship which served the Japanese navy in both world wars. Two warships were made of the same type to serve the world war 1 and other fights. The IJN Fuso was 205-meter-long. IT had the capacity of carrying 1198 crew. The surface speed of IJN Fuso was 23 knots. It was a considerable speed for a dreadnought battleship. When the British navy suggested the name dreadnought, IJN Fuso was made on the same theme. It was called a dreadnought ship which had ultimate capabilities.

The best thing about this ship was its armor and speed. Its speed was 23 knots. The armor of IJN Fuso was good enough. It was able to protect hundreds of crew people who served in the battle. Another interesting thing about IJN Fuso was its battle class. It was included in several classes like fast battleships class and Pre-dreadnought class. This battleship was also used for world war 2. In world war two, IJN Fuso met its fate during the battle of Surigao Strait.

SMS Schleswig-Holstein

SMS Schleswig-Holstein was a pre-dreadnought class battleship originated in the German navy. It was launched in 1905. It was one of the most powerful battleships built by imperial Germany. It had some fantastic specifications like outstanding armor capabilities and good speed. Different types of amours were integrated into this ship to give it a maximum of protection in war. However, unfortunately, it was sunk in 1944.

It was also one of the battleships which fought world war one and survived. It also served the navy in world war two until it sunk in 1944. Its powerful coal-fed steam engines were capable of giving it the speed of 17 knots. It was a whole new class of fighting surface battleships. The SMS Schleswig-Holstein battleship participated in different small and big wars. Every time, it defended the holders and did a great job. Later on, several warships were created on the basis of SMS Schleswig-Holstein.

HMS King Edward VII

HMS King Edward VII was the lead battleship of the class pre-dreadnought battleships. It was the best battleship in its class. That’s the reason why its name was Kind Edward. It was ready to use in 1903 with the length of 138-meter, the draft of 8.15 meters and beam of 24 meters. The crew capacity of HMS King Edward VII was 775. Its top speed was 18.5 knots.

Besides all of its specifications, it was great for the open water wars. It served several conflicts and wars. Every time, it performed well. It was used for protecting the crew, fighting with the opponents and managing the in-war tasks. In the pre-dreadnought class of British royal navy, there were several battleships. However, HMS King Edward VII was the best one. Another great cause of its popularity was its all big gin title. The integrated guns were so good. This battleship could easily beat any of the other battleship.

SMS Moltke

SMS Moltke was the lead battleship of Moltke class battlecruisers. It was ready to use in 1908. It served for imperial German navy in the world war one. The crew capacity of this battleship was 1053. The top speed of SMS Moltke battlecruiser was 28 knots which was the best speed at that time. Most of the battleships had an average speed of 20 to 25 knots. However, the SMS Moltke had 28 knots of speed. This speed made it the lead battleship of Moltke class battlecruisers.

Two ships were there to fight against the British dreadnoughts. SMS Moltke was one of those ships. It fought against the British ships as well as served other wars and conflicts. It was one of the only battleships which served a lot of battles and survived. The great armor and weapon integrations played a functional role to win battleship.

Tags: world war 1 battleships, german world war 1 battleships, world war 1 battleships facts, british battleships of world war 1, world war 1 american battleships


Moltke Class Battlecruiser - Service History - Goeben

Following the outbreak of the First Balkan War in October 1912, the German High Command decided to create a Mediterranean Division in an attempt to exert influence in the area. The new squadron consisted of Goeben and the light cruiser Breslau the two ships left Kiel on 4 November and arrived off Constantinople on 15 November. The ships visited several Mediterranean ports, including Venice, Pola, and Naples. The First Balkan War ended on 30 May 1913, and there was some consideration given to withdrawing the pair to German waters. However, the conflict reignited less than a month later on 29 June, meaning the ships would have to remain in the area.

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914, Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon recognized the imminent outbreak of war, and so immediately sailed to Pola for repair work for Goeben. The ships were then ordered to steam to Constantinople. While en route, they were pursued by British forces, but Goeben en Breslau managed to evade them and reach Istanbul by 10 August 1914. Goeben was transferred to the Ottoman Empire and renamed TCG Yavuz Sultan Selim after Sultan Selim I. Popularly known as Yavuz, she was designated as the flagship of the Ottoman Navy, but she retained her German crew. Goeben, flying the Ottoman flag, bombarded the Russian port of Sevastopol, captured and sank a Russian minesweeper, and damaged a destroyer on 29 October 1914. The Russian government responded by declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on 1 November Britain and France followed suit on 5 November. By acting as a fleet in being, Goeben effectively blocked a Russian advance into the Bosporus, and defended against a similar incursion of British and French pre-dreadnoughts. More powerful British and French warships—which could have dealt with Goeben—could not be risked in the heavily mined and U-boat patrolled Turkish waters.

In 1936 she was renamed TCG Yavuz and remained the flagship of the Turkish Navy until 1950, although the ship was largely stationary in Izmit from 1948. In 1952, Turkey joined NATO, and the ship was assigned the hull number "B70". Yavuz was decommissioned on 20 December 1950, and removed from the navy register on 14 November 1954. The Turkish government attempted to preserve the ship as a museum, including an offer to West Germany to sell the ship back in 1963, but none of the efforts were successful. Goeben was sold for scrapping in 1971, and was eventually broken up between 1973 and 1976—the last remaining ship of the Imperial German Navy.


SMS Moltke

Geskryf deur: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB | Last Edited: 07/31/2019 | Inhoud en kopie www.MilitaryFactory.com | Die volgende teks is eksklusief vir hierdie webwerf.

The German battlecruiser SMS Moltke was the lead ship of her class consisting of two ships with her sister becoming SMS Goeben. Designed in early 1907, the Moltke-class would be an improved form of the earlier Von der Tann battlecruisers. Moltke and her twin were designed to counter British ships-of-the-line by blending speed and fire power and she was named for German Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke who later became the chief-of-staff of the Prussian Army, eventually holding that post for thirty years. Moltke proved a great military strategist in the late 19th Century and became a national hero and celebrity in Germany. For his service to the fatherland, over 50 monuments were erected in his honor throughout the German Empire.

During construction, SMS Moltke was identified as "Cruiser G" and she was officially christened on April 7th, 1910 and formally commissioned on September 30th, 1911 into service with the Imperial German Navy. At the time, the British Indefatigable-class battlecruisers posed a great threat to German Naval superiority and Moltke was developed as their counter - carrying more tonnage with increased armor plating and firepower improved through an additional main gun turret.

Moltke's Design

Moltke's complement numbered 1,050 officers and men as built and this increased to a crew of 1,350 during wartime. She held a length of 615.78 feet (186.6m) long with a beam measuring 97.0 feet (30.33M) wide while her draft dropped to 29.4 feet (9.19m). Her weight was 22,979 tons when empty and displaced 25,400 tons under maximum load. Moltke was a trim ship in profile with a low silhouette and carried thirty-four guns (as built) including a main gun armament of five twin (double-barreled) turrets holding 10 x 11.1" (28.3cm) SK L/50 (280mm) cannons capable of sending a 1,000lb shell a distance of 14 miles (513yd, 23km). The five turrets were mounted as one forward, two echeloned amidships, and a pair on the rear deck. These guns were capable of firing three salvoes per minute while the vessel carrier 810 shells in all - essentially enough for 80 full salvoes.

The mountings for the 11.1-inch guns utilized electric pumps to drive hydraulic elevation gear while the training of the guns was powered by electric generators. The positioning of the turrets had the "A" ("Anton") turret at the bow placed at the center line. "B" turret was on the starboard side between the two funnels off centerline and close to the outside railing of the deck. "C" and "D" turrets, paired for stability, were on the centerline behind of the aft mast. "C" turret was mounted higher over "D" turret for maximum clearance with both facing the stern on the main deck. "E" turret was stationed on the portside aft of the amidships funnel and forward of the aft conning tower. Three of the five main turrets were on the center line for ocean-going stability.

This main turret placement provided near-maximum firepower with turrets A, C, D and E able to fire an eight-gun broadside to port and turrets A, B, C, and D firing the same broadside to starboard. If the battlecruiser needed to flee from a larger, heavier (and therefore slower) battleship she could fire eight guns aft (B, C, D, and E) against a ship that could, at most, only bring one or two of its main turrets to bear on the Moltke. If the battlecruiser was chasing an enemy cruiser, turrets A, B, and E could fire a six- gun, 11.1-inch volley forward against the fleeing vessel with her 6-inch gun array. The guns were an improved type although the range was initially less for the maximum elevation yielded only 13.5-degrees. After the Battle of Jutland (May-June 1916), SMS Moltke had the elevation of her 10 x 11.1-inch guns increased to 16-degrees and that, in turn, increased their range by 2,000 yards (6,000 feet, 1.12 miles).

The secondary guns that were mounted were 12 x 5.9" (15cm) SKL/45 150mm fast-firing guns. Their placement were through barbettes along the second deck with the crews protected by armor on the inside of the hull. Six guns were placed at portside and six on starboard and these could fire a broadside against smaller attacking surface ships making torpedo runs against Moltke's hull. One gun on the port and starboard sides could fire directly aft and forward if needed. For aircraft defense, a scant amount of 12 x 3.45" SKL/45 88mm Anti-Aircraft guns were placed onboard as built. Four were found on the forward conning tower (main bridge area), two on the rear tower, two more on the main deck forward (protecting the bridge), and the balance scattered along the available decks around the ship. 2 x 19.7" (500mm) submerged torpedo tubes were placed, one on the centerline below the bow firing forward and the other in a stern facing aft on the portside - twelve torpedoes were carried, three per launching station.

The "battlecruiser", as a naval warship classification, featured more armor than a traditional ocean-going cruiser though less than a battleship. Moltke's armored deck ranged in protection from 3.2" over the engine and ammunition spaces to 1" over areas needing less protection. To guard against torpedo attack, Blohm and Voss used Krupp steel for the 10.7" armored belt leading from "A" turret to "D" turret below the waterline. The belt armor was reduced in thickness to 4" close to the bow and stern. Bulkhead armor was 8" to 4" in thickness and AA batteries held 8" to 6" protection. The 6" gun barbettes followed suit with 9" armor in front thinning to 1.2" on the sides. The 11" main gun turrets were 9" thick on top to protect from plunging fire and on the curved front to deflect from horizontal fire. The armor on the back of the 11" turrets was 2.4" thick by the back door and the conning towers had a maximum of 14" to a minimum of 0.2" of Krupp armor plate.

Propulsion for the Moltke was 4 x coal-fired Schulz Thornycroft boilers that produced the steam required to operate the 4 x Parsons steam turbines. These used pressurized steam to generate rotary motion to drive the 4 x shafts below, each providing 85,782 horsepower (63,968 kW). The propeller blades were 12.3 feet (3.74m) in diameter. The steering gear was connected to 2 x rudders,one ahead of the other. As designed the turbines could make headway at 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h, 29.3 mph) with a maximum speed of 28.4 knots (52.6 km/h, 32.7 mph) for shorter distances. Her range depended on the coal carried and fed to the boilers as well as onboard fresh water supplies and food for the crew. Her coal bunkers could hold 1,100 tons standard and 3,300 tons of coal maximum. Added later were tanks for 200 tons of oil. Sortie ranges also depended on her fuel stores and weather - calm weather meant a steaming range of about 4,120 nautical miles (7,630 km, 4,740 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h, 16 mph) and a maximum operational range of 6,500 nautical miles (12,038 km 7,480 mi) at 10 knots.

Miscellaneous Design

The Moltke featured two heavy-duty lift cranes onboard, one on each side of the amidships funnel. Their purpose was to lower and lift supplies, from coal to food, in port as well as managing the two Captains gigs and two Pinnance boats stored opposite of turrets "B" and "E" when in open sea. Two smaller Quarter boats were hung on a pair of davits over the side of the ship opposite of the amidships funnel. The Captains gig were watercraft with smart lines used to take the Captain or other officers ashore and return them to the ship. The gig was 20 feet long and 3-to-6 feet wide and manned by 6 to 8 oars and a lig sail. The Pinnance measured 30 feet long, was rowed by 12 oars (6 per side) and was equipped with a pair of lig sails used to carry sailors to and from shore when the ship could not dock. The boats were not used as lifeboats as the crew varied from 1,000 to 1,350 men - simply not enough room. Instead, each man was issued a life jacket and rubber rafts were available for most.

World War 1 Service

After her sea trials, Molkte served as Admiral Hipper's flagship from May of 1912 to June of 1914. World War 1 officially began on July 28th, 1914, to which Moltke returned to the primary base of the High Seas Fleet in the North Sea - Wilhelmshaven, port of Cuxhaven, located on the mouth of the Elbe which served as a major base in the North Sea during World War 1 (1914-1918). Moltke then took part in the raid on Yarmouth, England on November 3rd, 1914, shelling the British North Seaport and town. She shelled the port base of Hartlepool on December 16th shortly after. During the shelling, she was hit in turn by a 6" shell from a British coastal gun causing little damage. On January 24th, 1915, she took part in the Battle of Dogger Bank (1915) and was forced to retire when the battleships HMS Lion and HMS Princess Royal fired on her.

For the next six months Moltke patrolled the North Sea when in August 1915 Moltke was assigned to support the attack on the Gulf of Riga (August 1915) in the Baltic Sea. During the attack, a British submarine sent a torpedo into her bow along the portside of her torpedo room. The hole could not be repaired until about 500 tons of water rushed into the ship - the blast itself killing eight. She started her pumps and found she could make about 15 knots so she was ordered to return to port for repairs under her own power. Her repairs kept her in port until June 1916 when she put to sea again with the High Seas Fleet in time to engage the British Home Fleet in the North Sea near Jutland, Denmark. The battle began on May 31st and lasted until June 1st, 1916 and became the largest naval action of World War 1. SMS Moltke engaged two British battlecruisers, HMS Tiger - the most heavily armored battlecruiser in the Royal Navy when the war started - and the Indefatigable-class battlecruiser HMS New Zealand. Moltke used her five turrets to fire 359 x 11" shells against the two British warships, hitting Tiger with 13 rounds. Moltke got the worst of the fire, receiving four hits on one of her 5.9in (15cm) guns causing casualties that amounted to sixteen dead and twenty wounded.

Again Moltke was required to return to Hamburg for repairs and this lasted for two months until the end of July 1916. Once she was repaired, Moltke was assigned to patrol the North Atlantic once more. In early 1917, Vice-admiral Ehrhard Schmidt chose her as his flagship and in October, as part of s Schmidt's fleet, she participated in the attack on the Baltic Islands. In November of 1917, she assisted at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. For the next four months, she patrolled the North Sea and then was assigned to the High Seas Fleet. During two days on April 23-24, 1918, the fleet made its last major sortie of the war when it attacked British-Scandinavian convoys. Moltke was to play a major role using her speed to locate the British ships. On the morning of April 24, Moltke's starboard inner propeller flew off causing the turbine to speed up and forcing the engine-turning gear to explode. This sent fragments into the auxiliary condenser and the damage allowed almost 2,000 tons of sea water to flood the middle engine room. The boilers were submerged with sea water forcing the engines to be stopped.

Moltke lay dead in the water while her divers were sent over the side of the stern to close the outer valves and stop incoming sea water. Moltke, unable to make power, was taken under tow back to port while her engine crew worked to regain power. The hard work was successful and, by 5:10pm the following day, the boilers and engines were operating and she was able to make way under her own power at 17kts. Moltke continued towards the repair docks while British submarine E42 was operating in the area. At around 10:30pm, E42 spotted Moltke and put one torpedo into her. The resulting hole in her side allowed 1,761 tons of water to flood, reducing her speed to 10kts but still allowing her to reach harbor under her own power. Her engines and damaged hull were repaired and she received a new propeller at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven. The work was completed on September 9th, 1918.

The End of the War

Moltke went back to sea and took part in training operations in the Baltic until October 3rd, 1918. The Germans knew the war was lost at this point but felt a favorable naval battle for the High Seas Fleet against the British Home Fleet would force the Allies to grant favorable terms to Germany in the end. On October 24th, 1918, the order was given to sail from Wilhelmshaven. That night word spread that the fleet was to be sacrificed in a last ditch battle and sailors began deserting their ships. Some crews mutinied, others refused to weigh anchor, and still others sabotaged the battleships Thuringen and Helgoland to keep them from making steam. On November 1st, Moltke was assigned as the I Scouting Group flagship for Rear Admiral Von Reuter and her crew remained loyal. The pressure mounted on the German Empire by this point in the war and, on November 11th, 1918, the Armistice was signed to officially end World War 1 - the Armistice signaled the end of the German Empire in history.

The Scuttling of the Moltke

On November 24th, 1918 Moltke with the High Seas Fleet was surrendered and interned at Scapa Flow, the home port of the British Home Fleet. On June 21st, 1919, with German crews still aboard, German fleet Rear Admiral von Reuter ordered the scuttling of the German High Seas Fleet so as not to have them fall into British hands - the Moltke sank in just 2.25 hours which, at low tide, the top of her superstructure was still visible. In 1927, Moltke was raised and eventually stripped of her useful components and scrapped in full during 1929 - thus ending her tenure on the high seas.


Armament of German Battlecruisers

28 cm/45 (11″) SK L/45 (1909)

Used to on the first German Dreadnoughts and the battlecruiser Von der Tann. This was enough to sink the HMS Indefatigable at Jutland. These guns, which exact bore was 28.3 cm (11.1″), were recycled as coastal artillery on the Atlantic wall during ww2. They were manufactured with an A tube, with two layers of hoops and a jacket ad were fitted with the Krupp horizontal sliding wedge breech block. The gun weighted 87,743 lbs. (39,800 kg). Its rpm was 3 rounds per minute on average. It fired either the APC L/3,2: 662.9 lbs. (300.7 kg) 2a or HE L/3,6 base fuze: 665.8 lbs. (302.0 kg) shell. Muzzle velocity was around 2,805 fps (855 mps).

28 cm/50 (11″) SK L/50 (1911)

Used on the next generation German battlecruisers of the Moltke en Seydlitz Classes. Amazing barrel life as Yavuz still fired in exercises in the 1960s.
For the first time, the mountings used electric pumps for elevation and the training was all electric. The charges were more powerful and range way better. Also used in coastal artillery in WW2.
Made from an A tube with two layers of hoops and a jacket, Krupp horizontal sliding wedge breech block. 36 were manufactured in all.
The gun weight was 91,491 lbs. (41,500 kg), rpm three rounds/minute, they fired either an APC or HE L/3,6 shell like the previous serie. Muzzle velocity was greater, 887 fps (880 mps).

30.5 cm/50 (12″) SK L/50 (1911)

Used on the Helgoland, Kaiser, König dreadnought classes and the German battlecruisers Derfflinger and Lützow. They claimed notably the HMS Queen Mary and HMS Invincible at Jutland.
The guns weighted 114,309 lbs. (51,850 kg) and they were manufactured by Krupp, shrunk on tubes and hoops with the usual horizontal sliding wedge breech block. Rate of fire was better at 2-3 rounds per minute. They used either the APC L/3,4: 892.9 lbs. (405.0 kg) 3a or the HE L/3,8: 892.9 lbs. (405.0 kg) shell with a Fore 76 lbs. (34.5 kg) RPC/12 and Main Charges of 201 lbs. (91 kg) RPC/12. Muzzle velocity was 2,805 fps (855 mps) and barrel life around 200 rounds.

Secondary armament: The standard 15cm

15 cm/45 (5.9″) SK L/45
This was the great standard for WW1 German battlecruisers and battleships:
An effective and reliable guns also declined into most German cruisers of this generation. It was even used in the first interwar German cruiser Emden equipped during WW2 famous merchant raiders and well as many coastal batteries of the Atlantic wall. Manufactured from an A tube and two layers of hoops with the horizontal sliding wedge breech block. Actual bore was 14.91 cm (5.87 in).

Tertiary armament: The ubiquitous 8,8cm

This famous light caliber gun, used over time in many variants, anti-TB and anti-air, had a better muzzle velocity at each iteration, notably due to increased barrel length. It notably far more powerful than the standard allied 3-in (75 mm) and was present in numbers in dreadnoughts as well as German battlecruisers.

8.8 cm/45 (3.46″) SK/LK/L L/45
The great standard tertiary gun of the German Navy. Its long evolution would led to the legendary, fearsome and ubiquitous tank/plane killer of WW2.
Replaced the 1890s L/30 model, it had similar performance for anti-torpedo warfare and was developed into Germany’s first AAA gun called Flak L/45. In the interwar it had the advantage of using the same same ammunition as the 8.8 cm/45 (3.4″) SK C/30 after modifications.
The gun weight was 5,512 lbs. (2,500 kg), 15 rpm, muzzle velocity 2,133 fps (650 mps), using the HE: 21.5 lbs. (9.75 kg) or 22.05 lbs. (10 kg) shell with a 6.6 lbs. (3.00 kg) RPC/12 charge.


Laststandonzombieisland

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take out every Wednesday for a look at the old steampunk/dieselpunk navies of the 1866-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week.

Warship Wednesday, November 7


Here we see the beautiful new battlecruiser SMS Goeben van die Kasierliche Marine. She was the second of two Moltke-class battlecruisers of the Imperial German Navy, launched in 1911 and named after the German Franco-Prussian War hero General August Karl von Goeben.

SMS Goeben with torpedo nets rolled up pre1914, Click to big up

She served only two years in the Kaiser’s navy officially before causing havoc and frustration in the Med while running from British and French warships on the outbreak of World War I. Her Admiral, William Souchon, made for Turkey where the ship was interned and then officially turned over to the Turkish Navy 16 August 1914, just over two weeks into the War. However, renamed the Yavuz Sultan Selim after Ottoman sultan Selim I, and with her German crew wearing Turkish fez, she became the flagship of the Ottoman Navy.

As such she pulled Turkey into the War when Souchon sailed across the Black Sea to bombard Russian ports. For the rest of the war she traded shots with the occasional Russian battleship, avoiding lurking British subs, and generally trying to just stay one step ahead of the Turks themselves.

Goeben and Breslau. Click to bigup

The Germans left in 1918 but the Selim remained. In 1936 she was renamed once again as the TCG Yavuz (“Ship of the Turkish Republic Yavuz“) since the old Ottoman name was passe.

Battlecruiser Yavuz (Yavuz Selim) in Bosporus ,1931. Click to bigup

Yavuz remained the flagship of the Turkish Navy until she was decommissioned in 1950. She was scrapped in 1973, after the West German government declined an invitation to buy her back from Turkey as a museum. She was the last surviving ship built by the Imperial German Navy, and the longest-serving battlecruiser or dreadnought-type ship in any navy, with some .


Specs:
Verplasing:

Design: 22,979 t (22,616 long tons)
Full load: 25,400 t (25,000 long tons)

Length: 186.6 m (612 ft 2 in)
Beam: 30 m (98 ft 5 in)
Draft: 9.2 m (30 ft 2 in)
Installed power:

Design: 52,000 hp (39,000 kW)
Maximum: 85,782 hp (63,968 kW)

Propulsion: 4 screws, Parsons steam turbines
Speed:

Design: 25.5 kn (47.2 km/h 29.3 mph)
Maximum: 28.4 kn (52.6 km/h 32.7 mph)

Range: 4,120 nmi (7,630 km 4,740 mi) at 14 kn (26 km/h 16 mph)
Complement: 43 officers
1,010 men

10 × 28 cm (11 in) SK L/50 guns (5 × 2)
12 × 15 cm (5.9 in) guns
12 × 8.8 cm (3.5 in) guns

Belt: 280–100 mm (11–3.9 in)
Barbettes: 230 mm (9.1 in)
Turrets: 230 mm
Deck: 76.2–25.4 mm (3–1 in)
Conning tower: 350 mm (14 in)