Charles L Evans DE 113 - Geskiedenis

Charles L Evans DE 113 - Geskiedenis

Clarence L. Evans

Gebore op 27 April 1923 in Saginaw, Mich., Het Clarence Lee Evans op 31 Mei 1941 by die United States Marine Corps Reserve aangesluit en na opleiding in San Diego diens gedoen van 20 Januarie 1942 tot 25 November 1942, toe hy vermoor is in aksie op Guadalcanal. Hy is bekroon met die Navy Cross vir buitengewone heldhaftigheid in die vaslegging van twee vyandelike masjiengeweer neste 2 dae voor sy dood.

(DE-113 .: dp. 1.240; 1. 306 '; b. 36'8 "; dr, 8'9"; s 21 k.
kpl. 186; a. 3 3 ", 3 21" tt., 8 dcp., 1 dcp (hh.), 2 dct .; el.
Buckley)

Clarence L. Evans is op 22 Maart 1944 van stapel gestuur deur Dravo Corp., Wilmington, Del., Geborg deur mev. E. Evans, in opdrag van 25 Junie 1944, luitenantkommandant W. C. Hughes, USNR; en gerapporteer aan die Atlantiese Vloot.

Clarence L. Evans het op 2 September 1944 by Norfolk aangemeld vir diens by die opleiding van bemanningslede van ander begeleide vaartuie. Hier het sy toetse gedoen van nuut ontwikkelde 3 "ammunisie en akoestiese torpedo -verdedigingstoerusting. Op 19 Oktober het sy Norfolk skoongemaak vir die eerste van vyf konvooi -kruisings van New York na Glasgow, Southhampton, Plymouth en Le Havre. Hierdie reise, wat gemiddeld was ongeveer 30 dae vir elke reis, is afgewissel met opleidingspligte in New London of Casco Bay.

Op 29 Mei 1945 het Clarence L. Evans tot 22 Junie by Brooklyn ingebring vir opknapping. Sy het daarna by die Quonset Point Naval Air Station aangemeld vir diens as vliegtuigwag tydens die kwalifikasieoefeninge van die vervoerder. Sy het Narragansettbaai op 17 Augustus vir Miami ontruim, tot 2 Oktober vliegtuigwag aangeneem en daarna na Brooklyn en herstel gereël. Clarence L. Evans rapporteer op 10 November by Green Cove Springs, Florida, waar sy uit die kommissie in die reservaat geplaas is 29 Mei 1947. Sy is op 29 Maart 1952 aan Frankryk geleen; sy dra die naam Berbere in die Franse vloot.


Die onderwerp -lêers vir foto's bevat foto's wat verskillende aspekte van die lewe in DeKalb County uitbeeld. Die onderwerpe in hierdie versameling en die ooreenstemmende boksnommers word hieronder gelys, asook beskrywings van die inhoud daarvan.

Klik op die “KONTAK DIE ARGIEF ” -knoppie om 'n afspraak te maak om die fotolêers persoonlik te sien. Dui asseblief op die vorm aan watter lêer (s) u wil sien. Andersins is ons besig om ons foto's te digitaliseer-as die lêernaam in 'n ander kleur verskyn, kan u op die lêernaam klik om die foto (s) te sien. Kontak die argiewe vir die verkryging van hoë resolusie beelde. Sien hieronder oor fooie, ens.

*** Tensy anders vermeld, behoort die beelde in ons versamelings tot die DHC, 'n lidmaatskap-gebaseerde nie-winsgewende organisasie, en mag dit slegs met ons skriftelike toestemming weergegee word. As toestemming verleen word, word u 'n fooi gehef en benodig ons inligting, insluitend, maar nie beperk nie tot, die beoogde gebruik, uitgewer en datum van publikasie. Kontak die argivaris vir meer inligting oor die gebruik van beelde uit ons versameling.

Vak 1

Adams, Salathiel en sy vrou Annie Catherine Ball Adams

Alexander, Hooper (twee foto's van Alexander by die lessenaar)

Alexander, William Prescott

Alston, kolonel Robert A. (foto van portret)

Austin-Stannard-Shonk familie- Henry, Stella, Dr Nat

Bagwell, Sally (sien ook Austin, Aurelia)

Bell, James Addison- Lithonia

Bell, Richard en voormalige distriksprokureur in DeKalb County

Blackmon, Marbut- burgemeester van Lithonia

Brown, Martha (Martha Brown United Methodist Church, Metropolitan & amp; Moreland Ave., ca. 1904)


Jules Verne

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Jules Verne, (gebore op 8 Februarie 1828, Nantes, Frankryk - oorlede op 24 Maart 1905, Amiens), 'n produktiewe Franse skrywer wie se geskrifte 'n groot deel van die moderne wetenskapfiksie gelê het.

Waarvoor is Jules Verne bekend?

Jules Verne is bekend vir sy romans, soos Reis na die middelpunt van die aarde (1863 1867), Van die aarde na die maan (1865), en Twintig duisend ligas onder die see (1870), dit was baanbrekerswerke in die genre van wetenskapfiksie.

Het Jules Verne die duikboot uitgevind?

Jules Verne het nie die duikboot uitgevind nie, wat 'n lang geskiedenis gehad het voordat hy geskryf het Twintig duisend ligas onder die see (1870). Sy fiktiewe Nautilus uitvinders en ander wat die diepte sou ondersoek, geïnspireer.

Het Jules Verne die wêreld vol gereis?

Jules Verne het nie soos die karakters in die wêreld gereis nie Regoor die wêreld in tagtig dae (1873). Hy besoek Amerika egter aan boord van die Groot Oosterse in 1867, en hy vaar deur Europa op seiljagte wat hy besit.

Verne se pa, met die voorneme dat Jules in sy voetspore as advokaat volg, het hom na Parys gestuur om regte te gaan studeer. Maar die jong Verne was verlief op letterkunde, veral teater. Hy het verskeie toneelstukke geskryf, as sekretaris van die Théâtre Lyrique (1852–54) gewerk en kortverhale en wetenskaplike essays in die tydskrif gepubliseer Musée des familles. In 1857 trou Verne en werk etlike jare as makelaar by die aandelemark in Parys. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy voortgegaan om te skryf, om navorsing te doen by die Bibliothèque Nationale (Nasionale Biblioteek) en om te droom van 'n nuwe soort roman - een wat wetenskaplike feite met avontuurlike fiksie sou kombineer. In September 1862 ontmoet Verne Pierre-Jules Hetzel, wat ingestem het om die eerste van Verne's te publiseer Reise buitengewoon (“Buitengewone reise”) -Cinq semaines en ballon (1863 Vyf weke in 'n ballon). Aanvanklik in serie in Hetzel Le Magasin d'éducation et de récréation, het die roman 'n internasionale topverkoper geword, en Hetzel het Verne 'n langtermynkontrak aangebied om nog baie meer werke van 'wetenskaplike fiksie' te vervaardig. Verne het daarna sy pos op die aandelebeurs beëindig om 'n voltydse skrywer te word en begin met 'n baie suksesvolle outeur-uitgewer-samewerking wat langer as 40 jaar geduur het en meer as 60 werke in die gewilde reeks tot gevolg gehad het. Reise buitengewoon.

Verne se werke kan in drie verskillende fases verdeel word. Die eerste, van 1862 tot 1886, kan sy positivistiese periode genoem word. Na sy distopiese tweede roman Paris au XXe siècle (1994 Parys in die 20ste eeu) in 1863 deur Hetzel verwerp is, het Verne sy les geleer en vir meer as twee dekades het hy baie suksesvolle wetenskaplike avontuurromans uitgebreek, waaronder Voyage au centre de la terre (1863, uitgebrei 1867 Reis na die middelpunt van die aarde), De la terre à la lune (1865 Van die aarde na die maan), Autour de la lune (1870 Om die maan), Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (1870 Twintig duisend ligas onder die see), en Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (1873 Regoor die wêreld in tagtig dae). Gedurende hierdie jare vestig Verne met sy gesin in Amiens en maak 'n kort reis na die Verenigde State om New York en die Niagara -waterval te besoek. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy ook verskeie seiljagte aangeskaf en na baie Europese lande geseil, saamgewerk aan teateraanpassings van verskeie van sy romans, en wêreldwyd bekendheid en 'n beskeie fortuin verwerf.

Die tweede fase, van 1886 tot sy dood in 1905, kan beskou word as die pessimistiese periode van Verne. Gedurende hierdie jare het die ideologiese toon van hom Reise buitengewoon begin verander. Vernee keer toenemend weg van pro-wetenskaplike verhale oor verkenning en ontdekking ten gunste van die ondersoek na die gevare van tegnologie wat deur hubris-gevulde wetenskaplikes in romans soos die Sans dessus dessous (1889 Topsy-Turvy of Die aankoop van die Noordpool), L'Île à hélice (1895 Die drywende eiland of Die selfaangedrewe eiland of Propeller -eiland), Gesig au drapeau (1896 Teenoor die vlag of Vir die vlag), en Maître du monde (1904 Meester van die wêreld). Hierdie fokusverandering het ook gepaard gegaan met sekere teenspoed in die persoonlike lewe van die skrywer: toenemende probleme met sy opstandige seun, finansiële probleme van Michel wat hom gedwing het om sy seiljag die opeenvolgende sterftes van sy ma en sy mentor Hetzel te verkoop en 'n aanval deur 'n verstandelik versteurde neef wat hom in die onderbeen geskiet en hom gedeeltelik kreupel gemaak. Toe Verne sterf, het hy 'n laai vol byna voltooide manuskripte in sy lessenaar gelos.

Die derde en laaste fase van die Jules Verne -verhaal, van 1905 tot 1919, kan beskou word as die Verne fils -tydperk, toe sy postume werke gepubliseer is - nadat dit aansienlik opgeknap is - deur sy seun, Michel. Hulle het ingesluit Le Volcan d'Or (1906 Die Goue Vulkaan), L'Agence Thompson en Kie. (1907 Die Thompson -reisagentskap), La Chasse au météore (1908 Die jaagtog van die goue meteor), Le Pilote du Donau (1908 Die Donau -vlieënier), Les Naufragés du Jonathan (1909 Die oorlewendes van die Jonathan), Le Secret van Wilhelm Storitz (1910 Die geheim van Wilhelm Storitz), Hier en demain (1910 Gister en môre, 'n bundel kortverhale), en L'Étonnante aventure de la mission Barsac (1919 Die Barsac -sending). Deur die oorspronklike manuskripte van Jules Verne te vergelyk met die weergawes wat na sy dood gepubliseer is, het moderne navorsers ontdek dat Michel veel meer gedoen het as om dit net te wysig. In die meeste gevalle het hy dit heeltemal oorgeskryf - onder andere verander hy plotte, voeg karakters by en maak hulle styl meer melodramaties. Wetenskaplike reaksie op hierdie ontdekkings is gemeng. Sommige kritici veroordeel hierdie postume werke aangesien besmette ander dit as 'n wettige deel van die Verne beskou père et fils samewerking. Die debat gaan voort.

Met die dood van Michel in 1925 was die laaste hoofstuk van Jules Verne se literêre nalatenskap min of meer volledig. Die volgende jaar gebruik die Amerikaanse uitgewer Hugo Gernsback 'n voorstelling van Verne se graf as 'n logo vir hom Ongelooflike verhale, die eerste literêre tydskrif met verhale oor 'wetenskaplikheid'. Soos die term wetenskap ontwikkel het tot wetenskapsfiksie, begin die nuwe genre floreer soos nog nooit tevore nie, en Verne word algemeen erken as sy beskermheilige.

Gedurende die 20ste eeu is Verne se werke in meer as 140 tale vertaal, wat hom een ​​van die wêreld se mees vertaalde skrywers maak. 'N Aantal suksesvolle rolprente is gemaak uit Verne -romans, wat in 1916 begin met 20 000 ligas onder die see (herontwerp in 1954 deur Walt Disney) en insluitend Die geheimsinnige eiland (1929 en 1961), Van die aarde na die maan (1958), Reis na die middelpunt van die aarde (1959), en miskien die gewildste, Regoor die wêreld in 80 dae (1956).

Verne se invloed strek verder as letterkunde en film tot in die wêreld van wetenskap en tegnologie, waar hy generasies wetenskaplikes, uitvinders en ontdekkingsreisigers geïnspireer het. In 1954 het die Amerikaanse vloot die wêreld se eerste kern-aangedrewe duikboot gelanseer, vernoem na Verne's Nautilus. En vir meer as 130 jaar volg avonturiers soos Nellie Bly (1890), Wiley Post (1933) en Steve Fossett (2005) die voetspore van Verne se fiktiewe held Phileas Fogg deur te probeer om die wêreld in rekordtye te omseil . Verne en sy blywende gewildheid Reise buitengewoon bly ons daaraan herinner dat 'wat 'n mens kan dink, 'n ander ooit sal kan bereik.'


'N Geskiedenis van die Franse verset

Van de Gaulle se oproep tot wapens teen Vichy Frankryk tot bevryding vier jaar later.

Op 18 Junie 1940 om 18:00, het 'n betreklik onbekende Franse tweester-generaal, Charles de Gaulle, homself voor 'n mikrofoon by die BBC Broadcasting House in Londen gekomponeer en 'n toespraak begin. Sy woorde was minder as ses minute 'n hartstogtelike verwerping van die wapenstilstand met Nazi -Duitsland, wat die vorige dag aangekondig is deur marskalk Pétain, premier en binnekort staatshoof van die samewerkende Vichy -regime. De Gaulle was vol opset en vasbeslote dat die val van Frankryk slegs een geveg was en nie die hele oorlog wat hy voorspel het dat dit 'n wêreldoorlog sou word nie. Die toespraak, wat om 22:00 uitgesaai is, was natuurlik nie polities nie. Dit was eerder 'n oproep tot wapens, gemik op die Franse weermag.

Min Franse het gereageer op de Gaulle se pleidooi, hoofsaaklik omdat dit moeilik was om nie die logika van Pétain wat Nazi -Duitsland gewen het, te aanvaar nie. Die meeste beskou de Gaulle as irrelevant, en verkies om Pétain te omhels as die redderfiguur wie se outoritêre antisemitiese regime, gevestig in die sentrale kuurdorp Vichy, in die herfs van 1940 massale steun geniet.

Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het de Gaulle se toespraak van 18 Junie 1940 egter in die Franse geskiedenis vasgelê as die beginpunt van die Franse verset, wat vier jaar later direk na die bevryding gelei het. Hierdie stigtingsverhaal het die Franse toegelaat om die vernedering van die Nazi-besetting te vergeet en die nasionale selfbeeld te herbou.

In werklikheid, soos Olivier Wieviorka in sy oortuigende studie toon, was die toespraak slegs een beginpunt vir die Weerstand, naamlik de Gaulle se Free French Movement in Londen.

Dwarsdeur Frankryk, het voetsoolgroepe laat in 1940 en 1941 ontstaan, onafhanklik van de Gaulle en van mekaar. Hierdie groepe was weliswaar klein en nie almal noodwendig militêr nie. Trouens, baie het gefokus op die vervaardiging van 'n klandestiene pers wat die Vichy -regime en Nazisme uitgedaag het wat idees betref. Verder was daar die dubbelsinnige standpunt van die Kommunistiese Party, wat, gegewe die Nazi-Sowjet-nie-aggressieverdrag van Augustus 1939, eers teen Duitsland se inval op 22 Junie 1941 in volle anti-Nazi-weerstand getree het.

Wieviorka beskryf die detail van hierdie veelvuldige begin met vaardigheid en beskryf hoe hierdie diversiteit die wrokke, wedywering en politieke verdeeldheid tussen die verskillende groepe verklaar, nie die spanning tussen de Gaulle in Londen en diegene wat teen die skerp einde in Frankryk veg nie. In die besonder toon Wieviorka aan dat, hoewel die verset in Mei 1943 agter de Gaulle verenig was, daar altyd agterdog van die Gaulliste teenoor die Kommunistiese Party was. Hulle was bevrees dat kommunistiese teenstanders 'n geheime plan het om die nederlaag van die Nazi -besetting in 'n revolusionêre opstand te verander, en daarom het De Gaulle die choreografie van die bevryding van Parys aan die einde van Augustus 1944 sorgvuldig beheer en verseker dat hy alleen die simbool word van herstelde nasionale eenheid.

Van die begin af onderstreep Wieviorka sy dissiplinêre geloofsbriewe. As historikus is sy missie om die mites en legendes uit die weg te ruim om 'n gebalanseerde interpretasie te kry van wat altyd 'n baie emosionele onderwerp was. Vir hierdie doel word die boek deur strengheid gedefinieer en word sy argumente ondersteun deur 'n magdom feite en syfers. So wys hy hoe die grootste onderdrukking plaasgevind het aan die einde van die besetting. Namate die oorlog daadwerklik teen hulle gedraai het, het die Nazi-geweld toegeneem, wat beteken het dat die 21 600 wat tussen 6 dae 1944 en einde November 1944 tussen D-Day en einde November 1944 na konsentrasiekampe gedeporteer is, byna 'n derde van alle gedeporteerdes verteenwoordig het vir die hele periode van vier jaar. Toe, in die weke voor die finale nederlaag in Mei 1945, het die Nazi's weerstandsleiers, soos Charles Delestraint, bymekaargemaak en hulle gewoonlik in die nek geskiet.

Wieviorka is veral goed oor hoe radio 'n belangrike slagveld van idees geword het. In Londen moes de Gaulle veg vir toegang tot die luggolwe via die BBC se middagnuus, en uiteindelik vanaf Desember 1940 'n daaglikse slot van vyf minute gewen, wat dan 'n belangrike platform geword het. Gedurende 1942 het drie miljoen mense ingeskakel by de Gaulle, wat volgens Wieviorka verduidelik waarom die Nazi- en Vichy -owerhede alles in hul vermoë gedoen het om te luister, van stoor uitsendings tot die dreigement van gevangenisstraf.

Daar is ook 'n hoogs waarnemende hoofstuk oor die sosiologie van weerstand. Na 1945 het Gaulliste en kommuniste vurig volgehou dat die meerderheid Franse mense bygedra het tot die verset. Wieviorka beklemtoon dat sulke bewerings 'n growwe verdraaiing van die waarheid was, gemotiveer deur die begeerte om politieke opkoms in die naoorlogse tydperk te wen. Die 'weermag van die skaduwees' was altyd 'n minderheidsverskynsel, wat in 1945 ongeveer 39 000 miljoen tussen 300 000 en 500 000 vroue en mans uit 'n bevolking beloop. Hier ondersoek Wieviorka die logika van weerstandsbetrokkenheid in terme van klas, en onderstreep hoe die numeriese teenwoordigheid van die werkersklas die gewig van die kommuniste weerspieël. Boonop kan die werkersklas gebruik maak van 'n gevestigde weerstandskultuur, wat demonstrasies, stakings en gewelddadige konfrontasie insluit. Tog was daar ook 'n sterk teenwoordigheid in die middelklas (onderwysers, dokters, akademici), want veral aan die begin was die vaardigheid in die geskrewe woord van kardinale belang by die totstandkoming van die ondergrondse pers, waarby die groot rol van buitelanders was. Dus, van die 120 000 Spanjaarde wat in 1939 uit die Franco-regime gevlug het, het baie by die verset aangesluit op grond daarvan dat dit 'n voortsetting van hul anti-fascistiese stryd was.

Hierdie studie is egter baie 'n geskiedenis van die verset in die metropolitaanse Frankryk. Daar word nie gekyk na hoe die Franse verset in die Franse ryk afgespeel het nie. Net so lees sommige van die vertalings ongemaklik, nie die minste verwysings na vroue as 'die skoner geslag'. Dit gesê, dit is 'n indrukwekkende sintese wat, saam met die werk van Roderick Kedward, Hannah Diamond en Robert Gildea, nou een van die vertrekpunte is om die Franse verset te verstaan.

Die Franse verset
Olivier Wieviorka
Vertaal deur Jane Marie Todd
Harvard University Press
592pp £ 36

Martin Evans is professor in moderne Europese geskiedenis aan die Sussex Universiteit. Hy behartig die uitstalling Parys-Londen: wêreldwye musiekverbindings, wat in Maart 2019 in die French National Museum of the History of Immigration, Parys, open.


Charles L Evans DE 113 - Geskiedenis

2de Bataljon, 4de Marines is in April 1914 tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog saamgestel toe dit geaktiveer is as een van die drie bataljons van die 4de Mariene Regiment.

Aktiewe jare

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Bevrore Chosin - Korea
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    , (1935-1945)
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    , (1966-1968)
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  • Ballard, John R., kol. (1979-2007)
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  • Barth Jr., John, PFC, (1969-1972)
    , (1969-1971)
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Datum
19 September 2017
Titel
PERSHART Ontvangers

Inhoud
DOMINIKAANSE REPUBLIEK

Eugene C. Ahouse
Leonard W. Alford
Phillip E. Allen
Herman R. Anderson
Robert L. Anderson
Roy A. Anderson
Verden G. Andrews
Clifford P. Arnold
Leslie M. Atkins, Jr.
Harold G. Austin
Charles H. Bartlebaugh
Henry "Hank" A. Bauer
Casey T. Bazewick
Melvin E. Bender
William L. Bennett
Donald L. Bernardy
William P. Bertram
Huey A. Biggers
John C. Bingham, Jr.
Charles S. Blanton
William G. Bock, Jr.
Robert E. Bourke
Clayton M. Bradford
James V. Bradley, Jr.
Jack H. R. Braswell
James J. Brennan
Claude L. Brent
William L. Britigan
Jason S. Bronston
Edward R. Brown
James F. Brown, Jr.
Elden H. Cail
John R. Calland
James T. Callahan
Earl O. Carlson
Glenn A. Carlson
Edward W. Carr
George M. Carr
Henry C. Carter
George B. Case
Leon E. Chabot
Robert W. Cherry
Louis F. Clark
Stanley F. Clark
David W. Conlon
Robert M. Conner
Daniel F. Corella
Kermit E. Craig
Kenneth E. Crain
Houston L. Davis
Kenneth R. Davis
Rex V. Davis
Richard J. Davis
John J. DeBlasio
Flore Dellagnena
Dick A. Dickey
Nathan M. Dickey
Joseph H. Dickson
Harry S. Dillon
Richard. Duncan
Charles A. Dunn
Buford G. Dunsworth
Victor L. Durham
Wendell F. Ela
Salvatore J. Esposito
Gerard A. Everett
Gerald D. Facciani
Roscoe E. Fasnacht, Jr.
Woodrow A. Feeler
Herbert T. Feichert
Edward A. Fennelly
James F. Ferriss
Daniel Fields
Billy W. Fitzwater
Darrell H. Flinn
Matthew G. Fodi, Jr.
Roger C. Foley
Harold E. Fossett
Robert A. Frailey
Robert H. Frans
William G. Frost
William F. Fryar
Milton H. Fussell III
Edward M. Gaillard, Jr.
George W. Galgano
Vassall L. Gallman
Earl H. Gaskin
Louis H. Gay
Levis E. Giffen
Carl F. Girardot, Jr.
Dwight M. Glosson
Richard R. P. Goheen
John J. Govaletz
James D. Grahnert
David J. Green
Olaf W. Hagemo
William L. Hammock, Jr.
Charles W. Hanson
Charles J. Harris
Wallace L. Harris
Harlan D. Harter
Shelton. Hartzog
Chester D. Hash
Wayne D. Hashagen
Stephen S. Haynes
John E. Heckle
John J. Heil
Ira E .. Heinen
Raymond A. Helmick
Phillip H. Helms
Patrick J. Hennessy
Robert J. Herwig
Ollie H. Hill
Earl R. Hobbs
Harry M. Howard
Uri L. Huckabay
Clyde R. Huddelson
Wilhelm T. Isaacson
William C. Ivarsen
Kib A. Jacobson
Dominic Jacovelli
Howard E. James
Charles F. Jendrakiak
Claude H. Jernigan
Don L. Jones
Edward. Jones
Harold L. Jones
Robert H. Jordan
Sam L. Jordan
Earl E. Joyner
Lloyd E. Kath
Jarvis M. Kapplinger
Evan R. Kelchner
Robert J. Keller
John P. Kerby
Frank C. Ketterer
Luke A. Kingsley, Jr.
Leon Konesky
Robert W. Kopacko
George Kostic
Thomas G. Kraemer
Richard Kumjian
Emmett E. Kumm
Lyman L. Lane
Joseph Latkovich
William P. Lag
Presnell Lee
Julian E. Leonard
Otto J. Leitner
Earl J. Lewis
Donal B. Liebermann
Carl E. Logan
Douglas R. Looney
William F. Lord, Jr.
Richard L. Lowrey
Allen R. Lucas
Wilson Lydic
Sherman P. MacDonald
Ralph C. Mann, Jr.
Alfred R. Manning
Max W. Mansfield
Howard E. Manwaring
Trancito G. Marquez
William E. Marshall
Joseph A. Martone
Harold T. Matz
James P. Maxwell, Jr.
Charles P. Mayberry
John T. McAuliffe
Richard P. McCurry
Thomas L. McGee
Harmon A. McKenzie
John J. McLaughlin
Benjamin L. McMakin
Richard W. Melton
Lawrence W. Merrell
Robert G.Metz
Raymond S. Meza
Edward E. Middleton
Henry K. Midkiff
Walter F. Mikucki
Thaddeus F. Mikula
Carl J. Miller
Robert A. Miller
Wayne K. Miller
William E. Mitchell
Harry A. Mochamer
Albert W. Moffett
James J. Molloy
William A. Mollus
Delbert J. Monnier
Robert L. Monroe
Leo J. Montano
Gerald L. Moore
Jack W. Morgan
Robert H. Moyle
Paul L. Mullins, Jr.
Theodor S. Munsey
Veri W. Murphy
Sylvester E. Murray
Leo Myers
Marvin L. Narcho
Oscar M. Neal
Peter Nebesh
Charles W. Nelson
James E. Newsome
John R. Nolan
Archie B. Norford
George V. Norris
Marion W. Nowaski
Robert M. Null
Hugh R. Nutter
Robert W. Nyman
Ernest L. O'Bryhim
Konstantyn K. Okunavich
Joe V. Olivas
James N. Olmstead
Nicholas A. Ondo
Charles E. Orton
Michael J. Orzechowski
John T. Ostapowitcz
Tony Osti
Eugene Owen
William R. Parrish
Joseph Pearlstein
Leon L. Peavy
Michael E. Peshek
Johnnie L. Phinney
Daniel J. Plachta
Grover W. Pool
William R. Porche
Lee A. Preston
George A. Prpich
Rolland E. Pryor
Stephen Puhalo
James W. Quinn
Jessie L. Reed
Jeremiah M. Reilly
Granville J. Rice
James Z. Richards
H. C. Ricks
Charles F. Ringgold
Charles Rios
Arthur G. Robbins, Jr.
Albert F. Roberts
Douglas S. Robertson
Francis E. Robison
Edward F. Rodack
Donald C. Rogers
Neil L. Rogers
Edward C. Rohe
Allen E. Rolette
Edwin J. Rotter
Hugh E. Rouse
Bernard W. Rudkin
Edward J. Ruiz
Thomas P. Rutherford
Albert Ruzicka
Benjamin Sabasino
Edward E. Salzman
Donald L. Sanders
Philip J. Santini
Sidney J. Scales
Jack Schafale
Elden F. Schenk
Donald F. Scott
Johnnie L. Sealy
Harold V. Selby
Robert B. Selby
Wilbert J. Seymour
Edward J. Shanahan, Jr.
Marnold L. Shaw
Rauland W. Balju
Dale W. Shultz
Paul E. Siekkinen
Leo Silakowski
John F. Sirota
James E. Skelly
Leonard R. Sliva
John C. Sloan
Hobert L. Smith, Jr.
William M. Smith
Robert S. Sorenson
Joseph D. Specht
George Spellman
Glen E. Starks
Anthony J. Stea
Leon R. Stewart
Thomas L. Stewart
Jack D. Stine
John P. Stockonas, Jr.
John B. Stokes
Donald E. Stone
Merle J. Stowe
Lindsey G. Stringgenoot
Mickee suikers
Durwood R. Sulier
Albert F. Sullivan, Jr.
Frank J. Summers
Joseph J. Surette
James A. Terry
Vernon W. Thomas
Allan F. Thornton
Hugh A. Tistadt, Jr.
Thomas D. Toohig
Peter J. Trupiano
Marvin C. Twiford
Charles S. Upton
Frank Ussery
Leonard J. Van Camp
Jerome A. Van Hoenacker
Lloyd J. Vannatter
Joseph Viola
Lloyd E. Wagner
John O. Warren
Lawrence E. Webber
Donald L. Wellbaum
Ronald E. Whetstone
James White
Melvin R. White
Seldon T. White
Wilbur W. White
Charles E. Whiteman
William W. Williamson
Thomas J. Wilson, Sr
Homer C. Windom
Edward C. Winkler
Doyle R. T. Winters
John R. Wood
George J. Worrick
Ivan L. Wyant
Herbert C. Wyatt
Albert J. Yamolovich
Merritt J. Zimmerman
Ronald K. Zundell

James P. Achterhoff
Kenney M. Adams, Jr.
Richard F. Abshire
Peter A. Acley
Dave Adams
Ali Ahmed
Paul G. Alaniz, Jr.
Dan S. Allen
Terry L. Allen
Pablo Almanza
William R. Almon
Aubry W. Alridge
Ray E. Alwine
Paul "J" Amberg
Ralph T. Anderson
William "Andy" Anderson
Victor P. Andreozzi
Jack Andrews
William Applegate
Robert Araujo
Fredrico Arnado
David B. Arnold
Anthony Arriaga
Ramon J. Arroyo
Gregory K. Arthur
James A. Ashford
Allan T. Aslett
Richard D. Ausbrooks
Tyron W. Austin
John P. Avery
Ardrey W. Babringer, Jr.
Samuel Badnek
Bernard G. Baker
Elwood Baker
Joseph W. Baker
Wayne R. Baker
William J. Balfour
Virgil L. Ballew
Marion Bankhead
John W. Barbee
Curtis Barbour
Robert E. Bardach
Earl E. Barnhart, Jr.
Jeffrey M. Barron
Richard L. Bartlow
Jedh C. Barker
Ardrey W. Barringer, Jr.
John E. Batchelor, Jr.
Daryl C. Bauer
Kenneth C. Baxter
Steven Bayes
Guy R. Bean
Robert R. Beanner
Kevin P. Beauchamp
Kenneth E. Beauregard
Richard J. Behrns
Ronald E. Bell
Donald C. Benfield
Dan M. Bennett
Richard B. Bennett
Richard C. Bennett
Enrique M. Bernal
Joel Bernstein
William A. Berry
Stephen E. Bertels
Percy Bettelyoun, Jr.
James W. Bettis
Robert E. Bexley
Rick W. Bezeau
Michael L. Bianchini
Rudolph J. Billiot
David R. Bingham
Peter R. Bingman
Larry D. Bleeker
Kenneth Blackwell
James A. Blakley
Robert Bliss
Ronald N. Bloom
Gary G. Blount
Hugo A. Bocanegra
Richard Boggia
Frederick Bohenek
Henry H. Booker
Raymond A. Borduas
Albert G. Bothe
John M. Bowers
Blaine A. Bowman
Ronald L. Bowman
Patrick Brady
Percy E. Brandon
Lawrence A. Branigan
Ronnie L. Bray
Dale V. Bremerman, Jr.
Roger S. Briskin
Chester Briscoe, Jr.
James W. Brock III
Steven P. Brodrick
Robert H. Brogan
Thomas E. Bromley
James R. Brooks
Roy M. Brooks
Clinton R. Brown
Gary E. Brown
Jay B. Brown
Robert G. Brown
William H. Brown
Joseph E. Brunelle
O. D. Brunner
Robert D. Buchanan
Ronald Bukowsky
Ricard T. Bunnis
James R. Burdette
Howard E. Burdick
James R. Burke
Gary W. Burnette
Patrick J. Burns
William T. Burns
Albert Burris
Robert N. Burroughs
Cecil W. Burton
William G. Butler, Jr.
Charles W. Byrd
Conal J. Byrne, Jr.
James E. Cain III
Gary Call
Thomas L. Callaghan
Robert L. Callaway
George G. Capparelli
Daniel P. Cappello
Richard A. Carabba
John D. Carey
Thomas Carney
John A. Carranco
Oscar R. Carriere
Ralph D. Carter
Dave Carver
Benjamin Cascio
Charles M. Castello
Michael G. Castle
Caldwell M. Cauthen, Jr.
Gary S. Caywood
Rudy Y. Chalakee
Julian C. Chase
Wendell O. Chatfield
Mike Chavez
James W. Cheek
Robert M. Cheek
Joseph M. Chearnley
Craig Chenevert
Eugene Chrisco
Thomas B. Christian
Philip D. Ciofalo
J. C. Clark
Willie C. Clark
Jean R. Clemencia, Jr.
Walter K. Cleveland
Robert A. Coffey
Louis G. Cohen
Robert J. Colasanti
Lenard Coleman
Lee R. Combs
Joseph A. Como
William T. Connaughton
John F. Connerton
Joseph A. Coomes
Joseph S. Cornaggia
Angel M. Correa
Mark L. Corrie
David A. Cox
Elbert E. Cox, Jr.
James O. Crabtree
Roy R. Cram
Ronald C. Crapo
Robert A. Crider
Russell Crider
Earl L. Crissell, Jr.
Robert W. Cromwell
Jimmy L. Crouch
Richard F. Crudo
Virgil G. Cruz
Mark C. Cryer, Jr.
Arthur R. Cueller
D. L. Cugliotta
Larry L. Cullnan
Stephen R. Cunningham
Jimmy D. Curry
Daniel J. Dabreu
Paul L. Dains
William H. Darrow
Andrew J. Davis, Jr.
Duane R. Davis
Elton Davis, Jr.
Kenneth Davis
Norman E. Dawson, Jr.
Frederick K. Deaver
John P. Delaney III
Rodney J. DeLisle
Raymond Del Rio
Philip G. Des Lauriers
Edward J. Devincent, Jr.
Francis S. Devine, Jr.
Roger F. Dewald
James P. Dewitt
Alan J. Dick
Odell Dickens
George A. Didaskalou
Thomas E. Diefenderfer
Michael Digenno
Raymond Dipper
William A. Dixon, Jr.
John J. Dolphin
Woodrow W. Doss, Jr.
David H. Drake
Ryland W. Drawdy
Douglas S. Dubose
Peter Dugness
Thomas W. Dulik
Jose E. Duran
Steve G. Duran
Joseph A. Durling III
Ronald H. Dye
Mark R. Dziedzic
Melvin W. Eakins
Ronnie L. Eckenroad
R. V. Edwards
Thomas C. Edwards
Eric C. Egge
Jack O. Eitel
John C. Elzy IIII
Robert J. Enedy
Robert A. Engelson
Frank G. Erwin
Frank R. Esch
Roberto Escobedo
Arthur D. Esquido
Robert D. Evans
Bobby J. Everett
Ronald L. Gunsteling
John E. Ferguson
John R. Ferrazzano
Robert T. Ferrelli
Larry W. Fiedler
Jerry Fields
Robert B. Findlay
Jeffrey M. Fisher
John B. Fitzpatrick
John E. Flaskamp
Thomas R. Fleming
Larry A. Fletcher
Raymond L. Flint
Wallace B. Foard, Jr.
Edward J. Foley
Douglas B. Forsberg
Duane J. Foss
Frank Foster
Isiah Foster
Paul H. Foster
Willie J. Foster
Phillip S. Frankryk
Jerry W. Fraze
Douglas L. Fried
Dennis J. Fries
Barry P. Fulcher
Edward B. Fulgham, Jr.
Bruce E. Funk
Frederick E. Furr
Manuel A. Galindez
John M. Gallagher
Patrick Gallagher
Armando Gallardo
C. J. Galle
David L. Gamble
Harry P. Gamble
Ronald R. Gamble
Charles P. Garber
Marcellus Garland, Jr.
Michael Garlo
John Garcia
Steven V. Garcia
Henry W. Gardner
Edward Garr
David F. Garrett
Paul A. Garrett
Juan Gaston
Billy Gately
Donald A. Gehling
Leslie Generaal
Clifford A. L. Gibbs
George R. Gibson
Martin L. Gillespie, Jr.
Kenneth R. Gilliam
Anthony A. Giretti
Terry L. Glasscock
William R. Glueckstein
Paul Goad
Ronald L. Gober
Robert E. Goding
Richard D. Goen
Henry L. Goff
Lambert A. Gomez
Arthur H. Goodwin
John P. Gordon, Jr.
Paul J. Gorman
Elvin W. Gose
Dale E. Grant
Ronald K. Gray
Theodor "Ted" R. Gray
Dan R. Green
Kenneth L. Green
Richard H. Greene
Willie Greene
Jesse Greer, Jr.
Donald G. Gregg
Gary C. Griswold
Jimmie L. Grooms
Archie Haase
Samir J. Habiby
Lawrence R. Hagedorn
Charles W. Hall, Jr.
Richard A. Hamblin
McArthur Hamburg
Lawrence E. Hames
David A. Hamilton
Edward L. Hammons
Benjamin N. Hamrick
John J. Hanley
Garold A. Hann
Michael L. Hanson
John C. Harrington
John L. Harris, Jr.
Billy J. Harrison
Edward T. Harrison, Jr.
James R. Harrison
Theodore M. Hart
Michael A. Harvey
Willie C. Haugabook
Arthur L. Hawkins, Jr.
Felix B. Hawkins
Roger "Doc" Hedges
Jimmie "Doc" Helbert
Robert C. Heller
Richard Helmick
E. Michael Helms
John K. Helton
John A. Hembrough
Richard L. Hendricks
Bruce J. Henrich
Reyes C. Hernandez
Robert N. Herndon
Manuel Herrera
Phillip A. Herrera, Jr.
John B. Heuer
James H. Hieroniem
David K. Higgins
John I. Higgins, Jr.
John F. Higgins
Raymond H. Highley
Gary P. Hill
Robert M. Hilliard
Aldon O. Hilton
Grover B. Hinshaw
Richard L. Hix
Gerald C. Hoage
Norman R. Hocker
Richard Hoeck
Randolph C. Houer
William L. Holland, Jr.
John Hollars
Bobby R. Holley
Brian P. Holloway
David Holte
Brent A. Holte
Gary E. Holtzclaw
Tommy Hood
Michael E. Hoppers
Michael L. Horn
Ronald R. Hornbrook
Barry A. Houser
Andrew M. Hovancik, Jr.
Billy Howard
Jeffrey Howard
Louis H. Huff II
Richard E. Huff
Michael A. Huggins
Robert M. Hulse
Frederick "Mike" Humeston
James W. Hunley
William H. Hunt
Estel Huskey
John P. Hyland
Richard J. Ianeri
Charles E. Iannuzzi
Ralph E. Icke II
Thomas G. Idle
Frank A. Indyk
James Intartaglia
Kenneth E. Iser
Ron "Doc" Issac
Billy D. Jackson
James H. Jackson
Kenneth M. Jackson
Noble Jackson
Craig Jacman
Rodney A. James
Richard A. Janigian
Stephen J. Janora
Joseph D. Jarrell
Michael L. Jenkins
Reginald R. Jenkins
Timothy P. Jennings
Robert Jim
Antonio Jimenez
Dale Johanson
Darrell L. Johnson
Jimmy L. Johnson
Kenneth E. Johnson
Kenneth G. Johnson
Michael Johnson
Theodore Johnson
Victor Johnson
David A. Jones
Harry Jones
Stephen D. Jones
Thomas B. Jones III
William Jones
Henry C. Jordan
William O. Juergens
Mark W. Judge
William Juneau
John J. Kachmar
Richard D. Kaler
Claude C. Kasiah
Gregory J. Kasper
Harry L. Kaus
John H. Kavulak
Albert A. Kedroski, Jr
James W. Kehres
Kenneth Keidel
Daniel S. Keith
Leroy H. Keller
William R. Kelley
Norman W. Kellum
Joe D. Kelly
Charles W. Kemp
Marwick L. Kemp
Daniel W. Keo
William J. Kildare
Doyle G. King
Laurence M. King
Robert S. King, Jr
John R. Kington
John L. Kitzmiller
Steve C. Klink
Theodore E. Knutson
Robert I. Klootwyk
Anthony Knoll
William R. Korwatch
Michael Kozac
Russell E. Krause
Carl F. Kroh
Kenneth A. Kubik
Charles E. Kuhn, Jr
Daniel J. Kwater
Allen J. LaFave
Walter L. Lamarr
Kenneth Lambton
Eddie L. Landry
James A. Lanier
Robert Lanner
John P. Larkin
Chris J. Larsen III
Jimmy Lashley
Joseph T. Laslie, Jr
Lloyd C. Laugerman
Gregg E. Lavery
John J. Lawendowski
Frederick S. Lea
Jerry W. Ledin
Michael D. Lee
Willie B. Lee
Thomas A. Leichleiter
John C. Lerch, Jr
Howard L. Leroy, Jr
Jeremiah Letterman
Donald R. Lewis
Jerry Lewis
Ronald E. Liberty
Michael E. Linderman
Ray E. Line
Larry W. Liss
John C. Liverman
James E. Livingston
Robert W. Lockhart, Jr
Dean C. Loegering
Gerald D. Logan
James D. Logan
Robert B. Lo Mauro
Rickie A. Loomis
William N. Loomis
Richard C. Lopiano
Edward L. Lowe
James R. Lunsford
Marion W. Lyons
Roger G. Lyons
William A. Machacek
Francis W. Mack
Robin D. MacLeod
Samuel C. Macon
Allan L. Mahoney
Wilson Maize, Jr
David A. Mallory
John M. Malnar
Edward L. Mann, Jr
Edward Martin
Harry P. Martin
Robert A. Martin
Robert W. Martin
Vernal G. Martin
Adolph A. Martinez
Jackie E. Marshall
John P. Masterson
Clyde Mathews, Jr
James Mazy
Carl E. McBee
Clifford McCall
James W. McCarter, Jr
Robert A. McCarthy
James McDonald
Dan McElderry
Randall L. McElreath
Kenneth E. McFarland
Thomas McGrath
Donald J. McHoul
Charles G. McIntosh
Charles M. McKinney
Jerry L. McKinney
Thomas T. McLarnon
James E. McMahon
Paul F. McNally
Lonnie E. McNeil
Robert ??Bucky ?? A. McPherson
Claude E. McQueen
John E. McVay
Jeffrey E. Mead
Charles L. Meadows
Herbert L. Meads
Robert J. Meagher
Bobby R. Mefford
Constantine "Gus" Melis
Michael O. Mellon
Alfredo A. Mendoza
Robert L. Mercer
Herbert P. Messner
Daniel V. Michel
Lester G. Michels
Donald A. Middleton
Doyce G. Miller
Jerry L. Miller
Kevin Miller
Robert A. Miller
Tommy N. Miller
Tommy R. Miller
Walter R. Miller, Jr
Frank Mirabal
Dallas A. Mitchell
James D. Moffett
Francisco A. Montano
Kenneth M. Montone
Terry E. Moore
Thomas G. Moore
William J. Moore, Jr
Phillip W. Morris
Steven R. Morrison
James R. Morgan
William Morris
David E. Morton
Robert S. Mueller
John T. Mullan
William F. Mullins, Jr
Robert S. Mueller
Jimmy E. Mumford
Robert Murguia
Francis X. Nava
Larry J. Neely
Stephen H. Negahnquet
James B. Nelson
Toney Nelson, Jr
Wilbur "Bill" G. Nelson
William W. Nickerson
James P. Nicholson
Patrick J. Noon, Jr
George C. Norris
Irvin J. Nowicki
Jerry W. Nye
Robert O'Bannon III
Leonard Oberosler
Kevin G. O'Connell
Michael B. O'Connor
John M. O'Dell
Timothy L. O'Dell
Thomas M. O'Grady
Steven M. Oien
James S. Oldfield, Jr
James K. O'Leary
Michael D. Oliver
Jerry L. O'Nan
Charles L. O'Neill, Jr
Manuel G. Oropeza
Antonio Orozco
John G. Orsino
Randall I. Ortiz
Luis Ortiz-Corredore
David F. Osborne
Alan T. Ouellette
David D. Overstreet
Rio Owens
Jonathan Pahl
William A. Parson
Douglas B. Parsons
Jerry L. Patterson
Dorris E. Patton
James R. Paul
Joe C. Paul
Mike Pauling
Richard N. Payne
Raphael ??Ralph ?? A. Peralta
Apolinio Perez
James D. Peschel
Stephen E. Peterson
Kenneth Pettus
Warren W. Pfefferle
Larry L. Phelps
Jack W. Phillips
Norman I. Phipps
Robert R. Piaro
Joseph C. Pickett, Jr
Daniel Pierce
Steven T. Pignotti
David G. Pinon
Robert C. Plemmons
Russ Plewe
Kenneth L. Plumadore
James A. Popp
Richard L. Porter
Robert R. Porteous
Sidney Mike Potter
Joseph L. Powell, Jr
Troy E. Powell
Vernon Powell
Alexander "Scotty" F. Prescott IV
Carl K. Price
David E. Price, Jr
James E. Price
Stephen Priory
Jerome Pryor
Gerald Przybylinski
Tomothy H. Pyle
Peter Quilici, Jr
Patrick Quinn
Albert H. Raitt
Randolph R. Ramsey
Jerry D. Reed
Paul M . Reed
Wayne P. Reeves
Tiago Reis
Patrick Reilly
Charles Remer
Humberto Reyes
Garry L. Reynolds
Edwin M. Ridenour
Sim H. Riggins, Jr
Pedro Rios, Jr
Vincent F. Risoldi
Charles W. Roberts
William C. Roberts
John C. Robertson
Dale Robinson
Gregory W. Rodgers
Crecencio Rodriguez
Juan A. Rodriguez
Royce E. Roe
Edward F. Rogers
James W. Rogers
Roy T. Rogers
Garry E. Rogerson
John P. Rogone
Chuck Root
Paul Rosales
Augustin Rosario
James E. Rudd
Franklin D. Ruis
Robert L. Ruotolo
John S. Russell
David L. Rutgers
Thomas C. Rutter
Aldo E. Ryder
Abe Saiz
Uinifareti Saleaumua
Roberto Sanchez
Joseph Sansosti
(Not Given) Santellno
Walter Sauer
William Sauer
Bruce A. Sanders
Daniel L. P. Sauve
James H. Sawyer
Gary R. Schafer
Marshall G. Schaffner
Dennis R. Schmidt
Wallace R. Schmidt
Daniel H. Schremser
Karl Schroeder
Gerald F. Schuldt
Gerald W. Schultz
Ronald L. Schurch
Jeffrey A. Schweikl
Jimmie J. Scott
Kenneth L. Scott
Woodrow W. Scriven
John C. Seaman, Jr
John C. Seebode
Walter P. Seel
Floyd E. Sellers
Morris J. Sensat
Allen M. Sharp
Harold L. Shattuck, Jr
Ronald L. Shaver
Clarence D. Sheibley
Charles H. Shelton
Bruce Sherfield, Jr
Andrew M. Sherman
Carlton Sherwood
Mitchell C. Short
Timothy J. Shorten
Ronald L. Shropshire
Joseph A. Siciliano, Jr
Larry J. Sikorski
Charles E. Sillaway
William Simmons
Bobby G. Simpson
Wayne M. Simpson
Gregg Sims
Conrad A. Sipple
Phillip Skaggs
Michael R. Skipper
William L. Slane
John Slaughter
Carey W. Smith
Edward S. Smith
Elliott R. Smith
James A. Smith
Jeffrey E. Smith
Jerry W. Smith
Matthew E. Smith
Philip J. Smith
Rickey D. Smith
Steven A. Smith
Warren D. Smith
Willie F. Smith
Jack L. Snodgrass
Rocky R. Snyder
Stephen F. Snyder
James C. Sonnier
Charles F. Sorrow, Jr
Martin J. Soto
Ronald H. Southworth
Aaron B. Spalding
Scott Sperry
Andrew Springs
James E. Sprowl
Stefan Z. Stalinski
Kenneth D. Stankiewicz
Gregory J. Staples
James A. Staples
Paul R. Staton
Jim Stelling
Ralph C. Stewart
Roger D. Stewart
George D. Stiehler
Ronald St John
Terry G. Stevens
Benjamin F. Stoffer II
Larry D. Stollar
Joseph G. Stoudt
Ernest W. Strehle
Richard A. Strock
William L. Strunk
John M. Sullivan
Bernie Summers
James H. Sumner
Alexander G. Sundberg
Norman R. Surprenant
Matthew E. Sutton, Jr
Craig E. Swain
George E. Sweatt
Floyd R. Sykes
Ronald Szpond
Harold L. Talley
Nicolas Tarzia
Harold D. Tatum
Geoffrey R. Taylor
Victor Taylor
Michael A. Teague
Daniel Tellez
John B. Tette
Jerry D. Tharp
Freddie E. Theis
Donald L. Thomas
Othel Thomas
William P. Thomas
Howard M. Thompson
Solomon E. Thompson
Paul Thorik, Jr
Pierre A. Threet
Daniel Tienda
Haywood W. Tipsy, Jr
George A. Tipton
Richard Tonucci
Edgar Torres
William H. Toth, Jr
Peter C. Towne
John G. Towner
John P. Townley, Jr
Robert H. Trail, Jr
Paul W. Trainor
Manuel Travassos
Robert E. Trigalet
Larry E. Troth
James E. Trushaw
James E. Tucker
Herbert L. Tuttle
Richard W. Tyrrell
Gary D. Utz
Ismael J. Valdez, Jr
Clyde J. Vaistad
Duane Van Fleet, Jr
M. Sando "Jay" Vargas
Angel R. Vasquez
Dean Vasquez
Max Vasquez
Robert T. Vergano
Harold Vierheller
Stephen A. Vix, Jr
Richard A. Voorhees
Emory D. Voorhies
David R. Vorenkamp
Nicholas Vultaggio
Billy Wade
Melvin A. Wade
David E. Wafer
Donald Waggoner
James J. Wagner
James A. Wainwright
Allan K. Walker
Clarance Wallace
Donald K. Walsh
Robert J. Waltrich
Allan C. Ward
Kenneth Ward
Ralph L. Washington
Jeryl L. Watkins
Kenneth M. Watkins
Roy J. Weatherford, Jr
Claude W. Weaver
James O. Weaver
Richard Webb
Terry C. Webber
David E. Weber
Brian F. Wedlake
Robert L. Weeden
Dennis D. Wehrs
Neil W. Weintraub
William Weise
Frank E. Weiss
Julio C. Weld
George W. Weldy, Jr
Edward A. Wellings
Dennis W. Wellman
Billy Welyczko
David A. Wenger
Daniel G. Wessler
Billy White
Thomas M. White
William I. White
Ronald D. Whitlow
Harry E. Williams
Leroy Williams
Nathaniel Williams, Jr
Thomas E. Williams
Wilson Williams
Donald C. Williamson
Paul M. Willis
Kimble F. Willoughby
Brooks C. Wilson
Raymond W. Wilson
Steve Wilson
Gary K. Winterbauer
Charles Wisham
Billy R. Wohlgamuth
Chester M. Wolfe
Theodore R. Woods, Jr
James Woodward
Alton K. Woolf, Jr
Jack L. Woolsey
William J. Woolsey
Warren A. Work, Jr
Stephen R. Worley
Fred Y. Wright, Jr
Garland F. Wright
Thomas M. Wright
Robert D. Wuertz
Edward H. Wynn
Charles Yaghoobian, Jr
John P. Young
Francis Zavacki
Edward C. Zimmerman, Jr
Roland Zimmerman
Michael L. Zappia
Gerald D. Zawadzki
Dennis J. Zwirchitz


Legends of America

“The risks he ran, the deadly situations through which his extraordinary nerve took him safely, his resourcefulness, his loyalty, and above all his cold-blooded bravery, always made men remember this picturesque, modest figure of the American frontier.”
— John Hays Hammond

Charles Angelo Siringo was one of the most famous detectives of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, served as a lawman for many years, and became an author. Born on February 7, 1855, in Matagorda County, Texas to an Irish immigrant mother and an Italian immigrant father, he attended public school until he was 15 years old, at which time he started working as a cowboy at area ranches.

Working for a number of Texas ranches over the next several years, he became a trail driver in 1876, accompanying a herd of 2,500 Longhorns over the Chisholm Trail from Austin to Kansas. He made a second trip in the spring of 1877, following the trail’s western branch.

Siringo was in Dodge City, Kansas when an altercation almost erupted between gunfighter, Clay Allison and Dodge City Assistant Marshal, Wyatt Earp. After Allison’s death in 1887, Earp would claim that he and Bat Masterson had forced Allison to back down from an impending confrontation. Siringo, however, later gave a written account of the incident which contradicted Earp’s claim, stating that Earp never came into contact with Allison and that two businessmen in Dodge City actually defused the situation. Siringo’s account was also verified by other witnesses of the time.

In Dodge City, he signed on with David T. Beals and W. H. “Deacon” Bates to drive a herd into the Panhandle, where they establish the LX Ranch. For the next several years he worked as an LX cowboy, where he met a young man named Henry McCarty, aka Billy the Kid, and later he would lead a posse in New Mexico in an attempt to capture the Kid and his gang.

In 1884 Siringo married Mamie Lloyd and after having been a cowboy for more than two decades, changed careers, opening a store in Caldwell, Kansas. That same year, he also began writing a book entitled “A Texas Cowboy Or Fifteen Years on the Hurricane Deck of a Spanish Pony.” It was published a year later to wide acclaim and became one of the first true accounts of the cowboy life during the days of the Old West.

Bored with being a merchant, Siringo moved to Chicago in 1886, applying for a job with the Pinkerton Detective Agency. Using Pat Garrett’s name as a reference, he got the position and for the next 22 years worked all over the West as a successful cowboy detective. Traveling as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico City, he often worked undercover, infiltrating gangs of robbers and rustlers, and making hundreds of arrests.

In 1890 Siringo’s wife died, leaving him a widower with a five-year-old daughter. Three years later Siringo met and married Lillie Thomas of Denver, Colorado and the two had a son in 1896. However, shortly afterward, the two divorced.

By the early 1890s, Siringo was working out of Pinkerton’s Denver office, where he worked with noted Pinkerton agent, gunman, and later assassin, Tom Horn. Though he greatly admired Horn’s talents and skills in tracking down suspects, he would later reflect that Horn had a dark side.

In 1892, Siringo was assigned to a case in Idaho, where he worked undercover to get information against corrupt labor union officials. Though he despised the labor union officials, he stood against a lynch mob to protect union attorney Clarence Darrow from being hanged.

In the late 1890s, posing as “Charles L. Carter,” an alleged gunman on the run for murder, he infiltrated Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch. For over a year he severely hampered their operations but made few arrests.

Wild Bunch, aka Hole in the Wall Gang (1896-1901) – Led by Butch Cassidy, the Wild Bunch terrorized the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada for five years. Click for prints, downloads, and products.

After the Wild Bunch committed the 1899 Wilcox Train Robbery in Wyoming, he was assigned to capture them. He continued to work closely with Tom Horn on the assignment, though Horn was actually working for a cattle company at the time. Several members of the Wild Bunch were captured due to his efforts including Kid Curry, who would later escape only to be killed by a shootout with Colorado lawmen. During this time, Siringo also met lawman, Joe Lefors, who later would arrest Tom Horn for murder. Later, he would say of Lefors that the man was incompetent and he greatly despised him. In the meantime, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid fled to Bolivia, where they were later allegedly killed by Bolivian soldiers during a robbery attempt.

After 22 years of successfully capturing hundreds of outlaws, Siringo retired from the Pinkerton Agency in 1907. During his career with the Pinkertons, Siringo participated in a number of other celebrated cases, including the Haymarket anarchist trial, the Coeur d’Alene miners strikes, and the trial of Western Federation of Miners Secretary “Big Bill” Haywood, who had been charged with the dynamite murder of former Idaho governor Frank Steunenburg. Although Siringo was a fine shot, the vast majority of his arrests were made without violence.

He moved to a ranch in Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he began to write a second book detailing his experiences as a Pinkerton detective, entitled “Pinkerton’s Cowboy Detective.” When it was complete, publication of the book was held up by the Pinkerton Agency who felt it violated a confidentiality agreement signed by Siringo when he was hired and objecting to the use of their name. Siringo gave in, and deleted their name from the book title, instead writing two separate books, entitled “A Cowboy Detective” and “Further Adventures of a Cowboy Detective,” with fictitious names replacing real ones.

To vent his anger against the Pinkertons, Siringo wrote and clandestinely published a third book, entitled “Two Evil Isms, Pinkertonism and Anarchism” in 1915. Again, the Pinkerton Agency blocked publication, and this time attempted to have Siringo prosecuted for libel, asking that he be extradited from his ranch in Santa Fe, New Mexico to Chicago. However, the New Mexico governor denied the extradition request.

In 1916, Siringo began working as a New Mexico Ranger where his main task was to capture the numerous rustlers operating in the southeastern part of the state. After two years he resigned when his ranch and his health began to fail. In 1919 he published “A Lone Star Cowboy,” which he said was to take the place of “A Texas Cowboy,” on which the copyright had expired. This was followed by History of “Billy the Kid” in 1920. However, his health continued to fail, and that coupled with financial difficulties forced him to abandon his ranch and leave Santa Fe in 1922.

He then moved to Los Angeles, California where he became a minor celebrity due to his well-publicized exploits. While there, he sometimes worked as a film advisor on western film sets and even took an occasional bit part. In 1927 he released his final book, “Riata and Spurs,” a composite of his first two autobiographies. However, when the Pinkerton Agency intervened again to halt publication, the book became a whittled down version with many fictional accounts rather than the true accounts that Siringo had envisioned.

The next year, Siringo died in Altadena, California on October 18th, 1928.

Siringo’s recollections of his life as both a cowboy and a detective helped to romanticize both the myths and realities of the Old West. Siringo’s prowess as a cowboy and Pinkerton detective made him widely known in his lifetime he met United States Senators, state governors, and national officials, as well as diverse celebrities such as Pat Garrett, Bat Masterson, Clarence Darrow, Charles M. Russell, Eugene Manlove Rhodes, William S. Hart, Will Rogers, and numerous outlaws.


Afsluiting

Regicide remained an intimidating and, for many, unpalatable act. But those who refused to endorse it did not thereby regard it as a monstrous deed. Some lower-key reactions from aristocrats and artisan alike, are as striking as the groans we began with. As Charles went from St James Palace to his death at Whitehall two old associates watched impassively from their lodgings: the Earls of Pembroke and Salisbury, like other parliamentarian peers, had refused to support the trial and execution, but there is no sign they felt faint with horror. At the other end of the social scale, a London wood-turner called Nehemiah Wallington, recorded religious meditations and current events in voluminous notebooks throughout the civil war period. Wallington noted the reputed last words of his brother in law who had been murdered by Irish rebels in October 1641: if the rumour the rebels acted with the king's commission proved true, 'Then surely the Lord will not suffer the king, nor his posterity to reign'. Later Wallington added, 'January the 30, 1649. King Charles beheaded on a scaffold at Whitehall.' . Wallington was a timid and by 1649 disillusioned Parliamentarian, yet for him regicide was a judgement or a prophecy fulfilled. He clearly had no love for Charles or much regret for monarchy. In place then of the view of Charles' execution as the ultimate aberration, we offer a more prosaic conclusion, purging regicide of horror or glamour. It can as plausibly be seen as one predictable, if regrettable, product of English political traditions as well as an attempt to settle a bitter recent conflict.


Introduces family history researchers to research methods and resources presented at the Archives' in-house workshops.

Specific topics discussed in the Guide.

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The John Wilkes Booth Mummy That Toured America

In 1877, a young Granbury, Texas, lawyer was summoned to the bedside of a dying acquaintance. As Finis L. Bates entered the room, he saw a doctor holding the wrist of John St. Helen and timing the man’s fading pulse. “St. Helen is dying and wishes to speak to you alone,” the doctor said before leaving behind the lawyer and patient. Weak and barely conscious, St. Helen whispered, “I am dying. My name is John Wilkes Booth, and I am the assassin of President Lincoln.”

St. Helen lived through the night𠅊s well as the next one and many more after that. According to Bates, St. Helen told him that Vice President Andrew Johnson had masterminded the assassination plot and had given him a password that allowed him to escape the massive manhunt. The man claiming to be Booth said that someone else had been killed in Richard Garrett’s tobacco barn on April 26, 1865, and passed off as the assassin to allow the pursuing posse to collect the sizable reward. St. Helen said that while an innocent man rested in peace in the Booth family plot in Baltimore, he drifted across the Wild West under various aliases.

Soon after St. Helen shared his story, he skipped town. More than a quarter-century later, Bates read a story in a Memphis newspaper that awoke old memories. In January 1903, a drifter named David E. George had locked himself in an Enid, Oklahoma, hotel room and committed suicide by ingesting a lethal quantity of arsenic. According to the news report, the wife of a local Methodist minister said that George had botched an earlier suicide attempt nine months earlier and, believing he was dying, confessed: “I am not David Elihu George. I am the one who killed the best man that ever lived. I am J. Wilkes Booth.” Side-by-side illustrations of Booth and George that ran in newspapers revealed a striking resemblance between the two mustachioed men. Newspapermen jumped on reports that Junius Brutus Booth III, nephew of the assassin, said that George resembled his uncle—without mentioning that Junius was born in 1868, three years after Lincoln’s murder, and had never set eyes on his uncle.

The body of David E. George shortly after his death in 1903

Bates, the grandfather of award-winning actress Kathy Bates, also recognized the man in the newspaper. It was John St. Helen. Bates hastened to Enid and found the embalmed body of the mysterious man at W.B. Penniman’s mortuary and furniture store. Bates tried to gain custody of George’s unclaimed body, but for years it became a local tourist attraction. Dressed in a respectable suit, the embalmed body sat a chair in Penniman’s front parlor with its glass eyes staring out blankly at the open newspaper on its lap. Thanks to the arsenic Penniman used in the embalming as well as the arsenic swallowed by George, according to newspaper reports, the body became a well-preserved mummy.

Around 1907 when Bates published “The Escape and Suicide of John Wilkes Booth: Written for the Correction of History,” a 309-page book in which he detailed St. Helen’s account of how he escaped the manhunt, the lawyer gained custody of the cadaver. Bates rented out the corpse to carnivals, state fairs and midways, and the supposed mummy of John Wilkes Booth became a freak-show mirror image to the solemn funeral train procession taken by Lincoln’s embalmed body in the weeks after the assassination.

If the body was indeed that of Booth, the former actor was much less of a box-office draw in his post-mortem career. The mummy “scattered ill-luck around almost as freely as Tutankhamen is supposed to have done,” reported the Saturday Evening Post in 1938. The magazine reported that nearly every showman who had exhibited the specimen had been financially ruined. In 1920 a circus train carrying the mummy wrecked en route to San Diego and killed eight people. Soon after, the mummy was kidnapped and held for ransom. Union veterans even threatened to lynch it𠅊pparently in a desire to kill Booth twice.

After Bates died in 1923, his widow sold the mummy to William Evans, the �rnival King of the Southwest.” After Evans quit the carnival business, he took the oddity back to his Idaho potato farm and opened his doors to curious tourists who drove by the sign posted outside: “SEE THE MAN WHO MURDERED LINCOLN.” A Lincoln assassination buff convinced Evans to resume the mummy’s tour of America, but the re-launch fizzled. The Saturday Evening Post reported that Evans was ordered out of Salt Lake City for “teaching false history,” and fined $50 in Big Spring, Texas, for transporting a corpse without a license.

Side-by-side comparison photos of John Wilkes Booth and David E. George

In spite of the mummy’s checkered history, carnival man John Harkin and his wife bought it for $5,000 around 1930. The Harkins traveled the country in a battered truck with the leathered, hollowed-eyed mummy occupying a berth on the floor as they slept on adjacent bunks. Harkin promised $1,000 to anyone who could prove that the mummy was not Booth, and he boasted that he never paid out a dime. In 1931, a group of Chicago doctors, including the city’s health commissioner, X-rayed and examined the corpse and claimed that the body’s fractured leg, broken thumb and neck scar were consistent with injuries attributed to Booth. (Never mind that the fracture was found on the mummy’s right leg, while the injured bones set by Dr. Samuel Mudd were on Booth’s left leg.)

Beginning in 1937 and continuing into the 1950s, the mummy was part of Jay Gould’s Million Dollar Circus traveling with trained elephants, acrobats and a high-diving dog act. According to a PBS report, the mummy was last seen in public in the late 1970s and may be in the hands of a private collector. While some family members have voiced support for exhuming the body buried in Booth’s grave for DNA testing to determine if it’s truly his, courts have so far denied the requests.

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William Of Orange

William III was born on 4th November 1650. A Dutchman by birth, part of the House of Orange, he would later reign as King of England, Scotland and Ireland until his death in 1702.

William’s reign came at a precarious time in Europe when religious divide dominated international relations. William would emerge as an important Protestant figurehead the Orange Order in Northern Ireland is named after him. His victory at the Battle of Boyne on 12th July is still celebrated by many in Northern Ireland, Canada and parts of Scotland.

The Battle of Boyne, by Jan van Huchtenburg

William’s story begins in the Dutch Republic. Born in November in The Hague he was the only child of William II, Prince of Orange and his wife Mary, who also happened to be the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. Unfortunately, William’s father, the prince, died two weeks before he was born, resulting in him assuming the title of Prince of Orange from birth.

As a young man growing up, he received tutelage from various governesses and later received lessons daily from a Calvinist preacher called Cornelis Trigland. These lessons instructed him as to the destiny he must fulfil as part of Divine Providence. William had been born into royalty and had a role to fulfil.

When William was only ten years old, his mother died of smallpox whilst visiting her brother in England. In her will, Mary wished her brother Charles II to take care of William’s interests. This proved to be a contentious issue as his general education and upbringing was brought into question by those who supported the dynasty and others in the Netherlands who supported a more republican system.

In the years that followed, the English and Dutch would continue to jostle for influence over the young royal to the point at which during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, one of the peace conditions included an improvement in William’s position, as requested by his uncle Charles II in England.

For the young William back in the Netherlands, he was learning to be an astute autocrat, entitled to rule. His roles were two-fold leader of the House of Orange and stadtholder, a Dutch word referring to the head of state of the Dutch Republic.

This initially proved difficult due to the Treaty of Westminster which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War. In this treaty Oliver Cromwell demanded the Act of Seclusion be passed, forbidding Holland to appoint a member of the royal House of Orange to the role of stadtholder. However, the impact of the English restoration meant that the act was voided, allowing William to attempt to once again assume the role. His first attempts to do this however proved fruitless.

William of Orange, by Johannes Voorhout

By the time he was eighteen, the Orangist party were making a concerted effort to secure William’s role as stadtholder and Captain-General, whilst the leader of the States Party, De Witt allowed for an edict which declared that the two roles could never be held by the same person in any province. Nevertheless, De Witt was unable to suppress William’s rise to power, especially when he became a member of the Council of State.

In the meantime, international conflict was brewing across the water, with Charles making an agreement with his French allies for an imminent attack on the Republic. The threat forced those in the Netherlands who had been resistant to William’s power to concede and allow him to assume the role of States General for the summer.

The year 1672 for many in the Dutch Republic proved to be devastating, so much so that it became known as the ‘Disaster Year’. This was largely due to the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War whereby the country was invaded by France with its allies, which at the time included England, Cologne and Münster. The ensuing invasion had a great impact on the Dutch people who were appalled at the presence of a French army in the heart of their beloved Republic.

The result for many was to turn their backs on the likes of De Witt and welcome William as stadtholder on the 9th July of the same year. A month later, William published a letter from Charles which demonstrated that the English king had instigated war due to the aggression of De Witt and his men. De Witt and his brother, Cornelis were fatally attacked and murdered by civil militia loyal to the House of Orange. This allowed William to introduce his own supporters as regents. His involvement in the lynching was never fully established but his reputation was somewhat damaged by the violence and barbarity used that day.

Now in a strong position, William took control and continued to fight off the threat from the English and French. In 1677 he tried, through diplomatic measures, to improve his position through his marriage to Mary, the daughter of the Duke of York who would later become King James II. This was a tactical move which he anticipated would allow him to acquire Charles’s kingdoms in the future and both influence and redirect the French-dominated policies of the English monarchy towards a more favourable Dutch position.

A year later peace with France was declared, however William continued to maintain a mistrustful opinion of the French, joining other anti-French alliances, notably the Association League.

Meanwhile, a more pressing issue remained back in England. As a direct result of his marriage, William was emerging as a likely candidate for the English throne. The likelihood of this was strongly based on James’s Catholic faith. William issued a secret plea to Charles, asking the king to prevent a Catholic from succeeding him. This did not go down well.

James II

By 1685 James II was on the throne and William was desperately looking for ways to undermine him. He admonished James’s decision not to join the anti-French associations at the time and in an open letter to the English public he criticised James’s policy of religious toleration. This led many to subsequently oppose King James’s policy after 1685, particularly in political circles due to genuine concerns with not only his faith but his close ties to France.

James II had converted to Catholicism and had also married a Catholic princess from Italy. In Protestant majority England, concerns soon spread that any son who would succeed the throne would rule as a Catholic King. By 1688, the wheels had been set in motion and on 30th June, a group of politicians who became known as the ‘Immortal Seven’ sent William an invitation to invade. This soon became public knowledge and on 5th November 1688 William landed in the southwest of England at Brixham. Accompanying him was a fleet that was both imposing and considerably larger than the English had encountered during the Spanish Armada.

William III and Mary II, 1703

The ‘Glorious Revolution‘ as it became known successfully saw King James II deposed from his position with William allowing him to flee the country, keen not to see him used as a martyr for the Catholic cause.

On 2nd January 1689, William summoned a Convention Parliament which decided, through a Whig majority, that the throne was vacant and it would be safer to allow a Protestant to assume the role. William successfully ascended the throne as William III of England with his wife Mary II, who reigned as joint sovereigns until her death in December 1694. After Mary’s death William became the sole ruler and monarch.

Jessica Brain is 'n vryskutskrywer wat spesialiseer in geskiedenis. Gebaseer in Kent en 'n liefhebber van alles wat histories is.


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