Edmund Dudley

Edmund Dudley

Edmund Dudley, die oudste seun van John Dudley en Elizabeth Bramshott Dudley is gebore in ongeveer 1462. Sy pa, 'n heer van Sussex en vrederegter, was die tweede seun van John Sutton, eers Baron Dudley, en broer van William Dudley, biskop van Durham. (1)


Dudley is opgelei aan die Universiteit van Oxford. Daarna betree hy Gray's Inn, een van die vier ou Inns of Court in Londen. Dit was die normale roete vir iemand wat belangstel in 'n loopbaan in die politiek: 'Dit word soms gesamentlik die Derde Universiteit van Engeland genoem, omdat jong mans nie net vir die regte opgelei is nie, maar ook geskiedenis geleer het ... Die opvoeding was besonder streng, soos wat dit bestaan ​​het in die studie van gevallestudies wat teruggekeer het na Magna Carta, en uiters komplekse geskille wat bedoel was om die beroepsvaardighede van studente te toets in die voorbereiding van ingewikkelde skrif en pleitstukke. " (2)

Volgens sy biograaf, SJ Gunn: "Daar (Gray's Inn) het hy 'n prominente rol gespeel in die leeroefeninge van die herberg. In die latere 1480's het hy die eerste bekende lesing in enige herberg op quo warranto gegee, die prosedure waarmee die koning die uitoefening van privaat jurisdiksies. So toon hy die belangstelling in die koning se regte, wat 'n kenmerk van sy loopbaan sou wees. " (3)

Edmund Dudley is verkies tot die parlement in 1491. In November 1496 is hy gekies as een van die twee onder-balju's van Londen, en in 1501 dien hy in 'n kommissie om die skending van die koning se feodale regte en voorregte in Sussex te ondersoek. In Januarie 1504 het Henry VII Dudley aangestel om as speaker van die Laerhuis te dien. Teen Julie 1506 was hy president van die koningsraad, die eerste leek wat die pos beklee het. In die komende jare het Edmund Dudley en Richard Empson die koning se mees dominante lede geword. (4)

Jasper Ridley het daarop gewys dat Dudley en Empson die belangrikste instrumente van die koning se finansiële beleid was: "Dit lyk asof hulle in die hele Engeland feitlik universeel gehaat is. Hulle word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle onwettig opgetree het toe hulle groot bedrae geld van ryk grondeienaars onder die erkenning afgedwing het. stelsel, en om nie net hierdie geld vir die koning te bekom nie, maar om hulself in die proses te verryk. " (5) Christopher Morris, die skrywer van Die Tudors (1955) het voorgestel dat Dudley die koning se mees "ongewilde en gewetenlose minister" was. (6)

Dudley se belangrikste rol was om geld vir die koning in te samel. 'Sy rekeninge, wat oorleef het met verskillende grade van volledigheid in ten minste vier vroeë sewentiende-eeuse transkripsies, strek van 9 September 1504 tot Mei 1508. Dit dui daarop dat sy rol was om die gebruik van 'n verskeidenheid verskillende geleenthede vir finansiële uitbuiting van die koning te bestuur. Hy verkoop kantore, afdelings en lisensies om met die weduwees van die huurders te trou; vergifnis vir verraad, sedisie, moord, oproer, aanhouding en ander oortredings. 11d. In kontant en effekte vir toekomstige betaling. Hy het ook die regte van die koning afgedwing en sy hulpbronne op 'n meer gespesialiseerde manier benut as hoofregter van die koninklike woude suid van die Trent. " (7)

Dudley word daarvan beskuldig dat hy sy posisie gebruik het om sy eie rykdom op te bou. Teen 1509 het hy 'n landgoed in sestien provinsies opgebou, ter waarde van ongeveer £ 550 per jaar bruto, plus £ 5,000 of meer in goedere. Hy het 'n dosyn rentmeesterskap van kroongoedere gekry. Die meeste van sy geld kom uit omkoopgeld rakende regsake. Dudley en Empson was 'gegrief en wantrouig deur die biskoppe en die ouer adel'. (8) Historici het die afgelope jare 'n bietjie meer ontdek oor die aktiwiteite van Dudley en Empson. "Dit lyk asof sommige van hierdie nuwe materiaal dit tot 'n mate regverdig, of ten minste om aan te toon dat alles wat hulle gedoen het, deur die wet van Engeland geregverdig is. Ander dokumente bevestig hul metodes." (9)

Henry VII sterf op 21 April 1509, maar die feit is eers die aand van die 23ste bekend gemaak. Die volgende dag is Dudley en Empson gearresteer en na die Tower of London gestuur. Daar word beweer dat hy ná die dood van Henry saamgesweer het om 'n staatsgreep te hou. Soos Roger Lockyer aangevoer het: "Empson en Dudley is verhoor op grond van verraad ... 'n Gebrek aan dankbaarheid was een van die mees tipiese kenmerke van Henry." (10) Die belangrikste bedoeling van Henry VIII was om die 'afkeuring en omkering van die onderdrukkende beleid waarmee hulle geïdentifiseer word' voor te stel. (11) Die nuwe koning verklaar ook 'n amnestie teen sekere boetes wat die aristokrasie opgelê is. (12)

Edmund Dudley is op 17 Augustus 1510 by Tower Hill onthoof.

By die dood van Henry VII het Dudley baie vyande en min vriende gehad, selfs onder sy mede -raadslede. Henry is laat op 21 April 1509 oorlede, maar die feit is eers die aand van die 23ste bekend gemaak. Vroeg op die 24ste is Dudley en Empson gearresteer en na die Tower of London gestuur, die skuld vir die onderdrukking van die laat bewind. Dudley is in Julie in Londen verhoor en skuldig bevind op verraad op 18, die aanklag was dat hy op 22 April 'n sameswering gehad het om 'die koning en sy raad te hou, te lei en te regeer' deur 'n mag van manne na Londen te roep onder leiding van verskillende genoemde medewerkers. Hy het moontlik die mans ontbied, 'n verstandige en moontlik wydverspreide voorsorgmaatreël in 'n tyd van politieke onsekerheid, maar dit is hoogs onwaarskynlik dat hy so 'n staatsgreep bedoel het. In die parlement van 1510, toe verskeie statute hom die skuld gegee het vir die ongeregtighede van die vorige regime, het 'n wetsontwerp om hom en Empson te onderteken die gemeentelede geslaag, maar dit het in die Here nie gefaal nie. Onbewus van die mislukking daarvan, het Dudley 'n onsuksesvolle poging aangewend om uit die toring te ontsnap.

Sy lot is uiteindelik besleg toe Henry VIII se vordering hom in die somer van 1510 deur die middellande neem. Dudley is op 17 Augustus 1510 op Tower Hill onthoof en begrawe by die Blackfriars in Londen.

Dudley het 'n maklike sondebok gemaak vir Henry VII se afwykings. Sekerlik het hy sy posisie as die uitvoerende gesag van die koning uitgebuit, maar die meeste van Henry se ander raadslede het dit in 'n mindere mate gedoen. Daar is baie tekens dat die algemene vorm van beleid die koning s'n was.

Anne Boleyn - Godsdienshervormer (antwoordkommentaar)

Het Anne Boleyn ses vingers aan haar regterhand? 'N Studie in Katolieke propaganda (antwoordkommentaar)

Waarom was vroue vyandig teenoor Henry VIII se huwelik met Anne Boleyn? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Elizabeth Barton en Henry VIII (Antwoordkommentaar)

Teregstelling van Margaret Cheyney (antwoordkommentaar)

Pelgrimstog van genade (antwoordkommentaar)

Robert Aske (antwoordkommentaar)

Ontbinding van die kloosters (antwoordkommentaar)

Joan Bocher - Anabaptist (antwoordkommentaar)

Anne Askew - Burnt at the Stake (antwoord kommentaar)

Armoede in Tudor Engeland (antwoordkommentaar)

Waarom het koningin Elizabeth nie getrou nie? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Henry VIII (Antwoordkommentaar)

Francis Walsingham - Kodes en kodebreek (antwoordkommentaar)

Mary Tudor and Heretics (Commentary Commentary)

Sir Thomas More: Heilig of Sondaar? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Hans Holbein se kuns en godsdienstige propaganda (antwoordkommentaar)

Hans Holbein en Henry VIII (Antwoordkommentaar)

1517 Oproere op 1 Mei: Hoe weet historici wat gebeur het? (Antwoord kommentaar)

(1) S. Gunn, Edmund Dudley: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) Geoffrey Moorhouse, Die pelgrimstog van genade (2002) bladsy 66

(3) S. Gunn, Edmund Dudley: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(4) David Starkey, Die bewind van Henry VIII (1985) bladsy 40

(5) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) bladsy 36

(6) Christopher Morris, Die Tudors (1955) bladsy 56

(7) S. Gunn, Edmund Dudley: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(8) Peter Ackroyd, Tudors (2012) bladsy 4

(9) Jasper Ridley, Henry VIII (1984) bladsy 36

(10) Roger Lockyer, Tudor en Stuart Brittanje (1985) bladsy 17

(11) David Starkey, Ses vroue: die koninginne van Henry VIII (2003) bladsy 108

(12) Antonia Fraser, Die ses vroue van Henry VIII (1992) bladsy 50


ExecutedToday.com

17 Augustus 2011 Hoofman

Op hierdie datum in 1510 het die nuwe koning Henry VIII sy pa se mees gehate tollenaars onthoof op Tower Hill.

Toe Henry Tudor Bosworth Field verower om uit die Oorlog van die Roses as koning Henry VII te kom, het hy die bagasie saamgebring om die seun van 'n Walliese eekhoring te wees.

Sy wankelrige legitimiteit stel die pasgebore Tudor -dinastie bloot aan eksistensiële bedreigings van elke kwartaal, selfs as vermeende bondgenote teen hom sou verskyn.

Henry het gevolglik na elke geleentheid gesoek om die mag te sentraliseer weg van instellings wat hom en in sy eie hande kon bekyk of bedreig, en nie meer berug nie as op die gebied van belasting.* Aggressiewe invordering van belasting sal nie net die kroon herstel nie. tesourie sou dit sy eie omvang van aksie verbreed.

Of Henry se historiese reputasie vir cupiditeit welverdiend is, is 'n onderwerp wat buite die omvang van hierdie webwerf is, maar die feit dat hy wel so 'n reputasie het, kan in geringe mate toegeskryf word aan die huidige spelers.

Hierdie twee persone, wetlike prokureurs, en gesaghebbende raadslede, aangesien die korrupsie van die beste dinge die ergste is, het wet en geregtigheid in als en verkooltjie verander. En hulle het teen die einde nie net soos die halwe gesig van geregtigheid in ag geneem nie, maar het hulle voorskrifte uitgestuur om mense te heg en hulle voor hulself, en sommige ander, by hul privaat huise in 'n kommissieraad en daar was 'n opsomming van 'n opsomming deur die ondersoek, sonder dat 'n jurieverhoor daar by hulself aangeneem het om beide die pleidooie van die kroon en die burgerlike geskille te hanteer. Toe gebruik hulle ook om die vakke ’ -lande met ingewikkelde ampstermyn in te haal en aan te kla, deur valse ampte te vind, en daardeur te werk vir afdelings, lewerings, premier seisin en vervreemdings. , sou hulle hulle nie toelaat om hul handelinge van vergifnis te koop nie, behalwe as hulle groot en ondraaglike bedrae betaal het wat op die streng regspunt staan, wat by die outlawies verbeuring van goedere gee, nee, in stryd met alle wet en kleur, het hulle volgehou die koning behoort het die helfte van die lande en huurgeld vir mans gedurende die volle twee jaar vir 'n pyn in die geval van outlawy. Hulle sou ook met jurielede uitlok en hulle dwing om te vind soos hulle sou beveel, en as hulle dit nie gedoen het nie, klooster [ontbied] hulle, sit hulle in die tronk en beboet hulle. Hierdie en vele ander kursusse, wat geskik was om begrawe te word as herhaal, het die mense voorgekry, soos mak haaie vir hul meester, en soos wilde valke vir hulleself, in die mate dat hulle tot groot rykdom en rykdom gegroei het.

–Francis Bacon ‘s Geskiedenis van die regering van koning Hendrik die Sewende

Richard Empson en Edmund Dudley was twee magtige parlementariërs van minder as 'n heerlike gestalte wat tot hierdie slegte polisie-rol verhef is vanweë hul lojaliteit en aanleg. Daar het hulle weerligstrale geword vir openbare wrok. Dit is 'n pad wat eens 'n Franse eweknie van die gewone voorraad na die staatsklere geneem het (nadat sy beskermheer monarg gesterf het) die steier. Empson en Dudley het dit presies getrap.

Selfs in die leeftyd van Henry het sy nuut indringende belasting 'n vreeslike openbare reaksie in gevaar gestel.

Die voorgee Perkin Warbeck het Henry geklop vir die rooftogte, afpersings, die daaglikse pilling van die mense deur dismes [tiendes], take [bydraes], langages [tol], welwillendhede en ander onwettige opleggings en ernstige opdragte en#8221 wat hy opgelê het, “ aangenaam vir die gemeenheid van sy geboorte. ” Belasting terugslag het gehelp om ten minste 'n paar van Warbeck se gewilde steun te genereer.

Teen die skemer van Henry ’s se bewind in die eerste dekade van die 1500's, het hy hierdie bedreigings onder die knie gekry en kon hy voordeel trek uit politieke rustigheid om werklik op sy boekhouding te fokus. En hy het agtergekom dat hy deur die handhawing van reeds bestaande heffings die gevaarlike konfrontasies te vermy wat die parlement kan oproep om te vra Dit vir geld. Dit is veral uit hierdie tydperk dat hy sy historiese Ebenezer Scrooge -beeld kry, en die hulpmiddel wat hy daarvoor gebruik het, Council Council in the Law, het sy uiterste ongewildheid gekry.

Henry sterf in April 1509 op 52 -jarige ouderdom en laat sy seun Henry VIII 'n oorvol skatkis en talle griewe teen die tollenaars wat dit laat gebeur het.

Soos die Raad geleer het wat die voorste ligte is, het Empson en Dudley, die koning se lang arms waarmee hy wat sy was, dadelik teikens geword toe hul koninklike beskermer in die grond was. Hulle is voor die greenhorn -koning en die Privy Council gegroet om hulself te regverdig binne enkele dae na Henry VII se dood.

Interessant genoeg, want 'n koninklike vergiffenis het alle misdade vergewe behalwe vir misdaad, moord en verraad, en die wangedrag van hierdie twee raadslede wie se werklike oortreding onwrikbare lojaliteit teenoor die laaste soewerein was, moet eerder oordryf word fantastiese beskuldigings van verraad om versoekers daarteen te bevredig, terwyl onnodige verleentheid vir die ontslape koning of die ander assistente wat hom gedien het, vermy word.

In die jaar of wat het hy in die kerker gelê en wag op sy lot, en die meeste onkundig, en in woordeliks vexacon en trowble, ook met die droewige en bittere herinnering aan die dood, ” Edmund Dudley het 'n verhandeling regs geskryf reëling van 'n samelewing wat toegewy is aan die jong nuwe meester wat die lewe van Dudley in sy hande gehou het. Die Boom van Statebond kan hier gelees word.

Yale -professor Keith Wrightson stel 'n interessante lesing bekend: Early Modern England: Politics, Religion and Society under the Tudors and Stuarts ” — with Dudley ’s Boom van Statebond sosiale skema.

Onthou albei, want elkeen floreer nou,
op voorwaarde siek gekry,
Empson & Dudleys -saak bestaan,
as hulle hang ’d, dood, & vrot

-Van 'n koloniale Virginia-ballade uit die 18de eeu met die titel “Remonstrance ”, wat hierdie datum se eeue oue teregstelling vergelyk met 'n hedendaagse politikus (Richard Beale Davis, “The Colonial Virginia Satirist: Mid-Eighteenth Century Commentaries on Politics, Religion , en die samelewing, ” Transaksies van die American Philosophical Society, Vol. 57, nr. 1 (1967))

Opdateer: Die History of England podcast dek hierdie twee ouens hier.

* Die frase “Morton ’s vurk ” kom van Henry se ekstraktiewe bewerkings. Die oorspronklike dilemma, vernoem na sy kanselier John Morton, was 'n kroon waarmee belastingbetalers vasgesteek is: diegene wat hoog op die vark woon, moet betaal, aangesien hulle duidelik genoeg het om te spaar beskeie was ook gemaak om te betaal, want hulle moes genoeg spaar om te spaar.


Top 10 koppe wat tydens die bewind van Henry VIII gerol het

Tydens die bewind van Henry VIII, tussen 1509 en 1547, het 'n geskatte 57 000 [bron: The Tudors] en 72 000 [bron: Historic Royal Palaces] Engelse onderdane kop verloor. Dit was 'n gewelddadige tyd in die geskiedenis, maar Henry VIII was moontlik besonder bloeddorstig en het tienduisende tereggestel tydens sy bewind van 36 jaar. Ter vergelyking, het die dogter wat hom op die troon opgevolg het, wat 'Bloody Mary' genoem word, minder as 300 mense gedood tydens haar ses jaar as koningin.

Miskien is een van die hoofredes vir Henry VIII se bekendheid nie die omvang van moorde nie, maar eerder die omstredenheid daaroor. Henry VIII was die voorsitter van die Engelse Hervorming, 'n tydperk van groot verandering wat gekenmerk word deur Engeland se breuk uit die Katolieke Kerk. Die moeilikheid het begin toe Henry met die weduwee van sy ouer broer, Catherine van Aragon, 'n lid van die Spaanse koninklike familie, getroud is.

Na jare se huwelik wou Henry van Catherine skei. Sy het verskeie doodgeboortes en 'n handjievol kindersterftes gely en het geen seun gebaar nie. Henry het 'n obsessie gehad om 'n erfgenaam te kry om die geslagslyn van Tudor voort te sit, en hy het homself uiteindelik oortuig dat sy huwelik met Catherine 'n sonde was in die oë van God. Hy het selfs geglo dat die sonde van die vakbond die rede was waarom sy wettige manlike kinders aanhou sterf het. Daarom het hy 'n nietigverklaring van die kerk verkry op grond van die bevel dat 'n man nooit met sy broer se vrou kan trou nie. Die probleem was dat dit die pous was wat die huwelik in die eerste plek goedgekeur het, op grond van die eed van Catherine dat haar huwelik met Henry se broer nooit voltrek is nie.

Wat gevolg het, was 'n politieke en godsdienstige fiasko. Uiteindelik het Henry die Katolieke Kerk uitgedryf en homself gevestig as die hoof van die Church of England, God se verteenwoordiger op aarde. Hy skei van Catherine en trou met sy minnares, Anne Boleyn, in die hoop om 'n seun te kry. In die proses om hierdie enkele doelwit te bereik, beveel Henry die onthoofding van sommige van die voorste politieke geeste van die dag, 'n paar kardinale van die Kerk, ten minste een non, 'n paar van sy ses vroue en tallose lede van die koninklike hof wat die suiwerheid van sy motiewe bevraagteken het.

Met tienduisende koppe aan die rol, is mense tereggestel vir 'n wye verskeidenheid misdade. In hierdie artikel kyk ons ​​na tien van die belangrikste teregstellings van Henry se bewind, begin met die onthoofding wat hy beveel het onmiddellik by die beveiliging van die troon. As een van sy eerste optredes as koning, beveel Henry die teregstelling van twee van sy pa se voorste adviseurs, die berugte Dudley en Empson.

10. Edmund Dudley en Richard Empson

1510 uitgevoer

Henry VIII se pa, Henry VII, was nie 'n baie gewilde koning nie. Die primêre doel van sy regering was om rykdom te versamel om die uiteindelike mag van die monargie te versterk. Om hierdie doel te bereik, het sy finansiële raad in wese geld van onderdane gesteel onder die voorwendsel van verskillende belasting en fooie. Twee van die magtigste manne in hierdie raad was Edmund Dudley en sir Richard Empson. Hierdie twee mans het simbole geword van die finansiële plundering wat die heerskappy van Henry VII toegedien het.

Die mense van Engeland verag hierdie manne wat verantwoordelik gehou is vir Henry VII se beleid. Onmiddellik na die dood van Henry VII en die opvolging van Henry VIII, het die nuwe koning 'n stap geneem om sy gewildheid en sy beeld as 'n koning van die volk te verseker. Hy het wankelrige bewyse gevind dat Dudley en Empson geld verduister het, dat sy hof hulle skuldig bevind het en dat Henry hulle onthoof het. Hulle sterf in openbare teregstellings in 1510.

Terwyl Henry VIII sy bewind as 'n gewilde monarg begin het, was hy nie sonder sy magtige politieke vyande nie. Die volgende twee mans op die lys is dood omdat hulle van koninklike geslag was en redelike aansprake op Henry se troon kon maak.

1513 uitgevoer

Koning Richard III, Henry VII se voorganger, was 'n lid van die Engelse York -familie. Henry Tudor, van 'n belangrike koninklike geslag aan sy moeder se kant, het in 1485 'n geveg teen die koning gelei om die troon te neem. Richard III sterf op die slagveld, en Henry Tudor word koning Henry VII.

Edmund de la Pole was van sy familie aan die moeder van sy familie: sy ma was Richard III se suster. Aangesien koning Richard III sonder erfgenaam gesterf het, sou die kroon by die de la Poles beland het as Henry VII nie die troon sou opeis nie - Richard het sy neef Edmund as sy opvolger aangewys.

As 'n wettige bedreiging vir die Tudor -monargie, sou de la Pole in gevaar gewees het, selfs al sou hy nie die stap geneem het om Henry VII te probeer omverwerp nie. Hy het Engeland na Nederland verlaat, waar hy tydelik die steun van die keiser Maximilian gekry het in sy strewe om die gegooi te herwin. Maar Henry VII het uiteindelik 'n ooreenkoms met die keiser aangegaan, en Maximilian het sy steun teruggetrek. By sy terugkeer na Engeland het de la Pole hom as 'n verraaier bestempel.

Om sy eie lewe te red, het de la Pole hom oorgegee aan Henry VII se seun, prins Henry, wat beloof het om hom bloot in die tronk te sit. Hy het sy belofte nagekom totdat hy sy pa op die troon opgevolg het. Om homself as koning te beskerm, beveel Henry VIII de la Pole in 1513 onthoof.

Maar dit was nie die einde van die Yorks nie. Henry VIII het ernstige opposisie ondergaan van 'n ander man, 'n gewilde edele en magtige politikus. Edward Stafford, hertog van Buckingham, het sy lot verseël toe hy te veel van sy aanspraak op die Engelse troon gepraat het.

Edward Stafford was van koninklike bloed, 'n afstammeling van koning Edward III. Hy was magtig in die hof van Henry VIII, hy het die kroon gedra by Henry se kroning en hy was gewild onder die mense. Stafford het ook in 1497 'n geveg teen Cornish -rebelle op die Engelse platteland gewen [bron: Luminarium] en is beskou as 'n groot militêre leier. Henry VIII was nie.

Roeringe by die hof het egter sy vriendskap met Henry beëindig toe mense begin fluister oor Stafford se aanspraak op die troon. Die koning het Stafford langs die kantlyn gesit, en Stafford het teruggeveg. Hy het die sentrale figuur geword waarom baie gemarginaliseerde edeles bymekaargekom het, en hy was 'n stem van opposisie teen die koning.

Stafford is moontlik eenvoudig geïgnoreer of in die tronk gesit, as daar nie 'n gerug was wat in 1521 verskyn het nie. Mense het gesê Stafford praat oor die dood van die koning. Sommige beweer dat hulle gehoor het hoe Stafford visioene van Henry se afsterwe beskryf. Henry se destydse topadviseur, die magtige kardinaal Wolsey, het Stafford gehaat en die koning aangemoedig om die beskuldigings ernstig op te neem.

Nadat Henry self getuies ondervra het, moes Henry oortuig gewees het van die beskuldigings omdat hy Stafford daardie jaar onthoof het weens verraad. Henry VIII het nooit weer 'n ernstige aanspraak op sy troon gehad nie.

Die bedreigings vir sy beleid het egter gedurende sy bewind voortgeduur. Dit het 'n algemene gebruik geword toe hy begin het om sy huwelik met Catherine van Aragon te vernietig. Een bron van beduidende protes kom uit 'n onwaarskynlike bron, 'n jong dienskneg wat beweer het dat hy bonatuurlike insig het. Henry gee nie om vir haar mistieke visioene nie.

1534 uitgevoer

Elizabeth Barton was 'n jong, nederige bediende toe sy die eerste keer naam gemaak het as 'n mistikus. Op negentienjarige ouderdom het sy siek geword, en in haar siekte het sy visioene begin kry. In 1525, met Henry VIII se strewe om toestemming van die pous te kry om in volle swang met Anne Boleyn te trou, het Barton se visioene bonatuurlike bewys geword van God se wil: Henry sou nie met Anne trou nie.

Sommige mense het gedink dat sy eenvoudig mal was, ander het geglo dat haar visioene die gevolg was van haar siekte, en ander het geglo dat sy 'n kanaal vir God is. Haar meester, die aartsbiskop van Canterbury, het in die laaste groep geval. Hy het Barton in 'n klooster gekry, waar sy 'n non geword het en so 'n mate van legitimiteit bereik het. In die loop van die volgende tien jaar het haar visioene sterker geword en dreig dit toenemend vir Henry se bewering dat sy begeerte om met Catherine te skei op 'n wettige godsdienstige prinsipaal gebaseer was.

Barton se visioene oor die gevolge van die strewe van die koning het uiteindelik so onheilspellend geword dat dit as verraad beskou is. Sy is in hegtenis geneem en onder intense ondervraging het sy erken dat sy alles vervals het. Sy is in 1534 onthoof. Daar is nooit eenstemmigheid bereik oor die vraag of haar visioene goddelik geïnspireer is of die gevolg was van 'n onrustige gemoed nie. Tot vandag toe gee die Katolieke Kerk 'n mate van vertroue aan die skynbare mistiek van Barton [bron: Catholic Encyclopedia].

Barton is net een van die vele volgehoue ​​Katolieke wat kop verloor het toe Henry VIII 'n egskeiding wou doen. Kardinaal John Fisher het 'n martelaar en 'n heilige geword toe hy geweier het om die Supremacy Act te ondersteun wat Henry VIII die hoof van die kerk gemaak het en die Erfreg wat Anne Boleyn die wettige koningin van Engeland gemaak het.

1535 uitgevoer

Henry VIII en kardinaal Wolsey het na John Fisher gegaan toe hulle die eerste keer die idee gekry het om die koning se huwelik te vernietig. Fisher was 'n priester, 'n kardinaal en belydenis van Henry VII se ma voor haar dood. Hy stig die St John's College in Cambridge. Hy word wyd gerespekteer in Europa as teoloog nadat hy werke gepubliseer het waarin Luther se beweging die Katolieke Kerk hervorm het. Toe Henry en Wolsey hom om advies nader, was hy duidelik: 'n nietigverklaring sou in stryd met die wil van God wees.

Hulle het in elk geval voortgegaan, en Fisher het nooit in sy opposisie toegegee nie. Hy verdedig Catherine openlik en maak groot probleme vir Henry. Toe die Supremacy Act in 1534 aangeneem is, weier Fisher, met sir Thomas More (lees verder) aan sy sy, om die vereiste eed af te lê omdat dit 'n afwysing van pouslike gesag was. Hulle is na die Tower of London, die stad se gevangenis, gestuur, waar hulle gewag het om uit te vind wat Henry met hulle sou doen. Dit was hierna dat die pous Fisher 'n kardinaal gemaak het. Henry neem dit as 'n klap in die gesig, en Fisher se lot is verseël.

Visser is tydens sy gevangenisstraf meermale voor die koningsraad gesleep, en hy het altyd geweier om oor die oppergesagwet te praat. Uiteindelik, onder die dekmantel om Fisher te ondervra oor die daad van die rekord, het Henry se hoofraad Fisher laat sê dat Henry nooit die opperheerser van die kerk kan wees nie. Die onlangs uitgevaardigde wet op oppergesag en verraad het die ontkenning van die koning se oppergesag tot 'n daad van verraad gemaak. Kardinaal John Fisher is in 1535 onthoof. Die Katolieke Kerk het hom 400 jaar later 'n heilige gemaak.

Die Supremacy Act wat Henry se huwelik nietig verklaar het, het die deur vir hom oopgemaak om aan elke huweliksbegeerte te voldoen. Hy trou ná nog vyf vroue. Hy het sy tweede en vyfde vrou laat onthoof. Catherine Howard was vrou nommer vyf, en haar misdaad was baie minder polities as Fisher se.

1542 uitgevoer

Henry VIII trou met Catherine Howard nadat hy sy vierde huwelik met Anne van Cleves nietig verklaar het. Henry het nooit van Anne of Cleves gehou nie - dit was 'n polities gemotiveerde huwelik wat deur Thomas Cromwell gereël is, en sy was blykbaar huislik. Cromwell het met sy loopbaan vir sy swak oordeel betaal. Henry trou met Catherine ongeveer twee weke nadat Anne uit die prentjie was. Die Howards was 'n magtige gesin in Henry se hof, met invloed en hoë aansien. Dit lyk asof Catherine goed pas, en dit het twee jaar geneem voordat Catherine se vieslike verlede haar inhaal.

Aangesien dinge so gereeld by die hof gebeur het, het dit met 'n gerug begin. Hierdie een was egter waar. Dit het gelyk asof Catherine Howard geliefdes gehad het voor Henry. Die koning het dit nie geweet toe hy met haar getrou het nie, en hy is verneder toe die waarheid na vore kom. Om die saak te vererger, het die koningin een van haar voorhuwelikse minnaars aangestel om haar sekretaris te wees. Volgens gerugte het die aangeleentheid voortgeduur na haar huwelik met die koning.

Die egbreuk -aspek van die aanklag is nooit bewys nie, maar dit het nie saak gemaak nie. Toe Henry verneem dat hy met 'n nie -maagd getroud is, het die parlement 'n wet laat aanneem waarin dit onredelik is dat 'n onkuise vrou met die koning trou. Catherine Howard is onmiddellik onthoof weens verraad.

Henry het ook die oom van Catherine laat onthoof, maar om heeltemal ander redes. Henry Howard was die slagoffer van hoflike leuens, die gevolg van 'n magstryd tussen twee van die magtigste gesinne van die hof, die Howards en die Seymours.

1547 uitgevoer

Henry se hof was 'n konstante posisie vir die guns van die koning. Henry se hangers het altyd om mag geworstel, en Henry Howard, graaf van Surrey, het sy lewe verloor toe die Seymours bedreig gevoel het.

Jane Seymour was Henry se derde vrou. Sy sterf kort nadat hulle getroud is, maar om Henry 'n wettige erfgenaam te gee, het gehelp om die mag van Seymours te behou. Maar die Howards het ook die koning se oor gehad. Die vader van Henry Howard is deur Elizabeth Blount toevertrou aan die opvoeding van Henrys VIII se buite -egtelike seun. Een teken van guns by die hof was 'n trou aan koninklike huwelike, en daar was sprake van twee moontlike vryers vir Henry se jong dogter, prinses Mary. Die een was 'n Seymour, Jane se broer, die ander was Henry Howard. Dit het die weg gebaan vir 'n geveg.

Die Seymours het aan die koning gesê dat Howard stilweg die Katolieke ondersteun het in 'n opstand teen die oppergesag in 1536. Howard het eintlik teen die rebelle geveg, maar die beskuldiging het hom steeds twee jaar in die tronk laat beland. Nadat hy uitgekom het, het hy moeilikheid vir die Seymours begin maak, probeer om 'n huwelik tussen sy suster en een van die Seymours te blokkeer en verskillende beskuldigings te maak wat die lojaliteit van Seymours aan die koning bevraagteken.

Die Seymours slaan hul laaste hou: hulle beskuldig Howard weer daarvan dat hy die Katolieke ondersteun het, maar hierdie keer het hulle sy suster teen hom laat getuig. Sy het op die tribune erken dat haar broer in werklikheid 'n toegewyde Katoliek was. Dit word beskou as 'n verwerping van die koning se oppergesag. Die Seymours kombineer hierdie getuienis met die feit dat Henry Howard se pa 'n aanspraak op die troon gehad het voordat Henry VIII koning geword het (hoewel hy nooit daarvoor geveg het nie), en hulle het die koning, wat op daardie stadium baie siek was, oortuig dat die Howards bedoel om die troon te verower.

Henry Howard, graaf van Surrey, is in 1547 onthoof, dieselfde jaar as wat die koning gesterf het. Dit was Henry VIII se laaste teregstelling. Howard het digbundels geskryf terwyl hy in die gevangenis was, en uiteindelik die vorm geskep wat uiteindelik die Shakespeare -sonnet genoem sou word [bron: Britannica].

Die Howards en die Seymours was magtig, maar hulle was niks in vergelyking met Thomas Cromwell, die hoofadviseur van die koning tydens die suksesvolle wegbreek van die Katolieke Kerk nie. Cromwell het agt jaar lank die koning se oor gehad - 'n lang tyd in die wêreld van Henry VIII. Hy verloor sy kop eers nadat hy daarin geslaag het waar alle ander misluk het.

1540 uitgevoer

Thomas Cromwell was die hoofadviseur van die koning van 1532 tot 1540. Dit was hy wat uiteindelik daarin geslaag het om die koning te skei. Dit is moontlik dat Cromwell die brein was agter die hele Engelse Hervorming [bron: Britannica].

Cromwell het oorgeneem na kardinaal Wolsey se val uit genade. Cromwell was 'n politikus, uit die parlement gebring om die koning te dien. Hy het volle mag bereik toe hy 'n manier uitvind om Henry se huwelik met Catherine te kanselleer sonder die toestemming van die pous: Verwyder die pous se mag uit Engeland. Cromwell het daarin geslaag om die parlement die wet van oppergesag te laat aanvaar wat Henry die hoof van die kerk gemaak het. Hy het kloosters ontbind en die belasting wat aan Rome betaal is, weggedoen. Hy het die katolisisme effektief uit Engeland verwyder en Engeland as 'n soewereine staat gevestig.

Met die bedrewe manoeuvre van Cromwell kon die koning Catherine verlaat en met Anne Boleyn trou. As die huwelik nie ontplof het nie, het Cromwell moontlik sy posisie behou. Maar soos dit blyk, het hy 'n groot fout begaan: Na die dood van Henry se derde vrou, Jane Seymour, het Cromwell Henry oortuig om te trou met Anne van Cleves, uit Duitse koninklike afkoms, om politieke redes. Henry kon Anne nie verdra nie, en hy het die huwelik byna onmiddellik vernietig. Dit was die begin van Crowell se einde.

Die slegte huwelik het Cromwell van die koning geskei, en Cromwell se vyande (hy was 'n politikus, so hy het baie gehad) het begin werk. Terwyl hy gewerk het om die invloed van die Rooms -Katolisisme uit Engeland te verwyder, het Cromwell hom af en toe in lyn gebring met die Lutherane, wat 'n beroep op hervorming in die Katolieke Kerk gedoen het. The Lutherans were considered heretics, and Henry had published papers denouncing them. Even after the break from the Church, Lutheranism was against English law. After Cromwell lost the king's support, his enemies used this connection to the Lutherans to convince the king that Cromwell was a heretic.

Thomas Cromwell was beheaded for heresy in 1540. He never received a trial.

Cromwell was a powerful man during the reign of Henry VIII. But the next execution on the list did away with one of the most noted individuals in all of English history: Thomas More.

Executed 1535

Thomas More was a noted humanist, lawyer, theologian, historian, philosopher, statesman and devout Catholic. He wrote "Utopia," a famous work of humanist principles that was read by every learned member of English society, and is still part of the cannon in universities. Shakespeare based his play "Richard III" on More's book "History of King Richard III." This accomplished and respected man became one of Henry VIII's advisors in 1518.

Leading up to the Supremacy Act of 1534, More tried to support the king as much as he could without betraying his religious beliefs. On at least one occasion, he was the king's spokesman in Parliament regarding the break from the Church. He did not, ultimately, stand in Henry's way, but he stayed true to his convictions. He didn't attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn, and he refused to swear to the Acts of Supremacy and Succession. The former offense angered the king, but the latter was an act of treason.

More's fall was swift. He was charged with conspiring with Elizabeth Barton, the nun whose visions so incensed the king. But a letter turned up that absolved him: He had written to Barton telling her to stay out of the king's business. When called on to swear to the Supremacy Act, More allowed that Henry was the supreme leader of the church but said he couldn't take the actual oath because it included a statement against the pope. More was taken to the Tower of London. He didn't much mind it, the prison life suiting his asceticism [source: Britannica]. In 1535, he was beheaded for treason. His head sat on display on London Bridge for a month after his death [source: Catholic Encyclopedia].

While imprisoned, More wrote the book "A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation," viewed as a masterpiece of religious literature [source: Britannica]. More was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1935, the same year as John Fisher.

Finally, we get to one of the most ironic executions of Henry's reign. Anne Boleyn died by the same law that allowed her to become queen.

Executed 1536

Anne Boleyn was a young lady-in-waiting to the queen when Henry first noticed her. He was married to Catherine of Aragon at the time, and displeased with his lack of a male heir. The Boleyn family pushed Anne to exploit his attention. The rest is history.

Anne most likely would've been a mere mistress were it not for the legitimate heir factor and her own ambitions: She was determined to be queen. That, and Henry VIII actually fell in love with her. His divorce from Catherine slowly became more about marrying Anne than about having a son. In 1527, Henry started speaking quietly about getting rid of Catherine. In 1534, he granted himself the annulment, but he had actually married Anne the year before.

Anne was not well liked in Henry's court, especially after she became queen and she soon lost the king's love. She didn't give him a son in their first few years of marriage (although she did produce a daughter), and another young lady-in-waiting soon caught Henry's attention. He wanted to marry Jane Seymour. In his quest to marry Anne, and in satisfying her desire to be queen, Henry had already succeeded in making himself the sole decision maker in matters of marriage and divorce. There was nothing to stand in the way when he fell out of love with Anne.

Of course, he needed a good reason for the divorce so he wouldn't lose the support of the people (any more than he already had). Thomas Cromwell produced one: Anne had committed adultery with several men, including her brother. The charge was almost certainly false. There was no evidence to support it. But Cromwell was in charge of the court, and she was found guilty. Anne Boleyn was beheaded in 1536, two years after the king removed the pope's influence from England so their marriage would be legitimate. Her daughter became Queen Elizabeth I.

While Henry VIII held the throne, England went through changes that would eventually lead to the creation of modern sovereignty -- a nation not beholden to the church -- though Henry never intended it. He was a walking contradiction, a devoted Catholic who rejected the Pope and founded his own religion a king of the people and an educated humanist who executed tens of thousands of subjects. In the end, Henry VIII produced one male heir, Prince Edward, his son by Jane Seymour. Edward took the throne when his father died he was 10 years old. He died of illness five years later, passing the crown to Henry's daughter by Catherine of Aragon, Princess Mary. Queen Mary's primary objective became reinstating Catholicism in England. She failed in her quest, though she burned hundreds of people at the stake in the process. Elizabeth I succeed her older sister and reigned for 45 years.

For more information on Henry VIII, the Tudors, and English royalty, head to the links page.


Church of St Edmund, Dudley

Die Church of Saint Edmund is a parish church on Castle Street in Dudley, West Midlands, England.

It is known locally as "Bottom Church", as opposed to St Thomas's parish church in High Street which is known as "Top Church".

The dedication is to the Anglo-Saxon King and Martyr, Edmund indicating the original church dated from the Anglo-Saxon period. Since Edmund died in 869 or 870 then the church must date from after this time, although there are no references to the church before the twelfth century. At the front of the present church are two sculptures showing a metal crown pierced by arrows - referring to the martyrdom of Edmund.

In 1190, it was noted as being within the possession of Dudley Priory. In 1646, during the English Civil War, Colonel Leveson ordered the demolition of the church. As a result, residents in the parish congregated at St. Thomas's Church in Dudley, which was repaired, [1] and the parishes united.

St. Edmund's Church was subsequently rebuilt and was completed circa 1724. [2] The reconstruction of the church was paid for by brothers Richard and George Bradley and by subscriptions from the parishioners. [3] It was built of red brick with stone dressings and consisted of a chancel, nave, aisles, south porch and an embattled west tower.

The tradition of the church is Anglo-Catholic. [4]

Following the 1646 union of the parish with that of St. Thomas's and though the church was rebuilt in 1724 it was as a chapel of ease to St. Thomas's and it did not become the centre of a separate parish again until 1844. [5]

The interior of the church was altered in 1864, although the church still retains its early pews, pulpit and panelled gallery. [2]

On 14 September 1949 the building received Grade B listed status. This has since been upgraded to Grade II* listed status. [2]

A school for children aged 5–11 years was built near to the church on Birmingham Street during the 19th century, but this closed in 1970 when it merged with St John's School on Kates Hill to form the Church of England Primary School of St Edmund and St John, located at a new site on Hillcrest Road. The school building survives, however, and since 1978 has been the Dudley Central Mosque.


Edmund Dudley Esq (abt. 1462 - 1510)

Different sources give Edmund's birth year as 1462 or 1471/2. He was the son of John Dudley of Atherington, Sussex, and Elizabeth Bramshot. [1] He was sent to Oxford in 1578 and then he studied law at Gray's Inn. He was politically very active during the reign of Henry VII, for whom he was a Privy Councillor when he was quite young, supposedly only 23. in 1504, he was chosen Speaker of the House of Commons.

He benefited financially from his political posts, being quite greedy. After Henry VII died in April 1509, Edmund was imprisoned by Henry VIII. He was attainted in January 1509/10, which removed any special privileges he would have in a court of law. While in prison, he wrote a political allegory, "Tree of Commonwealth," a treatise in favor of absolute monarchy, apparently trying to curry the favor of the King, however the King never saw it. Edmund was executed for treason on August 18, 1510. You can read more about Edmund's execution HERE.

Edmund married twice. First, in about 1494, he married Anne, the daughter of Thomas Windsor, and the widow of Roger Corbet. (Her brother Andrew became the 1st Baron Windsor.) She died soon after the birth of their only child, a daughter Elizabeth, who was born about 1500. [2]

His second marriage was to Elizabeth Grey, the daughter of Edward Grey, Viscount Lisle. They had three sons: John (who was executed in 1553 by Queen Mary I), Andrew and Jasper/Jerome.


Henry VII’s hatchet men: Empson and Dudley

Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley would both earn themselves the reputation as Henry VII’s hatchet men – which is fair enough but in addition they would be characterised by Polydore Vergil and others to characterize as extortioners. this is both fair and unfair on the one hand, even Dudley himself ended up confessing a long list of individuals he had wronged. On the other hand, all they did was sanctioned and encouraged by the king – they were truly their king’s loyal and faithful servants. Their tyranny lies at his door as much as their own.

Edmund Dudley, (c.1462–1510)

Dudley was educated at Oxford, and pursued a career as a lawyer. He specialised in the prerogative rights of the king, which qualified him very well for Henry VII’s purposes. He was elected to parliament in 1491–2, and again in 1495 as knight of the shire for Sussex. Then in 1504 Dudley was appointed by Henry VII as speaker of the Commons, and from October 1504 was paid £66 as a councillor of the king. By July 1506 he was president of the king’s council, the first layman to hold the position. His rise to power had been real and rapid.

By 1504 he was also part of the council learned in the law, chaired by Richard Empson. He filled a gap left by the deaths in 1503 of Reginald Bray, and maintained meticulous accounts he discussed frequently with the king. His role was to manage the king’s use of a range of ways to exploit his greater subjects. He sold offices, wardships, and licences to marry the widows of tenants-in-chief pardons for treason, sedition, murder, riot, retaining, and other offences. In less than four years he collected some £219,316 in cash and bonds for future payment. He had rather viciously enforced the king’s rights. .

The nobility knew they had to retain his favour. The Great Chronicle of London recorded “the chief lords of England were glad to be in his favour, and were eager to go to him for many urgent causes”. He knew the ways of London he uncovered customs fraud and coinage offences, raised customs rates and forced the king’s candidates for civic office on the citizens worse, he extracted £3333 for the king’s confirmation of London’s liberties. His agents. like John Camby, quickly acquired a reputation for extortionate use of their influence. The Chronicle again wearily noted that “whosoever had the sword borne before him, Dudley was mayor, and what his pleasure was, was done”. He was not popular – Preachers inveighed against them at Paul’s Cross and elsewhere. All of this was to the profit of the king – and Dudley. By 1509 Dudley had built up a landed estate in sixteen counties, worth some £550 a year gross, plus £5000 or more in goods.

Like Empson, on Henry VII’s death in 1509, Dudley was a fall guy for what was essentially his master’s policy. He was tried in London in July 1509 and convicted of treason the ludicrous accusation was that he planned to “hold, guide and govern the King and his Council” with a force of men. He probably did assemble a force of men given the political uncertainty – but it is highly unlikely he intended a coup d’état. Dudley was finally beheaded on Tower Hill in 1510.

Dudley composed a petition in the Tower he sent to Richard Foxe and Thomas Lovell. He listed those he felt had been too harshly treated and scores of bonds taken for debts which Henry intended as a means to guarantee the good behaviour of the debtors rather than as a means to extract payment. He was also clear that it was Henry that was responsible for this policy. He also used the time to compose a treatise on government and society, The Tree of Commonwealth.

Sir Richard Empson (c.1450–1510)

Empson was a lawyer, and from 1477 until 1483 he had been connected with the duchy of Lancaster. He was restored when Henry VII came to the throne, and used his position to build his reputation, landholding and offices in the midlands, Warwickshire and Northampton in particular.

His big, and ultimately fatal, break came in 1501. Empson became a councillor to Henry, duke of York. By 1504 he was part of the Council Learned in Law, and in 1505, he became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.His new-found position gave him the opportunity to further enrich himself. He acquired lands in Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire, acquired various lucrative wardships by favour of the king.

As chancellor, Empson relentlessly strove to increase the king’s revenue. He raised rents, cancelled rebates, ran surveys and audits, investigated feudal dues. As part of the Council Learned he pursued the king’s debtors and his techniques were not pretty. He dug out approvers, third parties who would bring prosecutions against individuals he imprisoned people to force them to settle fines he issued official summons by privy seal, but victims then found themselves in front of Empson at his own London manor at St Bride’s. He raised money also by pardons, countersigned by the king, uncovering forfeitures on outlawry exploiting wards. Where he found wrong doing, the result was usually a fine to the king.

OK, in the main Empson was the tool of his master. But he used his position to further his own ends too – for example his attempt to disinherit Sir Robert Plumpton in the interests of his daughter. He used the traditional methods – having one of Plumpton’s bailiffs beaten, stacking juries, and bringing a bunch of hairy retainers to intimidate judges. Plumpton only fought him off because he too have powerful friends in Richard Foxe and Thomas Lovell.

Henry VII trutsed him without doubt Empson was one of his executors. But after Henry VII died on 21 April 1509, and Empson was arrested just three days later. Treason was read into his summons (for his own protection) of armed men to London as and after the king lay dying. He was charged at Northampton and pleaded his own, but was convicted and sentenced to the death of a traitor. He was attainted in the parliament of January–February 1510, and beheaded, along with Dudley, on Tower Hill on 17 August following. His eldest son, Thomas, was restored in 1512.


Dudley, Worcestershire

Dudley, an important manufacturing and market-town, a municipal and parliamentary borough, a county borough under the Local Government Act of 1888, the head of a county-court district and poor-law union, and a parish in Worcestershire and partly in Staffordshire. The town stands in a detached part of Worcestershire, on a ridge of the Pennine Hills, at the Dudley Canal, 5 miles NE of Stour-bridge, 6 S of Wolverhampton, 8½ WNW of Birmingham, and 122 distant by rail from London. It has stations on the G.W.R. and L. & N.W.R. Its name is derived from Dudo the Saxon, who built a castle at it in 7 GO. The castle stands on a high elevation north of the town was given by the Conqueror to William Fitz-Ansculph passed to Ralph Paganel, who held it for Queen Maud was demolished in 1175 by Henry II. was rebuilt in the time of Henry III. and passed by marriage to the de Somereys, to the Suttons, Lords Dudley, and by marriage to the Wards, whose descendant is the present Earl of Dudley. It suffered several sieges and final dismantlement in the wars of Charles I., was afterwards fitted up as a residence, but was destroyed by fire in 1750. The keep still stands, is a remarkable specimen of old military architecture and commands a panoramic view of about 300 miles in circuit, and numerous roofless fragments of walls, windows, and doorways partly surround a green which was once the courtyard. Famous limestone caverns and quarries are in the Castle Hill, and were the scene of a lecture to the British Association in 1849, and of a fete attended by upwards of 30,000 persons, under management of the Geological Society in 1850. Extensive grounds, open to the public, surround the ruins, and are thickly planted with trees and traversed in all directions by paths and drives. A Cluniac priory was founded to the west of the castle in 1161 by Gervase Paganel, and became a cell to Wenlock Abbey slight remains of the convent church still exist.

The town originally consisted of one long street with a church at each end, but now comprises many other streets, and is well-built and well-drained, and has a good supply of water. The town-hall, in Priory Street, is a handsome modern erection in the Gothic style. In the market-place is a fountain in the Renaissance style by Forsyth, given by the Earl of Dudley. The Geological Museum at the public liall is very rich in local fossils, and particularly in Silurian trilobites, which abound at the Castle Hill. The parish church of St Thomas was erected in 1819 on the site of an older edifice, and was restored in 1862 and again in 1883 it is a fine building with a tall graceful spire. St Edmund's Church, near the castle, was rebuilt in 1724, the previous church having been destroyed when the castle was dismantled. There are four other district churches-St James, St John, St Luke, and St Augustine-and a mission chapel. 'The Roman Catholic chapel was built from designs by Pugin. There are Congregational, Primitive and New Connexion Methodist, Unitarian, Baptist, and Presbyterian chapels, and a meeting-house for the Society of Friends. The Unitarian .chapel was burnt during the Sacheverel riots in 1715, and rebuilt immediately afterwards at the expense of Government. The free library and school of art was erected in 1884. The Guest Hospital was originally erected by the Earl of Dudley as an asylum for workmen who had lost their eyesight in the quarries it was subsequently converted into a general hospital, and endowed by the liberality of a townsman, Thomas Guest, who left £20,000 for this purpose. The dispensary was erected at the expense of the same gentleman. There is also an hospital for infectious diseases. The mechanics' institution is a fine building in the Italian style. There is a fine statue by Birch of the late Earl of Dudley in front of the castle gate it was erected by subscription in 1888 in recognition of the Earl's services to the town. There are also public baths, a workhouse, and a cemetery. The town has a head post office, two railway stations, two banks, is a seat of petty sessions, and publishes four newspapers. Markets are held on Saturdays, and fairs on the first Monday of March, May, and Oct., and the second Monday in Aug. Dudley relies chiefly for its prosperity on the coal, iron, and limestone with which the neighbourhood abounds. In addition glass making, iron and brass founding, brewing, and malting are carried on, and there are manufactures of bagging, nails, boilers, gasometers, &c., and brick, tile, and cement works. The town sent two members to Parliament in the time of Edward I., was reconstituted a borough by the Act of 1832 and made an incorporate town in 1864, and now sends one member to Parliament. The parliamentary borough includes part of the parishes of Kingswinford and Rowley Regis. The municipal borough has a commission of the peace, and is governed by a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors, who form the urban sanitary authority. Acreage of the municipal borough, 3615 population, 45,740 acreage of the parliamentary borough, 7881 population, 90,252.

The parish includes the villages of Netherton and Darby End. Most of the land belongs to the Earl of Dudley. Little of the area lies north of the watershed, and great part is rich in productive strata of coal, ironstone, limestone, and fire-clay. The head living or St Thomas' is a vicarage, and the livings of St Edmund, St James, Sc John, St Andrew, Netherton, and St Luke also are vicarages, and that of St Augustine a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Worcester net value of St Thomas, £510 with residence gross value of St Edmund, £256 with residence net value of St James, £320 with residence net value of St Juhn, £320 with residence gross value of Netherton, £300 with residence gross value of St Luke, £200 net value of St Augustine, £180. Patron of St Thomas, the Earl of Dudley of the others, the Vicar of St Thomas. Populations of the ecclesiastical parishes-St Thomas, 6832 St Edmund, 5318 St James, 6557 St John, 6009 St Andrew, Netherton, 12,418 St Luke, 3945 St Augustine, 4661.

Administrasie

The following is a list of the administrative units in which this place was either wholly or partly included.

Ancient CountyWorcestershire
HundredHalfshire
Poor Law unionDudley

Any dates in this table should be used as a guide only.

Directories & Gazetteers

Land and Property

The full transcript of the Worcestershire section of the Return of Owners of Land, 1873.


Edmund Dudley and the Church

Edmund Dudley, minister of Henry VII, was a man both personally extraordinary and yet representative of his age. He abandoned the normal cursus honorum of the legal profession to enter the king's service more suddenly than any of his contemporaries yet he was one of many common lawyers newly influential in the king's councils of the later fifteenth and earlier sixteenth centuries. He was probably the only layman in Henry's inner circle to have studied at a university yet within fifty years of his death most English statesmen of the first rank would have done so. In pursuing the king's interests, Dudley generated sufficient animosity to make himself one of the two scapegoats for Henry's policies tried and executed in 1509–10 yet it was more his manner, his efficiency and his political isolation than any difference of intent that distinguished him from Henry's other ministers. In pursuing his own interests he built a large landed estate faster than any of his colleagues, but their aims and eventual achievements were not so different from his. The one respect in which Dudley was unique was that he had leisure, while under arrest in the Tower of London, to commit to paper his thoughts on English government and society. The resulting treatise, The tree of commonwealth , enables us to juxtapose his stated ideals with his actions as a royal minister and as an influential layman. Thereby we may hope to shed new light on the relations between Church, State and lay elites on the eve of the English Reformation.


Historical Notes of Bunker Hill School School District by E.D. Howe

One of the early settlers was Alexander Allen who homesteaded the farm now owned by O. D. Howe, Jr. In 1866 we find his name along the organizers of the Presbyterian church of Pawnee county. His son, John Randolph Allen, now living by Axtell Kansas, 92 years old, tells the following story of how his father came to come to Nebraska.

Allen was an old time democrat from Kentucky who had settled at Springfield, Ill. Along with his brothers-in-law, the Barretts. The senior Barretts were also strong democrats, but a younger Barrett, (Dick) became a friend of Lincoln. After Abe Lincoln was nominated for president, he said to Barrett, &ldquoIf you vote for me, and I am elected, I will give you an office.&rdquo Said Barrett, &ldquoI&rsquoll do it&rdquo. Said Lincoln, &ldquoWe are going to have a republican rally here shortly. I want you to ride a horse and be marshal of the parade.&rdquo When Dick Barrett's uncle heard this he said, &ldquoIf he rides a horse in this parade I will shoot him.&rdquo So Lincoln let him off form riding in the parade, but Barrett voted for Lincoln and was made agent in the land office at Brownville, Neb. From there I suppose, he wrote to Allen about the probabilities of wealth and Alexander Allen became a resident of Bunker Hill school district.

I do not know when the first school house was built in the district. It was there when I attended school there in the fall of 1872. It was a small, dark affair and was only intended to last until the district could afford something better. District 35 at that time included the Foale district to the west and the Morton or Miller district to the south and the school house was a long way north of the center of the district, so a meeting was called in the spring of 1873 to decide on a permanent location for the school house. The people of the north end unselfishly wanted the school house moved a mile further south, while the people at the south wanted it to stay where it was so they could be set off at a different school district. It took two-thirds vote to locate the schoolhouse, the north-enders could not rally enough votes, so county Superintendent John Osborne divided the district. Then two acres of land were purchased of J. W. Shaw and the schoolhouse permanently located. The run in debt for it, so they waited until they had accumulated enough money to pay cash and in 1877 the new schoolhouse was built by Peter Hersey of Table Rock. It soon proved too small for the children who swarmed the school and an addition was built a few years later. Then some families moved away, children grew up, and the enlarged schoolhouse was never filled.

Peter Foale was one of the early settlers, coming to Nebraska in 1856 and buying land among the Nemaha. He built a log house in the timber. Two years later a prairie fire swept through the country burning the house and all of its contents. I think he most regretted the loss of his books for he was a great reader. I have heard him tell that during the Civil War he went to Missouri to send Oscar to school, but the &ldquoOld Governor Jackson stole the school fund and Oscar never did get any schooling.&rdquo

After the log house burned, Uncle Peter, as he was affectionately called by his neighbors, built another, and later built himself a stone house, (he was a stone mason by trade) in which he lived in nearly for the rest of his life.

Artemas Armstrong came to Nebraska, according to Edward&rsquos History before 1858 and settled in the corner section now owned by Rudolph Vrtiska. Here in 1867 came the men from Illinois seeking free land. J. B. Pepoon, his wife&rsquos brother, J. W. Shaw, his sisters husband, Eli T. Boone, and Mrs. Pepoon&rsquos nephew, W. G. Lyman. Mr. Armstrong started from his log house to show them the possibilities of the neighborhood. Going to his north line and pointing to the north, he said: &ldquoHere is a pretty good quarter.&rdquo Mr. Shaw stretched his long neck, taking a good look around, and said, &ldquoI&rsquoll take that&rdquo. Then pointing to the west of the section line, Armstrong said, &ldquoHere is another good quarter&rdquo. Boone said, &ldquoI&rsquoll take that&rdquo. Mr. Pepoon afterward selected a quarter joining Mr. Shaw&rsquos quarter on the east.

James Dobson, who came from Ireland, was the only settler in Bunker Hill district who lived in a &ldquodugout&rdquo. His house was an excavation in the side of a hill were his numerous family lived for several years. Eventually he built a house on top of a hill where he passed the remainder of his life.

Henry and Phoeby Cooper had a fair sized house on the quarter now owned by Mrs. Goodenkauf. Here their many children grew up. Their names are now inscribed on a window in the Methodist church in Table Rock.


Dudley History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The Anglo-Saxon name Dudley comes from when the family resided in the important town of Dudley in the county of Worcestershire. The name of this town was originally derived from the Old English personal name Dudda and the Old English word leah, wat beteken woodland clearing thus it means Dudda's glade. [1] The surname Dudley belongs to the large category of Anglo-Saxon habitation names, which are derived from pre-existing names for towns, villages, parishes, or farmsteads.

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Early Origins of the Dudley family

The surname Dudley was first found in Worcestershire at Dudley, a town that dates back to the Domesday Book where it was listed as Dudelei. "This place derives its name from Dodo, or Dudo, a Saxon prince, by whom it was owned at the time of the heptarchy, and who built a castle here about the year 700, which, during the contest between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, was garrisoned for the latter by Gervase Paganell, to whom the barony at that time belonged. Gervase having subsequently taken part in the rebellion of Prince Henry against his father, Henry II., his castle was demolished in the 20th year of that monarch's reign. The present keep, with the gateway and chapel, is of the architecture of the 13th century the other buildings were erected by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in the time of Edward VI. " [2]

Dudley Castle was listed there and at that time Earl Edwin held the manor also located there. Dudley and much of the surrounding area was held by William fitzAnsculf and was part of the Came hundred. [3]

Today Dudley Castle is a ruined castle but has a visitor's center that was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in June 1994. At one time, the family was found in the chapelry of Singleton-in-the-Fylde (Little Singleton) in Lancashire as evidenced by this entry: "Edmund Dudley, who was attainted and executed in 1510, possessed Little Singleton." [2]

The same Sir Edmund Dudley's lands were lost also lost at Balderston, again in Lancashire. "A portion subsequently passed to the Dudley family and after the execution of the celebrated Sir Edmund Dudley for high treason, an inquisition was taken, 1st Henry VIII., when it was found that the manor was an escheat to the crown." [2]

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Early History of the Dudley family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Dudley research. Another 352 words (25 lines of text) covering the years 1225, 1379, 1547, 1553, 1532, 1588, 1561, 1588, 1462, 1510, 1504, 1553, 1550, 1553, 1576, 1653, 1600, 1684, 1647, 1720, 1686, 1597, 1670, 1661, 1721 and 1684 are included under the topic Early Dudley History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Dudley Spelling Variations

The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries therefore, spelling variations are common among early Anglo-Saxon names. As the form of the English language changed, even the spelling of literate people's names evolved. Dudley has been recorded under many different variations, including Dudley, Dudlie, Dudly and others.

Early Notables of the Dudley family (pre 1700)

Distinguished members of the family include Sir John Dudley of Atherington and his son, Edmund Dudley (c.1462-1510), an English administrator and a financial agent of King Henry VII, Speaker of the House of Commons and President of the King's Council John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, KG (1504-1553), an English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553 Thomas Dudley (1576-1653), was an American colonial magistrate from Yardley Hastings, England who served as 3rd, 7th, 11th and 14th Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and.
Another 91 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Dudley Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Dudley family to Ireland

Some of the Dudley family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt. Meer inligting oor hul lewens in Ierland is ingesluit in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte, waar moontlik.

Dudley migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Dudley Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Andrew Dudley, who landed in Virginia in 1622 [4]
  • Anne Dudley, who made her home in Salem, Massachusetts in 1630
  • Mr. Dudley, who landed in Massachusetts in 1630 [4]
  • Thomas Dudley, who arrived in Massachusetts in 1630 [4]
  • Joseph Dudley, who arrived in Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1647 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Dudley Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Greenhill Dudley, who landed in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • Thomas Dudley, who landed in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • Ann Dudley, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1729-1730 [4]
  • Abigail Dudley, who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts in 1766 [4]
Dudley Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Henry Dudley, aged 19, who arrived in New York in 1804 [4]
  • Edward Dudley, who landed in New York in 1810 [4]
  • William Dudley, who arrived in New York in 1815 [4]
  • Margaret Dudley, who landed in New York, NY in 1815 [4]
  • Robert Dudley, who landed in New York, NY in 1817 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Dudley migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Dudley Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
Dudley Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Nathaniel Stevens Dudley, who arrived in Canada in 1834
  • John Dudley, who arrived in Canada in 1836
  • Levi Dudley, who arrived in Canada in 1840
  • Alvin Dudley, who arrived in Canada in 1840
  • Charles Dudley, who landed in Esquimalt, British Columbia in 1862

Dudley migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Dudley Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • George Dudley, English convict from Bristol, who was transported aboard the "Andromeda" on October 16, 1826, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[5]
  • Mr. Thomas Dudley, British convict who was convicted in Chester, Cheshire, England for 14 years, transported aboard the "Bussorah Merchant" on 1st October 1829, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [6]
  • Mr. Charles Dudley, English convict who was convicted in London, England for 15 years, transported aboard the "Candahar" on 26th March 1842, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [7]
  • Thomas Dudley, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Anna Maria" on March 6, 1848, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[8]
  • Eliza Dudley, aged 18, a domestic servant, who arrived in South Australia in 1855 aboard the ship "Grand Trianon"
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Dudley migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


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