Birka tydlyn

Birka tydlyn

  • c. 750 - c. 800

    Die vermoedelike stigting van die belangrike Viking -handelsentrum van Birka in Swede.

  • c. 790 - c. 1100

  • c. 829 - c. 831

    Die Frankiese sendeling St. Ansgar (801-865 CE) stel die Swede eers bekend aan die Christendom in die Viking-handelsdorp Birka.

  • c. 950

    Die Viking-handelsentrum van Birka in die huidige Swede neem skerp agteruit in die middel van die 10de eeu nC.

  • 1993

    UNESCO verklaar die Viking-handelsentrum van Birka in die huidige Swede as 'n wêrelderfenisgebied, saam met die naburige plek Hovgården.


Chronologie van Swede

Kopiereg © 2000-2021 Ken Polsson
internet-e-pos: [email protected]
Alle regte voorbehou. Toestemming word verleen om webskakels te skep
na hierdie webwerf, om nie hierdie bladsye na ander webwerwe te kopieer nie.
URL: http://kpolsson.com/sweden/

Hierdie dokument is 'n poging om verskillende gepubliseerde bronne bymekaar te bring om 'n tydlyn oor Swede aan te bied.

Verwysings is genommer in [hakies], wat hier gelys word. 'N Getal na die kol gee die bladsy in die bron.

Laaste opgedateer: 30 April 2018.

  • Die Romeinse historikus Tacitus skryf in die Latynse boek De Germania oor die stamme van Suiones in Skandinawië, wat van die oseaan af woon, wat in groot vloote bote vaar met 'n stert aan weerskante, sonder seil, met behulp van spane, en sterk, lojale, goed bewapende mans met spykers in hul helms. [1.9] [47.18] [48.10] [267.13]
  • Die Egiptiese astroloog en geograaf Ptolemaeus van Alexandrië teken sy eerste kaart van lande aan die Oossee, met Scandia as die grootste en mees oostelike van vier eilande in die "Germaanse Oseaan". [1.10]
  • Langs die oostelike kus van Skandinawië en die kus van Finland word 'n stelsel van bakens vir verdediging ingestel. [48,19]
  • Die eerste Sweedse staat ontstaan, die Kingdon van die Svear, gesentreer op Uppland (noordelike kant van die moderne Lak M älaren). [1.11] [47.18]
  • Eadgils (Adils), seun van Svear King Othere (Ottar) verower sy vader in Swede, met hulp van Geats, en word koning. Othere se pa Ongentheow (Angantyr) veg ook teen die Geats en word in die geveg doodgemaak. [1.12]
  • Gotlanders het hulself onder die beskerming van die Sweedse koning geplaas, teen betaling van 60 silwermerke per jaar, en wedersydse vryhandel. [120,50]
  • Die Gotiese historikus Jordanes skryf oor die Suehans van Skandinawië, met fyn perde, ryk klere en handel met pelse. [47.19] (ongeveer 550 [232.12])
  • (8de of 9de eeu) Die Svear verower die G ötar en vorm die Svea -rike, die Svea -koninkryk. (Met verloop van tyd word die naam na Sverige verkort.) [303.38]
  • Die stad Birka is gestig op die eiland Bj örk ö. [50.292]

  • Bj örn is koning van die Svear in die M älar -distrik. [48.25] [232.136]
  • Koning Bj örn van die Svear versoek die Frankiese koning om hulp by die vestiging van die Christelike godsdiens in Swede. Die Frankiese koning Louis die Vroom, die seun van Karel die Grote, stuur Ansgar, 'n Christelike monnik, na Birka, aan die M älaren. Ansgar oortuig die koning om 'n Christelike (Chruch of Rome) kerk daar te bou. [1.24] [47.26] [48.34] [232.13] [267.22] [303.73]
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Battle-Scarred Viking Shield-Maiden kry vir die eerste keer gesigsheropbou

Hierdie 1 000-jarige Viking-skildmeisie, wat in 1900 die eerste keer opgegrawe is, is blykbaar in haar fleur afgesny.

Toe die swaard op haar kop kom, sny die lem haar tot op die been. Wetenskaplikes bestudeer die Viking Die skedelbreuk van die vrou 1000 jaar later is nog steeds nie seker of die slag haar werklik doodgemaak het nie, maar die skare wapens wat saam met haar begrawe is, maak dit duidelik dat sy steeds as 'n vegter gesterf het.

Dat Viking, wat omstreeks 900 jaar geleef en gesterf het, eers in 1900 uit 'n plaas in Solør, Noorweë, opgegrawe is. Haar kop rus op 'n skild, 'n geraamde perdskelet lê aan haar voete gekrul en haar lyk word ingeboks deur 'n swaard, spies, strydbyl en pyle. Toe 'n vinnige ontleding toon dat die skelet vroulik is, word dit onmiddellik geïnterpreteer as die eerste fisiese voorbeeld van a skildvrou - 'n mitiese vroulike vegter wat eers in die Middeleeuse tekste verwys is.

Nou, vir die eerste keer, het navorsers aan die Universiteit van Dundee in Skotland gesigsrekonstruksie-tegnologie gebruik om die voorkoms van die meisie te herskep-insluitend die wond wat moontlik haar loopbaan beëindig het.

Die resultate wat u hierbo en in die nuwe National Geographic -dokumentêr kan sien "Viking Warrior Vroue, "wys 'n vrou van ongeveer 18 of 19 jaar oud met 'n sterk kakebeen, geswelde oog en 'n voorkop wat beter dae gesien word. Volgens die span se ontleding van die skedel van die vegter, het die meisie 'n ernstige kopbesering opgedoen wat ooreenstem met 'n swaardslag - die wond het egter tekens van genesing getoon en was moontlik nie die uiteindelike oorsaak van haar dood nie.

Of die wond dodelik was of nie, die nuwe rekonstruksie dui daarop dat hierdie skelet "die eerste bewys ooit kan wees van 'n Viking-vrou met 'n gevegsbesering", argeoloog Ella Al-Shamahi, wat die nuwe dokumentêr aanbied, het aan The Guardian gesê.

Dit is opwindende nuus, veral vir navorsers wat probeer om die eeue oue aanname dat Viking-krygers uitsluitlik mans was, om te keer. Hierdie stereotipe het sy eie slag in 2017 gekry toe 'n Viking -skelet die afgelope 70 jaar vermoedelik 'n man was (omdat dit met 'n magdom wapens begrawe was) bewys dat sy 'n vrou is na 'n DNS -ontleding.

Soos die skildmeisie van Solør, is hierdie vrou begrawe met 'n verskeidenheid wapens en perde, plus 'n stel skaakagtige speelstukke wat dui op 'n taktiese aanleg wat ooreenstem met 'n hooggeplaaste militêre amptenaar, die navorsers wat die ontdekking gemaak het in 'n studie geskryf. Dit is nie net waarskynlik dat sy 'n kryger was nie, maar sy was moontlik ook 'n generaal.

'Ons resultate waarsku teen ingrypende interpretasies gebaseer op ... voorveronderstellings', het die navorsers in hul artikel van 2017 geskryf. "Ons resultate ... dui daarop dat [Viking] -vroue inderdaad volwaardige lidmate van manlik gedomineerde sfere kon wees."

As u hulde wil bring aan die skildmeisie van Solør, kan u haar ingeduikte skedel en verslete wapens op die skerm vind Museum vir Kultuurgeskiedenis in Oslo, Noorweë, tot 22 November.

"Viking Warrior Woman" is die eerste keer op 3 November uitgesaai op die National Geographic kanaal.


14. Wie het Amerika eers weer ontdek? Deel 1

Teen hierdie tyd is ons almal bekend met die reis van Christopher Columbus en sy ontdekking van die 'New World', ook bekend as die Verenigde State.

Ons het egter nou agtergekom dat daar verskeie moontlike onjuisthede rondom hierdie historiese gebeurtenisse is wat 'n integrale deel van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis kan weerspreek.

Afrika is die eerste van drie moontlikhede. Daar is verskeie dinge wat daarop dui dat die Afrikaanse volk Columbus met die vuis geslaan het.

Die eerste hiervan kom uit die werklike nabyheid tussen Afrika en Suid -Amerika.

Columbus vertrek aanvanklik uit die Spaanse hawe Palos, op pad na die Bahamas.

By 'n verdere ondersoek van die wêreldkaart, kan duidelik geïdentifiseer word dat die afstand wat Columbus afgelê het in vergelyking met die afstand tussen Sierra Leone en die Brasiliaanse stad Natal, 'n baie langer reis is.

Die Afrika -roete is byna drie keer korter as wat Columbus na bewering bereik het.

'N Ander leidraad wat gereeld herbesoek word, kom van die Piri Reis-kaart. Volgens die geskiedenis het Columbus geen idee gehad dat hy op pad was na 'n nuwe kontinent nie, maar die Piri Reis, wat in 1513 saamgestel is (vyftien jaar na die reis van Columbus) beeld 'n redelik akkurate toestand van Noord -Afrika en die kus van Brasilië uit.

Die derde leidraad fokus op Mexiko se 'Olmec Colossal Heads', klipbeelde van menslike koppe gemaak van groot basaltblokke. Daar word gesê dat hierdie koppe die Olmeke, of die eerste inwoners van die Amerikas, uitbeeld, maar dit lyk sterk aan Afrikane.

Uiteindelik kan 'n tienermeisie wie se oorskot in 'n onderwatergrot op die Yucatan-skiereiland in Mexiko gevind is, die sleutel tot die eeue oue raaisel hou van wie Amerika ontdek het.

Daar word geglo dat die meisie 12 000 jaar gelede in Mexiko gewoon het met die bynaam Naia (na die Griekse term vir 'n waternimf).

Haar skedel word beskou as een van die vroegste bekende inwoners van die Amerikas en lyk baie soos die Afrika- of Suid -Stille Oseaan -bevolking.

Alhoewel dit nie 'n definitiewe bewys is dat Afrikaners Amerika herontdek het voordat die Europeërs dit gedoen het nie, laat dit u beslis wonder.


Tydlyn

Voor die groot era van seerowers

Die Mink -stam isoleer hulself van die buitewêreld op Zou.

'N Groot beskawing oorheers die planeet van die een hoek na die ander, en groot wapens vir massavernietiging word gebou. In dieselfde eeu verdwyn hulle ook onder geheimsinnige omstandighede. Die enigste spore wat van hul beskawing agtergelaat is, is die Poneglyphs.

Gedurende sy tydskrifte kom Noland op Green Bit aan, waar hy die dwerge beskerm teen mense wat van hom 'n held word en 'n standbeeld ter ere van hom opgerig word.

Sea Circle Calendar 1122, 21 Mei: Noland arriveer op die eiland Jaya en bring 'n einde aan 'n aaklige siekte wat die Shandia siek gemaak het.

4 jaar later word 'n groot deel van Jaya deur die Knock Up Stream in die lug geskiet. Die oorlog tussen die Skypiërs en die Shandia begin. ⎘ ]

Sea Circle Calendar 1127, 16 November: Noland bring die koning van Lvneel na Jaya om hom die skatte van die mense daar te wys. Hy vaar met 3 skepe, maar as gevolg van 'n storm word twee opgeoffer om die koning te beskerm. By hul aankoms op Jaya (16 November) woon daar niemand nie en die Goudstad is weg. ⎘ ]

Die Wêreldregering sluit 'n alliansie met Fish-Man Island na eeue van diskriminasie. Die instelling van slawerny word deur die Wêreldregering verbied om 'n vredesooreenkoms te bewerkstellig. Ryugu Kingdom het ook sy eerste Levely bygewoon, waarna dit eers 200 jaar later nog 'n keer bygewoon het.

Daar word vermoed dat die siekte-draende Kestia uitgesterf het.

Morley is in Impel Down opgesluit. Hy grawe later tonnels daar en skep vlak 5.5. ⎛ ]

Op die sewende vasdag, vyf dae voor die Wintersonstilstand, vernietig Linlin 'n dorpie op Elbaf weens 'n hunkering na semla, wat Jorul in die proses doodmaak. The Sheep's House verlaat Elbaf.

'N Ruk nadat die Sheep's House Linlin se "sesde verjaardag" vier, is Linlin alleen agtergelaat. Elbaf het Linlin so afstootlik geword dat hulle daarvan weerhou om haar naam te noem.

Shimotsuki Kozaburo vaar na die East Blue, red die inwoners van bandiete en vind 'n dorpie wat hy Shimotsuki Village noem. ⎣ ]

Oimo en Kashii word mislei om vir die Wêreldregering te werk.

Die Rumbar Pirates word vernietig deur 'n onbekende aanvaller in die Florian -driehoek en laat geen oorlewendes agter nie.

Oden het 'n casino aan die brand gesteek nadat hy 'n swartlys gekry het en dit verbied is. ⎢ ]

Charlotte Linlin baar haar eerste kind, Charlotte Perospero, wat die grondslag lê van wat die massiewe Charlotte -gesin sou word. ⎥ ]

Oden het iemand vermoor en is in die klipgroef tot harde arbeid gevonnis. Hy het later in die geledere geklim totdat hy die plek gehardloop het. ⎢ ]

Die koninklike hoofstad beleef 'n droogte. Nadat Kozuki Oden 'n rivier reguit na die hoofstad gelei het, word dit oorstroom. Hy gebruik die roete om na die see te ontsnap. Die reis is egter van korte duur. ⎢ ]

Kokoro se stertvin verdeel in twee bene. ⎫ ]

Shakuyaku gee op met seerowery om 'n kroeg op die Sabaody -argipel oop te maak.

Mountain God Incident: Die berggod val die hoofstad van Wano binne. Oden sny die vark af en word dadelik deur sy pa uit die Flower Capital verban. ⎭ ]

Gol D. Roger en sy bemanning het die eerste geword om Lodestar -eiland te bereik: die eiland aan die einde van die Log Pose. ⎯ ]

Dokter Hiriluk keer terug na Drum Island en begin met sy ondersoek na 'n geneesmiddel vir die siekte wat sy vaderland teister. ⎳ ]

Sommige boewe het Charlotte Brûlée gewond, wat veroorsaak het dat Katakuri 'n gelofte afgelê het om sy mond weg te steek. Η ]

Pleasure Town is deur seerowers vernietig. Sedertdien het die stad 'n reël gemaak van 'Maak almal gelukkig en wees sagmoedig teenoor almal'. ⎝ ]

Survivors of the Rocks Pirates het hul eie bemanningslede begin werf. ⎺ ]

Inuarashi en Nekomamushi spoel aan op die wal, waar hulle Kawamatsu gemartel word, maar hulle word deur Oden gered en as sy samoerai gewerf. ⎺ ]

Shimotsuki Yasuie het Oden se samoerai opgelei om behoorlik te wees.

Chinjao voer 'n geveg met Monkey D. Garp en kry uiteindelik sy puntige kop afgestomp, wat hom verhinder om sy skatte te bereik en hom 'n wrok teen Garp te hou. ⎼ ]

Nadat hy nie die Grand Line uitgedaag het nie, wat veroorsaak het dat baie van die bemanningslede dood of beseer is, keer Bacca terug na Swallow Island en steek sy tuisdorp aan die brand om 'n skat te vind wat op die eiland begrawe is.

Kozuki Oden verlaat Wano Country saam met Izo, Nekomamushi en Inuarashi en neem 'n verhoor om by die Whitebeard Pirates aan te sluit. Ondanks die gebrek daaraan, was Oden genoeg om Amatsuki Toki uit die moeilikheid te red om by die bemanning aan te sluit.

Nico Olvia verlaat Ohara en haar dogter Robin om 'n Poneglyph -ekspedisie te onderneem. ⏁ ]

Herakles gaan see toe om sy idees as plantkundige uit te brei. Η ]

Shyarly word deur haar pa in die sorg van 'n toe 15-jarige Arlong gelaat. ⎿ ]

Die tweelingsusters Charlotte Lola en Chiffon word gebore uit Charlotte Linlin. Onmiddellik na hul geboorte gooi Linlin hul vader Pound uit haar koninkryk.

Roger Pirates en Whitebeard Pirates voer 'n stryd in 'n geveg wat 3 dae en 3 nagte geduur het. Maar almal maak vrede op die vierde dag. ⏈ ]

Roger arriveer in Skypiea en laat Oden die boodskap naby die Poneglyph graveer. ⏉ ]

Shyarly voorspel dat die meerminprinses oor 10 jaar gebore sal word. ⏊ ]

Die Roger Pirates voltooi hul reis na Laugh Tale. Nadat hy die hele Grand Line verower het, word Gold Roger bekend as die Pirate King. Kort daarna ontbind Roger sy seerowerbemanning, sodat hulle kan terugkeer na 'n vreedsame lewe van hul keuse. ⏀ ] Η ] Kozuki Oden droom daarvan om oor 20 jaar die grense van Wano Country oop te maak. ⏍ ]

Shyarly voorspel die koms van die groot seerower -era wat 'n jaar later kom. ⏎ ]

Heracles en sy vriende arriveer by die Boin -argipel en bestudeer die plante daar. Η ]

Nadat hy gehoor het van Kurozumi Orochi se bewind in Wano en die klopjag ses maande lank, probeer Oden agter Orochi aan soos ander in hom geglo het. Oden besluit egter op 'n stadium om kaal te dans en vir homself vir 5 jaar 'n gek te maak, terwyl die wanhoop van mense in woede verander. ⏏ ]

Groot era van seerowers

Wanneer het dit gebeur? (Jare terug)
24 jaar gelede
Die groot seerower Gol D. Roger gee homself oor aan die Marines en word ter dood veroordeel. Roger se toespraak voor sy dood lei seerowers na die Grand Line om sy verborge skat, genaamd 'One Piece', te soek. Hierdie gebeurtenis is die begin van 'n era met die naam "The Great Age of Pirates" (大 海賊 時代, Daikaizokujidai ? ) .

Nadat hy gehoor het dat Roger gevange geneem is en dat Roger binne 'n week tereggestel sal word, gaan Shiki deurmekaar in Marineford voordat hy deur Sengoku en Monkey D. Garp neergevel word. Hy word na vlak 6 van Impel Down gestuur vir sy optrede. ⏄ ]

Shanks begin sy reis as seerowerkaptein deur Buggy te vra om by sy bemanning aan te sluit. Buggy daal, en dit is die laaste keer dat die paar mekaar vir die volgende 22 jaar ontmoet totdat hulle tydens die Marineford -oorlog herenig is.

Die legendariese Shipwright Tom word verhoor weens die bou van Gol D. Roger se skip, die Oro Jackson. Hy het tien jaar tyd gekry om sy idee van 'n seetrein te voltooi om van hierdie misdaad vrygespreek te word.

Heracles verloor al sy vriende weens die gevare van die eiland. Η ]

Ohara -voorval: Ohara word tot op die grond verbrand deur 'n Buster -oproep wat deur die CP9 ontbied is. Professor Clover, Olvia en al die burgers van Ohara word vermoor. Nico Robin, die enigste oorlewende, begin haar lewe op vlug van die Wêreldregering met 'n 79.000.000 oorvloed. Jaguar D. Saul sterf vermoedelik as hy deur Aokiji gevries word.

Gaimon arriveer op die eiland van skaars diere en word deur 'n ongeluk in 'n skatkis vasgekeer. Hy word deur sy bemanning agtergelaat.

Hatchan red Silvers Rayleigh op see en raak daarna bevriend met hom. ⏀ ]

Shiki ontsnap uit Impel Down. ⏕ ]

Portgas D. Ace word gebore as "Gol D. Ace". Sy ma, Portgas D. Rouge, sterf kort na sy geboorte.

Kozuki Oden en die Nine Red Scabbards probeer Kaido verslaan om die grense van Wano Country oop te maak, maar dit misluk. Beide Oden en sy vrou Kozuki Toki word tereggestel deur Kurozumi Orochi en Kaido. Voor haar afsterwe gebruik Toki die magte van die Toki Toki no Mi om haar seun 20 jaar in die toekoms saam met die Ame no Habakiri en hul bewaarders na veiligheid te stuur. ⏚ ]

Inuarashi en Nekomamushi begin hul vete.

Die Charlotte Decuplets word gebore, die grootste van Charlotte Linlin se veelvuldige geboortes. ⏠ ]

'N Voorval op 'n eiland laat vyfhonderd soldate deur seerowers gyselaar gehou word. Die seerowers eis dat hul kaptein die koning van die eiland word in ruil vir die vrylating van die vyfhonderd gevangenes. Die Wêreldregering stuur 'n dertienjarige seuntjie in om die gyselaarsituasie te beëindig. Hy vermoor die vyfhonderd soldate en dan die seerowers wanneer hulle op hom losbrand. Die seun word later die beste moordmasjien van die geheime CP9: Rob Lucci. ⎽ ]

'N Naamlose koning van 'n naamlose koninkryk het die Kamabakka -koninkryk op die eiland Momoiro besoek. Nadat hy teruggekeer het, was hy 'n okama. Hierdie voorval het die koninkryk en die gesin uitmekaar geskeur, en hulle is later verban. Bellett, seun van hierdie naamlose koning, het 'n seerower geword en sou later vir Emporio Ivankov die skuld gee vir hierdie voorval.

Portgas D. Ace en Sabo begin geld spaar om 'n seerowerskip te koop, Dawn Island te verlaat en seerowers te word.

Tony Tony Chopper word op Drum Island gebore. Hy word 'n uitgeworpene van sy kudde as gevolg van sy blou neus.

As die oorspronklike "Corazón", gee Vergo die naam deur aan Donquixote Rosinante. Η ]

Die uitwissing van die mense van Flevance vind plaas. Trafalgar Law word gewerf in die Donquixote Pirates.

Vergo het die Donquixote Pirates verlaat om op 'n geheime sending te gaan. Η ]

Fisher Tiger hermerk die merk van die Celestial Dragons op die vrygelate visman-slawe in die merk van die son en vorm die Sun Pirates. ⏢ ]

Die Boa -susters word gevind deur Gloriosa, Silvers Rayleigh en Shakuyaku, wat hulle terugneem na Amazon Lily. ⏢ ]

Onder die bevel van Donquixote Doflamingo sluit Vergo aan by die mariniers.

Die Nox Expedition -party is deur die regering begin jaag om na ponegliewe te soek, en daarom het hulle die Nox Pirates geword. ⏣ ]

Foxy se bokslisensie is ingetrek toe hy met 'n wapen bedrieg is. Η ]

Vergo betree die G-5-basis nadat hy dit persoonlik aangevra het. Η ]

Toto en sy seun Koza vertrek uit Alubarna om 'n dorpie in die Oase van Yuba op te rig.

Shachi en Penguin se ouers is dood in 'n tsoenami. Hulle is grootgemaak deur die tante en oom van Shachi, wat hulle onwettige aktiwiteite laat doen het. ⎝ ]

Boa Hancock word die nuwe keiserin van die Kuja en kaptein van die Kuja Pirates. Sy kry ook 'n pos in die Seven Warlords of the Sea. ⏥ ]

Donquixote Rosinante en Trafalgar Law reis na die eiland Minion om die Ope no Mi te steel om die lewe van Law te red, maar word deur die Donquixote -familie ontdek nadat hulle per ongeluk 'n intelligensiebrief aan Vergo, 'n lid van die Donflamingo -bemanning, as 'n marine gelewer het. Rosinate word deur sy broer doodgemaak en die eiland ondergaan die Voëlhok, wat almal doodmaak, behalwe 'n seuntjie wat lid was van 'n plaaslike seerowerbemanning.

Doflamingo werf later Sugar en Monet aan sy gesin. ⏦ ]

Sanji word op 8 -jarige ouderdom uit die Vinsmoke -gesin geskors deur sy vader Vinsmoke -regter, en hy mag die Germa -koninkryk verlaat terwyl hulle 'n land in die Oosblou binnedring. Hy klim op 'n nabygeleë vaartuig genaamd die Orbit en werk daar as 'n trainee -sjef vir die volgende 2 jaar. ⏧ ]

Terwyl hy op Swallow -eiland ronddwaal, word Bepo geboelie deur twee misdadigers met die naam Shachi en Penguin. Trafalgar Law is getuies van die slae en Shachi en Penguin kies 'n geveg met hom. Law verslaan hulle en Bepo sluit hom aan. ⏨ ]

Kawamatsu en Onimaru begin die wapens vir grafrowers wegsteek. Uiteindelik word die kappa in Udon opgesluit nadat hy probeer het om kos by die blommekapitaal te bekom, en elke dag vir die volgende 13 jaar vrot vis eet. ⏩ ] ⏪ ]

Red-Haired Shanks, toe sewe en twintig jaar oud, arriveer by Luffy se tuisdorp en besluit om daar te bly. Luffy eet per ongeluk die Gomu Gomu no Mi, wat hom rubberkragte gee en nie kan swem nie. Higuma word deur 'n Sea King geëet in 'n voorval waarby Luffy en Shanks betrokke was. Shanks verlaat Luffy se tuisdorp nadat hy amper 'n jaar daar gebly het. ⏫ ]

Kort na Shanks se vertrek word Luffy deur sy oupa Monkey D. Garp geneem om saam met Curly Dadan te oefen en ontmoet sy aangenome broer Portgas D. Ace. Luffy vorm gou 'n broederskap met Ace en Sabo op grond van hul gedeelde begeerte om seerowers te word.

Afgrys van Porchemy se mislukking, skiet Bluejam Porchemy.

Die Celestial Dragons kom besoek die Goa Kingdom op Dawn Island. Die Bluejam Pirates het die Grey Terminal aan die brand gesteek ter voorbereiding van hul aankoms, maar die meeste wat daar woon, word gered om deur Monkey D. Dragon and the Revolutionaries doodgebrand te word.

Sabo word deur 'n World Noble aangeval en vermoedelik dood. Hy word deur Dragon gered, maar verloor sy herinneringe en sluit by die revolusionêre aan.

Die seerower kaptein Mont Blanc Krieket kom by Jaya aan. Hy bly soek na die waarheid of sy voorouer 'n leuenaar was, sodat hy bevry kan word van sy vloek in die familie. Sy bemanning verlaat hom kort daarna.

Die beroemde aktrise Victoria Cindry sterf in 'n tragiese ongeluk. Dr Hogback ontmoet die Warlord of the Sea Gecko Moria, saam met Absalom en Perona.

Hatchan besoek Shakuyaku en Silvers Rayleigh vir die laaste keer nadat hy by die Sun Pirates aangesluit het.

The Sun Pirates ontmoet Koala, 'n jong meisie wat 'n slaaf van die Celestial Dragons was. Fisher Tiger hermerk haar slawemerk in die merk van die son, wat haar die eerste mens maak wat die embleem van die Sun Pirates dra.

By die terugkeer van Koala na haar tuiseiland word Fisher Tiger in 'n hinderlaag gelei deur 'n groep mariniers onder leiding van admiraal Strawberry. Nadat hy skaars die eiland ontsnap het met 'n mariene skip wat deur sy bemanning gesteel is, kies Tiger eerder om te sterf as om 'n oortapping van die menslike bloed op die skip te ontvang.

Boos oor Tiger se dood, gaan Arlong terug na Foolshout -eiland om wraak te neem op die mense wat Tiger verraai het, net om verslaan en gevange geneem te word deur viseadmiraal Borsalino. Hy word dan in Impel Down opgesluit.

Zeff keer terug van die Grand Line. 'N Storm sink die seevaartskip van die Orbit en Zeff. Zeff en Sanji beland 85 dae lank op 'n eiland met baie min kos en word uiteindelik gered. Baratie word oopgemaak.

Kuina en Roronoa Zoro het beloof dat een van hulle die grootste swaardpersoon sal word. Nadat Kuina sterf, gee Koushirou Zoro die Wado Ichimonji om sy doel te bereik. Η ]

Doflamingo stel Riku Doldo III en sy soldate in die gesig vir verskillende misdade teen hul eie burgers voordat hulle ingryp en die posisie van koning van Dressrosa opeis.

Arlong val die dorp Cocoyasi binne en begin sy ryk bou. Bell-mère word deur hom vermoor en Nami word ingeroep by die Arlong Pirates.

Tom voltooi die Sea Train, die Puffing Tom. Dit het vier jaar ekstra vir hom en die ander geneem om die spore by ander eilande te voeg.

CP5, onder leiding van Spandam, raam Tom, wat na Enies Lobby vervoer word. Cutty Flam word vermoedelik dood nadat hy probeer het om die seetrein wat Tom vervoer het, te stop.

Prinses Shirahoshi word geraak deur Vander Decken IX, wat haar 'n teiken vir sy magte maak.

Koningin Otohime word vermoor en veroorsaak oproer op Fish-Man-eiland.

Hody steel die energiepille uit die Tamate Box en bedank uit die Neptunus -weermag. In die geval van 'n ander diefstal, plaas die Minister van Regs plofstof in die boks wat ontplof sodra dit oopgemaak word.

Shirahoshi is toegesluit in die Hard-Shell-toring van die Ryugu-paleis om haar te beskerm teen die gawes en dreigemente van Decken.

Pekoms lei die ander minks van die Nox Pirates wat nie hul reis kon voortsit nie, en laat net Pedro en Zepo agter. Later het Pekoms en sy groep by Big Mom se gebied aangekom. Daar is hul lewens gered en hulle het in haar sorg gekom. ⏮ ]

Minatomo verkoop die bloudrukke aan die herehuis van Kaido by 'n pandjieswinkel. 'N Rukkie later het Ashura Doji die bloudrukke van Rakuda gesteel en saam met hulle na Kuri gehardloop. ⏯ ] 𖏜 ]

Nadat hy van Davy Jones gehoor het, begin Foxy 'n span bymekaar maak deur Davy Back Fights. Η ]

Ondanks Ashura Doji se waarskuwing om te wag, gaan baie van sy vriende na Onigashima om Kaido te beveg. Uiteindelik is hulle dood. 𖏝 ]

Koala sluit hom aan by die Revolusionêre Leër.

Gan Fall word vervang as die God van Skypiea deur Enel in 'n staatsgreep.

'N Vergadering word by Mary Geoise gehou met die wêreldraad om die draak en sy revolusionêre beweging te bespreek.

Hiriluk sterf na sy dood, Tony Tony Chopper woon by dokter Kureha, wat hom begin leer hoe om 'n regte dokter te wees. ⎳ ]

Twee aanhangers van die boek oor Mont Blanc Noland, Masira en sy broer Shoujou, daag by Jaya op om Mont Blanc Cricket te help in sy pogings om dinge met sy voorouer af te handel.

Rob Lucci, Kaku en Kalifa van CP9 gaan onder die dekmantel en sluit by die Galley-La Company aan om meer te wete te kom oor Pluton se bloudrukke. Blueno gaan saam met hulle na Water 7, maar kry eerder werk as kroegman.

Nico Robin word gehuur deur Crocodile in Baroque Works as sy vennoot.

'N Droogte begin in Arabasta, met die vermoede dat die koning dit met die gebruik van Dance Powder veroorsaak het.

Ax-Hand Morgan word vereer omdat hy die berugte 'Kaptein Kuro' ingebring het en begin sy bewind kom in die Marines. 𖏠 ]

Die Franky -familie begin versamel 200,000,000.

Kaya se ouers sterf. Kort daarna word Kaya siek. 𖏣 ]

Koby beland per ongeluk as die seuntjie van die seerower Alvida. 𖏤 ]

In weerwil van dr. Vegapunk, voer Caesar Clown 'n eksperiment uit met chemiese wapens op Punk Hazard. Die eksperiment vernietig die hele ekosisteem van die eiland en laat baie gevangenes verlam.

Amigasa -dorp ervaar 'n hongersnood. Portgas D. Ace en sy bemanning is gevang deur die dorpenaars van Amigasa, wat hul kos gesteel het. Die seerowers het hulself bevry, maar kon 'n paar weke as gas in die dorp bly. Tama hou van Ace en besluit om 'n betowerende kunoichi te word wanneer hy terugkom.

Die eienaar van Chouchou gaan hospitaal toe en kom nooit weer terug nie. ⏭ ]

Mocha en Sind is ontvoer en na Punk Hazard gebring om die eerste twee proefpersone vir die gigantifikasie -eksperiment te wees. 𖏥 ] 𖏦 ]

Cavendish verskyn in die New World as 'n kragtige nuwe Super Rookie.

Geleenthede voor tye

Let wel: dit word geskryf asof u terugkyk op die gebeure. Hou in gedagte dat die mense in die One Piece -wêreld moontlik nie die gebeure ken soos die leser hulle vertel nie. Die belangrikste voorbeeld hiervan is die gebeure van Arabasta en die wêreldregerings.

Zoro red Rika van Soro, Helmeppo se hond. Omdat Helmeppo hom uitgedaag en Soro vermoor het, het hy Zoro nege dae lank sonder kos of water gekruisig. Luffy red Zoro en werf hom as sy eerste bemanningslid. Koby sluit by die Marines aan.

Nami stem in om saam met Luffy te reis vir hul onderlinge gemak. Luffy, Nami en Zoro verslaan Buggy en sy bemanning in Orange Town en kry 'n kaart van die Grand Line.

Klahadore beplan om Kaya dood te maak en haar fortuin te beërwe, maar die Straw Muts help Usopp om hom en sy bemanning te verslaan. Hulle ontvang die Going Merry van Merry, en Usopp sluit by hul bemanning aan. Die Straw Hat Pirates se jolige roger is gevestig.

Zoro het twee katanas wat deur Dracule Mihawk gebreek is, en dan verslaan Luffy Don Krieg by die Baratie, en Sanji sluit aan by die Straw -hoede.

By Cocoyasi Village breek Arlong sy ooreenkoms met Nami en word hy dan saam met sy hele bemanning verslaan. Nami sluit hierdie keer werklik aan by die strooihoedjies.

Nadat hy drie mense met hoë oorwinnings verslaan het, ontvang Luffy sy eerste premie van die Marines: 30 miljoen mae. Die Strooihoedjies betree die Grand Line.

Thatch ontdek die Yami Yami no Mi. Marshall D. Teach moor hom en steel die vrugte. Portgas D. Ace verlaat die Moby Dick om hom te vind.

Blackbeard en sy bemanning val op Drum Island. Wapol vlug in vrees.

'N Staatsgreep lei daartoe dat Vira oorgeneem word.

18 Februarie: Η ] Luffy en Usopp skep Mr. Snowman en Snow Queen, maar hulle word vernietig in hul kibbel.

19 Februarie: Η ] Igaram skep drie Honohonouenchi -dummies en probeer na Arabasta gaan, maar Miss All Sunday blaas sy skip op.

The Straw Hats raak bevriend met Nefertari Vivi, verslaan Wapol, werf Tony Tony Chopper, ontmoet Dorry en Brogy en gaan na Arabasta. Dalton word aangestel as heerser van die herdoopte Sakura -koninkryk. As hulle Barokwerke afbreek en Krokodil afneem, bedek die regering dit. Krokodil word gearresteer deur Tashigi en Smoker in Arabasta, wat albei vir hul pogings bevorder word. Die droogte eindig en vrede keer terug na die land. Prinses Vivi keer terug nadat sy 'n paar jaar tevore verdwyn het. Nico Robin sluit aan by die Straw Hats.

Enel word verslaan deur die Straw Hoede. Gan Fall keer terug as God van Skypiea. Die oorlog tussen die Skypiërs en Shandia eindig.

Foxy se Davy Back Fight -wenreeks, na 920 oorwinnings, is verbreek.

CP9 -leier, Spandam, het per ongeluk 'n Buster -oproep na Enies Lobby ontbied en die eiland van geregtigheid vernietig. Die vernietiging word die skuld gegee aan die strooihoedjies, wat almal 'n oordeel ontvang.

Shu gebruik sy Sabi Sabi no Mi -kragte om Yubashiri te roes.

25 Maart Η ]: The Thousand Sunny word vervaardig. Franky sluit aan by die Straw Hats.

'N Klein maffia -boef, bekend as Duval, word deur jagters jagters gejaag as gevolg van sy opvallende ooreenkoms met Sanji se nuwe bounty -plakkaat. Marines van die Marine -hoofkwartier word ook in opdrag van Vinsmoke Judge na hom ontplooi. 𖏩 ]

Shanks maak kontak met Whitebeard. Ondanks mariene pogings ontmoet die twee mekaar. Twee dae voor hul ontmoeting is 'Fire Fist' Ace verslaan deur Blackbeard. Hy word ingehandig by die Marines, wat 'n datum vir sy teregstelling bepaal het. Die Wêreldregering roep die Seven Warlords of the Sea op om saam met die mariniers saam te trek vir 'n oorlog teen Whitebeard. Blackbeard word aangestel in die posisie van Warlord of the Sea vir sy rol om Ace in te bring.

Shusui word deur Ruma aan Roronoa Zoro gegee. Meer as duisend skaduwees wat deur die krygsman Gecko Moria ontvoer is, word aan hul oorspronklike eienaars terugbesorg. Die meeste vermoed Moria is egter verslaan, maar Moria behou die Warlord -status en daar word geen verslae oor so 'n nederlaag bekend gemaak nie. Brook sluit aan by die Straw Hats.

Op die Sabaody -argipel slaan Luffy 'n Wêreld edel in die gesig, en Bartholomew Kuma stuur elke lid van die Straw Hat Pirates na 'n aparte eiland.

Luffy word die eerste mannetjie wat ooit sy voete op Amazon Lily gesit het.

Monkey D. Luffy, kaptein van die Straw Hat Pirates, breek by Impel Down in, waaruit Buggy toevallig probeer ontsnap. 241 gevangenes ontsnap suksesvol uit die gevangenis, wat die eerste massa -uitbraak in sy geskiedenis was. Intussen val Blackbeard Impel Down binne om die voormalige hoofbewaarder van Impel Down, Shiryu, en verskeie gevangenes van die apokriewe vlak 6 te bevry en te werf: Vasco Shot, Catarina Devon, Sanjuan Wolf en Avalo Pizarro.

Die Manticore van Impel Down ontsnap uit die gevangenis en word gevang deur die Big Mom Pirates, waarin Charlotte Mont-d'Or dit in 'n boek verseël.

Die Summit War of Marineford vind plaas. Both Luffy's and Ace's heritage are revealed to the public. Portgas D. Ace dies when Admiral Akainu's magma fist goes through his chest. Edward Newgate dies standing up at Marineford. Marshall D. Teach somehow steals and assimilates Whitebeard's Devil Fruit power, making him the only human known to wield the power of two Devil Fruits. The battle is brought to an end with the arrival of Shanks and the Red Hair Pirates. Other pirates start to invade Whitebeard's territory after hearing of his death.

Monkey D. Garp and Sengoku resign from the Marines.

Monkey D. Luffy, Jinbe, Trafalgar Law, and the Heart Pirates are the first males ever permitted to set foot on Amazon Lily, an island that is usually off-limits to men.

Luffy, Jinbe, and Silvers Rayleigh return to Marineford. They sailed around the island once, Luffy rang the Ox Bell sixteen times and gave a silent prayer, and they left once again on the Kuja Pirates' ship.

The original childhood lab of Dr. Vegapunk on Karakuri Island explodes after Franky presses a self-destruct button in the lab. This event becomes known to the world as the "Nightmare of Baldimore". Soon after that, Franky causes another incident, which would become known as the Legend of the Sacred Burning Beast of Baldimore.

Monkey D. Luffy decides to disband the Straw Hat Pirates for two years in order to allow the crew to train and become stronger.

Buggy is invited into the Seven Warlords of the Sea and accepts.

Sabo regains his memory of Luffy and Ace before he decides to find the Mera Mera no Mi.

During the timeskip

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
1 year ago
A great battle takes place between the Marines and the combined forces of Duval and his Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Bartholomew Kuma, over the Straw Hat Pirates' ship, the Thousand Sunny. In the end, the Marines were forced to retreat, with the Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Kuma sustaining serious damage. The Thousand Sunny was left unharmed.

An argument occurs between Admirals Aokiji and Akainu for the vacant position of Fleet Admiral. The two engage in a duel to the death on Punk Hazard, which lasted for ten days and left both men severely wounded. In the end, Sakazuki wins and is promoted to the position of fleet admiral. This results in the transfer of Marineford to the New World, the relocation of the G-1 branch, the resignation of Aokiji from the Marines, and the reconstruction of the Marines. The battle causes one side of Punk Hazard to be permanently embroiled in flames, leaving the other half permanently frozen over. The World Military draft is held, and the two vacant Admiral positions are filled by Issho and Ryokugyu.

After defeating the remnants of the Whitebeard Pirates in the Payback War, Marshall D. Teach acquires great notoriety in the New World by conquering Whitebeard's former sphere of influence, attacking and murdering Devil Fruit users, and stealing their abilities to increase the abilities of his crew, resulting in him usurping Whitebeard's previous status as one of the Four Emperors.

Bartolomeo appears in the New World as a powerful new Super Rookie.

Trafalgar Law obtains a bounty of 440,000,000 for unknown reasons. After sending the disembodied (but living) hearts of 100 pirates to Marineford, he is appointed to a Warlord of the Sea position. 𖏪 ]

X Drake allies with the Beast Pirates and aides in the destruction of Amigasa Village. 𖏫 ]

Capone Bege starts planning the assassination of Big Mom. 𖏬 ]

Komurasaki gradually tricks Bingo into giving away all of his money, and then later spends it all. 𖏭]

Marshall D. Teach acquires the status of Emperor.

Current Storyline

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
Current Storyline
The prince and king of the Goa Kingdom die of a suspicious death, resulting in Sterry ascending to the throne. 𖏮]

Kin'emon, Kiku, Raizo, Kanjuro, and Kozuki Momonosuke arrive in the Wano Country of this year from 20 years ago, having been sent forward through time by the powers of the Toki Toki no Mi. While Kiku stays at Wano, the rest left to recruit allies. 𖏯]

The Fake Straw Hat Crew recruit famous pirates but are unmasked by Sentomaru, who has been promoted into the Marines. The real Straw Hat Pirates reunite at Sabaody Archipelago and word gets out that they're back in action. Upon pursuit by marines, they escape with their coated ship into the sea. With help from various groups of people, the Straw Hats set off for Fish-Man Island.

As punishment for helping the Straw Hats, Bartholomew Kuma was enslaved by the Celestial Dragons some point later. Η]

Madam Shyarly of the Mermaid Cafe predicts the destruction of Fish-Man Island at the hands of Straw Hat Luffy. Meanwhile, Hody Jones, captain of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken IX, captain of the Flying Pirates, form an alliance and initiate a rebellion against the Ryugu Kingdom. Princess Shirahoshi manifests her ability to summon Sea Kings in order to stop Noah from falling onto Fish-Man Island. She is revealed to be the ancient weapon, Poseidon. Jinbe donates blood to Luffy in the very first human-fish-man blood transfusion since it was outlawed.

Jinbe promises to join the Straw Hats once he finished taking care of his duties.

Neptune frees the human pirates makes the Fish-Man subordinates work under him and arrests Hody, officers of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken. Some of the human pirates were later captured by G-5.

The Straw Hat Pirates are targeted by Big Mom after Luffy challenges her and declares himself as the future protector of Fish-Man Island. Luffy gives Tamago and Pekoms the treasure that Caribou stole, including the Tamate Box with an explosive inside of it.

The Straw Hats form an alliance with the Heart Pirates in order to dethrone Kaido. Smiley eats the candy, causing a poisonous gas that can petrify people to spread across Punk Hazard. The group defeats and kidnaps Caesar Clown at Punk Hazard before continuing to Dressrosa in order to take down Donquixote Doflamingo. Both Vergo and Monet die.

G-5 take the children from Punk Hazard to see Vegapunk.

An alliance between the Kid, On Air and Hawkins Pirates to depose the Emperor Shanks is formed.

Jinbe places Caribou in a G-5 Marine base. The Caribou Pirates tried to rescue him, but got captured as he sails free. Caribou ends up on one of Kaido’s favorite islands. The Caribou Pirates meet up on the island with a Marine ship. They defeat Scotch and destroyed the factory, but Caribou is taken by X Drake and is later taken prisoner in Wano.

Zou is invaded by Jack and his division of the Beasts Pirates, who cause mass devastation while hunting the ninja, Raizo.

Kuzan becomes an affiliate of the Blackbeard Pirates.

All toys on the island of Dressrosa return to their original forms after Sugar loses consciousness. Sabo, the second-in-command of the Revolutionary Army, consumes the Mera Mera no Mi, which previously belonged to his late brother, Portgas D. Ace. Donquixote Doflamingo is defeated, his crew is arrested, and reign over Dressrosa is returned to the Riku Family. Doflamingo's fall sends many nations that depended on him into chaos, allowing the Revolutionaries to increase their victories.

Seven crews pledge their allegiance to the Straw Hat Pirates, forming the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, which consists of over 5000 members. Due to the events from their reunion at Sabaody Archipelago until Dressrosa, all of the Straw Hats receive new bounties, with updated pictures on their posters, and Sanji's status is changed to "Wanted Only Alive".

After confronting Kaido, the On Air Pirates and Hawkins Pirates become subordinates of the Beasts Pirates while Kid remains prisoner.

Jack attacks Doflamingo's escort. He sinks two of the ships, but is ultimately defeated. He survives, and the newspapers falsely report him as dead.

The Blackbeard Pirates attack the Revolutionaries' island base of Baltigo, resulting in the base being completely destroyed in which the new base is located in Momoiro Island. 𖏰]

Brook of the Straw Hat Pirates creates copies of Charlotte Linlin's Road Poneglyph after infiltrating her storeroom, making the Straw Hats one of the few factions in the world to have possession of one at the time.

The Tamate Box explodes, causing Whole Cake Chateau to fall.

Pedro blows himself up with dynamite to have the Straw Hats move forward.

Morgans reports the details of the Sanji Retrieval Team's successful raid against the Emperors Charlotte Linlin to the entire world. Morgans also reveals to the world of Sanji's heritage, the formation of the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, and the addition of the former Warlord of the Sea Jinbe to the Straw Hat Pirates. Following this news, Germa Kingdom is officially expelled from the Government for their attempted alliance. It is also reported that Luffy is considered by certain parts of the world to be a fifth Emperor. 𖏱]

March 3 Η] : Luffy washes up on Kuri Beach in Wano Country and saves Tama from a group of Beasts Pirates.

Shimotsuki Yasuie gets executed. This year’s Levely ends. Roronoa Zoro makes a deal to replace Shusui with Enma. Charlotte Linlin and Kaido decide to form a temporary alliance with their pirate crews.

The Seven Warlords of the Sea system is abolished and the Marines start to attack the former Warlords. 𖏳]

During the Fire Festival on Onigashima the Ninja-Pirate-Mink-Samurai Alliance affiliates begin an attack. Kurozumi Orochi is betrayed. Kurozumi Kanjuro is killed by Kozuki Oden's retainers.


Cuerdale Hoard (United Kingdom)

The Cuerdale Hoard is an enormous Viking silver treasure of some 8000 silver coins and pieces of bullion, discovered in Lancashire, England in 1840 in the region called the Danelaw.

Cuerdale is only one of several Viking hoards found in the Danelaw, a region owned by the Danes in the 10th century AD, but is the largest found yet to date. Weighing almost 40 kilograms (88 pounds), the hoard was found by workmen in 1840, where it had been buried in a lead chest sometime between AD 905 and 910.

Coins in the Cuerdale Hoard include a large number of Islamic and Carolingian coins, numerous local Christian Anglo-Saxon coins and smaller amounts of Byzantine and Danish coins. Most of the coins are of English Viking coinage. Carolingian (from the empire established by Charlemagne) coins in the collection came from Aquitaine or a Netherland mint Kufic dirhams come from the Abbasid dynasty of the Islamic civilization.

The oldest coins in the Cuerdale Hoard are dated to the 870s and are the Cross and Lozenge type made for Alfred and Ceolwulf II of Mercia. The most recent coin in the collection (and thus the date usually assigned to the hoard) was minted in 905 AD by Louis the Blind of the West Franks. Most of the rest can be assigned to the Norse-Irish or the Franks.

The Cuerdale Hoard also contained hack-silver and ornaments from the Baltic, Frankish, and Scandinavian regions. Also present was a pendant known as "Thor's hammer", a stylized representation of the Norse god's weapon of choice. Scholars are unable to say whether the presence of both Christian and Norse iconography represents the owner's brand of religion or the materials were simply scrap for bullion.


Klaus Freisinger

There is only a handful of WH sites associated with the Vikings, and the major reason for this seems to be that they just didn't leave that many traces. Their buildings were made of wood, so the major Viking remains are runestones and burial mounds. These are also what you can see in this site, spread over 2 islands in Lake Mälar, just outside Stockholm. Birka, on the island of Björkö, is only reachable by boat, and there is a daily excursion boat leaving from Stadshuset. The island includes a decent museum with many findings (although most are in Stockholm museums), and the guided tours take you to the major burial mounds and modern additions (a chapel and a large cross dedicated to St. Ansgar, who - unsuccessfully - tried to bring Christianity to Birka). Birka was a large trading post in its heyday, and one of only a handful of Viking-age cities. The king, however, resided in Hovgarden, on the island of Adelsö, just a short boat ride away. I wasn't really sure how to include this in my travel plans, but in the end, it was pretty easy. Just 30 minutes after the boat to Stockholm left, another boat made the trip to Adelsö, and I could explore the site on my own. There are burial mounds there as well, plus a few scattered runestones, which I didn't see in Birka. So I think both islands are worth a visit, even if the bus trip from Adelsö back to Stockholm took over an hour. This is one of the few insights into authentic Viking life that one can get anywhere - and there is a realistic imitation of a Viking settlement close to the museum in Birka.


4 Viking Parliament

For years, the exact location of a Viking Parliament in Dingwall, Scotland, have eluded archaeologists and historians alike. It was only in 2013 when it was finally located. After excavating for more than a year, archaeologists hit the jackpot&mdashthey unearthed the remains of the lost Viking parliament at a parking lot known as the Cromartie Memorial car park.

More popularly known as a &ldquoThing,&rdquo the Viking parliament was built on the instructions of a powerful Viking earl named Thorfinn the Mighty. Aside from the Thing, Thorfinn also commissioned the construction of a ditch, an aqueduct, and a road.

This discovery has elicited excitement among historians in the United Kingdom since it could &ldquohelp them learn more about the Norse Vikings, who battled for control of land across the north of Scotland.&rdquo


The Sami are one of the indigenous people of the world. The first document to mention the Sami in Sweden was written almost 2,000 years ago. Inland parts of upper Norrland are known to have been inhabited even longer, however – for close to 10,000 years.

The Viking Age (800–1050 AD) was characterised by a significant expansion of activity, in Sweden’s case largely toward the east. Many Viking expeditions set off from Sweden to both plunder and trade along the Baltic coast and the rivers that stretched deep into present-day Russia. The Vikings traveled as far as the Black and Caspian Seas, where they developed trading links with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab kingdoms. Christianity first reached Sweden with a mission led by Ansgar, who visited in the 9th century, but the country was not converted to Christianity until the 11th century.

There are more than 2,500 rune stones in Sweden, with messages dating from the 5th century to the mid-12th century, making them the oldest preserved Swedish documents. Relatives often had stones erected in memory of a dead family member.


History of Venetian Masks

Venetian masks have a long history of protecting their wearer's identity during promiscuous or decadent activities. Made for centuries in Venice, these distinctive masks were formed from paper-mache and wildly decorated with fur, fabric, gems, or feathers. Eventually, Venetian masks re-emerged as the emblem of Carnevale (Venetian Carnival), a pageant and street fair celebrating hedonism.
Venetian masks have been worn in Venice, Italy, since antiquity.
Unlike the vast majority of their counterparts in contemporary European nations, each citizen in Venice enjoyed a high standard of living. Everyone was part of the great economic machine that was the Republic. Venice was capitalizing on its position, on its gains, long before its contemporaries had realized the value of a market economy. With a level of social wealth unequaled since, the citizens of Venice developed a unique culture&mdashone in which the concealing of the identity in daily life became paramount to daily activity. Part of the secrecy was pragmatic: there were things to do, people to see, and perhaps you might not want others to know what deals you were cutting. After all, the city is relatively small.
Additionally, the masks served an important social purpose of keeping every citizen on an equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be mistaken for a nobleman&mdashor vice versa. State inquisitors and spies could question citizens without fear of their true identity being discovered (and citizens could answer without fear of retribution). The morale of the people was maintained through the use of masks&mdashfor with no faces, everyone had voices.
As a result of the concealment of identity, however, people naturally found themselves taking advantage of the situation. The society grew ever more decadent. The immense amount of travelers coming through the city meant that sexual promiscuity was commonplace and acceptable. Gambling went on all day and night in the streets and houses, even in convents. Women's clothing became more revealing homosexuality, while publicly condemned, was embraced by the populace. Even the nuns and monks of the clergy, bejeweled and dressed in the latest imported creations, wore masks and engaged in the same acts as the majority of their fellow citizens. Rome turned a blind eye, as long as the Republic continued to make generous donations.
The Republic fell into a state of luxury, indolence, and moral decay. Eventually the wearing of masks in daily life was banned and limited only to certain months of the year. During the last year of the Republic's existence, this period extended for over three months from December 26. After the 1100s, the masquerade went through periods of being outlawed by the Catholic Church, especially during holy days. Their policy leads to eventual acceptance when they declared the months between Christmas and Shrove Tuesday free for Venetian mask - attired decadence. This period evolved into Carnival, the pre-Lent celebration meaning, "remove meat." Although Venetian Carnival lost popularity as Venice's cultural production faltered during the Enlightenment, it was officially reintroduced in 1979.
The modern celebration of Venetian Carnival has reinvigorated the art and craft of making Venetian masks. Recognizable types of Venetian masks continue to dazzle tourists, dancers, and pageant participants during Carnival and year round. Wearing Venetian masks has spread to Halloween masquerade balls and what North and South Americans call Mardi Gras, but they always carry their rich Italian history.

In general all Venetian masks may be classified under two major groups:

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE MASKS

These masks date back to the second half of the sixteenth century and represent characters, ethnic traditions, professions and trades closely tied to the different cities of Italy personified by professional actors in the Commedia dell'Arte (means Art of Comedy in Italian)

Commedia dell'Arte was a form of improvisational theater, which began in the 16th century and was popular until the 18th century, although it is still performed today. Traveling teams of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics, and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called Canovaccio.
Troupes occasionally would perform directly from the back of their traveling wagon, but this is more typical of Carro di Tespi, a sort of traveling theatre that dates back to antiquity.

The performances were improvised around a repertory of stock conventional situations, adultery, jealousy, old age, love, some of which can be traced in Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence. The dialogue and action could easily be made topical and adjusted to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, mixed with ancient jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costume,masks, and even props, such as the slapstick.
Male Commedia dell'Arte characters were depicted by actors wearing masks representing regions or towns. The female characters, however, were usually not masked. In fact, the roles were often played by males in women's clothing and wigs, in travesti, as it is called.

Thus, the Commedia dell'Arte, with its stock situations and characters and improvised dialogue, has shown the way to many other forms of drama, from pantomime and Punch and Judy - which features debased forms of the commedia characters - to the modern animated cartoon, situation comedy, and even professional wrestling. The characters and tropes of the Commedia have also been used in modern novels, from sword and sorcery to literary works, notably by Michael Moorcock in his Jerry Cornelius stories that culminate with the Guardian prize-winning The Condition of Muzak.

ARLECCHINO is a most popular of Zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'Arte. Arlecchino traditionally wore an outfit of patches and rags, which evolved into the lozenge-shaped motley seen today. His mask was black with a large red blemish on his forehead similar to a boil.
The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. While generally depicted as quite stupid and greedy (in a gastronomic sense) his acrobatics were what an audience expected to see. The character would never simply perform an action when the addition of a cartwheel or back flip would spice up the movement.
Within these restrictions the character was terribly elastic. Various troupes and actors would alter his behavior to suit style, personal preferences, or even the particular scenario being performed.
He is typically cast as the servant of an innamorato or vecchio much to the detriment of his master's plans. Arlecchino often had a love interest in the person of Colombina, and his lust for her was only superseded by his desire for food or fear of his master.
The origins of the name are uncertain. Some say it comes from Dante's Commedia where one of devils is called Alichino. Others say it could come from Harlenkoenig, a Scandinavian hero. In another hypothesis it comes from Harlay, an English gentleman of the court of Henri III, who had protected an Italian actor.

BRIGHELLA is a comic, masked character from the Commedia dell'Arte, a money-grubbing villain and a partner of Arlecchino. His costume consisted of loosely fitting, white smock and pants with green trim and was often equipped with a battachio or slapstick. He wore a green half-mask displaying a look of preternatural lust and greed.
He is loosely categorized as one of the Zanni or servant characters though he often was portrayed as a member of the middle class such as a tavern owner. He is essentially Arlecchino's smarter and much more vindictive older brother. As is typical of those who have risen from poverty, he is often most cruel to those beneath him on the social ladder.
He is an inveterate schemer. Frequently paired with other Zanni as his assistants or employees, Brighella's plans were frequently foiled by their own ineptitude.

BURRATINO is a minor character from the Commedia dell'arte, one from the Zanni class.He is often not a servant, but is not well to do either. He is the quick witted earthy fellow who might be the innkeeper or grocer. If he is not a servant, he is often friends with them.
Though only mildly popular on the stage, Burrattino found his real fame in the marionette theater. According to Pierre Louis Ducharte, Burrattino puppet's influence in Italy was so great that "by the end of the sixteenth century, all marionettes operated by strings and a wire were called burattini, instead of bagatelli or fantoccini, as they had been known up to that time."

CAPITAN SCARAMOUCHE either a young man of adventure or a quite old mariner, a boasting, swashbuckling officer, often Spanish, dressed-to-kill in cape, feathered hat, high boots, with sword in belt, was always a prime favorite. He told extraordinary tales about how he beat a whole army of Turks and carried off the beard of the Sultan, but when there was a hint of real danger he was the first to run away. He made love to the none-too-innocent servant maid, and got trashed by her Harlequin lover. This character, of course, is none other than the Miles Glorious of Plautus, called in Italy Il Capitano Spavento della Valle Inferno, or simply Spavento.

COLOMBINA (means "little dove" in Italian) is a comic servant character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Colombina was usually dressed in a ragged and patched dress appropriate to a hired servant. Occasionally, under the name Arlecchina she would wear motley similar to her counterpart Arlecchino. She was also known to wear heavy makeup around her eyes and carry a tambourine which she could use to fend off the amorous advances of Pantalone. She was often the only functional intellect on the stage. Colombina aided her mistress, the inamorata to gain the affections of her one true love by manipulating Arlecchino and counter-plotting against Pantalone while simultaneously managing the whereabouts of the inamorato.

ILL DOTTORE is a local aristocrat and/or doctor of medicine or law or anything else he claims to know about, which is most things. He traditionally is portrayed as having been educated in Bologna. He is often extremely rich, generally with "old" money, though the needs of the scenario might have things otherwise. He is extremely pompous, and loves the sound of his own voice, spouting ersatz Latin and Greek. His interaction in the play is usually mostly with Pantalone, either as a friend, mentor or competitor.
He is typically depicted as an elderly man who only knows nonsense. He makes many cruel jokes about the opposite sex and believes that he knows everything about everything. He is an obese man that enjoys the bottle and eating to excess. His mask is unique in that it is the only mask in Commedia dell'Arte to cover only the forehead and nose. It is sometimes black in color or else flesh-toned with a red nose.
His costume is usually all or mostly black, sometimes with a white collar. He frequently wears a hat, and long, trailing robes. If the actor playing the role is not naturally fat then he is padded out to make him seem so.

PANTALONE is a miserly, libidinous, aged character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Usually he is a shopkeeper from Vienna, somewhat stupid, fond of food and of pretty women, talkative, gullible, full of temper, and the butt of all the jokes, some of them very indecent, yet forgiving in the end.
He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility, which everyone around him knows to be long gone.
He is often cast as the parent of one of the inamorata and has some business or personal relationship with Dottore or Capitano. Pantalone's plans to profit at the expense of his family and friends are guaranteed to be thwarted by his servant. He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility (which everyone around him knows to be long gone) along with a mask with a long hooked nose, a tight red vest, red breeches and stockings, a black cassock, slippers and a brimless hat.

PIERROT (Pedrolino in his Italian incarnation) is a stock figure in the Commedia dell'Arte. Pierrot is normally portrayed as personable, charming and kind, to the point of excess he blames himself for wrongs never done and because of his good and trusting nature is often easily tricked. The noticeable feature of Pierrot's behavior is his naiveness, he is seen as a fool, always being cheated and joked on by the others. Despite his suspicions about things, Pierrot always ends up trusting people and believing in their lies. Pierrot is also called as a lunatic, an a person outside the reality, in a state of unawareness about what's happening around, someone for whom anything matters, just cheering and playing all the time.
Pierrot wears white clothes, which are occasionally overlarge for him but more commonly are well fitted, and sometimes black accessories. On his head he wears a hat that is either tall and pointed or else small and brimmed. Pierrot is very occasionally depicted with a teardrop on his face, and he usually wears no mask the actor is generally expected to have a great range of facial expression, and this tradition has been in play since at least the start of the 1600s. His face is sometimes whitened with powder or flour.

PULCINELLA is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dell'Arte of the 17th century, a hunchback who still chases women. Pulcinella was the model for Punch in the English variation Punch and Judy. Pulcinella became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. His main characteristic, from which he acquired his name, is his extremely long nose, which resembles a beak. In Latin, this was a pullus gallinaceus, which led to the word "Pulliciniello" and "Pulcinella", related to the Italian pulcino or chick. His traditional temperament is to be mean, vicious, and crafty: Pulcinella main mode of defense is to pretend to be too stupid to know what's going on, and his secondary mode is to physically beat people.
Pulcinella often wears a black mask and long white coat, and has loose and straggly hair.

ZANNI is the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dell'arte. Its name comes from Giovanni (also said Zan, Zane, Zuane), a typical name of servants whose forefathers emigrated in Venice search for work from the valleys around Bergamo. Opposed to the Magnifici (the masters), the role of the Zanni is very changeable: silly, simple-minded, and vulgar. Once inside the city environment Zanni becomes sly, cunning, meddling, and cheeky. Many times he remains poor, constantly hungry.
Zanni's costume was loosely fitting white smock and pants. He wore a black mask reminiscent of his more popular descendant, Arlecchino.

CARNIVAL MASKS

Venetian Mask is the object, which most represents Venice, because it plays the Venetian spirit projected towards the party, the transgression and the amusement. There were many occasions when people turned to dressing up, in fact masks were worn many months of the year. In the eighteenth century, Venice enjoyed the reputation of having the most famous Carnival in the world. All the social classes took part and the mask represented the trick for the expression of that big collective magic.

BAUTA is famous through the Carnival of Venice as it is the main type of mask worn during the Carnival. Bauta was used also on many other occasions as a device for hiding the wearer's identity and social status. It would permit the wearer to act more freely in cases where he or she wanted to interact with other members of the society outside the bounds of identity and everyday convention. It was thus useful for a variety of purposes, some of them illicit or criminal, others just personal, such as romantic encounters.
The name Bauta does not have up to now, a definite interpretation. It may came from the German "behten" (to protect), as well as from "bau"(or "babau"), typical Italian representation of the monster, or bad beast, used by adults to scare children. "Se non stai bravo viene il babau e ti porta via &hellip (if you do not behave, the babau will come and take you away &hellip)".
This very Venetian mask was considered an ideal disguise by kings and princes who could move freely into the city without being recognized but was worn by strangers too. Fame of the Bauta went on along the Serenissima Republic, with the French and Austrian rules it started to disappear, considered as a reactionary symbol.
Bauta is quite ghostlike and with the centuries the fashion was to wear it with a black tricorno (the 3-pointed typical Venetian hat), zendale (long hood made of satin and macrame), and long cape.

DAMA , which presents many elegant variations corresponds to the ladies of the Cinquecento (the period of Titian) who covered themselves in jewels, expensive clothing and elaborate coifs. In our days this is probably the most popular and most beautiful mask type used during the Venetian Carnival.

GATTO (means cat in Italian) is a traditional Venetian Carnival mask. Cats were so scarce in Venice that they became the subject of one of the most typical masks. Legend has it that a man who owned nothing but his old cat came to Venice from China. The cat rid the palace of all its mice and the man became rich. When he went back home, his rich neighbor was green with envy and rushed to Venice with his most precious silks, thinking that if a mere cat made the other man rich, he would be enormously rewarded for these precious items. Indeed, the Duke promised him his most precious possession in return for his gifts. and the neighbor went home with the cat!

JESTER , or JOLLY as a female variant, is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. Starting in Italy, Jester moved into all of Europe, influencing theatre in Spain, Holland, Germany, Austria, England, and especially, France.
The origins of the Jester are said to have been in prehistoric Western tribal society. Pliny the Elder mentions a royal Jester (planus regius) when recounting Apelles' visit to the palace of the Hellenistic King Ptolemy I. However, Jesters are mainly thought of in association with the European Middle Ages. Jester was symbolic twin of the king. All Jesters and fools in those days were thought of as special cases whom God had touched with a childlike madness&mdasha gift, or perhaps a curse. Mentally handicapped people sometimes found employment by capering and behaving in an amusing way. In the harsh world of medieval Europe, people who might not be able to survive any other way thus found a social niche.
Jesters typically wore brightly colored clothing in a motley pattern. Their hats were especially distinctive made of cloth, they were floppy with three points, each of which had a jingle bell at the end. The three points of the hat represent the asses' ears and tail worn by Jesters in earlier times. Other things distinctive about the jester were his incessant laughter and his mock scepter, known as a bauble or marotte.

MORETTA is traditional Venetian mask. This mask was worn by Venetian women all year around. Moretta is an oval mask of black velvet that was usually worn by women visiting convents. It was invented in France and rapidly became popular in Venice as it brought out the beauty of feminine features. The mask was finished off with a veil.

VOLTO (means face in Italian) also known as the Citizen mask, because it was worn by the common people during all Holidays since ancient time: S. Marco's day, Sensa feast day, S. Vito and Modesto, S. Stefano festivities are only a few examples.

DOTTORE PESTE is a modern Venetian Carnival mask. This mask has a very unique history. One of the worst scourges for the city of Venice was without any doubt the Plague, which struck the city on several occasions. Because of this the Plague Doctor isn't a real mask but was a disguise used by local plague doctors who went on visits wearing this strange costume to people afflicted with plague.
Dottore Peste outfit consisted of a hat to show that the man was a doctor, a mask to protect the face which included crystal eyes to protect the wearer's eyes and the beak which was stuffed with spices or herbs to purify the air that the doctor breathed, a wooden stick to push away victims who would get too close to him, a pair of leather gloves to protect the hands, a gown waxed from the exterior, and full length boots.


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