Tuisfrontaktiwiteite: Vervoer

Tuisfrontaktiwiteite: Vervoer

Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Britse regering voortdurend die sukses van sy verskillende beleid rakende die Tuisfront gemonitor. Die regering was ook bewus van die moontlikheid dat dit nodig sou wees om wetgewing in te stel om enige probleme op te los.

Dit is Desember 1941. U is gevra om 'n verslag oor die vervoer te skryf. Dit moet in twee afdelings verdeel word.

Vervoer: Hoofartikel

Dinge wat u moet oorweeg, sluit in:

(a) Watter beperkings is in 1939 op motorbestuurders geplaas?

(b) Watter probleme het motorbestuurders deur hierdie beperkings veroorsaak?

(c) Hoe het die verduistering probleme veroorsaak vir mense wat per trein reis?

Dinge wat u moet oorweeg, sluit in:

(a) Watter maatreëls kan ingestel word om motorbestuurders te help?

(b) Watter maatreëls kan ingestel word om passasiers wat in die nag reis, te help?


Artikel

Bewyse van ons tuisfront van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog kan gevind word onder plaasvelde, op weidingspakkies of openbare gronde, in voormalige en aktiewe militêre installasies of in landelike woude. Strukture, geboue en voorwerpe verbind die wêreldoorlog van 1941-1945 met deelnemers en hul afstammelinge. In 1991 herdenk die land die 50ste herdenking van die toetrede van die Verenigde State tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die land nader nou die 60ste herdenking van die geallieerdes en die Amerikaanse oorwinning oor Japan en oorwinning in Europa, en vier die einde van die oorlog. Hierdie artikel het ten doel om ons begrip van die geskiedenis van ons land en die fisiese erfenis van ons tuisfront in die oorlogstyd te verbeter. (Figuur 1)

Figuur 1. Japannese Amerikaanse gevangenisstraf tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Hierdie kaart toon liggings van interneringskampe en ander fasiliteite in die Verenigde State wat verband hou met die verskuiwing van Japannese Amerikaners tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. (Met vergunning van die National Park Service.)

Daar is baie geskryf en gepraat oor hoe die Verenigde State deelgeneem het aan en deur die wêreldkonflik deelgeneem is. (1) Die tuisfront van die land was soos 'n smeltkroes van 'n goudsmid, en herskep die verhoudings tussen die meerderheid van die land en minderhede tot nuwe beelde en onverwagte vorms. Die nasie het demografiese diversiteit gebruik vir dubbele, teenstrydige doeleindes en vir oorlogseenheid by die huis of & quot; die front, & quot; en vir rasse- en etniese skeiding van die samelewing, soms agter doringdraad. Die plekke wat hier beskryf word, was smeltkroes waar burgers nuwe beelde van Amerikaanse diversiteit begin vorm het.

Fisiese bewyse van mobilisering van die tuisfront, die opsluiting van sekere groepe, militêre verdediging, of oorlogsmat en eacuteriel produksie spreek boekdele oor politieke en kulturele gedrag uit die oorlog. Alhoewel hierdie materiële oorblyfsels slegs 'n paar dekades oud is, is dit eindige erfenishulpbronne wat relevant is vir die hedendaagse lewende geslagte, net soos die burgeroorlogse slagvelde resoneer het oor vroeëre (en huidige) Amerikaanse geslagte. Maar in teenstelling met algemene herinneringe aan ontberinge, oorwinningstuine, koeponboeke vir rantsoene en die verlies van familielede, is tasbare bewyse oneweredig versprei oor die Verenigde State. Kusstate met versterkte stede en skeepswerwe, beboste bergstreke en landelike landbougrond het verskillende tuisgebiede beleef as die vervaardigingsentrums in die middelkontinent en die Sun Belt -state.

As die tasbare erfenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog erken en bewaar word, kan dit bydra tot sosiale en politieke geskiedenis, dieper gevoelens van patriotisme en reflektiewe nostalgie ontwikkel, kruisgenerasie-kommunikasie aanmoedig en grondtoerisme vir die hedendaagse burgers inspireer. Verskeie erfenisse aan die voorkant en landskappe, voorwerpe, strukture, herinneringe, verhale en geheime, en die aantal mense wat direk met hierdie verlede verband hou, neem af.

Spesifieke voorbeelde wat hier bespreek is, is gekies met behulp van vyf kriteria: 1) historiese betrokkenheid van groot groepe 2) relevante, toeganklike en betroubare inligting 3) bestaande gepaardgaande argeologiese, argitektoniese, historiese en ander materiaal voorste temas en 5) belangegroepe van oorspronklike deelnemers, hul afstammelinge en vriende. Inligtingsbronne is gepubliseerde werke, nuusartikels, webwerwe, persoonlike waarneming en persone wat in erkennings geïdentifiseer word. Ander historiese plekke en eiendomme uit die oorlog, soos die Trinity Site, gesinkte oorlogskepe by Pearl Harbor, laboratoriums by Oak Ridge of Berkeley, en historiese skepe is baie belangrik, maar word hier nie ingesluit nie. Heldhaftige militêre eenhede het belangrike verhale wat elders herdenk word.

Ons kan leer van ander nasies met 'n soortgelyke tuisgeskiedenis. Navorsers in die Verenigde Koninkryk het byvoorbeeld bestaande fasiliteite uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op die Engelse platteland uitgevind en studies gelewer wat die gevolge van krygsgevangenes op landbouproduksie toon. As deel van sy missie bevorder die Britse erfenisorganisasie van Brittanje nasionale bestuur van militêre erfenis deur volhoubaarheid van die terrein, 'n voordelige hergebruik, 'dokumentasie voor grondontwikkeling en die aanmoediging van gemeenskapsondersteuning. Naby Malton in Noord-Yorkshire, is 'n bewaarde krygsgevangenekamp met 30 kaserne, elk met uitstallings van Europese en Groot-Brittanje oorlogstydonderwerpe, ontwikkel as 'n historiese park van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. (2)

Identifiseer die tuisfront van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Sommige Amerikaanse tuisplekke word geïdentifiseer deur sigbare fondamente of leë strukture, hoë rookstapels, verlate paaie, geboue wat steeds bewoon word, verhuisde kaserne, vestings, verlate skeepswerffasiliteite, of voorraaddepot-elemente soos ammunisiebunkers. (3) Heelwat bestaande wêreld Oorlog II -strukture, -geboue en -kenmerke is geïdentifiseer tydens die inventaris van kulturele hulpbronne vir aktiewe militêre installasies, sommige federale en staatsparke en plaaslike jurisdiksies. Maar baie plekke bevat min of geen bewyse van beduidende oorlogsaktiwiteite as gevolg van aansienlike veranderinge in grondgebruik nie.

Argeologie, geskiedenis en historiese argitektuur is effektiewe vennote vir gedetailleerde dokumentasie en bewaring van burgerlike en militêre argitektuur, veral oorblyfsels van strukture wat nou verby is. Argeologiese ondersoektegnieke, soos navorsingsontwerpe, toetsopgrawings, kartering en artefakstudies is van toepassing wanneer materiaal van hoër gehalte ontbreek. Argeologiese metodes kan ook nuttig wees om begrawe infrastruktuurstelsels op te spoor, historiese graffiti en verlate voorwerpe op te neem en vergelykde toestande en oorspronklike ontwerpe te vergelyk.

Industriële argeologie is 'n interdissiplinêre vakgebied wat argitektuur, historiese tegnologie en argeologie kombineer, wat nuttig kan wees in die dokumentasie van terreine uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die Army Engineer Museum in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, bevat uitstallings en argiewe van tydelike geboue in oorlogstyd wat landwyd van 1939 tot 1945 gebruik is. Voorbeelde van historiese argitektuur -assesseringsverslae aan die voorkant sluit die Old Hospital -kompleks, die afvalwaterbehandelingsaanleg en die verbrandingskompleks in Fort in. Carson, Colorado, die Presidio van San Francisco, Kalifornië en die Old Parade Ground en MacArthurlaan in Fort Mason in San Francisco, Kalifornië. (4)

Belangrikste tipes eiendomme by die tuisfront van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Vier breë kategorieë historiese plekke bied 'n raamwerk om tasbare bewyse van die tuisfront van 1941-1945 te bespreek. Die eerste kategorie, & quot; beheerde groepskampe, & quot; sluit sentrums en kampe in vir geïnterneerde Japannese Amerikaners vir fasiliteite vir militêre gevangenes & quot; Burgerlike staatsdiens & quot; vir gewetensbeswaardes & vreemdelinge vir vreemdelinge & quot; Inboorlinge van Alaska word uit hul eilanddorpe verwyder. Die tweede kategorie sluit militêre verwante fasiliteite in, permanent of tydelik, vir verdediging, opleiding, logistieke operasies, bewaring en vervoer van wapens en slagvelde. Die derde kategorie behels industriële fasiliteite soos kontrakte- en staatswerfte, vliegtuigmonteringsaanlegte en sentrums vir die implementering van ammunisie. Die laaste kategorie sluit burgerlike fasiliteite in, soos huisvesting vir verdedigers. Voorbeelde uit elke kategorie sal gebruik word om die geleentheid vir verbeterde erfenisbewustheid te illustreer. Die kategorieë is nie gelyk in terme van samehangende, toeganklike inligting nie. Die eerste en tweede kategorie bevat baie groter bruikbare literatuur en voorbeelde wat bestaan, wat 'n betreurenswaardige wanbalans in hierdie opstel veroorsaak.

Sommige tuisplekke word aangewys as nasionale historiese landmerke, wat in die nasionale register van historiese plekke gelys is, of verskyn in staatsregisters. Dikwels is benamings hoofsaaklik gebaseer op historiese navorsing. Argeologiese betekenis mag nie geïdentifiseer word nie. Miskien word aannames gemaak dat min tasbare bewyse van oorlogstydse aktiwiteite op of in 'n spesifieke eiendom bly. Op sommige plekke het verbouing en hergebruik van grond 'n oorlogstydperk beïnvloed, maar sommige begrawe of verduisterde kenmerke kan as belangrike en waardevolle herinneringe bestaan.

Omdat 'n onlangse oorsig van die oorlogsgetuienis in Hawaii en die Stille Oseaan beskikbaar is, is hierdie opstel slegs gefokus op die kontinentale en Alaskaanse tuisfront van Amerika. (5) Die openbare belangstelling in oorlogsgeskiedenis en plekke het om baie redes toegeneem, waaronder Tom Brokaw se grootste generasie. topverkopers, Europese slagveldtoerisme en onlangse Hollywood -films. Nog 'n bemoedigende voorbeeld van belangstelling word weerspieël in TRACES, 'n nie -winsgewende voetsoolvlak -konsortium van amateur- en professionele historici, opvoeders en individue wat deelgeneem het aan die tuislewe en 'n jaarlikse konferensie by die Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa hou. Minstens drie gidsboeke na historiese militêre en burgerlike geriewe aan die tuisfront is beskikbaar. In 2000 het die National D-Day Museum in New Orleans aangesluit by die groeiende aantal museums wat die betekenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir die land illustreer. (6)

Beheerde groepskampe

In die vroeë veertigerjare was daar 'n ongekende aanhouding van ongeveer 650 000 mense. "In beslag geneem mense", soos beskryf deur die antropoloog Edward Spicer, het Japannese Amerikaners se asgevangenes, burgers van Italië, Duitsland en Japannese Amerikaners, met & quosuspicious & vanne, Japannese wat in Latyns -Amerika geregistreer is, geregistreerde gewetensbeswaardes en Aleoet Alaska -inboorlinge. Uitgebreide literatuur bestaan ​​oor die ervarings van hierdie groepe, die regs- en morele kwessies van aanhouding, en die werking van aanhoudingsgeriewe. beskikbaar. (8)

Verskeie federale agentskappe het fasiliteite gevestig om groepe wat in hegtenis geneem is in stadskampe aan te hou, met basiese behuising, gesondheidsdienste, lewensmiddele, ontspanning en interne bestuur. Die fisiese beheer van die kampbewoners wissel van maksimum veiligheid by sommige krygsgevangenekampe tot die minimum opsluiting van burgerlike vreemdelinge. Nuwe kampe is vinnig gebou uit militêre planne met basiese eenverdieping raamkasrakke, latrines, wasserye, gemeenskaplike storte, pakhuise, gemorshale en kombuise, personeelbehuising en mediese fasiliteite, gerangskik in roosteruitlegte met oop vuurbane en begrens deur draadheinings en wag torings. Op sommige plekke is leë fasiliteite uit die depressie of staatsgevangenisse hergebruik. Gepubliseerde herinneringe en mondelinge geskiedenis van aangehoudenes in elke tipe kamp gee baie besonderhede oor die daaglikse lewe. Hierdie bronne onthul hoe etniese kulturele uitdrukkings, soos dekoratiewe tuine en buitekuns, spansport, fiksheidsklubs, godsdienstige praktyke, politieke opinies, geskrewe taal wat in kampkoerante of graffiti, dieet, uitvoerende kunste en handwerk aangepas is, in die opsluiting aangepas is.

Die volharding van etniese kultuur deur mense wat aangehou word, kan gedokumenteer word in argeologiese, historiese argitektuur en landskapskenmerke. Net so belangrik is perspektiewe oor die interaksie van omliggende gemeenskappe met kampbewoners en tussen multinasionale kampbevolkings.

Japannese-Amerikaanse interneringskampe

'N Oorsig van die fisiese oorblyfsels van Japannese-Amerikaanse kampe en ander aanhoudingsfasiliteite dui daarop dat daar op baie plekke aansienlike strukture soos rokers, wortelkelders, infrastruktuurfunksies, begraafplase, paaie en ondersteuningsgeboue vandag bestaan. (9) (Figuur 1) Boonop is daar in baie plekke tuine en gedenktekens in Japannese styl, verborge graffiti in Engels en Japannees en moderne herdenkingsmerke.

Miskien is die goed gedokumenteerde Japannees-Amerikaanse interneringskamp Manzanar, die eerste wat vroeg in 1942 geopen het en nou deel is van die National Park System. Uitgebreide argeologiese, historiese, mondelinge geskiedenis, kulturele landskap en historiese argitektuurstudies is voltooi, insluitend 'n inventaris van bestaande voorgeskiedenis en vooroorlogse bewyse, en die dokumentasie van die fisiese kenmerke van die kamp. (10) Hierdie studies ondersteun die beplanning van die 540 hektaar groot Nasionale Park. Deelnemers aan die beplanning was Japannees-Amerikaanse landskapargitekte, die Manzanar Pilgrimage-groep, 'n plaaslike museum en bure. (Figuur 2) As gevolg hiervan is die ouditorium van die Hoërskool Manzanar herstel as 'n interpretatiewe sentrum en is 'n messegebou onlangs in sy oorspronklike posisie verplaas. Die Manzanar National Historic Site Interpretive Center is geopen op 24 April 2004, in samewerking met die 35ste jaarlikse Manzanar -pelgrimstog.

Figuur 2. Tydens 'n seremonie op die kampbegraafplaas het deelnemers aan die Manzanar -pelgrimstog in 2003 by die I Rei To of & quotsoul -reinigingstoring byeengekom. & Quot (met vergunning van die National Park Service.)

Die ander nege groot kampe bevat ook aansienlike fisiese bewyse wat bewaar moet word en word deur historiese merkers geïdentifiseer. Verskeie kampe word jaarliks ​​besoek deur reüniegroepe van voormalige aangehoudenes, hul gesinne en vriende wat werk om fisiese oorskot en herinneringe aan interneringservarings te bewaar.

Interneringskampe van die departement van justisie

Die Departement van Justisie was verantwoordelik vir drie soorte fasiliteite: tydelike aanhoudingskampe wat deur die Immigrasie- en Naturalisasiediens bestuur word, gemaklike diplomatieke en kwototelkampe en "quotenemy uitheemse" kampe vir nie -burgerlike Italianers, Duits -Amerikaners, Japanners wat uit Latyns -Amerikaanse lande verwyder is, en ander. Hierdie fasiliteite is bevolk met gesinne en individue wat as 'n potensiële gevaar vir die nasie beskou is. ' Alhoewel die presiese syfers verskil, is minstens 6,300 Duitse Amerikaners en ongeveer 300 Italianers wat uit Latyns -Amerika gedeporteer is, aangehou, hoewel baie later parool en vrygelaat is. Ongeveer 2 200 Latyns-Amerikaanse Japanners is as 'quotenemy aliens' geklassifiseer en gehou in spesiale kampe aan die voorkant, apart van die Japannese Amerikaners.

As voorbeeld was die Crystal City Internering Camp for & quotenemy aliens, een van drie in Texas gevestig, 'n kompleks van 500 hektaar met 41 huisies, 188 eenvertrekstrukture en diensgeboue soos pakhuise, kantore, skole, kruidenierswinkels , 'n hospitaal en 'n swembad. In 1945 woon die 3 325 gevangenes wat Japannees, Duits, Spaans, Italiaans en Engels gepraat het, in huise wat geskei is deur nasionaliteit. Hulle het in kampwinkels en kantore gewerk, groente, varke en hoenders het etniese kosse te koop gemaak en bygestaan ​​in die skool- en kampadministrasie. Alhoewel die Crystal City-kamp 'n bruisende klein dorpie gelyk het, het '10 meter hoë heinings, wagtorings, spreiligte en wagpatrollies gedetineer gedurig aan hul gebrek aan vryheid herinner. Die Crystal City -kamp was die laaste 'quotenemy alien' -fasiliteit wat gesluit is.

Gedurende die afgelope twee dekades het Duits-Amerikaanse gesinne reünies by die kamp gehou. In November 2002 was Crystal City en die historiese kommissie van die Zavala County die gasheer vir die & quotFirst Multi-Ethnic National Reunion of Internment Camp Families van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. & Quot Ongeveer 150 Duitse en Peruaanse-Japannese gesinne was verteenwoordig. Vandag is 'n deel van die kamp op 'n oop terrein en strukturele fondamente is naby 'n gedenkplaat van 1985 teenwoordig.

Departement van die weermag-krygsgevangenekampe

Duitse militêre personeel wat gedurende 1943 in Noord-Afrika gevange geneem is, was die eerste vyandelike troepe wat na Amerikaanse krygsgevangenes of "PWW" kampe gebring is. (Figuur 3) Teen Junie 1945 het meer as 425,000 As-gevangenes en mdash371,000 Duitsers, 50,000 Italianers en 4000 Japanese en mdashwere was gehuisves in ongeveer 125 hoofkampe en 425 kleiner takkampe regoor die land. (14) Gewoonlik in plattelandse, geïsoleerde streke van die land, het PW -kampe nuuskierighede geword vir nabygeleë dorpe, wenslike ekonomiese hupstoot vir graafskappe en herinneringe aan die oorsese oorlog aan bure.

Figuur 3. 'n Duitse krygsgevangene in werkklere in die Nyssa-krygsgevangenekamp in Oregon is in Mei 1946 afgeneem. (Met vergunning van die Oregon State Archives.)

Sedert 1996 ondersoek professor Michael R. Waters van die Texas A & ampM University Camp Hearne in Texas. Argeologiese toetsopgrawings, uitgebreide argiefnavorsing in Amerikaanse en Duitse militêre rekords, mondelinge geskiedenis met voormalige wagte en gevangenes en plaaslike historiese navorsing het die eerste omvattende begrip van 'n krygsgevangenekamp aan die voorkant gebring. Fundamente vir die gemorsaal, teater, kaserne, dekoratiewe damme en fonteine ​​is gedokumenteer, en alledaagse artefakte is teruggevind. Die verslag, Lone Star Stalag, bied rekords van gevangenes se daaglikse lewens en bedrywighede, insluitend die gewelddadige intimidasie van Nazi -volgelinge van medegevangenes, verhoudings tussen wagte en stedelinge en artefakte wat van die terrein herwin is. (15) Nominasies in die National Register of Historic Places en die Texas State register is in voorbereiding.

Slegs een ander PW -kamp het 'n argeologiese studie ondergaan. Toetsopgrawings by Camp Carson in Colorado het nie beduidende bewyse gelewer nie, maar PW -kampe in Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma en New Mexico is deur historici ondersoek. Hierdie studies bevat beskrywings van PW -betrokkenheid by plaaslike landbouproduksie- en bouprojekte, asook sokkerwedstryde, die ruil van handwerkartikels en 'n paar naoorlogse huwelike met Amerikaanse vroue. Navorsing bied ook kontraste in die manier waarop Duitse en Italiaanse offisiere en aangewese mans aangepas is vir bevalling terwyl hulle probeer het om hul nasionale kulturele en politieke uitdrukkings te volg, insluitend Nazi's, Fascistiese en godsdienstige kunsvoetbalspanne, voedselkampkoerante bewerk beeldhouwerk en musikale optredes. (16)

Burgerlike staatsdienskampe

Uitvoerende bevel 8675, uitgereik op 6 Februarie 1941, het die Burgerlike Staatsdiens (CPS) tot stand gebring as 'n alternatiewe verpligting vir mans in diensplig. (17) Ongeveer 12 000 manlike gewetensbeswaardes en 300 vroue tree in die staatsdiens. Byna almal was aktiewe lede van Mennonitiese gemeentes, Church of the Brethren en die Society of Friends (Quakers), kerke wat administrateurs geword het van CPS -fasiliteite in ongeveer 30 state. Inskrywings het baie belangrike take uitgevoer, van brandbestryding tot hulp in maatskaplike diensprogramme, maar hulle het beperkende daaglikse roetines ondervind. Daar is geen inventaris van die oorblywende CPS-fasiliteite gedoen nie, maar sommige voormalige depressie-era-strukture wat as CPS-kampe gebruik is, bestaan ​​moontlik op Amerikaanse bosdiens- of nasionale parklande. Voormalige CPS -inskrywings het 'n alumni -organisasie en sommige het hul kampkampe in die oorlog weer besoek.

Unangan -inboorlingskampe

Oorlogvoering op die eiland Aleutian in 1942-43 het ongeveer 800 Unangan- of Aleut-Alaska-inboorlinge van hul eilande verwyder om hulle te beskerm teen Japannese bombardemente. Verlate blikkieskuns, kampe van die Civilian Conservation Corps uit die 1930's en 'n voormalige goudmyn het onderstandige dorpe geword in die suidooste van Alaska vir die ontheemdes en is deur die Buro vir Indiese Sake bedryf. Die Unangan kon nie baie besittings uit hul tuisdorpe bring nie, maar het steeds volgehou as 'n kulturele groep, ondanks groot ontbering. Hulle is opgeneem in die Japanse-Amerikaanse restitusiewetgewing van 1988. (18)

Militêre fasiliteite

Seattle, San Diego, die San Francisco Bay-gebied, die hawekompleks van New York, die stede aan die Golfkus, hawens in New England en Alaskan-dorpe het wapens, verwante versterkings en ondersteuningsbasisse van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gehuisves. (19) Verdediging van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog installasies is in verskillende stadiums van bewaring of agteruitgang. Binne die Cabrillo National Monument naby San Diego is 'n goed bewaarde kusverdedigingsbattery van vier 155 mm geweer wat in 1941 gebou is, met argeologiese metodes en mondelinge geskiedenis gedokumenteer. (20) (Figuur 4)

Figuur 4. Hierdie aansig van die Coastal Defense Battery Point Loma, CA, in 1941 toon die gestabiliseerde geweerberg #4. (Met vergunning van die Cabrillo National Monument, National Park Service.)

Aan die monding van die Delaware -rivier in Delaware is die Fort Miles -weermagbasis gedurende 1941 opgerig om raffinaderye en industriële komplekse te verdedig. 'N Kusartillerie-afdeling het soekligte beman, verskeie 155mm 1918-model mobiele gewere bedien en mynstelsels ontplooi. Verskeie hoë ronde beton torings wat gebruik word vir die triangulering van skipposisies vir die beheer van batterybrande bestaan ​​vandag. Baie van die strukture is in Delaware se Henlopen State Park waar openbare inligting oor die voormalige Fort Miles beskikbaar is. (21) In Portsmouth, New Hampshire, bestaan ​​defensiewe strukture aan die voorkant in plaaslike en staatsparke. 'N Voormalige Navy -kommunikasiefasiliteit is in die Acadia National Park in Maine geleë, en 'n vroeë radarstasie aan die kus word in Redwood National Park in Kalifornië bewaar.

Militêre opleidingsgeriewe sluit die groot "Desert Training Center" in Kalifornië en Arizona in. Bewyse van generaal George S. Patton se woestynopdragpos, afdelingsgrootte-kampe en ondersteuningsfasiliteite bestaan ​​op die Buro vir Landbeheer. (22) 'n Museum naby Indio, Kalifornië, vertel Patton se loopbaan en die belangrikheid van die sentrum vir militêre paraatheid. Die Army Air Corps het vinnig honderde vliegvlugte, kanonniere, hulpbasisse en opleidingsfasiliteite ontwikkel, waaronder duisende vlieëniers, vluginstrukteurs en ondersteuningspersoneel. Baie plekke behou vliegvelduitlegte en boukomplekse. (23)

Die boeiende verhaal van die Tuskegee Airmen het getoon hoe moedige Afro-Amerikaanse vlieëniers en hul manlike en vroulike ondersteuningspersoneel nasionale vooroordeel sowel as as-vyande beveg het. (24) Moten Field naby Tuskegee, Alabama, bevat 'n bestaande hangar, beheertoring, valskerm solder en paaie vanaf die oorspronklike kompleks van 15 strukture. Die Airmen se veterane-groep en die bewaring van die Moten Field-fasiliteite as deel van 'n nasionale park, het die publiek bewus gemaak van Afro-Amerikaanse bydraes tot die lugvaartpoging in die oorlog, ondanks gesegregeerde gewapende magte.

'N Groot aanval deur die Japannese keiserlike magte op die Dutch Harbour Naval Operating Base en Fort Means, Alaska, in Junie 1942 het dodelike gevegte op die grond van die Verenigde State gebring. Brutale gevegte op die Kiska-, Amchitka-, Unalaska- en Attu -eilande het groot verliese aan beide kante tot gevolg gehad weens die weer, swak toegeruste Amerikaanse magte, bombardemente en hardnekkige weerstand. 'N Besoekersentrum vir die Aleoese Tweede Wêreldoorlog se nasionale historiese gebied op die eiland Unalaska word in 2004 geopen ter herdenking van die 60ste herdenking van die Aleoetiese veldtog wat oorlog en die onangese mense se ontheemding direk na die Amerikaanse tuisfront in Alaska gebring het. (25)

Industriële fasiliteite

Om die industriële sterkpunte van Amerika te verander, van verbruikers in vredestyd tot produksie in oorlogstyd, het die intense koördinering van nasionale ekonomiese, politieke en tegniese energie vereis. Die War Resources Administration (WRA) en talle ander buro's het hierdie transformasie geïmplementeer. Die onderstaande plekke is voorbeelde van historiese argitektuur, potensiële industriële argeologie en die omvang van die Amerikaanse industrie tydens oorlogstyd. Duisende skepe is by bykans 150 federale regering en skeepswerwe gebou, waaronder die beroemde Liberty- en Victory -klasse vir troepe en ammunisie.

Grondgebruik in vredestyd het baie skeepswerwe in die privaatsektor verwyder, maar droë dokke by Kaiser Company Shipyard #3 in Richmond, Kalifornië, is geleë binne die grense van Rosie the Riveter WWII Home Front National Historical Park en mdashretain historiese integriteit. (Figuur 5) Vliegtuigvervaardigers en verskaffers werk in ten minste 15 state. As gevolg van arbeidstekorte het Douglas, North American Aviation, Boeing, Grumman, Bell, Hughes en Lockheed baie minderheidsmanne en -vroue in diens geneem by fabrieke in dorpe in die suide van Kalifornië, sowel as in Seattle en ander industriële stede. Sommige Lockheed- en Boeing -aanlegte is gekamoefleer om op behuising en graanlande te lyk. 'N Paar historiese strukture bly op sommige plekke oor.

Figuur 5. Gedurende die jare van 1942 tot 1944 het Dorothea Lange baie beelde van Kaiser's Richmond, CA, Shipyard geneem, insluitend hierdie foto van vroulike werkers in 'n salarisreël. (Met vergunning van die Oakland Museum van Kalifornië.)

Die top-geheime Manhattan-projek en sy Hanford Engineer Works B Reactor, naby Richland, Washington, het Superfund-omgewingsherstelwerk vereis. 'N Nominasie van 'n nasionale register wat Hanford se voorgeskiedenis, historiese en Tweede Wêreldoorlog -eiendomme dek, is opgestel. Bouvoorrade, argeologiese toetse en argiewe van historiese foto's en dokumente is ook voltooi. (26)

By die voormalige Concord Naval Weapons Center naby Concord, Kalifornië, staan ​​'n ammunisieversendingsinstallasie met talle bunkers, spoorpaadjies, 'n kapel en administratiewe geboue gesamentlik bekend as Port Chicago. Hier het die & quotPort Chicago Explosion & quot; op 17 Julie 1944 320 mans doodgemaak, waarvan 202 Afro -Amerikaners. Die weiering van 50 mans om in gevaarlike omstandighede aan te hou werk, het gelei tot krygshowe en tronkstraf, maar teen 1946 is die meeste matrose vrygelaat en ontslaan. In 1994 het die kongres die Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Memorial gestig waar 'n jaarlikse herdenkingseremonie vir oorlewendes gehou word naby die piere waar twee ammunisie -skepe ontplof het. (27)

Burgerlike fasiliteite

Die verskuiwing van 15 miljoen werkers en hul gesinne na vergaderingsaanlegte, militêre basisse en skeepswerwe het 'n beduidende impak op die ervarings van burgerlikes tydens die oorlog gehad. Die Federale Werksagentskap, Federale Openbare Behuisingsowerheid, groot kontrakteurs en stadskommissies het hierdie fasiliteite ontwikkel. Migrasie in oorlogstyd het groot veranderinge in die gesinslewe en die werkplek by groot sentrums van die verdedigingsbedryf meegebring. Terwyl rassevooroordeel op die regerings- en private huismarkte voortduur, het die gebrek aan opleidingswerkers daartoe gelei dat ondernemings in die verdedigingsbedryf hul werwingspraktyke verander het om vroue en minderheids aansoekers te aanvaar. Op die werkplek het 'n aansienlike aantal vroue en minderheidswerkers take uitgevoer met mans sonder minderheid om produksiedoelwitte te bereik of te oortref. Atchison Village, 'n voorbeeld van die regering se behuising van verdedigingswerkers vir 450 skeepswerfgesinne in Richmond, Kalifornië, is nou ingesluit in Rosie the Riveter WWII Home Front National Historical Park.

Om militêre personeel, personeel van die Atomic Energy Commission en Dupont -werknemers te huisves, is Richland in die staat Washington opgerig as 'n volledige federale stad vir ongeveer 11 000 mense. Byna 20 tipes behuisings en mdasheach geïdentifiseer deur 'n letter van die alfabet en mdash is gebou en toegewys op grond van gesinsgrootte en werkstatus. Sommige huidige inwoners van Richland bewoon opgegradeerde Alphabet-huise en werk in die Hanford-projek se Superfund-skoonmaakprogramme. Die Columbia River Exhibition of History and Technology Museum in Richland bied uitstallings oor die Hanford -projek en 'n nuwe uitstalling van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog se trailer Trailing Living. (28)

Twee Japannese Amerikaanse stedelike gemeenskappe voor die oorlog het voortgegaan as etniese distrikte. Japantown in San Jose, Kalifornië, is een van die mees ongeskonde verteenwoordigers van die Japannese-Amerikaanse stedelike gemeenskapslewe in die land. Die oprigting van 'n historiese distrik, 'n gedenkbeeld en programme wat deur 'n plaaslike raad en die Japanese American Museum van San Jose geborg word, word befonds uit bewaringstoelaes. (29) Op Bainbridge -eiland in die staat Washington het Japannese Amerikaners wat na hul huise teruggekeer het na internering is aktief in die beplanning van 'n herdenkbare openbare park.

Gebruik tuisfront -erfenis in die moderne samelewing

Dit is indrukwekkend om plaaslike erfenislokasies op plaaslike, staats- en nasionale vlak te identifiseer, maar verre van voltooi. Baie historiese hulpbronne uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hul integriteit verloor, ander is slegs uit oorblyfsels herkenbaar. Sommige is redelik ongeskonde as kombinasies van argeologiese en argitektoniese hulpbronne, historiese landskappe met sigbare kenmerke en diep emosionele assosiasies vir spesifieke mense. Die meeste state bevat plekke uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in hul historiese registers, maar sommige stede, provinsies en state het hul rol tydens die tuisfront nie volledig aangespreek nie.

Openbare opvoedingsprogramme oor plaaslike erfenis in oorlogstyd bestaan ​​in sommige stedelike en plaaslike museums, veral dié wat gefokus is op militêre eenhede, groep etnisiteit en interneringskampe. Die nasionale lewe van die huis as 'n museumopvoedingsonderwerp neem toe, dikwels waar plekke of beduidende geboue bestaan ​​of drempelgebeurtenisse plaasgevind het. Museumprogramme en spesiale uitstallings wat temas aan die huis voorstel, kan baie toeneem namate oorlogsherdenkingsgeleenthede beplan word. Meer mondelinge geskiedenis is van deelnemers nodig terwyl dit nog beskikbaar is. Lugvaartmusea vertoon vliegtuie wat by tuisaanlegte vervaardig word, dikwels deur interras -werkspanne wie se verhale die historiese vliegtuie moet vergesel.

Pelgrimstogte, reünies en byeenkomste sal bydra tot emosionele afsluiting, jonger generasies inlig en die openbare bewustheid verhoog. Die deelnemers aan hierdie geleenthede kan ook as bestuurders optree om die hulpbronne en die waarde van hul ervarings op 'n plek te herdenk, te monitor en te bewaar.

Die ontwikkeling van erfenistoerisme rondom plekke in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog begin. Sommige state het aanlyn -toerisme -inligting om besoekers na historiese terreine in die oorlog sowel as ontspanningsgeleenthede te lei. 'N Nasionale register van historiese plekke reisroetes vir die Tweede Wêreldoorlog se tuisfront in die San Francisco Bay-streek is beskikbaar. (30) Toeroute wat 'n verskeidenheid tuisplekke met mekaar verbind, kan die 21ste-eeuse Amerikaners 'n meer gebalanseerde begrip van die heroïese en alledaagse aspekte van die impak van die wêreldoorlog tuis.

Preserving archeological and architectural resources related to World War II requires creative thinking by groups and individuals. Site resource inventories, the consideration of impacts of memorial projects, and protection from relic hunters and encroachment are very important elements for future site integrity, significance, and meaning. Preservation easements with private landowners may be useful to achieve some protection objectives.(31) Listing in the National Register of Historic Places, designation in state and local historic property registries, and other forms of recognition give an official status to a place, often requiring public consideration for zoning or land use changes.

Finally, home front sites and their messages to the American people can best be developed and transmitted by interdisciplinary and cooperative work among specialists, original participants, elected and other officials, and neighboring residents. An open planning process of appropriate scale for the heritage property is essential. A time frame of many years' duration may be needed. Communication plans and websites may be effective and inexpensive ways to reach a broad audience. The recognition of the civic, economic, and historic community values of World War II home front heritage is basic to preserving our nation's cultural resources.

Oor die skrywer

Roger E. Kelly is senior archeologist with the Pacific West Region, National Park Service, in Oakland, California. His education began in a barracks primary school in Richland, Washington.

The author gratefully acknowledges assistance from the following individuals: Linda Cook, manager, Aleutian Island WWII National Historic Area Karl Gurcke, a historian with Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Site, whose family was held at Crystal City Rolla Queen, archeologist, Bureau of Land Management Desert District Anne Vawser, Midwest Archeological Center, National Park Service Michael R. Waters, professor of anthropology, Texas A&M University John P. Wilson, consultant, Las Cruces, New Mexico and reviewers of earlier drafts of this article.

1. See for example John Morton Blum, V Was For Victory: Politics and American Culture During World War II (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976) John W. Jeffries, Wartime America: The World War II Home Front (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997) Roger W. Lotchin, ed., The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second World War (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999) Roger W. Lotchin, The Bad City in the Good War: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Oakland, San Diego (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2003) Ronald Takaki, Double Victory: A Multicultural History of America in World War II (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2000) and Allan M. Winkler, Home Front U.S.A.: America During World War II (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2000).

2. Many authors have addressed Great Britain's home front. The following are excellent examples of British heritage preservation overviews: C. S. Dobinson, J. Lake, and A. J. Schofield, "Monuments of War: Defining England's 20th Century Defence Heritage," Oudheid 71, No. 272 (1996): 288-298 Christine Finn, "Defiant Britain: Mapping the Bunkers and Pillboxes Built to Stymie a Nazi Invasion," Archaeology 53, No. 3 (2000): 42-49 J. Anthony Hellen, "Temporary Settlements and Transient Populations: The Legacy of Britain's Prisoner of War Camps: 1940-1948," Erdkunde (University of Bonn) 53, No. 3 (1996): 191-211 David McOmish, David Field, and Graham Brown, Field Archaeology of the Salisbury Plain Training Area (London: English Heritage, 2002) John Schofield, "Conserving Recent Military Remains: Choices and Challenges for the Twenty-First Century" in Managing Historic Sites and Buildings: Balancing Presentation and Preservation, red. Gill Chitty and David Baker (London: Routledge and English Heritage, 1999), 173-186.

3. The draft World War II National Historic Home Front theme study is under review. Its status is reported on the National Historic Landmarks website, http://www.nps.gov/nhl/

4. Fort Carson is addressed in Melissa A. Conner and James Schneck, The Old Hospital Complex (5EP1778), Fort Carson, Colorado (Final Technical Report), prepared for the Directorate of Environmental Compliance and Management, Fort Carson, CO, by the Midwest Archeological Center (Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996) James Schneck and Karin M. Roberts, Waste Water Treatment Plant and Incinerator Complex (5EP2447 and 5EP2446), prepared for the Directorate of Environmental Compliance and Management, Fort Carson, CO, by the Midwest Archeological Center (Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996). The Presidio military complex is addressed in Presidio of San Francisco: Historic Structures Adaptive Reuse Study, prepared for Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. (Sacramento, CA: Page & Turnbull, Inc., 1989). Fort Mason is addressed in R. Patrick Christopher and Erwin N. Thompson, Historic Structure Report: Western Grounds-Old Parade Ground and MacArthur Avenue (San Francisco, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1979).

5. A recent overview of the wartime evidence in Hawaii and the Pacific is available from Rex Alan Smith and Gerald A. Meehl, Pacific Legacy: Image and Memory from World War II in the Pacific (London and New York: Abbeville Press, 2002).

6. The TRACES conference page is http://www.traces.org/WWIIstudiesconferences.html accessed February 18, 2004 Richard E. Osborn, World War II Sites in the United States: A Tour Guide & Directory (Indianapolis, IN: Riebel-Roque Publishing Co., 1996) The Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles hosts an annual "All Camps Conference" for former detainees, families, educators, researchers, and others.

7. For example, see the following: The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997) Stephen Fox, The Unknown Internment: An Oral History of the Relocation of Italian Americans during World War II (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990) Arnold Krammer, Nazi Prisoners of War in America (New York: Stein and Day, 1979) Edward H. Spicer, Asail T. Hansen, Katherine Luomala, and Marvin K. Opler, Impounded People: Japanese Americans in the Relocation Centers (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1969) Erica Harth, ed., Last Witnesses: Reflections on the Wartime Internment of Japanese Americans (New York: Palgrave for St. Martin's Press, 2001)

8. For example, see Prisoners in Paradise, produced and directed by Camilla Calamandrei, 60 minutes, distributed by Camilla Calamandrei, P.O. Box 1084, Harriman, NY 10926, 2001, videocassette and Nazi POWs in America, produced and directed by Sharon Young, 50 minutes, Arts and Entertainment Television Networks, 2002, videocassette.

9. Jeffery F. Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord, Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites, Publications in Anthropology No. 74, Western Archeological and Conservation Center (Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1999).

10. Jeffery F. Burton, Three Farewells to Manzanar: The Archeology of Manzanar National Historic Site, California, Publications in Anthropology No. 67, Western Archeological and Conservation Center (Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996) Jeffery F. Burton, Jeremy D. Haines, and Mary M. Ferrell, Archeological Investigations at the Manzanar Relocation Center Cemetery, Manzanar National Historic Site, Publications in Anthropology No. 79, Western Archeological and Conservation Center (Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2002) Glenn D. Simpson, Manzanar National Historic Site: Historic Preservation Report: Record of Treatment, Return of Historic Mess Hall to Manzanar National Historic Site (Santa Fe, NM: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, n.d.) Harlan Unrau, The Evacuation and Relocation of Persons of Japanese Ancestry During World War II: An Historical Study of the Manzanar War Relocation Center, Denver Service Center (Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996).

11. "Enemy Alien" camps and the confinement of American civilians of Italian and German ancestry during the war years has not received public attention equal to the Japanese-American experience but coverage in some print media and online sources is increasing. See James Brooke, "After Silence, Italians Recall the Internment," at German Americana, http://www.serve.com/shea/germusa/itintern.htm, accessed February 18, 2004 Emily Brosveen, "World War II Internment Camps," at the TSHA Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online, maintained by the Texas State Historical Commission, accessed February 18, 2004 Fox, The Unknown Internment Arthur E. Jacobs, "World War II, The Internment of German American Civilians," at The Freedom of Information Times, http://www.foitimes.com/internment, accessed February 18, 2004.

12. Craig Gima, "In a Small Town in Texas…," Honolulu Star-Bulletin, November 8, 2002 Rebeca Rodriguez, "This Time They're Free," San Antonio Express-Nuus, November 10, 2002.

13. Priscilla Wegars, "Japanese and Japanese Latin Americans at Idaho's Kooskia Internment Camp," in Guilt by Association: Essays on Japanese Settlement, Internment and Relocation in the Rocky Mountain West, red. Mike Mackey (Powell, WY: Western History Publications, 2001), 145-183 Wegars, Golden State Meets Gem State: Californians at Idaho's Kooskia Internment Camp, 1943-1945 (Moscow, ID: Kooskia Internment Camp Project, 2002) Carol Van Valkenburg, An Alien Place: The Fort Missoula, Montana, Detention Camp, 1941-1944 (Missoula, MT: The Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1995) John Joel Culley, "Troublesome Presence: World War II Internment of German Sailors in New Mexico," Prologue [National Archives and Records Administration] 28, no.4 (1996): 279-295.

14. Krammer, Nazi Prisoners of War in America.

15. Michael R. Waters, Lone Star Stalag: German Prisoners of War at Camp Hearne, Texas in World War II (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004).

16. Anonymous, "The McLean Prisoner of War Camp" at the Devil's Rope Museum online, http://www.barbwiremuseum.com/POWCamp, accessed February 18, 2004 Ken Sullivan, "Thousands of German Prisoners held in Iowa," at the Cedar Rapids Gazette online, http://www.gazetteonline.com/special/homefront/story30.htm, maintained by Gazette Communications, accessed February 18, 2004 Melissa A. Connor, Julie S. Field, and Karin M. Roberts, Archeological Testing of the World War II Prison-of-War Camp (5EP1211) at Fort Collins, El Paso County, Colorado, prepared for and funded by The Directorate of Environmental Compliance and Management, Fort Carson, CO., Midwest Archeological Center (Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1999) Mike Garrett, "POW Camp Once Beehive of Activity," in The Durango Herald, August 10, 2003, 5A Richard S. Warner, "Barbed Wire & Nazilagers: POW Camps in Oklahoma," Chronicles of Oklahoma vol. LXIV, no. 1 (Spring 1986) "Basic Facilities of POW Camps" at Okie Legacy online, http://okielegacy.org/WWIIpowcamps/powcamp4.html, and "It was called Nazilager (Nazi Camp)," at the Okie Legacy online, http://okielegacy.org/WWIIpowcamps/powcamp2.html, accessed February 19, 2004 Janet Worral, "Prisoners of War in Colorado&mdashA Lecture," presented to the Fort Collins Historical Society, February 1995.

17. Civilian Public Service program and conscientious objectors' camp life is described in references below but few actual locations have been identified: Cynthia Eller, Conscientious Objectors and the Second World War (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991) Joyce Justice, "World War II Civilian Public Service: Conscientious Objector Camps in Oregon," in Prologue 23, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 266-273 Albert N. Keim, The CPS Story: An Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service (Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1990).

18. Levi Long, "WWII Internments set Aleuts adrift from their islands," Seattle Times, February 19, 2004. See also the brochure, "'Unangax Tenganis' Our Islands, Unalaska," Aleutian WWII National Historic Area Map and Guide (Anchorage, AK: National Park Service, n.d.).

19. Key references to examples of America's coastal defense systems are found in the following publications: Dale E. Floyd, Defending America's Coasts, 1775-1950: A Bibliography (Alexandria, VA: United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1997) Erwin N. Thompson, Historic Resource Study: Seacoast Fortifications, San Francisco Harbor (Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1979) Barry A. Joyce, A Harbor Worth Defending: A Military History of Point Loma (San Diego, CA: Cabrillo Historical Association, 1995) Joel W. Eastman, "Casco Bay During World War II," online at http://www.cascobay.com/history/history.htm, maintained by Casco Bay Online, accessed April 20, 2004 Jack P. Wysong, The World, Portsmouth and the 22d Coast Artillery: The War Years 1938-1948 (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1997).

20. Brett Jones and Howard Overton, Project Report: Battery Point Loma 155 mm Gun Emplacement Preservation (San Diego, CA: Cabrillo National Monument, National Park Service, 1984).

21. "Fort Miles Army Base, Lewes, DE: Home of the 261st Coastal Artillery Division, a Great Fortress in the Dunes at Cape Henlopen," http://www.fort-miles.com, accessed February 19, 2004.

22. Matt C. Bischoff, The Desert Training Center/California-Arizona Maneuver Area, 1942-1944 (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2003).

23. Lou Thole, Forgotten Fields of America, Then and Now (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1996, 1999).

24. Lynn M. Homan and Thomas Reilly, The Tuskegee Airmen (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 1998).

25. See the following brochures: Aleutian World War II National Historic Area, "The Battle of Attu," (Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, n.d.) idem, "The Occupation of Kiska," (Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, n.d.).

26. Aircraft manufacturers and assembly plants are listed at http://www.acepilots.com/planes/factory.html, accessed June 14, 2004.


27. See Tracey Panek, "Challenge to Change: The Legacy of the Port Chicago Disaster," Common Ground (Summer 2004): 16-25.

28. Darby C. Stapp, Joy K. Woodruff, and Thomas E. Marceau, "Reclaiming Hanford," Federal Archeology, vol. 8, no. 2 (1995): 14-21. Brief descriptions of the exhibits are available at the Columbia River Exhibition of History and Technology Museum's website, http://www.crehst.org, maintained by Team Battelle, accessed February 19, 2004 Rick Hampson, "World War II Changed Americans More Than Any Other Event," Las Vegas Review-Journal August 2, 1995, 7B. For more on the "Alphabet Houses," see excerpt from the 1943 "Report on Hanford Engineer Works Village: General Building Plans," by G. Albin Pherson, which details the housing types and provides drawings. See "The House that Hanford Built" at http://hanford.houses.tripod.com/GenBldgPlans.html, accessed February 19, 2004.

29. Janice Rombeck, "Preserving Japantown: S. J. historic district begins pilot program," San Jose Mercury News, March 8, 2004, 1B-4B.


Up, Up, and Away! Aviation Activities!

Ready, set, take off! For thousands of years, people have been fascinated with flying. This week, Education World offers a cargo of lessons about aviation that are just "plane" fun! Included: Lessons in which students complete experiments about air flight, design model airplanes, and do much more!

May is associated with several notable aviation-related events. Do you know the answers to these questions?

  1. Who became the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20 to 21, 1927?
  2. Who became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20, 1932?
  3. What airship exploded on May 6, 1937?
  4. What pioneer in the development of the helicopter was born on May 25, 1889?
  5. Who made history as the first flight attendant on May 15, 1930?


Students will learn the answers to those questions and more with five lessons from Education World! Below, read the brief descriptions for each lesson. Click any headline for a complete teaching resource!

    Aviation Pioneers Hall of Fame
    Students write short biographies about pioneers in aviation.
    (Grades 3-5, 6-8, 9-12)


Front Office Operations

There are two categories of Front Office Operations &minus

Front-House Operations

These operations are visible to the guests of the hotel. The guests can interact and see these operations, hence, the name Front-House operations. Few of these operations include &minus

  • Interacting with the guests to handle request for an accommodation.
  • Checking accommodation availability and assigning it to the guest.
  • Collecting detail information while guest registration.
  • Creating a guest’s account with the FO accounting system.
  • Issuing accommodation keys to the guest.
  • Settling guest payment at the time of check-out.

Back-House Operations

Front Office staff conducts these operations in the absence of the guests or when the guest’s involvement is not required. These operations involve activities such as &minus

  • Determining the type of guest (fresh/repeat) by checking the database.
  • Ensuring preferences of the guest to give a personal touch to the service.
  • Maintaining guest’s account with the accounting system.
  • Preparing the guest’s bill.
  • Collecting the balance amount of guest bills.
  • Generating reports.

Photo of the Day – 02/03/17 (“Handy Helpers for Defense”, 1942)

Use the photos posted in this feature for writing prompts, warm-up activities, drawing templates or as part of a photo analysis.

These young men are collecting paper and what look like tin cans (I am sure at other times had collected other items as well) for a scrap drive. Most of these items were reused or recycled to support the American war effort in World War II.

May 1942. Southington, Connecticut. “Boys collecting paper and metal for scrap drive.” Photo by Fenno Jacobs for the Office of War Information.

(Source)

Posted by NJBiblio on February 3, 2017 in Daily Photo


Chrysler built swarms of tanks

Workers at a Chrysler plant assemble tanks. The company&aposs first tank rolled off the assembly line even before the factory walls were completely built. 

Bettmann -argief/Getty Images

In 1940, William Knudsen telephoned K.T. Keller, the chief executive of Chrysler, and asked him if Chrysler could build tanks. “I don’t know,” came the answer. “I’ve never seen one of these things.” Soon after, Chrysler broke ground on what would come to be known as the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, situated in what is now the suburb of Warren. Its goal: to build swarms of tanks according to auto-making mass production principles—something never accomplished before.

Even before the factory had been completed, the first Chrysler M3 tank rolled off the assembly line. The walls of the factory were not even up, so engineers brought a steam locomotive in to keep the place warm for the workers during Michigan’s bitter winter of 1940-41. As the factory swelled to 1.25 million square feet, the company switched to M4 Sherman tanks, which were powered by a Frankenstein of a motor. Engineers took five six-cylinder engines that had been used in the Chrysler Royal and Windsor cars before the war and welded them together into one 30-cylinder motor that could pump 425-horsepower to the tank treads.

In the end, the Detroit Arsenal built more tanks than all of the Third Reich during the war years, tanks that roared through enemy lines all the way to Hitler’s Berlin.


Civilian Support for War Effort

Early in the war, it became apparent that German U-boats were using the backlighting of coastal cities in Eastern and Southern United States to destroy ships exiting harbors. It became the first duties of civilians recruited for local civilian defense to ensure that lights were either off or thick curtains drawn over all windows at night.

The Civil Air Patrol was established, which enrolled civilian spotters in air reconnaissance, search-and-rescue, and transport. Its Coast Guard counterpart, the Coast Guard Auxiliary, used civilian boats and crews in similar roles. Towers were built in coastal and border towns, and spotters were trained to recognize enemy aircraft. Blackouts were practiced in every city, even those far from the coast. All exterior lighting had to be extinguished, and black-out curtains placed over windows. The main purpose was to remind people that there was a war on and to provide activities that would engage the civil spirit of millions of people not otherwise involved in the war effort. In large part, this effort was successful, sometimes almost to a fault, such as the Plains states where many dedicated aircraft spotters took up their posts night after night watching the skies in an area of the country that no enemy aircraft of that time could possibly hope to reach.


The Home Front in World War One

Before World War One British society largely denied women the recognition and rights enjoyed by men. This all changed, however, in the war described as 'everybody's war' - a war of unknown warriors.

Everybody's war

During both world wars the British Isles were under attack, which meant that the civilian population as a whole, as well as the soldiers fighting overseas, found themselves in some ways 'at the war front'.

'Zeppelin raids on London . did have the effect of drawing everybody into the war.'

World War One (the Great War) is usually remembered as mainly a soldiers' conflict - with six million men mobilised to fight overseas, and the number of military casualties very high compared to those of civilians - but nevertheless the Zeppelin raids on London in April 1915 did have the effect of drawing everybody into the war. And as it progressed, the entire nation’s population and resources were harnessed to the war effort in one way or another, so most people came to feel involved in the conflict.

Wearing a uniform of some kind (whether in the forces or as a male or female police officer, postal worker or bus conductor) was an obvious way of contributing, but civilians working in a factory making uniforms, guns, ammunition, tanks or ships had every right to feel they were contributing as much to the war effort as a man with a gun. So, too, had dockers and miners.

Families with men at the front certainly felt part of the war, whilst clergymen who comforted the bereaved, or journalists who wrote stirring patriotic editorials, likewise had a key role as opinion formers.

Then, when food rationing was introduced in January 1918, following the German submarine blockade of 1917, previously uninvolved housewives, as they eked out their modest supplies of sugar and meat (the first two items to be rationed), could also feel they had a part to play. By this time the whole of Britain, effectively, was the Home Front, and the citizens collectively were the soldiers on that front.


The Physical Benefits of Recreational Activities

When you think of exercising, you probably picture lifting weights in a gym. Many recreational activities, however, are also great forms of exercise. Essentially, recreational activities are outdoor pastimes that you engage in mainly for your own enjoyment or as personal pursuits — to relax, get fresh air, exercise and live in the moment.

Hiking, skiing and wakeboarding, for example, are enjoyable activities, and they also have many cardiovascular benefits. It’s important not to ignore the physical benefits of outdoor recreation getting enough physical activity is vital for your health and could actually prevent premature death, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exercising regularly also keeps up your flexibility, muscle tone and strength.

If you’re looking for a recreational activity that gets your blood pumping and your mind focused, consider hiking, running, walking, swimming or biking. Even a low-impact activity such as bird-watching has some physical benefits: Taking a walk gets your body moving, and getting fresh air can improve your health in numerous ways. Common outdoor recreational activities you can try that’ll help you get in a good workout or simply enjoy nature include:

  • Running
  • Walking alone, with a pet or with friends
  • Bicycling the neighborhood or local trails
  • Swimming
  • Rock climbing
  • Paddleboarding
  • Playing tennis
  • Scuba diving
  • Kayaking

Woordelys

Agricultural Adjustment Act: (1938) a New Deal era law which reduced agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to not plant part of their land in order to reduce crop surplus, therefore effectively raise the value of crops.

Benjamin O. Davis Sr.: (1877-1970) the first African-American general in the United States Army. During WWII, he lobbied for the full integration of U.S. troops.

Betty Crocker: a persona for the General Mills Company. During the war, several Betty Crocker cookbooks were published instructing American women how to care and provide for their families when products were rationed.

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: founded in 1929, it was the first labor organization led by African-Americans to receive a charter in the American Federation of Labor.

Civilian Conservation Corps: a New Deal era public relief program for males ages 18-23. The Corps provided unskilled manual labor jobs relating to the conservation and development of natural resources. This provided aid to families recovering from the Depression and at the same time implemented a natural resources conservation program in each state.

Chicago Defender: founded in 1905, a historically black newspaper for African-American readers. The paper played a major role in the Great Migration, promoting Northern cities as preferable destinations.

Executive Order 8802: also known as the Fair Employment Act, signed on June 25, 1941 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the act prohibited discrimination against blacks in the defense industry.

Great Migration: (1910-1930) the first wave of African American migration to the North from the South.

Jim Crow: state enforced segregation and disenfranchisement laws against African-Americans enacted after the Reconstruction era.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): African-American civil rights organization, founded in 1909 to “ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.”

National Youth Administration: a New Deal agency that provided employment and education for citizens ages 16-25 part of the Works Progress Administration.

Ration books: a collection of ration “coupons,” which allowed the owner of the coupons a certain amount of product each month. Food, leather, rubber, clothing, and gasoline were some of the items rationed and especially needed for the war effort.

Selective Training and Service Act: (1940) the first peace-time United States draft which required all males between the ages of 21 and 35 to register. When the U.S. entered WWII, the age range for conscription was changed to 18-65.

V-pos: the primary mode of getting message to soldiers stationed abroad during WWII. Messages were censored, copied to film, and printed back onto paper for the intended recipient when it reached its destination. This system was much more cost effective for the military.

Victory Gardens: also known as war gardens, the government encouraged the planting of fruits, vegetables, and herbs were planted in private residences and in public parks to aid the war effort. By growing their own foods, American citizens aided the war effort by alleviating the labor shortage needed to harvest and transport these products. The gardens were also considered a morale booster for those on the homefront.

Works Progress Administration: the largest New Deal agency that employed millions of people to carry out public works projects. These projects included roads, public buildings, bridges, dams and more.


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