Rotskuns onthul prehistoriese seevaart in Swede

Rotskuns onthul prehistoriese seevaart in Swede

Nuwe tegnologie het kundiges in staat gestel om 'n paar raaiselagtige rotskuns uit die Steentydperk in Swede te begryp, en onthul dat prehistoriese mense reeds die see in was. Argeoloë kon vir die eerste keer 'n aantal beelde onthul wat nie vir die oog sigbaar is nie. Hulle kon ook die piktogramme dateer. As gevolg hiervan het navorsers nou 'n beter begrip van die seevaarders en die samelewing uit die Steentydperk in hierdie deel van Europa.

Die rotskuns is geleë op 'n paar rotse by Tumlehed, naby Göteborg, in die suidweste van Swede. Hierdie beelde is op die eiland Hisingen, 'n voorstad van Göteborg, ongeveer 15 kilometer van die middel van die tweede stad van Swede. Dit word beskou as een van die beste bewaarde voorbeelde van rotskuns in die hele Skandinawië. Baie van die beelde het egter erg vervaag en is nou moeilik om met die blote oog te sien. Die terrein is die afgelope dekades gereeld deur argeoloë ondersoek.

Studie van rotskuns

Nuwe tegnologie het die afgelope paar jaar baie nuwe ontdekkings gemaak. Argeoloog Bettina Schulz Paulsson en haar kollegas het besluit om die nuwe tegnologie te gebruik om die rotskuns by Tumlehed te bestudeer en te dateer, waarvan sommige deur NASA ontwikkel is. Volgens Mirage News 'Die nuwe tegnologieë wat op die Tumlehed -rotskildery gebruik is, het die digitale beeldverbeteringsprogram Dstretch ingesluit'.

Tumlehed rotskuns (Gunnar Creutz / CC by SA 3.0)

'N Student het die argeoloë bygestaan ​​in die studie. Fredrik Frykman Markurth het 'n draagbare X-straalfluoressensie (PXRF) spektroskopie gebruik om die skilderye se pigment te ontleed. Hierdie navorsing 'is 'n baie goeie voorbeeld van navorsingsgedrewe onderrig', het 'n plaaslike dosent in argeologie, Christian Isendahl, volgens die Universiteit van Göteborg gesê.

Die gebruik van tegnologie het die navorsers in staat gestel om die skilderye te dateer. Daar word nou beraam dat hulle 'tussen 4200-2500 jaar vC geskilder is deur mobiele jagters wat per boot na die weskus van Swede gekom het om rob en walvisse te jag' volgens die Universiteit van Göteborg. Die datering van die skildery beteken dat die rotskuns geskep is deur mense wat op langafstand seevaart besig was. Die kuns is 'n bewys dat ou mense in hierdie streek vaardige seevaarders was wat gesofistikeerde navigasievaardighede gehad het.

Beelde uit die Steentydperk

Die tegnologie het 'n aantal nuwe motiewe onthul wat deur mense uit die Steentydperk geskep is. Baie hiervan is nie voorheen in hierdie deel van Skandinawië gevind nie. Volgens Phys.org is hierdie motiewe 'slegs voorheen gevind in Finland, Rusland, die noordooste van Noorweë en Noord-Swede'. Hierdie gebied staan ​​nou bekend as Fennoscandia. Die kenmerkende rotskuns is in twee fases geskep.

Die belangrikste van die motiewe wat deur die tegnologie onthul is, is 'piktogramme van bote met elmkopstingels', berig Phys.org. Hierdie bootmotiewe kom baie algemeen voor in antieke Fennoskandiese rotskilderye. Phys.org haal Schulz Paulsson aan om te sê dat 'Elandkopbote dikwels verband hou met jag- en vis tonele'.

Tumlehed rotskildery ( CC by SA 3.0)

Elk-Head Bote

Dit blyk dat die eland 'n baie belangrike simbool in die kultuur was, tesame met spesies hert. Dit was die diere waarvan die jagter-versamelaars van antieke Fennoscandia die meeste afhanklik was vir kos. Elke het gevolglik 'n groot simboliese en moontlik selfs godsdienstige betekenis gehad vir diegene wat die piktogramme gemaak het.

Die span kundiges volgens Schulz Paulsson het die motiewe in Tumlehed 'geïnterpreteer as drie elandekopbote wat verband hou met 'n klein walvis, 'n rob en vier visse', berig Phys.org. Dit blyk dat die motief van die bote verband hou met jag en visvang. Hulle is moontlik geskilder om die mense uit die Steentydperk te help om meer suksesvol te wees in hul jagtogte en maritieme ekspedisies.

Nuut ontdekte rotskuns in Swede wat seevaarders uit die Steentydperk uitbeeld Krediet: Universiteit van Göteborg

Die resultate toon dat tegnologie 'n venster kan gee in die antieke verlede deur ons in staat te stel om antieke kuns duidelik te sien. Dit bevestig ook teorieë oor die Steentydperk en prehistoriese seevaarders. Die resultate van die navorsing is in die prestige gepubliseer Oxford Journal of Archaeology.


Tumlehed rotskildery

Tumlehed rotskildery (Hällmålningen i Tumlehed) is 'n prehistoriese rotskuns -piktogramterrein in Tumlehed op die eiland Hisingen, Göteborg -munisipaliteit, Swede. Dit is die mees suidelike aangetekende rotskildering in Swede en een van die min wat in die westelike dele van die land aangetref word, en nog 'n paar in dieselfde provinsie. [1]


Lascaux, Frankryk

(© Robert Harding/Robert Harding World Imagery/Corbis)

In September 1940 het vier seuns en 'n hond 'n ontdekking gemaak wat die moderne begrip van kuns sou verander: die prehistoriese skilderye in Lascaux, 'n reeks grotte in die Dordogne -streek in Frankryk. Die grotkuns het die wêreld onmiddellik geboei en meer as 'n miljoen besoekers tussen 1948 en 1963 gebring. Die toeloop van toeriste het egter die delikate kunswerk begin beskadig, wat daartoe gelei het dat amptenare die grot in die 1960's vir die publiek toegemaak het. 'N Replika van die grot, Lascaux II, is geskep om besoekers in staat te stel om die kunswerk te ervaar sonder om die oorspronklike, wat nou byna heeltemal vir mense gesluit is, te beskadig ('n paar wetenskaplikes word elke jaar in die grot toegelaat om navorsing te doen).  Today Die oorspronklike grot is aangewys as 'n wêrelderfenisgebied, en word dikwels na verwys as "The Sistine Chapel of Prehistory." Koolstofdatering het getoon dat die skilderye, wat diere soos   perde, bulle en takbokke, sowel as mense en abstrakte tekens uitbeeld, tussen 15 000 en 17 000 jaar oud is.  


Stonehenge, ander ou rotsstrukture kan hul oorsprong na monumente soos hierdie herlei

Stonehenge is moontlik die bekendste voorbeeld, maar tienduisende ander antieke terreine met massiewe, nuuskierig gerangskikte rotse is in Europa. 'N Nuwe studie dui daarop dat hierdie megaliete nie onafhanklik geskep is nie, maar eerder kan teruggevoer word na 'n enkele jagter-versamelaarkultuur wat byna 7000 jaar gelede begin het in die huidige Bretagne-streek in die noordweste van Frankryk. Die bevindinge dui ook aan dat destydse samelewings beter bootseienaars was as wat gewoonlik geglo word, en hulle kultuur oor die see versprei het.

"Dit toon absoluut aan dat Bretagne die oorsprong is van die Europese megalitiese verskynsel," sê Michael Parker Pearson, 'n argeoloog en Stonehenge -spesialis aan die University College in Londen.

Die oorsprong van die megalietbouers het Bettina Schulz Paulsson agtervolg sedert sy byna 20 jaar gelede haar eerste megalitiese monument in Portugal opgegrawe het. Die meeste antropoloë het vroeg gedink dat megaliete hul oorsprong in die Nabye Ooste of die Middellandse See het, terwyl baie moderne denkers die idee dat hulle onafhanklik in vyf of ses verskillende streke in Europa uitgevind is, terugdink. Sy sê dat die grootste struikelblok deur die berge argeologiese gegewens gesorteer is om betroubare datums te vind vir die 35 000 terreine, insluitend gekapte stene, grafte en tempels.

'Almal het vir my gesê:' Jy is mal, dit kan nie gedoen word nie ',' sê Schulz Paulsson, 'n prehistoriese argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Göteborg in Swede en die enigste skrywer van die studie. 'Maar ek het besluit om dit in elk geval te doen.'

The Ring of Brodgar op die Orkney -eilande in die Verenigde Koninkryk

Wat sy gedoen het, was om data oor radiokoolstofdatums van 2410 antieke plekke in Europa te sif om 'n prehistoriese argeologiese tydlyn te rekonstrueer. Die radiokoolstofdatums kom meestal uit menslike oorskot wat in die terreine begrawe is. Die studie het nie net na megaliete gekyk nie, maar ook na sogenaamde premegalitiese grafte wat uitgebreide, erge grafte bevat, maar geen groot klippe nie. Schulz Paulsson het ook inligting oor die argitektuur van die terreine, gebruik van gereedskap en begrafnisgebruike ingesluit om die datums verder te beperk.

Die vroegste megaliete in Europa, wat sy gevind het, kom uit Noordwes -Frankryk, insluitend die beroemde Carnac -klippe, 'n digte versameling rye staande klippe, heuwels en bedekte klipgrafte wat dolmens genoem word. Dit dateer uit ongeveer 4700 v.G.J., toe die streek deur jagter-versamelaars bewoon is. Gravures op staande klippe uit die streek beeld potvisse en ander seelewe uit, wat daarop dui dat die vroeë messelaars moontlik ook seevaarders was, sê Schulz Paulsson.

Noordwes -Frankryk is ook die enigste megalitiese gebied met grafte met ingewikkelde erdgrafte wat dateer uit ongeveer 5000 v.G.J., wat volgens haar 'n bewys is van 'n "evolusie van megaliete" in die streek. Dit beteken dat megalietgeboue waarskynlik daar ontstaan ​​het en na buite versprei het, berig sy vandag in die Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dolmen Sa Coveccada op noordoostelike Sardinië in die Middellandse See

Teen ongeveer 4300 v.G.J. het megaliete versprei na kusgebiede in Suid -Frankryk, die Middellandse See en aan die Atlantiese kus van die Iberiese Skiereiland. In die volgende paar duisend jaar het die strukture in drie verskillende fases aan die kus van Europa opgeduik. Daar word vermoed dat Stonehenge omstreeks 2400 v.G.J. opgerig is, maar ander megaliete in die Britse Eilande gaan terug na ongeveer 4000 v.G.J. Die skielike verskyning van spesifieke megalitiese style, soos smal, met klippe uitgevoerde grafte by kusgebiede, maar selde in die binneland, dui daarop dat hierdie idees deur prehistoriese matrose versprei is. As dit die geval is, sal dit die opkoms van gevorderde seevaart in Europa met ongeveer 2000 jaar terugdruk, sê Schulz Paulsson.

'Dit lyk redelik aanneemlik', sê Gail Higginbottom, 'n argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Adelaide in Australië.

Parker Pearson sê dat die studie goed werk om vas te stel dat megaliete eers in Noordwes -Frankryk ontstaan ​​het, maar dit sluit nie die moontlikheid uit dat sommige latere kulture die idee onafhanklik ontwikkel het nie.

Karl-Göran Sjögren, 'n mede-argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Göteborg, sê hy aanvaar dat Noordwes-Frankryk een van die eerste bouers was. Maar hy is nie heeltemal oortuig dat daar nog nie vroeër megaliete ontbloot is nie, of meer bewyse wat die datums van 'n paar bekende megaliete kan terugdruk. Toekomstige studies wat antieke DNA en ander bioargeologiese bewyse oor bevolkingsbewegings insluit, kan dinge opklaar, sê hy.


Lees die plafon weer

In San -rotskuns is die eland 'n verbindingselement. Dit is die bok wat die meeste in die uKhahlamba-Drakensberg-skilderye uitgebeeld word. Dit word in verskeie San -rituele aangetref en word geglo dat dit die meeste wesens is ! gi: - die | Xam -woord vir die onsigbare essensie wat die kern van San -geloof en ritueel is.

By RSA CHI1 is daar baie uitbeeldings van elande, maar ons het gefokus op die een met sy kop skerp omhoog.

Detail van die eland met die opgehefde kop. Stephen Townley Bassett

Uitbeeldings van hierdie postuur, hoewel nie algemeen nie, kom op ander webwerwe voor. Die eland se verhewe kop dui daarop dat dit iets ruik, waarskynlik reën. Beide reuk en reën is bonatuurlik kragtig in San gedagte.

Die unieke kenmerk van hierdie skilderye is egter die manier waarop 'n lyn oploop vanaf 'n gebied van ruwe rots, wat by die voorpote van die eland breek en dan na 'n ander gebied van ruwe rots. Die skilder, of skilders, moes die eland eers uitgebeeld het en dan die reël bygevoeg het om die betekenis van sy opgehefde kop te ontwikkel. Ons voer aan dat beide die opgehefde kop en die lyn die kontak met die geesteryk beklemtoon, alhoewel op verskillende maniere.

Die manier waarop die geverfde lyn uit ruwe gesteentes uitkom en voortgaan, is vergelykbaar met die manier waarop talle San -beelde geverf is om die indruk te gee dat hulle die rotswand binnedring en verlaat via krake, trappe en ander ongelykhede. Maar wat het agter die rotswand gelê?


Sangkulirang - Mangkalihat Karts: Prehistoriese rotskunsgebied

Die tentatiewe lyste van deelnemende state word deur die Wêrelderfenis sentrum op sy webwerf en/of in werksdokumente gepubliseer om deursigtigheid, toegang tot inligting te verseker en om harmonisering van voorlopige lyste op streeks- en tematiese vlakke te vergemaklik.

Die enigste verantwoordelikheid vir die inhoud van elke tentatiewe lys lê by die betrokke staatsparty. Die publikasie van die voorlopige lyste impliseer geen uitdrukking van enige mening van die Wêrelderfeniskomitee of van die Wêrelderfenissentrum of van die Sekretariaat van UNESCO oor die regstatus van enige land, gebied, stad of gebied of sy grense nie.

Eiendomsname word gelys in die taal waarin dit deur die Staatsparty ingedien is

Beskrywing

Die eiendom is geleë in die middel-oostelike deel van die Oos-Kalimantan-provinsie, op die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland. Dit bevat duisende rooi rotskuns-skilderye en enkele plekke met gravure op 35 plekke in sewe verskillende karstberggebiede aan die hoof van die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland (Merabu, Batu Raya, Batu Gergaji, Batu Nyere, Batu Tutunambo, Batu Pengadan en Batu Tabalar).

Meer rotskuns wat deur jagter-versamelaars gemaak word, word op die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland aangetref as op enige ander plek in Suidoos-Asië. Dit blyk dat dit duisende jare lank, van ongeveer 5.000 jaar gelede, aandui. Die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland was 'n belangrike ontmoetingsplek in die suidelike deel van die pre-Australiese en Austronesiese migrasie.

Die ontwikkeling van skilderye in die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland deur duisende jare kan verband hou met die einde-gletser na die omwenteling na die gletser. Op die Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat-skiereiland is die veranderende landskap van die prehistoriese tyd duidelik, en die posisie van die skilderye bied ook 'n sleutel tot die begrip van die kulturele gebied van rock in die verlede, sowel as die prehistoriese chronologiese van die Suidoos-Asiatiese streek.

Die Rock Art -skildery toon kommunikasie tussen die leefwêreld en die wêrelde van die geeste en gee insig in die kosmologie van prehistoriese jagters en versamelaars.

Daar is 'n buitengewoon groot aantal 'tatto'-handafdrukke, saamgestelde handafdrukke, unieke menslike figure en fassinerende voorstellings van prehistoriese sosiale lewe, dans, jag en rituele. Boonop lewer die Rock Art 'n unieke bewys van die interaksie van jagter-versamelaars met die landskap. Die panele toon jag- en rituele reise, en word beskou as 'n voorstelling van hul landskap. 'N Wye verskeidenheid grootmamdiere-fauna word uitgebeeld (bos javanicus, cervus unicolor, sus barbatus, manis javanica), en ook alreeds verdwynde soogdiere soos tapirus indicus.

Studies oor materiële kultuur en kultuurgebied word verryk deur die vele verskillende artefakte wat op die Sangkulirang -Mangkalihat -skiereiland gewys word. Goeie natuurlike bewaringstoestande laat die studie van rotskunsbeskerming toe. Ondersoek na die groot nedersetting en plekke langs die skilderye gee 'n beter begrip van die sosiale konteks van die rotskuns. Die rotskuns en die nedersettingsterreine demonstreer kommunikasie in die voorgeskiedenis, nie net met gebiede wat duisende kilometers ver is nie, maar ook die optimale gebruik van die karstiese bergomgewing.

Regverdiging van uitstaande universele waarde

Verklarings van egtheid en/of integriteit

Kennis van die uitstaande universele kultuurwaarde van eiendom is hoofsaaklik gebaseer op groepe rotskunswerwe, wat nog grootliks in hul oorspronklike toestand is. Die meeste van die ryk rotskunsbeelde, die vorm en ontwerp, materiale, tegnieke en ligging, is onder krans bewaar, en die beitel (of skerp gereedskap) merke uit hul produksie duisende jare gelede kan nog bestudeer en gesien word.

Die eiendom is van voldoende grootte en omvang om die hele kalksteenmassief te omvat, met 'n volledige reeks klassieke kartsforme en gepaardgaande geomorfiese prosesse. Groepe terrein, grot en skuiling met rotskuns is in hierdie gebied ingesluit.

Daar is geen struktuur wat die natuurskoon belemmer of afbreuk doen aan die estetiese aantrekkingskrag van die gebied nie. Geen besetting en benutting in hierdie gebied nie, en die meeste daarvan bly in 'n natuurlike toestand. 'N Groot buffersone omring die eiendom heeltemal en beskerm dit teen enige eksterne ontwrigting. Besette gebiede beskerm bos en pasgemaakte bos.

Vergelyking met ander soortgelyke eiendomme

1. Sulawesi -grotte (ongeveer 37,900 v.C.) Indonesië

Die wêreld se oudste stensil kom uit die Leang Timpuseng-grot in die Maros-Pangkep-karstgebied op die eiland Sulawesi. Die webwerf bevat ook 'n paar van die oudste diereskilderye, almal gemaak deur Aboriginese migrante wat waarskynlik na Australië op pad was.

2. El Castillo -grot (ongeveer 37 300 vC) Spanje

Die tweede oudste stensil kom uit die Aurignacian -grotkompleks van El Castillo. Sowat 55 ander handsilhouette en ander simbole kan in die grot gesien word, waarvan verskeie ook aan die begin van die Bo -Paleolitiese dateer is.

Aangesien hierdie periode van vroeë Aurignaciaanse kuns saamval met die eerste aankoms van die anatomies moderne mens, het bespiegelings ontstaan ​​dat hierdie handskilderye deur Neanderthalers gemaak is. Skeptici beskou dit as onwaarskynlik.

3. Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc-grot (ongeveer 30 000 v.C.) Frankryk

In totaal bevat die grot 12 rooi okerhandafdrukke, 9 handstensils en ongeveer 450 palmafdrukke - meestal op die paneel handstensils in die Gallery of Hands. In die paneel van die rooi kolletjies, 'n grotskildery wat naby die ingang van die grot ontdek is, is daar 'n groep groot kolletjies, ongeveer in die vorm van 'n reuse. Die kolletjies is gemaak deur die palm van die regterhand in rooi verf te doop en dit dan op die muur aan te bring.

4. Aboriginale kuns: Noordkus van Australië (ongeveer 30 000 v.C.)

Handstensils is 'n prominente kenmerk van beide Ubirr Rock -skilderye en die aangrensende gebied van Kimberley Rock -kuns. Alhoewel die oudste Aboriginale rotskuns uit ongeveer 30 000 vC dateer, is dit nie wetenskaplik bevestig nie. Sien ook die latere Bradshaw -skilderye (nou Gwion art genoem) uit dieselfde Kimberley -omgewing.

5. Cosquer (ongeveer 25 000 v.C.) Frankryk

'N Deel van die prehistoriese kuns wat hierdie grot versier, bestaan ​​uit 65 handstensils wat uit die Gravettiaanse kultuur dateer.

Hierdie bo-paleolitiese skuiling is bekend vir sy veelkleurige muurskildery, bekend as "The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle", wat self 'n aantal gestempelde handafdrukke bevat.

7. Gargasgrot (ongeveer 25 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Die grot is geleë in die Hautes-Pyrenees, nie ver van die rotsskuilings by Niaux en Trois Freres nie, en bevat rotstekeninge, artefakte, skilderye en bewegende kuns van die Mousterian tot die Magdaleniaan, waaronder talle 'negatiewe hande' wat in rooi oker of mangaan gemaak is, met behulp van 'n stensil tegniek. Daarbenewens is daar ongeveer 200 handafdrukke, meestal van die linkerhand. Sommige van hulle het nie een of meer vingers nie, as gevolg van rituele amputasie of bevrorenheid.

8. Roucadour Cave Art (ongeveer 24 000 vC)
Stilisties soortgelyk aan die pariëtale werke in die Pech Merle -grot, bevat die kuns in Roucadour -grot 'n aantal lewendige negatiewe handskilderye.

9. Abri du Poisson -grot (ongeveer 23 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Benewens die bekendste item uit die Gravettiaanse kuns - naamlik die bas -reliëfkalksteenbeeld van 'n salm - het hierdie rotsskuiling 'n enkele leesbare handstensil.

10. Karawari -grotte (ongeveer 18 000 vC) Papoea -Nieu -Guinee

'N Uitgebreide netwerk van 250 grotte en rotsskuilings in die Oos -Sepik Karawari -rivierstreek bevat die grootste voorbeelde van handstensils en ander soorte parietale kuns in Melanesië. In die Meakambut- en Namata -grotte is daar byvoorbeeld palmafdrukke gemaak deur jong manlike ingewydes wat met 'n kombinasie van bloed en klei geverf is.

11. Maltravieso -grot (ongeveer 18 000 v.C.) Spanje

Hierdie sentrum van Solutreaniese kuns in Caceres, Extremadura, bevat talle diereskilderye en gravures, asook 'n uitstekende groep van 71 gestempelde handafdrukke, waarvan baie vingers ontbreek.

12. Bayol -grot (17 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Die enigste handafdruk van die Franse rotsskuiling Bayol II (Collias II), naby die akwarium Pont du Gard, word vermoedelik deur 'n baie klein kind agtergelaat.

13. La Garma -grot (ongeveer 17 000 v.C.) Spanje

Daar is 32 handstensils, plus 'n reeks rooi kolletjies en ander eenvoudige rooi okerdierfigure uit die era van Solutrean -kuns, wat oor die hele lengte van die grot se 300 meter onderste galery strek.

14. Lascaux (c. 17,000-13,000 BCE) Frankryk

Benewens sy prehistoriese gravures en pragtige diereskilderye, het Lascaux ook 'n baie klein aantal handstensils.

15. Altamira (ongeveer 17 000 v.C.) Spanje

Onder die ander voorbeelde van pariëtale kuns, spog hierdie beroemde Cantabrese rotskuiling met 'n aantal handstensils wat met rooi pigment bespuit is.

16. Font de Gaume -grot (ongeveer 14 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Benewens sy wonderlike bisonfries, bevat die grot altesaam vier handstensils.

17. Rouffignac-grot (ongeveer 14 000-12 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Hierdie uitgestrekte ondergrondse grotkompleks is gevul met meer as 250 prehistoriese grottekeninge, sowel as abstrakte simbole en tekens, en 'n aantal handafdrukke.

18. Cougnac -grot (ongeveer 14 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Die Magdaleniaanse kuns bevat drie menslike figure en ongeveer 50 handstensils, asook talle vingerafdrukke in swart en rooi.

19. Les Combarelles (ongeveer 12 000 v.C.) Frankryk

Hierdie sentrum van Magdaleniaanse kuns bevat meer as 600 tekeninge van diere, maar slegs een leesbare handstensil.

20. Fern Cave (ongeveer 10 000 v.C.) Australië

Hierdie rotsskuiling in die noorde van Queensland bevat 'n reeks handstensils en ander inheemse rotskilderye wat dateer uit die begin van Mesolitiese kuns in die tiende millennium vC.

21. Kalimantan -grotte (ongeveer 8 000 v.C.) Indonesië

In Borneo, na navorsing deur Jean-Michel Chazine, is ongeveer 1500 negatiewe handafdrukke in 30 grotte van die Steentydperk in die Sangkulirang-gebied in die Oos-Kalimantan ontdek. Volgens die aanvanklike dateringstoetse is dit tydens die Mesolitiese tydperk geskep. Die Indonesies geverfde grotte by Maros in Sulawesi is ook bekend vir hul handstensils.

22. Gua Ham Masri II -grot (ongeveer 8 000 v.C.) Oos -Borneo, Indonesië

Bevat ongeveer 140 handstensils (gelyk aan manlik/vroulik). Die meeste van hierdie antieke kuns dateer uit die vroeë Mesolitiese tyd.

23. Cave of Hands (Cueva de las Manos) (7 300 vC) Santa Cruz, Argentinië

Die grot, een van die belangrikste prehistoriese plekke van Suid -Amerikaanse jagter -versamelaarsgroepe tydens die vroeë Holoseen -tydperk, bevat 'n aantal geverfde dierfigure, 'n reeks meetkundige vorms en 'n opspraakwekkende paneel rotskunshandskilderye - meestal gestensiliseer - gedateer tot ongeveer 7 500 vC.

24. Catal Huyuk (ongeveer 5 000-3 700 vC) Turkye

Rooi okerhandafdrukke uit die vroeë tydperk van die Neolitiese kuns is ook hier ontdek, tesame met 'n groot hoeveelheid dierlike en menslike beelde. Saam met die ander groot argeologiese heuwel in die suide van Anatolië, by Gobekli Tepe, is hierdie groot Chalkolitiese nedersetting die bes bewaarde neolitiese terrein wat tot op hede opgegrawe is.

25. Elandsbaai -grot (ongeveer 4 000 v.C.) Suid -Afrika

Hierdie neolitiese skuiling word gekenmerk deur sy groepe van honderde handafdrukke, wat stylisties ooreenstem met ander van ongeveer 6000 jaar oud.

26. Handafdrukgrot van Belize (Actun Uayazba Kab) (omstreeks 1500 v.G.J.)

Handprint Cave, wat in 1996 ontdek is, is vernoem na die gestreepte buitelyne van mensehande en ander handkuns wat tydens die Maya -kultuur geskep is. Dit bevat 'n reeks ander piktogramme en rotstekeninge.

27. Red Hands Cave (minder as 1 000 BCE) NSW, Australië
Bekende plek van Aboriginale rotskuns, bekend vir sy neolitiese collage van handafdrukke en handstensils, gelaat deur volwassenes en kinders, in kleure van rooi, geel en wit oker. Inheemse kunstenaars vul hul mond met 'n mengsel van water, oker en dierlike vet (van 'n kangoeroe, emoe of echidna) en blaas dit oor hul hand om die stensil te maak.


ASIA, SUID | Sri Lanka

Robin Coningham, Keir Strickland, in Encyclopedia of Archaeology, 2008

Vroeg -later Prehistorie

Die Sri Lankaanse voorgeskiedenis is opvallend omdat dit tot op hede beide 'n paleolitiese en 'n neolitiese karakter ontbreek, en die vroegste menslike aktiwiteite kan slegs veilig teruggedryf word na die eerste verskyning van mikrolitiese jagtersversamelaars.

Ten spyte van hierdie relatief laat begin, is dit nie oordrewe om te sê dat Sri Lanka van sy grootte een van die grootste prehistoriese argeologiese navorsing in Suid -Asië het nie. Hierdie werk is in die eerste dekade van die twintigste eeu deur die broers Sarasin begin. In baie opsigte het hulle hul tyd vooruitgegaan in die behandeling van stratigrafiese rye, artefakopname, fauna -opname, monsterneming van plekke en krities die gebruik van etnografiese vergelykings. Deur die bestaande Vadda-jagter-versamelaars te bestudeer, kon hulle vergelykende interpretasies vir die argeologiese rekord ontwikkel. Hierdie benadering is die afgelope jare steeds gebruik, met Kennedy wat 'n fenotipiese verband tussen die sogenaamde Balangoda Man (Homo sapiens balangodensis) en moderne Vadda -gemeenskappe.

Die Sarasin -werk het 'n stewige grondslag gelê, en in die volgende dekade het 'n aantal argeoloë, soos Hartley (1911) en Wayland (1915 en 1919), Sri Lanka se voorgeskiedenis bestudeer en 'n lewendige veld geskep. In die besonder het PEP Deraniyagala, en later sy seun, SU Deraniyagala, sedert die dertigerjare 'n streng ondersoek na die voorgeskiedenis van die eiland ontwikkel deur die gebruik van uitgebreide opnames en opgrawings in die Ratnapura -streek in die suidweste van Sri Lanka, 'n gebied met diep Pleistoseen alluviale afsettings en 'n aantal opelug- en grotplekke met fauna -oorblyfsels, menslike oorskot en litiese artefakte. Die Ratnapura- en later geometriese mikrolitiese industrie word gekenmerk deur die gebruik van kwartsietgereedskap, en laasgenoemde vergelyk baie met die litika van die Teri-sandduine in die suidelike suidelike Indië. Mikrolitiese terreine wat gebruik word, word in Sri Lanka aangetref, wat wissel van duine tot grotte wat die veelsydigheid en mobiliteit van die jagter-versamelaars op die eiland aantoon. Radiometriese datums van hierdie webwerwe toon aan dat gemeenskappe wat mikrolitiese gereedskap gebruik, vanaf 30 000 jaar na BP oor die eiland versprei het en op sommige plekke 'n kontinuïteit toon wat tot die eerste millennium vC duur.


Australiese rotskuns - Belangrike feite

  • Australiese rotskuns het van die oudste oorlogvoering uitgebeeld.
  • Australië het geen nasionale strategie of register van sy bekende rotskuns nie
  • Australië het meer as 100 000 rotskunswerwe
  • Australiese rotskuns vertel van klimaatsverandering.
  • Die oorsprong van die reënboogslang, 'n voorouer, word meer as 6000 jaar teruggevoer.
  • Die Aboriginale geestelike geloofstelsel is die wêreld se oudste deurlopende godsdienstige tradisie
  • The Eagle's Reach rotskuns in die Wollemi Nasionale Park het meer as 200 motiewe en stensils wat tot 4000 jaar oud is
  • Rainbow Serpent -kunswerke en mondelinge geskiedenisverwysings word in Australië aangetref
  • Wollemi Nasionale Park, in NSW, bevat meer as 120 rotskunswerwe
  • Rotskuns van Arnhem Land word nog tot in die tweede helfte van die 20ste eeu gemaak
  • Australiese rotskuns was die eerste rotskunsgalery ter wêreld wat by die Google Global Art Project ingesluit is - met meer as 70 beelde vertoon.
  • Djulirri-rotskuns toon dat Aboriginals op die minimum ouderdom van die vroeë tot middel van die 1600's kontak gehad het met seevaarders uit Suidoos-Asië
  • Uitbeeldings van uitgestorwe Tasmaanse tiere is gevind in 'n styl wat minstens 15 000 jaar oud is
  • Stensils van diere in Arnhem Land is die oudste dierverwante stensils ter wêreld
  • Navorsers gebruik 3D -skandeerders om werwe op te neem as hulle beskadig word
  • Australiese tradisionele eienaars ondervind fisiese en sielkundige pyn as hul rotskunswerwe beskadig word.
  • Die oudste Australiese rots wat direk gedateer is, is ongeveer 28 000 jaar oud, maar verskillende plekke gebruik rooi okerstukke wat meer as 50 000 jaar gelede dateer
  • Die Djulirri-skuiling in die Wellington-reeks, Arnhem Land, is die grootste rotskunswebwerf in Australië met meer as 3100 skilderye, stensils, afdrukke en byewasfigure
  • Professor Paul Taçon was een van die vroeë baanbrekers van radiokoolstofdatering van byewasfigure
  • Djulirri bevat rotskunsstensils van heelvoëls, iets wat nêrens anders ter wêreld aangeteken is nie

Rotskuns onthul prehistoriese seevaart in Swede - geskiedenis

'N GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE Sweedse mense
Waar kom die Swede vandaan?

Duisende Trojane het Troy onmiddellik na die oorlog verlaat, ongeveer 1184 vC begin. Ander het ongeveer 30 tot 50 jaar ná die oorlog gebly toe 'n geskatte 30 000 Trojane/Thraciërs skielik die stad Troje verlaat het, soos vertel deur Homeros (Griekse skrywer/digter, agtste eeu v.C.) en verskillende bronne (Etruskies, Merowingers, Romeins en later Skandinawies). Die verhale bevestig die laaste dae van Troje en beskryf hoe die oorblywende Trojane uiteindelik geëmigreer het nadat die Grieke die stad ontslaan het. Meer as die helfte van hulle het met die Donau opgegaan en na Italië oorgegaan om die Etruskiese kultuur (die oorheersende invloed op die ontwikkeling van Rome) te vestig, en later met die Romeine om streeksoorheersing geveg. Die oorblywende Trojane, hoofsaaklik hoofmanne en krygers, ongeveer 12 000 saam met hul stamme, het noordwaarts oor die Swart See gegaan na die Mare Moetis of 'vlak see' waar die Donrivier eindig (Kaukasus in die suide van Rusland), en 'n koninkryk opgerig Sicambria ongeveer 1150 vC. Die Romeine sou later na die inwoners verwys as Sicambriërs. Die plaaslike bevolking (nomadiese Skithiërs) noem hierdie Trojaanse veroweraars die 'Ystervolk', oftewel die Aes in hul taal. Die Aes (ook As, Asa, Asas, Asen, Aesar, Aesir, Aesire, & AEligsir of Asir) bou gou hul beroemde versterkte stad Aesgard of Asgard, beskryf as "Troje in die noorde." Verskeie ander bronne werk hiermee saam en verklaar dat die Trojane met hul superieure wapens aan die oostelike oewer geland het en grond geëis het. Die gebied het bekend geword as Asaland (Land van die Aesir) of Asaheim (Huis van die Aesir).

Sommige historici stel voor dat Odin, wat later deur heidense Vikings as 'n god aanbid is, eintlik 'n Thrakiese/Aesir -leier was wat in die Sikambriese koninkryk geheers het en in die eerste eeu vC in die stad Asgard gewoon het. Hy het hoofde aangestel volgens die patroon van Troje, wat heersers ingestel het om die wette van die land te administreer, en hy het 'n wetboek opgestel soos dié in Troje en waaraan die Trojane gewoond was. Tradisie ken hierdie Aesir -krygers as antieke migrante uit Troje, formidabele vegters wat die Noorse mitologie geïnspireer het en as die voorouers van die Vikings. Hulle is gevrees vir hul oorlogskepe, sowel as vir hul woede in die geveg, en domineer dus vinnig die noordelike handel met die Don -rivier as hul hoofroete na die noorde.

Historici verwys na die Aesir-mense as die Thraco-Cimmeriërs, aangesien die Trojane van Thraciese afkoms was (klik hier vir Thraciese oorsprong). Die Cimmeriërs was 'n ou volk wat onder Thraciërs gewoon het en uiteindelik opgeneem is in die Thraciese kultuur. Die Griekse geskiedskrywer Herodotus van Halicarnassus het ongeveer 440 vC opgemerk dat die Thraciërs die tweede grootste in die wêreld was, slegs in getal deur die (Oos) Indiërs, en dat die Thraciese vaderland groot was. Antieke kaarte beskryf die streek as Thracië of Thracië, die huidige suidoostelike Europa en noordooste van Griekeland. Thracian homelands included the Ukrainian steppes and much of the Caucasus region. According to Flavius Josephus, Jewish & Roman historian in the 1st century AD, the descendants of Noah's grandson Tiras were called Tirasians. They were known to the Romans as Thirasians. The Greeks called them Thracians and later Trajans, the original people of the city of Troas (Troy), whom they feared as marauding pirates. History attests that they were indeed a most savage race, given over to a perpetual state of "tipsy excess", as one historian put it. They are also described as a "ruddy and blue-eyed people." World Book Encyclopedia states they were ". savage Indo-Europeans, who liked warfare and looting." Russian historian Nicholas L. Chirovsky describes the arrival of the Thracians, and how they soon dominated the lands along the eastern shores of the river Don. These people were called Aes locally, according to Chirovsky, and later the Aesir (plural).

The land far north was first described about 330 BC by the Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia. He called the region "Thule," which was described as the outermost of all countries, probably part of the Norwegian coast, where the summer nights were very short. Pytheas translated Thule as "the place where the Sun goes to rest", which comes from the Germanic root word "Dhul-" meaning "to stop in a place, to take a rest." Pytheas described the people as barbarians (Germanic/Teutonic tribes) having an agricultural lifestyle, using barns and threshing their grains. These people had already established trade with the Aesir who later began migrating north around 90 BC from the Caucasus region, during the time of Roman expansion in Europe. The Germanic/Teutonic tribes first made a name for themselves about 100 BC after aggressively fighting against the Romans. Not much is known about the Germanic tribes prior to this. When writing the "Gallic Wars," Julius Caesar described encounters with those Germanic peoples and distinguishes them from the Celts. During this time period, many Germanic tribes were migrating out of Scandinavia to Germany and the Baltic region, placing continuous stress on Roman defenses.

The Aesir/Asir were divided into several clans that in successive stages emigrated to their new Scandinavian homeland. Entering the Baltic Sea, they sailed north to the Scandinavian shores, only to meet stubborn Germanic tribes who had been fighting the Romans. The prominent Germanic tribes in the region were the Gutar, ook bekend as die Guta, Gutans, Gauts, Gotarne of Goths by Romans. These Germanic tribes were already known to the Aesir, as trade in the Baltic areas was well established prior to 100 BC. The immigrating Aesir had many clans and tribes, and one prominent tribe that traveled along with them were the Vanir (the Vanir later became known as the Danir/Daner, and subsequently the Danes, who settled in what is now present-day Denmark). However, the most prominent clan to travel with the Asir were the Eril warriors or the "Erilar," meaning "wild warriors." The Asir sent Erilar (or Irilar) north as seafaring warriors to secure land and establish trade (these warriors were called "Earls" in later Scandinavian society, then became known as Jarlar, Eruls en Erils of Heruls en Heruli by Romans, also Eruloi of Elouroi by Greek historian Dexippos, and Heruler, Erullia en Aerulliae by others). The clans of Erilar enabled the Asir clans (later called Svi, Sviar, Svea, Svear of Svioner by Romans) to establish settlements throughout the region, but not without continuous battles with the Goths and other migrating Germanic tribes. The Eruls/Heruls eventually made peace with the Goths who ruled the region. The tribes of Svear, Vanir, and Heruli soon formed their own clans and dominated the Baltic/Scandinavian region. The Gothic historian Jordanes (or Jordanis), who was a notary of Gothic kings, told about 551 AD that the Daner were from the same stock as the Svear, both taller and fairer than any other peoples of the North. He called the Svear, "Sve'han."

The Svear population flourished, and with the Heruls and Goths, formed a powerful military alliance of well-known seafarers. The Svear and Heruls then gradually returned to their ancestral land, beginning in the 2nd century AD. Sometimes sailing with the Goths, they terrorized all of the lands and peoples of the Black Sea and parts of the Mediterranean, even the Romans. They were the pre-Vikings. Roman annals tell of raids of Goths and Heruli in 239-266 AD in the territory of Dacia (where the Danube river runs into the Black Sea). Having built a fleet of 500 sailing ships, the Heruls completed their raids in 267-268 AD, and controlled all of the Roman-occupied Black Sea and parts of the eastern Mediterranean. There are several accounts about how the Herul warriors returned to ravage the shores of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, alone and together with the Goths. The Romans noted that "the Heruls, a Scandinavian people, together with the Goths, were, from the 3rd century AD, ravaging the Black Sea, Asia Minor and the Mediterranean." While the the Romans called the Scandinavian region "Thule" (after Pytheas), the Greeks called it "Scandia" (from ancient times), and others called the area "Scandza." The term Scandia comes from the descendants of Ashkenaz (grandson of Noah in the Bible). Known as the Askaeni, they were the first peoples to migrate to northern Europe, naming the land Ascania after themselves. Latin writers and Greeks called the land Scandza or Scandia (now Scandinavia). The peoples in that region would be called Scandians or Scandinavians. Germanic tribes, such as the Teutons and Goths, are considered the descended tribes of the Askaeni and their first settlements.

The first time Thule (Scandinavia) was mentioned in Roman written documents was in the 1st century (79 AD) by the Roman citizen Plinius senior. He wrote about an island peninsula in the north populated by "Sviar," "Sveonerna" or "Svearnas" people, also called "Sveons," "Svianar,""Svetidi" of "Suetidi" by others. Later in 98 AD the learned civil servant Cornelius Tacitus wrote about northern Europe. Tacitus writes in the Latin book Germania about tribes of "Sviones" or "Suiones" (Latin Sviones was derived from Sviar) in Scandinavia, who live off the ocean, sailing in large fleets of boats with a prow at either end, no sail, using paddles, and strong, loyal, well-armed men with spikes in their helmets. They drove both the Goths and Lapps out of Scandinavia. Archaeological finds have provided a vivid record of the evolution of their longships from about the 4th century BC. Tacitus further wrote, "And thereafter, out in the ocean comes Sviones (also "Svionernas" or "Svioner") people, which are mighty not only in manpower and weaponry but also by its fleets". He also mentions that "the land of Svionerna is at the end of the world." In the 2nd century (about 120 AD) the first map was created where Scandinavia (Baltic region) could be viewed. Greek-Egyptian astronomer and geographer Ptolemaios (Ptolemy of Alexandria) created the map, and at the same time wrote a geography where he identified several different people groups, including the "Gotarne," "Heruls," "Sviar" and "Finnar" who lived on peninsula islands called "Scandiai." During the Roman Iron Age (1-400 AD), evidences are convincing for a large Baltic seafaring culture in what is now Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Estonia.

Evidence of their existence during this time period can be found on the frequent appearance of runic inscriptions with the name ErilaR "the Herul." While it is thought that the ancient Scandinavian alphabet, called futhork or runes, is of Latin origin, the evidence suggests that it was used far to the northeast of Rome where Roman influence did not reach. The runes are a corruption of an old Greek alphabet, used by Trojans along the northwest coast of the Black Sea. From examples of Etruscan, Greek, and early Roman scripts, it is not difficult to see that earlier runes resemble archaic Greek and Etruscan rather than Latin. The Heruls used runes in the same way their ancestors did, which have been discovered throughout Europe and Scandinavia. Scandinavian sagas tell us that the Scandinavian languages began when men from central Asia settled in the north. Sometime after 1300 AD runes were adjusted to the Roman alphabet.

The Heruls brought with them a few Roman customs, one being the Julian calendar, which is known to have been introduced to Scandinavia at this time, the early 6th century AD. When the Heruls returned to join again with the Svear in Scandinavia, the Svear state with its powerful kings suddenly emerges. Their ancestors were the warring bands of Aesir (sometimes called Eastmen) who became known as the Svear or Suines. They became the dominant power and waged war with the Goths, winning rule over them. By the middle of the 6th century, the first all-Swedish kings emerged. This royal dynasty became immensely powerful and dominated not only Sweden but also neighboring countries. Gothic historian Jordanes writes of the Suines or Suehans (Sve'han) of Scandinavia, with fine horses, rich apparel and trading in furs around 650 AD. The Swedish nation has its roots in these different kingdoms, created when the king of the Svenonians (Svears) assumed kingship over the Goths. The word Sweden comes from the Svenonians, as Sverige of Svearike means "the realm of the Svenonians". The English form of the name is probably derived from an old Germanic form, Svetheod, meaning the Swedish people.

The next Svear conquests began in the early 8th century. By 739 AD the Svear and Goths dominated the Russian waterways, and together they were called Varyagans of Varangians, according to written records of the Slavs near the Sea of Azov. Like their ancestors, the Svear lived in large communities where their chiefs would send out maritime warriors to trade and plunder. Those fierce warriors were called the Vaeringar, which meant literally "men who offer their service to another master". We later know them by their popularized name, the Vikings. Thus began the era known as the Viking Age, spanning more than 300 years from about 700 AD to 1066 AD. Once again the Svear began returning to the places of their Thracian ancestors in the Caucasus region, sailing rivers which stretched deep into Russia and the Black Sea, establishing trading stations and principalities. They often navigated the Elbe river, one of the major waterways of central Europe. They also navigated, as a primary route, the Danube river, a vital connection between Germany and the Black Sea. Their ships were the best in all of Europe—sleek, durable and could travel by both sail or oars. To the east of the Elbe they were known as Varangians, and west of the Elbe they were called Vikings. Many called them Norse, Norsemen or Northmen—those from the Scandinavian countries, which consisted of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. In northern France they would later be called Normans, eventually recognized as the rulers of what became Normandy. In England they were known as Danes, although some may well have been from Norway, where they became rulers of the Danelaw. Vikings raids in western Europe and the British Isles are noted in this Old English prayer: "A furore Normannorum libra nos, Domine" (From the fury of the Northmen deliver us, Oh Lord).

Vikings never called themselves Vikings. Unlike Varangian, the term Viking probably originated from Frankish chroniclers who first called them "Vikverjar" (travelers by sea), Nordic invaders who attacked the city of Nantes (in present-day France) in 843 AD. The word "vik" or "vic" (from "wic") meant river estuary, bay or fjord in Old Norse (a popular avenue for attack), and later meant "one who came out from or frequented inlets to the sea". Viking and Varangian eventually became synonymous, meaning "someone who travels or is passing through," whether merchant, mercenary, or marauder. Their activities consisted of trading, plundering and making temporary settlements (see Viking Routes). Finnish peoples referred to the Swedish voyagers as Ruotsi, Rotsi of Rus in contrast with Slavic peoples, which was derived from the name of the Swedish maritime district in Uppland, called "Roslagen," and its inhabitants, known as "Rodskarlar." Rodskarlar or Rothskarlar meant "rowers" or "seamen." Those Swedish conquerors settled in eastern Europe, adopted the names of local tribes, integrated with the Slavs, and eventually the word "Rusi," "Rhos" or "Rus" came to refer to the inhabitants. The Arab writer Ibn Dustah wrote that Swedish Vikings were brave and valiant, utterly plundering and vanquishing all people they came against. Later, the Arabic diplomat Ibn Fadlan, while visiting Bulgar (Bulgaria) during the summer of 922 AD, saw the Swedish Vikings (Rus) arrive, and he wrote: "Never before have I seen people of more perfect physique they were tall like palm trees, blonde, with a few of them red. They do not wear any jackets or kaftaner (robes), the men instead wear dress which covers one side of the body but leaves one hand free. Every one of them brings with him an ax, a sword and a knife." Their descriptions mirror the physique, dress and armor of Trojan warriors—the Viking ancestors. The various ancestors of the Vikings included the Thracian tribes (Asir) and the Germanic tribes (Goths).

The Vikings included many tribes and kingdoms from around the Baltic Sea, including the Svear from Sweden, the Norde from Norway, the Danes from Denmark, the Jutes from Juteland (now part of Denmark), the Goths from Gotland (now part of Sweden), the Alands from Åland (now part of Finland), the Finns from Finland, and others. The Svear Vikings traveled primarily east to the Mediterranean (what is now Russia and Turkey), where they had been returning regularly since leaving the region 900 years earlier. Subsequent Viking raids and expeditions covered areas deep into Russia, the Middle East, Europe and America, ending in the 11th century (about 1066 AD) after the introduction of Christianity around the year 1000 AD. Dudo of Saint Quentin, a Norman historian, wrote between 1015 and 1030 AD "The History of the Normans" where he called the Vikings "cruel, harsh, destructive, troublesome, wild, ferocious, lustful, lawless, death-dealing, arrogant, ungodly and more monstrous than all the rest." When Christianity ended the Viking Age, kingships and provinces of Sweden combined to form one country. The dominant king during the Viking Age was from the Erik family of Uppsala. One of the first Swedish monarchs in recorded history was Olof Skotkonung, a descendant of the Erik family. Olof and his descendants ruled Sweden from about 995 to 1060 AD. Sweden's first archbishop arrived in the 12th century (1164).

Sweden's expansion continued during the 12th and 13th centuries through the incorporation of Finland into the Swedish kingdom after several crusades, promoted by the Catholic church. There was a struggle for power between the Sverker en Erik families, which held the crown alternately between the years of 1160 and 1250. However, during this period the main administrative units were still the provinces, each of which had its own assembly, lawmen and laws. It was first during the latter part of the 13th century that the crown gained a greater measure of influence and was able, with the introduction of royal castles and provincial administration, to assert the authority of the central government and to impose laws and ordinances valid for the whole kingdom. In 1280 King Magnus Ladulås (1275 - 1290) issued a statute which involved the establishment of a temporal nobility and the organization of society on the feudal model. A council containing representatives of the aristocracy and the Catholic church was set up to advise the king. In 1350, during the reign of Magnus Eriksson (1319 - 1364), the various provincial law codes were superseded by a law code that was valid for the whole country, and Finland became part of the Swedish kingdom.

Since the dissolution of the union with Denmark and Norway, Swedish foreign policy had aimed at gaining domination of the Baltic Sea, and this led from 1560 onwards to repeated territorial battles with Denmark and Norway. The efforts of the higher nobility to take back power from the successful Swedish kingships (1560 - 1632) failed in the long run, and the crown was able to maintain and strengthen its position. In 1630 Sweden entered the historical "30 Years War" (1618 - 1648) with an attack against Germany for more control more of the Baltic region. With little success, Sweden left the war in 1634, but continued battling with Denmark and Norway for regional superiority. Sweden finally defeated Denmark and Norway in the two wars of 1643-45 and 1657-58, becoming a leading Lutheran power. These wars were partly a result of Sweden aggressively expanding its borders through occupation. For example, from 1563 to 1658, Jämtland (region in west Sweden bordering Norway) was occupied several times until it was conquered from Norway in 1658. The people of Jämtland were called "the new Swedes", a term still used today. These victories led to Sweden becoming a great power in northern Europe, having control of most of the Baltic region, including continued rule over Finland. The country even founded a short-lived colony in what is now Delaware in North America. Sweden's defeat in the Great Northern War (1700 - 1721) against the combined forces of Denmark, Poland and Russia, lost most of its provinces along the Baltic Sea and was reduced to largely the same frontiers as present-day Sweden. Finland was finally surrendered to Russia in 1809. To this day, much of western Finland is populated by Swedes, and several cities have both a Swedish and Finnish name with about 8% of Finland's population speaking Swedish.

In 1810 Sweden succeeded in obtaining Norway, which was forced into a union with Sweden in 1814 after a short war. This union was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Since the short war fought against Norway in 1814, Sweden has not been involved in any war and has also since the First World War pursued a foreign policy of nonalignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime, basing its security on a strong national defense. Nonetheless, Sweden joined the League of Nations in 1920 and the United Nations in 1946, and within the framework of these has taken part in several international peacekeeping missions. A new form of government was adopted in 1974 where all public power was derived from the people, who were to appoint the members of Parliament in free elections. Parliament alone was to pass laws and was entitled to levy taxes. The government was appointed by and responsible to Parliament, and the King was still the head of state, but his functions are reduced to purely ceremonial ones. Sweden continued to grow as an economic power throughout the 1980's, and in January of 1995 joined the European Union (EU). Now in the new millennium, Sweden is controlled by a Social Democratic government, and the monarchy of King Carl XVI Gustaf .

Dates:
BC means "Before Christ" which is equivalent to BCE "Before Common Era" (some say "Current" era).
AD means "Anno Domini" (in the year of our Lord) which is equivalent to CE "Common Era".

Where did the Finns come from?

The Finns probably originated from somewhere between the middle Volga and the Ural mountains (middle western Russia). Four thousand years ago a few tribes of hunters and fishermen settled there. Those tribes were destined to become the European branch of the Finno-Ugric people. Those people groups set off in opposite directions. The future Hungarians went south, while the Finns moved northwest where, about 500 BC, one can find traces of their first settlements along the southern coast of the Baltic. Finnish people are of Finno-Ugrian stock, mainly of western origin (Indo-European) as well as those of the other nations which were proceeding northwards in pre-historic times. For example, they are loosely related to the Baltic and Germanic people groups, and are closely related to the Estonians across the Gulf, the Magyars who settled in Hungary, and the Siberians in Russia. Prior to the 14th century, only the most Southwestern part of the country was known as "Finland" and its inhabitants as Finns. Finnish people consisted of different tribes like Karelians, Tavastians and Finns who are the ancestors of today's Finnish population.


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She also clarifies that out of the roughly 90 graves they found in the cemetery, 15 were &ldquoboat burials&rdquo and the rest were burials bereft of boat.

skip - Pre-Viking Swedish warriors were laid to rest on feather beds for eternity

Asked if the boat &ldquocoffins&rdquo had contained one individual or possibly more &ndash crew perhaps, or even families &ndash she explains that it&rsquos hard to know.

&ldquoNormally, very little of the skeleton was preserved, but it is most probable that only one individual was buried in each boat,&rdquo Berglund says. &ldquoAll boat burials were inhumation burials. In many of the other burials, the skeletons were burnt.&rdquo

The archaeologists did find women in non-boat graves, but no children have been identified to date as far as she knows, she adds.

Sailing in comfort to the next world

The two boats bearing the two dead men to the afterlife, presumably, were about 10 meters (nearly 33 feet) long, with space for four to five oarsmen, according to the authors. Both were outfitted for high-ranking warriors, with richly decorated helmets, shields and weapons, and feather beds and pillows. The Sutton Hoo burial in Suffolk, England, also featured the remains of a feather pillow.

One of the Valsgärde graves contained the body of a decapitated Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo). The archaeologists also found remains of horses and other animals arranged near the boats.

&ldquoThe buried warriors appear to have been equipped to row to the underworld, but also to be able to get ashore with the help of the horses,&rdquo Berglund posits.

Row? She qualifies that when the boats were excavated, the archaeologists thought they were rowboats without sails. That opinion could change as investigation of the boats progresses, she adds.

Asked if the boats had been used to sail the briny or were built explicitly for the purpose of burying respected dead people, she responds that there is &ldquono reason to think that the boats have not been used.&rdquo

Valsgärde by the Fyris River Jan Norrman / Riksantikvariemb skip - Swedish boat graves

Presumably not as beds, but their beauty sleep was also taken care of in death. In fact, a key focus of the new paper is the feathers in the bedding: were they from local birds? Imported? Which birds? Did the identity of the down donors have meaning and, if so, what might it have been? What was a headless owl doing in one of the graves anyway?

Lying in state of feathers

Feathers seem to have been a thing from the earliest history of humankind, though the reasoning behind cherishing bird plumage in prehistoric times can only be speculated. Over 420,000 years ago, an archaic species of human, pre-sapiens, apparently &ldquoharvested&rdquo feathers from a swan wing, Tel Aviv archaeologists deduced. And why would they have done so? Feather-based ritual, they suspect. Prehistoric cave art has sometimes shown depictions of what looks like people with feather headdresses.

According to Nordic folklore, the type of feathers contained in the bedding of the dying person was important, Berglund says.

Let us qualify that feather bedding as grave goods was surely a perquisite of the elite, and its existence in the boats further attests to the dead men&rsquos status. Wealthy Greeks and Romans used down bedding centuries earlier, but down probably wasn&rsquot used widely by the wealthy of Europe until the Middle Ages, she adds.

Berglund explains that she has been studying down harvesting in northern Swedish coastal communities where people commercialized fine-feather production early on by building houses for eider ducks. Wondering whether this practice had migrated to the south of Sweden, Berglund checked whether the Valsgärde bedding contained eiderdown.

An eagle owl, which frankly looks better with its head on Dick Daniels Zooming in on individual areas of a feather help researchers determine which birds the feathers came from. NTNU University Museum

Lo, not really it turned out to contain the feathers of many bird species, among which were a few eider feathers, she says. So eiderdown production doesn&rsquot seem to have migrated in pre-Viking Scandinavia &ndash but on the upside, the researchers believe they have gained insight to the bird populations of prehistoric Scandinavia. The bedding included feathers from geese, ducks, grouse, crows, sparrows, wading birds and eagle owls.

&ldquoArchaeological excavations rarely find traces of birds other than those that were used for food,&rdquo Berglund says. &ldquoWe also think the choice of feathers in the bedding may hold a deeper, symbolic meaning.&rdquo

Such as? She notes that in 18th-century Scandinavia, people thought that using feathers from domestic chickens, pigeons or owls and other birds of prey in bedding could prolong the death struggle, and goose feathers were considered best to enable the soul to be released from the body.

True, that&rsquos long centuries after the boat burials, but these beliefs in the powers of avian skin coverings plausibly have prehistoric roots.

Just for one example of prehistoric feather-related belief, a millennia-old Icelandic saga involving the explorer and warrior Erik the Red (950-1003), famed settler of Greenland, tells of a pillow stuffed with chicken feathers on a throne in Greenland on which a visiting female shaman was to sit, Berglund says.

By the way, research in 2019 showed that feather color can be key to chicken bellicosity: white lady chickens were more aggressive than their red counterparts, but it was a small study. Anyway, birds arguably have personality and the upshot is that the feather bedding in the boat burials may have been created thoughtfull, not just used as stuffing instead of, say, hay.

But what about that headless owl? First of all, Berglund points out that two boat graves from the same period exactly, found in Estonia, also contained decapitated birds of prey.

She wonders if it might have been a sort of spell to prevent the dead from returning. Swords found in tombs from later Viking times were sometimes bent, she says &ndash which may have been deliberately done to prevent the deceased from using the weapon if they returned. Or maybe the weapons were rendered unusable to deter grave robbers, who knows?


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