John Bidwell

John Bidwell

John Bidwell is gebore in Chautauqua County op 5 Augustus 1819. Opvoed by skole in Ashtabula County in Ohio, word hy 'n skoolonderwyser in Westport. Hy het ook 'n klein plaas in die omgewing gekoop.

In 1840 het Bidwell vakansie gehou in St. Toe hy terugkom huis toe, ontdek hy dat 'n plaaslike eiser sy plaas gesteel het. Die man se reputasie as geweld was so erg dat die owerhede van Platte County nie bereid was om Bidwell se grondregte af te dwing nie. Teleurgesteld oor hierdie gebeure besluit Bidwell om Missouri te verlaat. Nadat hy 'n boek van Antoine Robidoux gelees het, het hy begin dink aan die moontlikheid om na Kalifornië te emigreer. Soos Bidwell destyds verduidelik het: "sy beskrywing van die land het 'n paradys laat lyk". Bidwell is ook geïnspireer deur die verhale oor hoe mans soos John Sutter, John Marsh en Thomas Oliver Larkin 'n sukses gemaak het om naby die monding van die Sacramento -rivier te woon.

Bidwell het nou die Western Emigration Society gestig en nuus gepubliseer dat hy van plan was om 'n groot wa -trein na Kalifornië te neem. Die idee was baie gewild en binnekort het die genootskap die name van 500 mense gehad wat aan hierdie belangrike gebeurtenis wou deelneem. Winkeliers in Missouri, uit vrees vir 'n vinnige afname in kliënte, het besluit om 'n veldtog teen die idee te voer. Plaaslike koerante het verhale gepubliseer oor die gevare van reis oor die land na Kalifornië. Daar is ook baie publisiteit gegee Reis na die Great Western Prairies, 'n boek deur Thomas Farnham. In die boek beskryf Farnham in detail die ontberinge wat mense op die reis sou ondervind.

As gevolg van hierdie veldtog het slegs 'n klein groepie opgedaag om Sapling Grove op 9 Mei 1841 te verlaat. Dit sluit Josiah Belden en Charles Weber in. Dit sou die eerste wa -trein ooit wees wat mense van die Missouri -rivier na Kalifornië geneem het. Die Bidwell -ekspedisie het slegs vyf vroue ingesluit. Bidwell het later erken dat die party niemand insluit wat ooit in Kalifornië was nie: "Ons onkunde oor die roete was volledig. Ons het geweet dat Kalifornië wes lê, en dit was die omvang van ons kennis." Toe Bidwell dus hoor dat 'n groep sendelinge, onder leiding van Pierre-Jean De Smet, en gelei deur die ervare Tom Fitzpatrick, ook van plan was om na Fort Hall te reis, is daar besluit om te wag totdat hulle by Sapling Grove aankom. Fitzpatrick het ingestem om die partytjie van Bidwell na Fort Hall te neem. Bidwell het later beweer dat dit 'n baie belangrike faktor in die party se voortbestaan ​​was: "dit was goed wat ons gedoen het (wag vir Fitzpatrick), want andersins sou waarskynlik nie een van ons Kalifornië bereik het nie weens ons onervarenheid".

Die gesamentlike partytjie het Sapling Grove op 12 Mei 1841 verlaat. Soos Frank McLynn daarop gewys het: "Die sendelinge se vier karre vorm die voorhoede, elk getrek deur twee muile wat saam gekoppel is. Die hoofpartytjie het bestaan ​​uit agt waens wat deur muile of perde getrek is. . Agter was die voertuie wat die stadigste beweeg - ses waens wat deur osse getrek is. " Hulle volg die Sante Fe -roete vir twee dae voordat hulle vertrek op 'n dowwe pad wat deur bonthandelaars gemaak is wat reeds die reis na Fort Laramie onderneem het.

Op 16 Mei 1841 skryf De Smet in sy joernaal: "Ek hoop dat die reis goed sal eindig; dit het sleg begin. Een van ons waens is op die stoomboot gebrand; 'n perd het weggehardloop en is nooit gevind nie; 'n tweede het geval siek, wat ek verplig was om teen 'n verlies vir 'n ander te verruil. Sommige muile het geskrik en weggehardloop en hul waens verlaat; ander met waens het in die modder vasgesteek. diep klowe, moerasse en riviere. "

Die reis het nog moeiliker geword nadat u die Kansasrivier oorgesteek het. Die lang gras afgewissel met bome, het veroorsaak dat die meeste gesinne die swaar meubels wat hulle in hul waens wou vervoer, laat vaar het. Vader Nicolas Point het geskryf dat die 'terrein tussen Westport en die Platte een van die eindelose golwe is wat 'n perfekte ooreenkoms met dié van die see het as dit deur 'n storm opgewek word'. Point het ook aangeteken dat die party op 'n enkele dag 'n dosyn ratelslang met hul swepe doodgemaak het sonder om die spoor te verlaat.

Op 4 Junie het een van die partytjies, Nicholas Dawson, alleen gaan jag en is deur 'n groep Cheyenne -dapper gevange geneem. Hulle het sy klere uitgetrek en sy muil, geweer en handwapen gesteel. Dawson is daarna vrygelaat en teruggejaag na die wa. Tom Fitzpatrick het uitgegaan om die Cheyenne te ontmoet en nadat hulle onderhandel het oor die terugkeer van die muil en geweer, het hulle saam 'n vredespyp gerook.

Nege dae later het die wa -trein sy eerste dood beleef. Soos John Bidwell verduidelik: ''n Jong man met die naam Shotwell, terwyl hy 'n geweer uit die wa haal, trek hy die snuit so na hom toe dat dit afgaan en hom in die hart skiet. het ongeveer 'n uur gelewe en gesterf in volle besit van sy sintuie. "

Op 22 Junie het die reisigers Fort Laramie in Wyoming bereik. Die metodiste -prediker, Joseph Williams, was geskok toe hy sien dat die bergmanne inheemse Amerikaanse "vroue" het. Hy het ook opgeteken dat hy die houding van Fitzpatrick ten opsigte van godsdiens afgekeur het: "Ons leier, Fitzpatrick, is 'n goddelose wêreldse man en is baie gekant daarteen dat sendelinge onder die Indiane gaan. Hy het 'n mate van intelligensie, maar is deïsties in sy beginsels."

Die wa het twee dae later die fort verlaat. Hulle het langs die suidelike oewer van die Noord -Platte -rivier gereis totdat hulle die gevreesde North Fork -kruising bereik het. Dit was te diep om te ry, sodat hulle baie moeite gehad het om die ander kant te bereik. Die pioniers het egter reggekom met die verlies van net een verdrinkte muil.

In Julie het die reisigers gesukkel om genoeg buffels te vind om dood te maak. Die moeilike terrein het beteken dat die treintjie stadiger gery het. Die reis van Fort Laramie na Soda Springs in Idaho het agt en veertig dae geneem om die 560 myl, gemiddeld twaalf myl per dag, af te lê. Daar was 'n kort pouse by Soda Springs om te jag.

Op 11 Augustus het die twee groepe hul eie gang geloop. Pierre-Jean De Smet en Tom Fitzpatrick noordwaarts na Fort Hall, terwyl die John Bidwell-partytjie op die roete na Kalifornië voortgaan. Slegs drie en dertig mense verkies om saam met Bidwell te gaan. Fitzpatrick het Bidwell probeer oortuig om sy reis na Kalifornië te laat vaar en eerder na Oregon te gaan. Smet het later opgeteken: "Hulle het suiwer begin met die ontwerp om hul fortuin in Kalifornië te soek ...

Bidwell het vier mans na Fort Hall gestuur om advies in te win oor hoe om na Kalifornië te kom. Frank McLynn, die skrywer van Wagons West: The Epic Story of America's Overland Trails (2002) het daarop gewys: "Die beste intelligensie wat by Fort Hall beskikbaar was, was dat die emigrante wat aan Kalifornië gebonde was, noord van die Salt Lake moes gaan voordat hulle weswaarts sou swaai, maar nie te ver noord sou beweeg nie, uit vrees dat hulle 'n doolhof van ruig sou raakloop. canyons, afgronde en slote; aan die ander kant, as hulle te ver suid gaan, sal hulle waarskynlik eindig deur te sterf van dors in die spoorlose woestyn. "

Die wa kon nie water kry om te drink nie. Die water wat hulle in die Great Salt Lake -omgewing gevind het, was brak en het 'n slegte reuk van swael. Die enigste manier waarop die vloeistof gedrink kon word, was wanneer dit in sterk koffie gebrou is. Selfs die perde sou dit net op hierdie manier drink. Voedsel was ook 'n probleem, en op 5 September besluit hulle om 'n os dood te maak en die wa wat hy trek, te laat vaar.

Die volgende fase van hul reis was die kruising van die Nevada -woestyn. Na twee dae bereik hulle Rabbit Hole Spring. Na die roetes wat deur inheemse Amerikaners geskep is, het hulle uiteindelik by Mountain Spring naby Pilot Peak aangekom. Dit is hier dat nog twee waens laat vaar is en die osse wat die vragte trek, doodgemaak en geëet is. Vir die volgende drie dae het die ses oorblywende waens suidwaarts beweeg, oor Silver Zone Pass en die Goshute -vallei.

Op 15 September is die besluit geneem om die waens aan die voet van die Pequopberge te laat vaar. Soos Frank McLynn daarop gewys het: "Die redenasie was duidelik: hulle kon vinniger aangaan, makliker onderhandel oor 'n rowwe en heuwelagtige land, en sou hulle vleis in die vorm van osse hê, wat nou oorskiet aan trekkragvereistes. Natuurlik , sou hulle nie meer kon beweer dat dit die eerste wa -trein was wat Kalifornië bereik het nie, maar oorlewing was die probleem. Toerusting en voorrade word afgelaai en op die rug van muile en osse verpak. skerp en pak die pakkies af. " Een van die partye het geskryf dat: "Bidwell en Kelsey die waens die meeste sou mis, want hulle span was osse, en 'n bees is nie maklik om in te pak of te pak nie."

Nadat hulle op 21 September 'n paar warmwaterbronne aan die voet van die Rubyberge verbygesteek het, kom hulle by Mary's River (later herdoop tot die Humboldtrivier). Een reisiger noem dit "die gemeenste, modderigste, vuilste, stroom denkbaar". Hulle volg sy suidelike vurk noordwaarts na die Humboldt Sink, 'n moerasagtige gebied, waar die rivier in die woestyn verdwyn. Hulle kon slegs die vreemde wildsbok of 'n jackrabbit doodmaak. Hulle het nou so min kos gehad dat hulle die pakdiere begin doodmaak het. Hulle ontmoet 'n partytjie van Shoshone wat vir hulle kos gee wat hulle aan toffie -appels herinner. Die pioniers het egter hul aptyt vir hierdie kos verloor toe hulle ontdek dat dit 'n mengsel van heuning is en sprinkane, krieke en sprinkane opgebreek het.

Op 18 Oktober bereik die Bidwell -party die Walkerrivier aan die oostelike voet van die Sierra Nevada -berge. In die volgende paar dae het hulle vier diere verloor terwyl hulle die berge oorgesteek het. Op 22 Oktober vermoor die pioniers die laaste osse. Een van die partye, Josiah Belden, beweer dat hy die afgelope twintig dae van niks anders as eikels leef nie. Hulle het uiteindelik die top naby Sonora -pas bereik en was naby aan hongersnood toe hulle die Stanislausrivier in Kalifornië gevind het. Teen die einde van die maand het hulle die San Joaquin -vallei bereik. 'N Lid van die Miwok-stam het vir hulle gesê Marsh's Fort was naby.

Van die 69 mense in Bidwell se party wat van Sapling Grove vertrek het, het slegs 33 mense op 4 November Marsh's Fort bereik. Die party het egter die eerste emigrante geword om van Missouri na die Stille Oseaan -kus oor land te reis. Cheyenne Dawson het geskryf: 'Ons het verwag dat ons 'n beskawing sou vind, met groot velde, mooi huise, kerke, skole, ens. In plaas daarvan het ons huise gevind wat lyk soos onbrande bakstene, sonder vloere, sonder skoorstene en met deure vir deure en vensters gesluit deur luike in plaas van glas. "

Volgens Frank McLynn, die skrywer van Wagons West: The Epic Story of America's Overland Trails (2002) vier van die party, Bidwell, Josiah Belden, Charles Weber en Robert Thomas, het uiteindelik almal miljoenêrs geword. "Robert Thomas het die eienaar geword van die groot Tehama Ranch in Tehama County. Charles Weber het 'n fortuin verdien en die stad Stockton gestig, en Josiah Belden, die eerste burgemeester van San Jose, was 'n ander wat uiters ryk geword het."

John Marsh, die eienaar van Marsh's Fort, het vir hulle vark- en beestortillas voorsien. Toe hy die volgende oggend vir hulle 'n rekening van vyf dollar gee, het hulle besluit dat hulle nie nog 'n aand van Marsh se gasvryheid kon bekostig nie, en hulle het die fort verlaat op soek na werk. Bidwell het beraam dat daar in 1841 slegs ongeveer honderd blanke inboorlinge van die Verenigde State in Kalifornië was.

Kort nadat hy in Kalifornië aangekom het, ontmoet Bidwell John Sutter: "Sutter het ons met ope arms en op 'n prinslike manier ontvang, want hy was 'n man met die mees beleefde adres en die mees beleefde maniere, 'n man wat in enige samelewing kon skitter. ons kom nie vir hom onverwags nie. Daar sal onthou word dat een van ons manne met die naam Jimmy John in die Sierra Nevada geskei is van die hoofparty. tot by Sutter se nedersetting ... Deur hierdie man het Sutter gehoor dat ons geselskap van dertig man al iewers in Kalifornië was. Hy laai dadelik twee muile met voorraad wat uit sy privaat winkels geneem is, en stuur twee mans saam om ons te soek. "

Bidwell het by Sutter gaan werk: "Die eerste werk wat ek in Kalifornië gehad het, was in Sutter se diens, ongeveer twee maande na ons aankoms by Marsh's. Hy het my verloof om na Bodega en Fort Ross te gaan en daar te bly totdat hy die eiendom kon verwyder. wat hy by die Russe gekoop het. Ek het daar veertien maande gebly totdat alles verwyder is; ek het in die Sacramento -vallei opgekom en die Sutter van sy Hock Farm (so genoem uit 'n groot Indiese dorp op die plek) oorgeneem, daar 'n bietjie meer as 'n jaar. "

Bidwell het goud ontdek op die oewers van die Feather River tydens die Kaliforniese Gold Rush in 1848. Die jaar daarna het hy die Rancho Chico van 22 000 hektaar noord van Sacramento gekoop. Dit was 'n groot sukses en Bidwell het die bekendste landboukundige in Kalifornië geword.

Bidwell raak betrokke by die politiek en dien in die senaat van Kalifornië. Aanvanklik 'n lid van die Demokratiese Party, was hy 'n lid van die Kongres van die Republikeinse Party van 1865 tot 1867. Hy trou op 16 April 1868 met die diep gelowige Annie Kennedy. Annie ondersteun stemreg en verbod vir vroue. Na hul huwelik het hulle in die Bidwell Mansion in Chico gewoon. Die huis was die basis vir hul politieke aktiwiteite en gaste was Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Ulysses S. Grant, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford B. Hayes en William T. Sherman.

Bidwell het by die Anti-Monopoly Party aangesluit en in 1875 het Bidwell vir die goewerneur van Kalifornië gehardloop. Hy was ten volle toegewyd aan die matigheidsbeweging en was in 1892 die presidentskandidaat van die Prohibition Party. Die Demokratiese kandidaat, Grover Cleveland, het die verkiesing gewen met 5,556,918 stemme, terwyl Bidwell slegs 264,133 kon bestuur.

Bidwell, 'n voorstander van die transkontinentale spoorlyn en 'n voorstander van inheemse Amerikaanse regte, publiseer sy outobiografie, Eggo's van die verlede, net voor sy dood op 4 April 1900.

Hy (Pierre-Jean De Smet) was geniaal, van goeie teenwoordigheid, en een van die heiligste manne wat ek ooit geken het, en ek kan nie wonder dat die Indiane hom deur God beskerm het nie. Hy was 'n man met groot vriendelikheid en groot liefde onder alle omstandighede; dit lyk asof niks sy humeur versteur nie ... Soms gaan 'n kar oor en breek alles daarin; en op sulke tye sou Vader de Smet dieselfde wees - straal van goeie humor.

Die party wie se lotgevalle ek oor die vlaktes gevolg het, was nie net die eerste wat uit die Ooste direk na Kalifornië gegaan het nie; ons was waarskynlik die eerste wit mense, behalwe Bonneville se party van 1833, wat ooit die Sierra Nevada oorgesteek het. Dr Marsh's ranch, die eerste nedersetting wat ons in Kalifornië bereik het, was geleë in die oostelike voetheuwels van die Coast Range Mountains, naby die noordwestelike uiteinde van die groot San Joaquin -vallei en ongeveer ses myl oos van Monte Diablo, wat genoem kan word die geografiese sentrum van Contra Costa County. Daar was geen ander nedersettings in die vallei nie; dit was klaarblyklik nog net so nuut soos toe Columbus Amerika ontdek het, en daaroor was talle duisende wilde perde, van elande en bokke. Dit was een van die droogste jare ooit in Kalifornië. Die land was bruin en uitgedroog; in die hele staat het koring, bone, alles misluk. Beeste het amper honger gely, en die mense, behalwe 'n paar van die beste gesinne, was sonder brood en het hoofsaaklik vleis geëet, en dit was dikwels van 'n baie swak gehalte.

Dr Marsh het vier of vyf jaar tevore via New Mexico na Kalifornië gekom. Hy was in sekere opsigte 'n merkwaardige man. In beheer van die Engelse taal het ek amper nooit sy gelyke gesien nie. Ek glo nog nooit dat hy medies gestudeer het nie, maar hy was 'n goeie leser: soms lê hy die hele dag in die bed en lees, en hy het 'n geheue wat alles wat hy gelees het, stereotipeer, en in daardie dae in Kalifornië kon so 'n man maklik die rol aanneem van dokter en praktyk medisyne. Trouens, met die uitsondering van dr. Marsh, was daar in Kalifornië toe geen enkele dokter nie. Ons was verheug om 'n Amerikaner te vind, maar toe ons met hom kennis maak, vind ons hom een ​​van die mees selfsugtige sterflinge. Die aand van ons aankoms het hy twee varke vir ons doodgemaak. Ons het baie dankbaar gevoel; want ons het glad nie herstel van die honger na swak muilvleis nie, en toe hy sy Indiese kok vir ons tortillas (koekies) wou berei, vir elkeen een gee, was daar twee en dertig in ons geselskap, en ons was nog dankbaarder ; en veral toe ons verneem dat hy van sy saadkoring moes gebruik, want hy het geen ander nie. Toe ons hoor dat daar nie iets anders is as geld in die land nie, en dat slagmesse, gewere, ammunisie en alles van die aard beter was as geld, het ons ons dankbaarheid die eerste aand aan die dokter uitgespreek deur 'n geskenk 'n blikkie poeier, 'n ander lood of 'n slagmes, en 'n ander stel goedkoop, maar bruikbare stel chirurgiese instrumente. Die volgende oggend het ek vroeg opgestaan, onder die eerstes, om iets van ons gasheer te leer oor Kalifornië, wat ons kan doen en waarheen ons kan gaan, en hoe vreemd dit ook al mag lyk, sou hy skaars 'n vraag beantwoord. Dit lyk asof hy in 'n slegte humeur was, en onder meer het hy gesê: 'Die onderneming het al meer as honderd dollar se uitgawes vir my betaal, en God weet of ek dit ooit sal regkry of nie.' Ek was nie in staat om hiervoor verantwoording te doen nie, het uitgegaan en vir 'n paar van die partytjies vertel en gevind dat ander op 'n soortgelyke manier weggesteek is. Ons het 'n konsultasie gehou en besluit om so gou as moontlik te vertrek. Die helfte van ons partytjie het besluit om terug te keer na die San Joaquin -rivier, waar daar baie wild was, en die winter te jag, veral na otter, waarvan die velle drie dollar elk werd was. Die res - ongeveer veertien - het daarin geslaag om inligting te kry van dr. Marsh waarmee hulle die stad San José, ongeveer veertig myl na die suide, begin vind het, destyds bekend onder die naam Pueblo de San José, nou die stad San José . Min of meer van ons gevolge moes by Marsh's gelaat word, en ek het besluit om daar te bly kyk, en om intussen kort uitstappies oor die land te maak. Nadat die ander vertrek het, het ek suidwaarts begin reis en gekom by wat nou Livermore Valley genoem word, destyds bekend as Livermore's Ranch, wat behoort aan Robert Livermore, 'n boorling van Engeland. Hy het 'n vaartuig verlaat toe hy net 'n seuntjie was, en het getrou en geleef soos die inheemse Kaliforniërs, en was net soos hulle baie kundig in die lasso. Livermore's was die grensboerdery en meer blootgestel as die ander aan die verwoesting van die perdedief-Indiane van die Sierra Nevada (voorheen genoem). Daardie vallei was vol wildebeeste, duisende van hulle, en hulle was gevaarliker vir een te voet, net soos ek, as grizzlybere. Deur in die slote en agter bome te gaan, het ek na 'n Mexikaanse boerdery aan die uiterste westelike punt van die vallei gegaan, waar ek die hele nag bly staan ​​het. Dit was een van die bekende boerderye en behoort aan 'n Kaliforniër genaamd Don José Maria Amador - meer onlangs aan 'n man met die naam Dougherty. Die volgende dag sien ek niks om my aan te moedig nie, en ek begin terugkeer na die plaas van Marsh.

Onderweg, toe ek bymekaarkom waar twee paaie of eerder paaie bymekaarkom, val ek in met een van die veertien mans, M. C. Nye, wat na San José begin het. Hy het aansienlik opgewonde gelyk en berig dat by die sending van San José, ongeveer vyftig kilometer oorkant die stad San José, al die mans gearresteer en in die tronk gesit is deur generaal Vallejo, Mexikaanse opperbevelhebber van die weermag onder goewerneur Alvarado, is hy alleen teruggestuur om Marsh te vertel en hom dadelik te laat verduidelik waarom hierdie gewapende mag die land binnegeval het. Ons het Marsh na donker bereik. Die volgende dag begin die dokter na die sending van San José, byna dertig kilometer ver, met 'n lys van die geselskap wat ek hom gegee het. Hy was ongeveer drie dae weg. Intussen het ons 'n boodskap aan die mans op die San Joaquin -rivier gestuur om hulle te laat weet wat gebeur het, en hulle is dadelik terug na die plaas om die uitslae af te wag. Toe Marsh terugkom, het hy onheilspellend gesê: "Nou, manne, ek wil hê dat julle almal in die huis moet kom, en ek sal julle julle lot vertel." Ons het almal ingegaan, en hy het aangekondig: "Julle manne wat vyf dollar het, kan paspoorte hê en in die land bly en gaan waar julle wil." Die feit was dat hy eenvoudig paspoorte gekry het vir die vra; hulle het hom niks gekos nie. Die mans wat by die sending gearresteer is, is bevry sodra hul paspoorte aan hulle uitgereik is, en hulle het onmiddellik na San José gegaan. Maar vyf dollar! Ek veronderstel nie dat iemand vyf dollar gehad het nie; nege tiendes van hulle het waarskynlik nie 'n sent geld gehad nie. Die name is genoem en elke man het besluit om die bedrag in iets te gee, en as hy nie geld of effekte kon opdok nie, sou hy vir die res sy brief gee. Al die name is genoem behalwe my eie. Daar was geen paspoort vir my nie. Marsh het my beslis nie vergeet nie, want ek het hom self die lys van ons name verstrek. Miskien was sy idee - soos ander vermoed het en later vir my gesê het - dat ek sonder 'n paspoort op sy plaas sou bly en 'n handige hand aan die werk sou gee.

Die volgende oggend voor dag het ek na die sending van San José begin om 'n paspoort vir myself te kry. Mike Nye, die man wat die nuus van die arrestasie gebring het, het saam met my gegaan. 'N Vriend het my 'n arme ou perd geleen, net geskik om my komberse te dra. Ek het in 'n hewige reënstorm aangekom en is in die kalaboos ingetrek en drie dae daar gehou sonder om te eet, en die vlooie was so talryk dat dit 'n ligte kleur bedek en verduister. Daar was vier of vyf Indiërs in die gevangenis. Hulle is gestryk, en hulle het aanhou om 'n klokkie te lui, as 'n straf, veronderstel ek, want daar word gesê dat hulle perde gesteel het; moontlik behoort hulle aan die Perdedief-stamme oos van die San Joaquin-vallei. Wagwagte was by die deur gestasioneer. Deur 'n gerasperde venster het ek 'n beweging na 'n Indiese seun gemaak en hy het vir my 'n handvol boontjies en 'n hand vol manteca gebring, wat deur Mexikane in plaas van varkvet gebruik word. Dit het gelyk asof hulle my sou verhonger van die dood. Nadat ek drie dae daar was, het ek deur die deur 'n man gesien wat ek uit sy ligte hare 'n Amerikaner was, hoewel hy in die wilde skilderagtige gewaad van 'n inheemse Californiër was, insluitend serape en die enorme spore wat die vaquero. Ek het die wagter by die deur laat hom groet. Hy was 'n Amerikaner, 'n inwoner van die Pueblo van San José, genaamd Thomas Bowen, en hy het vriendelik na Vallejo gegaan, oorkant die pad in die groot sendinggebou, en vir my die paspoort aangeskaf. Ek dink ek het nou die paspoort, onderteken deur Vallejo en in Spaans geskryf deur Victor Prudon, sekretaris van Vallejo. Almal by die sending het Marsh se optrede as 'n verontwaardiging uitgespreek; so iets was nog nooit vantevore bekend nie. Ons het al gehoor dat 'n man met die naam Sutter 'n kolonie begin wat honderd kilometer ver in die noorde in die Sacramento -vallei begin. Geen ander beskaafde nedersettings is iewers oos van die kusreeks probeer nie, voordat Sutter gekom het dat die Indiërs die hoogste koning geword het. As die beste ding wat ek moes doen, was ek nou vasbeslote om na Sutter's te gaan, daarna 'Sutter's Fort' of New Helvetia genoem. Marsh het gesê ons kan die reis binne twee dae onderneem, maar dit het ons agt geneem. Die winter het ernstig gekom, en die winter in Kalifornië het toe, soos nou, reën beteken. Ek het drie metgeselle gehad. Dit was nat toe ons begin, en baie van die tyd het ons deur reën gereis. Strome was uit hul oewers; slote swem; vlaktes is oorstroom; die grootste deel van die land was inderdaad oorstroom. Daar was geen paaie nie, net paadjies, slegs deur Indiërs getrap en wild. Ons was verplig om die paadjies te volg, selfs al was hulle onder die water, want ons diere het eenkant toe gestap toe hulle in die modder was. Die grootste deel van die pad was deur die streek wat nou tussen Lathrop en Sacramento lê. Ons het uit voorraad gekom en was ongeveer drie dae sonder kos. Die spel was volop. maar moeilik om in die reën te skiet. Boonop was dit onmoontlik om ons ou vuurwapenslotgewere droog te hou, en veral die poeier in die panne. Op die agtste dag het ons by die nedersetting van Sutter gekom; die fort was toe nie begin nie. Sutter het ons met ope arms en op 'n prinslike manier ontvang, want hy was 'n man met die mees beleefde adres en die mees beleefde maniere, 'n man wat in enige samelewing kon skitter. Dit lyk asof hy in Kalifornië aangekom het, en in die noorde afgewyk, het hy miskien 'n bietjie afgekom na die nedersetting van Sutter, voordat ons by Dr. Marsh gekom het. Hy laai dadelik twee muile met proviand wat uit sy private winkels geneem is, en stuur twee mans saam om ons te gaan soek. Maar hulle het ons nie gevind nie en het met die proviand teruggekeer na Sutter's. Later, na 'n lang soektog, het dieselfde twee mans, wat weer deur Sutter gestuur is, ons spoor getref en dit na Marsh's gevolg.

John A. Sutter is gebore in Baden in 1803 van Switserse ouers, en was trots op sy verbintenis met die enigste republiek van gevolg in Europa. Hy was 'n warm bewonderaar van die Verenigde State, en sommige van sy vriende het hom oorreed om oor die Atlantiese Oseaan te kom. Hy het eers na 'n vriend in Indiana gegaan by wie hy 'n rukkie gebly het en gehelp om grond skoon te maak, maar dit was 'n saak waaraan hy nie gewoond was nie. So het hy na St. Louis gegaan en die middele wat hy het in goedere belê, en as 'n nuwe Mexikaanse handelaar na Santa Fe gegaan. Nadat hy onsuksesvol was in Santa Fe, keer hy terug na St. Louis, sluit hom aan by 'n groepie vangmanne, gaan na die Rocky Mountains en vind sy weg in die Columbia -rivier na Fort Vancouver. Daar het hy planne beraam om na die kus van Kalifornië te probeer om 'n kolonie te vestig. Hy het 'n vaartuig geneem wat na die Sandwich -eilande gegaan het, en daar sy planne meegedeel aan mense wat hom bygestaan ​​het. Maar omdat daar geen vaartuig direk van die Sandwich -eilande na Kalifornië was nie, moes hy 'n Russiese vaartuig per sitka neem. Hy het soveel krediet en hulp gekry as wat hy kon op die Sandwich -eilande en het vyf of ses inboorlinge laat vergesel om die beoogde kolonie te begin. Hy het verwag dat hy vir sy koloniste na Europa en die Verenigde State sou stuur. Toe hy in 1840 aan die kus van Kalifornië kom, het hy 'n onderhoud met die goewerneur, Alvarado, gehad en toestemming gekry om die land te verken en 'n plek vir sy kolonie te vind. Hy het na die baai van San Francisco gekom, 'n bootjie aangeskaf en die grootste rivier verken wat hy kon vind, en die plek gekies waar die stad Sacramento nou staan.

Die eerste werk wat ek in Kalifornië gehad het, was in diens van Sutter, ongeveer twee maande na ons aankoms by Marsh's. Ek het daar veertien maande gebly totdat alles verwyder is; hulle het in die Sacramento -vallei gekom en die leiding geneem vir Sutter van sy Hock Farm (so genoem uit 'n groot Indiese dorp op die plek), en daar 'n bietjie meer as 'n jaar gebly - in 1843 en 'n deel van 1844.

Byna almal wat na Kalifornië gekom het, het die punt bereik om Sutter's Fort te bereik. Sutter was een van die mees liberale en gasvrye mans. Almal was welkom - een of honderd man, dit was alles dieselfde. Hy het eienaardige eienskappe; sy behoeftes het hom gedwing om alles te neem wat hy kon koop, en hy het alles betaal wat hy kon betaal; maar hy kon nie byhou met sy betalings nie. En so bevind hy hom gou geweldig - byna hopeloos - in die skuld. Sy skuld aan die Russe beloop aanvanklik iets naby honderdduisend dollar. Rente het vinnig toegeneem. Hy het ingestem om koring in te betaal, maar sy oeste het misluk. Hy het op alle maniere gesukkel, groot gebiede op koring gesaai, sy beeste en perde laat groei, en 'n meelwerk probeer bou. Hy hou sy lanseer na en van die baai, met huide, talg, pelse, koring, ensovoorts, en keer terug met hout wat met die hand gesaag is in die rooibosboorde wat die naaste aan die baai is en ander voorrade. Dit het gemiddeld 'n maand geneem om 'n reis te maak. Die tarief vir elke persoon was vyf dollar, ingesluit kos. Sutter het baie ander nuwe ondernemings begin om verligting te kry van sy verleenthede; maar ondanks alles wat hy kon doen, het dit toegeneem. Elke jaar het hy hom erger en slegter daaraan toe gevind; maar dit was deels sy eie skuld. Hy het mans in diens geneem - nie omdat hy hulle altyd nodig gehad en winsgewend kon aanstel nie, maar omdat dit in die vriendelikheid van sy hart eenvoudig 'n gewoonte geword het om almal in diens te neem wat werk wou hê. Solank hy iets het, vertrou hy enigiemand met alles wat hy wil hê - verantwoordelik of andersins, kennisse en vreemdelinge. Die grootste deel van die arbeid is gedoen deur Indiërs, veral wilde diere, behalwe 'n paar van die sendings wat Spaans gepraat het. Die wilde mense het Spaans geleer vir sover hulle iets geleer het, dit is die taal van die land, en almal moes iets daarvan leer. Die aantal mans wat by Sutter in diens is, kan van 100 tot 500 aangegee word - laasgenoemde getal tydens die oestyd. Onder hulle was smede, timmermanne, leerlooiers, wapensmede, vaqueros, boere, tuiniers, wewers (om wolkomberse te weef), jagters, saagmakers (om hout met die hand te saag, 'n gewoonte wat in Engeland bekend is), skaapwagters, vangers en , later, meulskrywers en 'n distilleerder. Kortom, Sutter het elke onderneming en onderneming moontlik begin. Hy het probeer om 'n soort militêre dissipline te handhaaf. Kanonne is gemonteer en in elke rigting gewys deur omhelsings in die mure en bastions. Die soldate was Indiërs, en elke aand nadat hulle van die werk af gekom het, is hulle geboor onder 'n wit offisier, gewoonlik 'n Duitser, wat optrek na die musiek van fife en drum. 'N Bewaker was altyd by die hek, en gewone klokke het mans na en van die werk geroep.


John Bidwell - Geskiedenis


Five Views: 'n Etniese historiese terreinopname vir Kalifornië

Mechoopda Indian Rancheria
Butte County

Die Mechoopda Indian Rancheria, wat vandag verteenwoordig word deur die Wilson Home in Sacramento Avenue 620 in Chico, Kalifornië, is een van die laaste geboue van die historiese rancheria op die plaas van generaal John Bidwell. Die huis is 'n houtraam, enkelverdieping-struktuur met 'n suidelike ingang en 'n onderdak voorstoep. Die huis kan een van die oorspronklike houtraamstrukture wees wat deur die Indiane in die 1870's op die Bidwell Ranch gebou is, of een van drie tipes huise wat deur 'n argitek in opdrag van mev. Annie Bidwell in 1910 ontwerp is. Die Wilson Home is nou 'n privaat woning en behoort aan die afstammelinge van die familie. Die omgewing wat onmiddellik rondom die perseel is, word hoofsaaklik gebruik vir verhuring aan studente wat aan die California State University, Chico, 'n entjie daarvandaan, gaan.

Voor Europese kontak dui bewyse aan dat die Indiërs 'n groot verskeidenheid voedsel en materiaal uit verskillende ekologiese gebiede het, en dat daar honderde dorpsgebiede tussen die riviere Sacramento en Feather in die Chico -gebied was. (Hill, 1978:7) Jedediah Smith, the first American trapper to record his visit, entered the region in 1828. Brigades of Hudson Bay Company trappers came shortly thereafter. In 1841, a United States Exploratory Expedition reported that the game around the Feather River had decreased substantially because of the large numbers of animals taken by Bay Company trappers. (Hill, 1978:9) Depletion of food resources seriously affected the Indians living in the region, and tension increased between them and the newly arrived Whites. By 1849, General John Bidwell had established a ranch near Chico Creek. Most of his work force was made up of Mechoopda Indians. More Mechoopdas came to the Bidwell Ranch after the death of rancher John Potter. The leader of Potter's Mechoopda ranch workers asked Bidwell to take them on to his ranch in order that they might continue working. Bidwell agreed to their request and relocated this group of Mechoopdas to the areas between Main and Orient streets and First and Fourth streets in Chico.

Tension between Indians and Whites continued to mount. In 1850, the government authorized treaties with the California Indians whereby the latter would be guaranteed reservations and some economic aid. A treaty of "peace and friendship" was signed on September 18, 1853 with the Mechoopda, Eskuin, Hololupi, Toto, Sunus, Cheno, Batsi, Yutduc, and Simsawa tribes at Bidwell's Ranch Indians at Reading's Ranch at Colusa and tribes along the Consumnes and Yuba rivers. United States Indian Agent O. M. Wozencraft represented the U.S. Government at Bidwell's Ranch. (Hill, 1978:20) In the 60 years following the treaties of 1851, the heavy influx of miners and ranchers caused massive faunal change to the land, equaled only by extinctions of the post-glacial period. Some species, such as condor, elk, antelope, and grizzly bear, disappeared entirely from the Chico region. (Hill, 1978:19)

More than 800 Maidu Indians in Butte County are said to have died from influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculosis by 1853. There are also indications that Indians died from cholera, smallpox, and typhoid. (Hill, 1978:23) In 1863, after much conflict between Indians and Whites, the U.S. government relocated the majority of the Indians in the Chico area to the Round Valley Reservation at Covelo in Mendocino County however, 300 Indians moved to the Chico Rancheria for protection. They and their descendants remained and worked there for the next 70 years.

In March 1869, the Mechoopda village was relocated to Sacramento Avenue, approximately one mile from Bidwell's residence. It remained there until 1964. Prior to relocation, rancheria houses were traditional, dome-shaped, earthen beehive structures. After the move to Sacramento Avenue, the Indians replaced their traditional homes with wooden structures although three families continued to live in earthen domes. The Indians also built a new dance house 40 feet in diameter, but they burned it down upon the death of the last Mechoopda headman. In the early 1900s, the Mechoopda Indian Rancheria census recorded several Northern California Indian tribes, including the Maidu Mechoopda, the Maidu Konkau, the Maidu Oroville, the Wintun, and the Yana residing at the Rancheria, but Maidu Mechoopda constituted the majority of the population. (Hill, 1978:84)

In 1900 when John Bidwell died, he left provisions and a plot plan in his will for the Indians living on the rancheria. The plot plan assigned 19 lots to certain resident families and individuals. Prior to John Bidwell's demise, Annie Bidwell asked Amanda Wilson, Santa Wilson's wife, to record various aspects of Mechoopda tradition. Amanda Wilson recorded information pertaining to the sweathouse and its use and to the boys' training for the dance society of which her first husband was leader. This information is now among Annie Bidwell's memoirs at the Bancroft Library. Before Annie Bidwell died, she confirmed her husband's land distribution to the Indians by issuing certificates of title for lots on the rancheria to individual Indians. The only certificate saved was that of title "No. 17," issued to Mr. and Mrs. Santa Wilson. Santa and Amanda received Lot 25 from Annie Bidwell for a consideration of $1. (Hill, 1978:83) She also deeded 14 acres of land to the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church to be held in trust for the Indians. The board could not pay the taxes on the land, however, so in 1939, on request from the mission, the Bureau of Indian Affairs paid the back taxes and began administering the land. In 1961, the BIA sold the land to California State University, Chico for $85,000. The BIA distributed the proceeds of the transaction to 45 Mechoopda Indians. In 1964, the tribe received another 12-acre tract of land adjacent to the city of Chico. Today, the Wilson Home is the only remaining evidence of the original Mechoopda Indian Rancheria, which the U.S. government terminated in 1964.


Mechoopda Indian Rancheria


John Bidwell - History

Compiled By Joan J. Bidwell
Deel 1

Baltimore, Maryland
Gateway Press
1983
pp. 1-2

On the twentieth of March 1630, a group of men and women, one hundred and forty in number, set sail from Plymouth, England, in the good ship, the "Mary and John." The company had been selected and assembled largely through the efforts of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England, with whom they spent the day before sailing, "fasting, preaching and praying." These people had come from the western counties of England, mostly from Devonshire, Dorsetshire and Somerset. They had chosen two ministers to accompany them, men who were interested in the idea of bringing the Indians to the knowledge of the gospel. The Reverend John Maverick was an elderly man from Devon, a minister of the established church. Reverend John Warham was also an ordained minister of the church of England, in Exeter, eminent as a preacher. There is some evidence that both of these men were in some difficulties with the church on account of their sympathies with the Puritans.

It had been their original intent to land in the Charles River, but a dispute with Captain Squeb, the commander of the vessel caused the whole company, on May 30, 1630, to be put ashore at Nantasket. The "Mary and John" was the first of the fleet of 1630 to arrive in the bay. At that time there could not have been pilots, or charts of the channel, and it does not seem unreasonable that the Captain refused to undertake the passage.

According to tradition they landed upon the south side of Dorchester Neck, or South Boston, in Old Harbor. Ten of the men, under the command of Captain Southcote, found a small boat, and went up the river to Charlestown Neck, where they found an old planter, who fed them "a dinner of fish without bread." Later they continued their journey up the Charles River, as far as what is now Watertown, returning several days later to the company who had found pasture for their cattle at Mattapan. 'The settlement was later called Dorchester, in honor of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England.

Many hardships followed, they had little food, and were forced to live on clams and fish. The men built small boats, and the Indians came with baskets of corn. The place was a true wilderness.

Here they lived for five or six years. Other boats arrived and other towns were settled. But the life at Dorchester was not entirely congenial to the lovers of liberty of the "Mary and John." The group of settlements around Massachusetts Bay was dominated by clergymen and officials of aristocratic tendencies. Their Governor, John Winthrop, had little sympathy with the common people. "The best part (of the people)," he declared, "is always the least, and that best part, the wiser is always the lesser." And the Reverend John Cotton put it more bluntly when he said, "Never did God ordain democracy for the government of the church or the people."

These principles were repugnant to the people of the "Mary and John," who had come to America to escape such restraint. They had no wish to interfere with the methods of worship of others, and they did not wish others to interfere with them. Too, they were land-hungry, after centuries of vassalage to the lords of the manors, leading hopeless lives without chance of independence. Perhaps they were influenced also, by the fact that a great smallpox epidemic had raged among the Indians, killing off so many that they were not the menace that they had been at first. The settlers turned their attention toward the fertile meadows of the Connecticut Valley.

In October, 1635, about 60 men, women and children set forth from Dorchester to Connecticut, their furniture, etc., was sent around by water. 'The compass was their only guide. After a tedious and difficult march through the swamp and rivers and over mountains and rough ground, they arrived safely at their destination. They had lost so much time in passing rivers, etc., that winter was upon them before they were prepared. By November 15th, the cold was so intense that the river was frozen over and the snow very deep. By December 1st, the provisions gave out and famine and death stared them in the face. Some started through the wilderness for Boston, but the greater number on December 3rd, took passage on the Rebecca, a vessel of 60 tons, but she ran aground on the bar at the mouth of the river and they were obliged to unload to get her off. After this they reached Boston in five days. Those that remained at Hartford just managed to keep from starving by the help of the Indians and eating acorns, etc. Hartford was called Suckiage by the Indians by the Dutch on the point in 1633, the Huise (or house) of Good Hope and Newtown, by the English on their arrival to form a settlement in 1636. The name was changed to Hartford by the court, February 21, 1636.

According to old family records, Richard Bidwell and son, John were passengers on the vessel, "Mary and John" coming to America in 1630 to make a new life for themselves on this new land. It is uncertain in what exact location in England this Bidwell family had resided before coming to America, but according to notes of family historian, Frederick David Bidwell 1873-1947 he states that Richard Bidwell and son John came from County Devon.

Through correspondence dated 1979, between Rev, John Scott, Vicar of Newton St. Cyres in County Devon, and Robert F. Bidwell of Urbana, Ohio, we are informed that a manor is located in Newton St. Cyres called Bidwell Barton, which according to parish historical materials, was where the Bidwell family lived in the 16th Century and was the beginning of the Bidwell family in England, and presumably where the family took it's name. Rev. Scott states the fact that the parish records contain a mass of entries relating to the Bidwell family, including the baptism of a John Bidwell, who may be the son of Richard Bidwell. However, no documented proof has been found that Richard Bidwell was the name of the father of John, Joseph, Samuel and Richard, although all evidence certainly leads one to believe this is the correct relationship.


The Map of History: John Bidwell’s California

Sorry it’s grainy and shaky in the beginning but it’s a video of an old VHS.

John Bidwell was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, founder, salesman, philanthropist, and eyewitness to much of the state’s eventful past. In the great eras of California’s history – the Mexican Period, the American conquest, the vibrant days of 󈧵, and the building of the “Golden State” – Bidwell participated actively and contributed richly.

While serving in Congress in Washington, D.C., Bidwell met Annie Ellicott Kennedy. They married in 1868 and dedicated themselves to a life based on progressive ideas and lofty ideals. The Bidwells worked for election reform, control of monopolies, women’s suffrage, temperance, and the humane treatment of Indians. The Bidwells freely gave of their time, funds and property for community improvement. The most substantial gift was the 2,200 acres of Rancho Chico now known as Bidwell Park. With historic photographs and John’s own words, this video reveals John Bidwell’s contribution to California History.

Script Writer: John Werminski
Producer/Director/Videographer/Editor: Sunny C. Bell
Narrators: Philip Carey, Maggie Gisslow, Sunny C. Bell
Original Music: REEDMUSIC
Cover Photos: DPR Files & John Werminski


In the winter of 1840, the Western Emigration Society was founded in Missouri, with 500 pledging to trek west into Mexican California. Members included Baldridge, Barnett, Bartleson, Bidwell and Nye. Organized on 18 May 1841, Talbot H. Green was elected president, John Bidwell secretary, and John Bartleson captain. The group joined Father Pierre Jean De Smet's Jesuit missionary group, led by Thomas F. Fitzpatrick, westward across South Pass along the Oregon Trail. That trail took them past Courthouse and Jail Rocks, Chimney Rock, Scotts Bluff, Fort Laramie, and Independence Rock. The Bartleson-Bidwell party separated from Fitzpatrick, and the missionary group, at Soda Springs on 11 Aug. [1] : 8–12

The western Emigration Society had resolved to follow the route suggested by Dr. John Marsh. As early as 1837, Marsh realized that owning a great rancho was problematic if he could not hold it. The corrupt and unpredictable rulings by courts in California (then part of Mexico) made this questionable. With evidence that the Russians, French and English were preparing to seize the province, he determined to make it a part of the United States. He felt that the best way to go about this was to encourage emigration by Americans to California, and in this way the history of Texas would be repeated. [2] [3]

Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, soil and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route." His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first significant immigration to California. [4] He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports. [5] [6]

Marsh's recommended route, the California Trail, was based on the prior experiences of Jedediah Smith, Peter Skene Ogden, and Joseph R. Walker. That route led southwest from Soda Springs along the Bear River and the Cache Valley. On 24 Aug., the party headed west and north around the Great Salt Lake, camping in the vicinity of the Hansel Mountains until 9 Sept., while they scouted the route to Mary's River. By 12 Sept., wagons and possessions were beginning to be abandoned. By 9 Oct., they crossed Mary's River and headed west to Lake Humboldt, Humboldt Sink, and Carson Sink. On 30 Oct., they passed through the Stanislaus River canyon into the San Joaquin Valley. On 4 Nov. 1841, the party made it to Marsh's ranch. [7] [1] : 8–15

According to Doyce Nunis, ". the Bidwell-Bartleson party had successfully made the first planned overland emigrant journey to California, bearing with courage and great fortitude the vicissitudes of their ordeal. These hardy pioneers were the harbingers of many thousands to come." [1] : 15


A year celebrating Chico founder John Bidwell

CHICO — It may be hard to celebrate the life of a man who’s been dead for more than a century, but there’s a long list of activities over the next few months in association with the 200th anniversary of John Bidwell’s birthday in August.

Organizers hope not only to celebrate Chico’s founder but to help the community understand his role in the country, state and north state in the 1800s.

“Bidwell had extensive history beyond Chico. He was a part of early California, part of the first wagon train here. He found gold in the Feather River,” said Adrienne Glatz, president of the Bidwell Mansion Association, which is behind the celebration, and partnering with other groups.

Beyond being the founder of Chico, he also was a farmer and rancher who liked to be innovative with plants.

According to text on the Bidwell Mansion website, Bidwell “… developed a diverse array of agricultural operations that served as an example for farms across the state. These included extensive wheat fields, a famous flour mill, and thousands of fruit trees. He pioneered a number of crops that have since become important California staples such as raisins, almonds, and walnuts, as well as experimenting with more exotic foods such as Egyptian corn and Casaba melons. At one time he could claim to be growing over 400 different varieties of crops on Rancho Chico.”

The mansion association has come up with a year of discovering Bidwell, from a melon-growing contest featuring the casabas he developed to local historians and authors talking about the ups and downs of his life.

Slice of Chico

The next event will be Saturday, July 13, with the downtown Chico celebration of Slice of Chico, and that night’s Twilight Family Night.

The Downtown Chico Business Association’s annual Slice of Chico focuses on a daytime retail celebration of downtown stores and businesses, but is remembered for its free watermelon slices. Packets of Bidwell’s casaba melon seeds from Chico’s Sustainable Seed Co., will be given away.

The Bidwell Mansion Association will have a booth in downtown that day, with more details about the year-long celebration.

Melon

There was hope that samples of his melon could be served during Slice of Chico, but the weird weather hasn’t helped the plants that are being grown.

“Apparently, the casaba melon was Bidwell’s favorite fruit,” Glatz said. “He served it as dessert to his guests.”

The football-shaped melon grows to be huge, perhaps up to 15 pounds, which is larger than a regular casaba melon. Bidwell grew them in the late 1860s, and seeds of Bidwell’s Casaba Melon are still available through commercial outlets like Sustainable Seed Co. in Chico. The latter, which is online but has a retail site on East 20th Street, is sold out at the moment.

Apparently the seeds were distributed earlier this year to various circles to see who could grow the largest melon. Fingers are crossed that some may develop in time for the Aug. 4 birthday event.

Bidwell’s journey

Also on July 13, at 7 p.m. will be Twilight Family Night at Bidwell Mansion, 525 The Esplanade. Sitting around a campfire, mansion volunteers will be sharing information about Bidwell’s influence and journeys.

Born in New York, Bidwell was on the first overland emigrant wagon train to California, and was the first settler to discover gold in the Feather River. His travels ranged throughout the West and California.

Calendar

The celebration of Bidwell actually started with the Pioneer Day Parade in May, when John and Annie Bidwell were among the community parade’s grand marshals. Nick Anderson portrayed Bidwell, and Robyn Engel was Mrs. Bidwell.

It continued on Memorial Day at Chico Cemetery, when Bidwell Mansion’s Glatz talked about Bidwell’s military service, sharing information that local historian and mansion volunteer Nancy Leek had gathered.

Bidwell participated in the Mexican-American War through the Bear Flag Revolt, as well as the American Civil War. He also held a number of political seats, including the US House of Representatives and California Senate, and ran for both governor of California and U.S president.

The most recent event in Bidwell’s celebration was on June 22, with Annie’s Tea, celebrating Annie Bidwell’s 180th birthday. Bidwell married Annie Ellicott Kennedy in 1868. She died in 1918, and the couple is buried in Chico Cemetery.

Getting to know Bidwell

After reading Leek’s information on John Bidwell, even Glatz said, “There were things I didn’t know about John. There is a lot the community doesn’t know as well.”

What little is learned in school or from history readings about Bidwell are just the basics, she said.

His life “was so much deeper than what we see at the initial level. He was an amazing person,” Glatz said.

Bidwell was born Aug. 5, 1819, in Chautauqua County, New York and died April 4, 1900 in Chico.

Aug. 4 will be when the association celebrates his 200th birthday from 4 to 6 p.m. at the mansion with music, games, cake and ice cream.

Other events throughout the year include:

  • Sept. 8 Admission Day celebration at the mansion
  • Sept 7-9 Annie’s Star Quilt Guild exhibit at Bidwell Mansion
  • Nov. 2 Farm City at Bidwell Mansion honors Bidwell’s agricultural legacy
  • Nov. 2 Local historians and authors roundtable discussion on John Bidwell at the Chico Museum.
  • Dec. 6 Christmas with the Bidwells, 6-8 p.m. Bidwell Mansion

Besides being founder of Chico in 1860, Bidwell also:

— Was the secretary of the first overland emigrant wagon train to set out for California

— Was the first settler to discover gold in the Feather River at Bidwell’s Bar

— Acquired Rancho del Arroyo Chico, a 22,000-acre Mexican land grant in 1849

— Donated land for Chico’s City Plaza, churches and local schools including the Chico Normal School for teaching teachers, which became the foundation for Chico State University.

— Served in the California Battalion during the Mexican-American War, where he attained the rank of major. He was also a brigadier general in the California Militia during the American Civil War, raising troops and supporting the Union side.

— Was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1864, where he voted for the Civil Right Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed.

— Served in the first California State Senate, and ran twice for California’s governor

— In 1892 became the Prohibition Party candidate for U.S. president

Bidwell Mansion

Bidwell Mansion is a state historic park that was the couple’s home from 1868 until 1900. Mrs. Bidwell continued to live there until her death in 1918.


Bartleson-Bidwell Party

John Bidwell (1819-1900) was a pioneer, agriculturist, and politician from California.

The first emigrants to cross Utah with wagons came in 1841, six years before the Mormon pioneers, this party numbered thirty-two men and one woman, who carried a baby daughter in one arm and led a horse with the other. Nancy Kelsey, barely eighteen years old and the first white woman ever to see Great Salt Lake, was later remembered for her “heroism, patience and kindness.”

Named in part after its captain, John Bartleson, the party had numbered more than sixty when it assembled in May 1841 at Sapling Grove, near Westport, Missouri, for the journey to John Marsh’s California ranch at the foot of Mount Diablo in present-day Contra Costa County. Its most active organizer was twenty-one-year-old John Bidwell, who kept a daily diary of the journey.

Moving west, the emigrants traveled over the emerging Oregon Trail with Father De Smet and a Jesuit party guided by the renowned mountain man, Thomas “Broken Hand” Fitzpatrick. At Soda Springs, in present Caribou County, Idaho, about half of the original party decided to play it safe and continue on to Oregon.

The more resolute members, holding to their original destination, headed nine wagons south down Bear River “with no guide, no compass, nothing but the sun to direct them” toward the present border of Utah. Their track never became a trail and has long since disappeared, but as traced by historian Roy Tea using the Bidwell and Johns journals, the emigrants crossed the 42nd parallel into Utah on 16 August and camped near present-day Clarkston.

Intending to rest in Cache Valley while several men sought directions at Fort Hall, the party mistakenly crossed the low range just north of the Gates of the Bear to arrive in the Great Salt Lake Valley near present Fielding. After fording the Malad River opposite Plymouth, they continued south through the future towns of Garland and Tremonton until, desperate for water, they headed east to strike the Bear River, just south of Corinne.

The party then headed northwest, intersecting its own trail, to skirt the north end of the Great Salt Lake, find the Mary’s River (now the Humboldt), which, it was then believed, flowed from the lake to the Sacramento River, and follow it to California. They crossed Promontory Mountain on the route of the later transcontinental railroad and passed just north of Kelton to rest at Ten Mile Spring near the base of the Raft River Mountains.

Crossing Park Valley to the south of the present town, they came on 11 September to Owl Spring, just north of Lucin, where Kentuckian Benjamin Kelsey abandoned his wagons and put his wife and baby on horseback. Two days later, the emigrants were the first of many to arrive at Pilot Peak on the Utah-Nevada border and find relief at the freshwater springs at its base.

On the line of modern Interstate 80, the party crossed Silver Zone Pass and abandoned its remaining wagons at Relief Springs in Gosiute Valley, east of Wells, where the wagons were found in 1846 by Hastings Cutoff emigrants. The rest of the journey was a race with starvation which all barely won on November 4 when they arrived, destitute and almost naked, at Marsh’s Los Medanos Rancho. Some members of the Bartleson-Bidwell company later gained renown, including Bidwell and noted trails captain Joseph B. Chiles. Known for her courage and optimism, Nancy Kelsey, the first white woman ever to see Utah, died in California at age seventy-three.

See: Charles Hopper, “Narrative of Charles Hopper, A California Pioneer of 1841,” Utah Historical Quarterly 3 (1930) Charles Kelly, Salt Desert Trails (1930) Roderick J. Korns, “West from Fort Bridger,” Utah Historical Quarterly 19 (1951) David E. Miller, First Wagon Train to Cross Utah, 1841,” Utah Historical Quarterly 30 (1962) Dale L. Morgan, The Great Salt Lake (1947).


Bidwell Lore – From England to the Colonies in 1630

Welcome to the second week of Bidwell Lore! Last week we introduced you to Adonijah Bidwell, the man responsible for building the Bidwell House. In this post, we are going to go back in time, even before Adonijah was born, to look at the history of the Bidwell Family name and how the Bidwells ended up traveling to 17th century New England.

The Bidwell Name
According to Edwin M. Bidwell, in his 1884 tome Genealogy of the First Seven Generations of The Bidwell Family in America, the last name Bidwell derives from the Saxon name Biddulph, meaning ‘War Wolf’. He believed that the name originated in Norfolk on the eastern coast of England and the meaning certainly evokes strong images of the Reverend’s distant ancestors. Even today, there is a town of Biddulph, outside of Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire England.

1634 Map of Boston Harbor

Arrival of the Bidwell Family in America

Bidwell House Museum Board Member and Bidwell descendant Rick Wilcox has put together this look at the journey of the Bidwell Family to America in 1630. It has been slightly edited for space. Thank you Rick!

On March 20, 1630, 140 men and women, including Richard Bidwell (1587-1647) and his son John Bidwell (1620-1687), set sail from Plymouth, England, in the good ship, the “Mary and John.” The company had been selected and assembled largely through the efforts of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England, with whom they spent the day before sailing, ‘fasting, preaching, and praying.’ These people had come from the western counties of England, mostly from Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and Somerset. They had chosen two ministers to accompany them, men who were interested in the idea of bringing the Indian to the knowledge of the Gospel. The Reverend John Maverick was an elderly man from Devon, a minister of the established church. Reverend John Warham was also an ordained minister of the Church of England, in Exeter, eminent as a preacher. There is some evidence that both of these men were in difficulties with the church on account of their sympathies with the Puritans.

It had been the original intent to land in the Charles River, but a dispute with Captain Squeb, the commander of the vessel caused the whole company, on May 30, 1630, to be put ashore at Nantasket. The ‘Mary and John’ was the first of the fleet of 1630 to arrive in the bay. At that time there were no pilots or charts of the channel, and it does not seem unreasonable that the captain refused to undertake the passage. According to tradition they landed upon the south side of Dorchester Neck, or South Boston, in Old Harbor. The settlement was later called Dorchester, in honor of the Reverend John White, of Dorchester, England.

Many hardships followed they had little food and were forced to live on clams and fish. The men built small boats, and the Indians came with baskets of corn. The place was a true wilderness. Here they lived for five or six years. Other boats arrived and other towns were settled. But life at Dorchester was not entirely congenial to the lovers of liberty of the ‘Mary and John.’ The group of settlements around Massachusetts Bay was dominated by clergy and officials of aristocratic tendencies. Their Governor, John Winthrop, had little sympathy with the common people. ‘The best part (of the people),’ he declared, ‘is always the least, and the best part, the wiser is always the lesser.’ And the Reverend John Cotton put it more bluntly when he said, ‘Never did God ordain democracy for the government of the church or the people.’

These principles were repugnant to the people of the ‘Mary and John,’ who had come to America to escape such restraint. They had no wish to interfere with the methods of worship of others, and they did not wish others to interfere with them. Too, they were land-hungry, after centuries of vassalage to the lords of the manors, leading hopeless lives without chance of independence. The settlers turned their attention toward the fertile meadows of the Connecticut Valley.

In October 1635, about 60 men, women, and children, led by the Reverend Jon Hooker, set forth from Dorchester to Connecticut. The compass was their only guide. After a tedious and difficult march through swamp and rivers and over mountains and rough ground, they arrived safely at their destination. They had lost so much time in passing rivers, etc., that winter was upon them before they were prepared. By November 15 th , the cold was so intense that the river was frozen over and the snow was very deep. By December 1 st , the provisions gave out and famine and death stared them in the face. Some started back to Boston through the wilderness, others took passage on the Rebecca, a vessel of sixty tons. Those that remained at Hartford just managed to keep from starving by the help of the Indians and eating acorns, etc. Hartford was originally called Suckiage by the Pequot, reportedly meaning Black Earth by the Dutch on the point in 1633, the Huise (or house) of Good Hope and Newtown by the English on their arrival to form a settlement in 1636. The name was changed to Hartford by the court, February 21, 1636. As you may remember from last week, Adonijah Bidwell was born in Hartford in 1716.

According to old family records, Richard Bidwell and son, John, came to America in 1630 to make a new life for themselves on this new land. It is uncertain in what exact location in England this Bidwell family had resided before coming to America, but according to notes of family historian, Frederick David Bidwell (1873-1947), he states that Richard Bidwell and son John came from County Devon.

Through correspondence dated 1979 between Rev. John Scott, Vicar of Newton St. Cyres in County Devon and Robert F. Bidwell of Urbana, Ohio, we are informed that a manor is located in Newton St. Cyres called Bidwell Barton, which, according to parish historical materials, was where the Bidwell family lived in the 16 th century and was the beginning of the Bidwell family in England, and presumably where the family took its name.

Bidwell Lineage – Richard Bidwell to Reverend Adonijah Bidwell

RICHARD BIDWELL b 1587 d. Dec. 1647 He was an early settler at Windsor, Connecticut, and is called Goodman Bidwell in some records. The identity of his wife is unknown.
Kinders:
2. John Bidwell b. 1620 d. 1687
3. Hannah Bidwell b. 22 Oct. 1634 d. 7 Oct 1679
4. Joseph Bidwell d. 1672
5. Samuel Bidwell
6. Richard Bidwell

2. John Bidwell b. 1620 d. 1687 Hartford, Connecticut
m. 1640 Sarah Wilcox at Hartford, Connecticut, b. 1623 d. 15 June 1690, Hartford, Connecticut, dau. of John and Mary Wilcox. Sarah’s parents were born in England.
Kinders
7. John Bidwell b. 1641 d. 3 July 1692
8. Joseph Bidwell b.. 1643 d. 1692
9. Mary Bidwell b. 1647 d. 15 May 1725
10 Samuel Bidwell b. 1650 d. 5 Apr. 1715
11. Sarah Bidwell b. 1653
12. Hannah Bidwell b. 1655/1658 d. 17 June 1696
13 Daniel Bidwell b. 1655/1656 d. 29 Nov. 1719

7. John Bidwell b. 1641 d. 3 July 1692 m 7 Nov. 1678 Sarah Welles in Hartford b. Apr 1659. Sarah was b. in Wethersfield, Conn, granddaughter of Gov. Thomas Welles. Sarah d. 1708
19. John Bidwell b. 1 Sept 1679 d. 3 Sept 1751
20. Hannah Bidwell b. 31 Aug 1680 d. 1707
21. Sarah Bidwell b. 19 Aug 1681 d. 3 Dec. 1744
22. Thomas Bidwell b. 27 Dec. 1682 d. 17 Sept. 1716
23. Jonathan Bidwell b. 5 March 1684 d. 24 Nov. 1612
24. Abigail Bidwell baptized 4 Apr. 1686 died young
25. David Bidwell b. 25 Feb. 1687 d. 24 June 1758
26. James Bidwell b. 1691 d. 7 May 1718

22. Thomas Bidwell b. 27 Dec. 1682 Hartford, Connecticut d. 17 Sept. 1716 at sea, m. 28 March 1710 Prudence Scott b. 1683 New Haven, Connecticut, d. 14 Feb. 1763 Wintonbury, Connecticut
105. A child b. 29 May 1710 d. 29 May 1710
106. Thomas Bidwell b. 16 May 1711 d. 1746
107. Abigail Bidwell b. 18 Aug. 1713
108 Jonathan Bidwell b. 12 Jan. 1715 d. 11 June 1787
109. Adonijah Bidwell b. 18 Oct. 1716 d. 2 June 1784

Bidwell Family History 1587-1982, Volume I numbering system, also the source of the Bidwell Family History.


John Bidwell

photo courtesy of Friends of Bidwell Park, licensed under Creative Commons ShareAlike 2.5 License Grave site at Chico Cemetery General

John Bidwell (August 5, 1819 – April 4, 1900) was a son of Abraham Bidwell and Clarissa Griggs. John Bidwell first arrived in California with the Bartleson-Bidwell party in November of 1841 and were one of the first set of families to cross the continent. 1 He made his fortunes during the California Gold Rush, striking it rich at what is known as Bidwell's Bar at the Middle Fork Feather River. It is now entirely under Lake Oroville. He used this wealth to purchase land, including much of Chico. He married Annie Ellicott Kennedy Bidwell in Washington D.C. April 16, 1868. Some of the people present at their wedding included President Andrew Johnson and Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Tecumseh Sherman. 2. He was an integral part of the history of Chico.

John Bidwell's memorial address Bidwell Memorial Address.pdf was written and read by W. J. Costar on April 29, 1900.

This entry is a seed, a starting point for writing a full entry. You can help LocalWiki Chico by expanding it! Just click the "Edit" button.

John Bidwell - Biography

Bidwell was born in Chautauqua County, New York. The Bidwell family moved to Erie, Pennsylvania in 1829, and then to Ashtabula County, Ohio in 1831. At age 17, he attended and shortly thereafter became Principal of Kingsville Academy.

In 1841 Bidwell became one of the first emigrants on the California Trail. John Sutter employed Bidwell as his business manager shortly after Bidwell's arrival in California. Shortly after the James W. Marshall's discovery at Sutter's Mill, Bidwell also discovered gold on the Feather River establishing a productive claim at Bidwell Bar in advance of the California Gold Rush. Bidwell obtained the four square league Rancho Los Ulpinos Mexican land grant in 1844, and the two square league Rancho Colus grant on the Sacramento River in 1845 later selling that grant and buying Rancho Arroyo Chico on Chico Creek to establish a ranch and farm.

Bidwell obtained the rank of major while fighting in the Mexican-American War. He served in the California Senate in 1849, supervised the census of California in 1850 and again in 1860. He was a delegate to the 1860 national convention of the Democratic Party. He was appointed brigadier general of the California Militia in 1863. He was a delegate to the national convention of the Republican Party in 1864 and was a Republican member of Congress from 1865 to 1867.

In 1865, General Bidwell backed a petition from settlers at Red Bluff, California to protect Red Bluff's trail to the Owhyhee Mines of Idaho. The U.S. Army commissioned 7 forts for this purpose, and selected a site near Fandango Pass at the base of the Warner Mountains in the north end of Surprise Valley, and on June 10, 1865 ordered Fort Bidwell to be built there. The fort was built amid escalating fighting with the Snake Indians of eastern Oregon and southern Idaho. It was a base for operations in the Snake War that lasted until 1868 and the later Modoc War. Although traffic dwindled on the Red Bluff route once the Central Pacific Railroad extended into Nevada in 1868, the Army staffed Fort Bidwell to quell various uprisings and disturbances until 1890. A Paiute reservation and small community maintain the name Fort Bidwell.

His wife, Annie Kennedy Bidwell, was the daughter of Joseph C. G. Kennedy, a socially prominent, high ranking Washington official in the United States Bureau of the Census who was active in the Whig party. She was deeply religious, and committed to a number of moral and social causes. Annie was very active in the suffrage and prohibition movements.

The Bidwells were married April 16, 1868 in Washington, D.C. with then President Andrew Johnson and future President Ulysses S. Grant among the guests. Upon arrival in Chico, the Bidwells used their mansion extensively for entertainment of friends. Some of the guests who visited Bidwell Mansion were President Rutherford B. Hayes, General William T. Sherman, Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Governor Leland Stanford, John Muir, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray.

In 1875 Bidwell ran for Governor of California on the Anti-Monopoly Party ticket. As a strong advocate of the temperance movement, he presided over the Prohibition Party state convention in 1888 and was the Prohibition candidate for governor in 1880.

In 1892, Bidwell was the Prohibition Party candidate for President of the United States. The Bidwell/Cranfill ticket received 271,058 votes, or 2.3% nationwide. It was the largest total vote and highest percentage of the vote received by any Prohibition Party national ticket.

John Bidwell's autobiography, Echoes of the Past, was published in 1900.

Read more about this topic: John Bidwell

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John Bidwell and California

"Defying all odds, Gillis and Magliari have established that academics can indeed write history in a readable way. They put together a wonderfully intelligent--sometimes downright thrilling--narrative at the beginning of each section. Then they amplify it all with Bidwell's own writings. the initial printing of this book sold out within weeks of its arrival. A second printing is now selling briskly."

Gregory Franzwa
Former president of the Oregon-California Trails Association
Review in the May 2003 issue of   Folio

"Gillis and Magliari. invested eight years of intensive and extensive research to present a more balanced view of John Bidwell, his accomplishments, and his failures. The result is clearly the definitive account of a complex man. This is not a revisionist account, but a thorough analysis and presentation of the historical record. Controversial issues. are explored and presented in an even-handed manner. Interesting facts abound throughout. The sixteen-page bibliography, a boon to future researchers and historians, stands as a testament to the research that has gone into this book. _John Bidwell and California_ is highly-informative and a great pleasure to read it is well-written, with no wasted words and without the verbosity found in some scholarly works. A few words (such as hagiography and kulturkampf) may give pause or have the reader reaching for the dictionary, but they are a rarity. Enjoy!"

Andrew Hammond
Review in Spring 2003 issue of   Overland Journal

College of Humanities & Fine Arts (HFA)

We acknowledge and are mindful that Chico State stands on lands that were originally occupied by the first people of this area, the Mechoopda, and we recognize their distinctive spiritual relationship with this land and the waters that run through campus. We are humbled that our campus resides upon sacred lands that once sustained the Mechoopda people for centuries.


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