Die oordeel van Paris Mosaic

Die oordeel van Paris Mosaic


Die uitspraak van die wynproe -kompetisie in Parys wat Franse wyn onttroon het

Die oordeel van Parys se wynproe het die verloop van die geskiedenis verander.

Dit was 'n blinde wynproekompetisie wat in 1976 gehou is en die wynwêreld heeltemal geskud het. Maar nie net op 'n manier wat fyn wynkenners sou verstaan ​​of omgee nie.

Dit was 'n stil - en toevallige - rewolusie wat die wynbedryf raas en die deur oopmaak vir klein wynkelders oral om 'n kollig op die globale verhoog te kry.

Die beoordelaars se tafel by die oordeel van Parys


Die oordeel van Parys

Paris, die seun van Priam, koning van Troy, is gevra om te besluit watter
van die drie godinne, Hera, Athena of Aphrodite, was die mooiste.
Aphrodite het vir Parys gesê dat as hy haar sou kies, sy hom die
mooiste vrou in die wêreld. Hy het Aphrodite gekies en sy het hom voorsien
met Helen, wat reeds getroud was met Menelaus, koning van Sparta. Die pa
van Helen het die jongmanne belowe om Menelaus te verdedig as iemand sou
steel sy bruid. Die gevolg was die Trojaanse oorlog, 'n Helen het die gesig geword
wat duisend skepe gelanseer het.

Die mite blyk glad nie 'n skoonheidskompetisie te wees nie. Wat Parys oordeel
is nie die stralende skoonheid van die godinne, naak of geklee nie, maar eerder die
kwaliteit van hul geskenke. Hera sou eer gegee het, Athena sou
wysheid verskaf, maar Parys het liefde gekies. Dit is belangrik dat hy nie gekies het nie
die liefde van die vrou wat reeds verlief was op hom, Oenone. Oenone,
'n nimf en 'n godin was, kon hom alles gegee het wat hy op die berg wou hê
Ida. Maar Parys het die verbode liefde van die mooiste vrou in die
wêreld wat agtervolg is deur die mees dapper en kragtige jong mans in die
wêreld en was reeds getroud. Oenone wou hê Paris moes Athena en haar kies
geskenke, maar Parys het die passievolle keuse van liefde gemaak. Later kon Oenone gee
Paris die gawe van die lewe, maar Oenone het Paris te ondankbaar gevind en hom laat sterf.
Die oordeel van Parys handel oor gawes en die waarde daarvan, en keuses en hulle
waarde, nie oor skoonheid nie.

In die Trojaanse vroue deur Euripides verduidelik Helen: (reël 919)

Euripides The Trojen Women, lyn 925, “ Daar kom 'n dag en hierdie Parys beoordeel onder die bome drie krone van die lewe, drie uiteenlopende godinne. Die geskenk van Pallas (Athena) was van oorlog, om sy Ooste te lei in die verowering van gevegte en om die vuurherde van Hellas te laat bloei. Hera het 'n troon gehou as majesteit wat hy begeer het om alleen te heers van Frygië tot by die laaste koninkryk van die Weste. En Cypris, as hy haar die mooiste beskou het, buite die hemel, het drome gemaak oor (Helen ’s) se gesig.

Die mite van die oordeel van Parys weerspieël die belangrikheid van die drie
Godinne Hera, Athena en Aphrodite ten tye van die Trojaanse oorlog. Let op
hoe lyk die drie godinne in die volgende prentjie?
om geskenke aan 'n god te gee eerder as om geoordeel te word:

Oordeel van Parys.
Nog 'n voorbeeld: Hermes lei godinne
'N Ander: Anonieme oordeel van Parys
Dit dui op 'n vroeëre rol van geskenkdraers vir
hierdie godinne. Homerus neem hierdie idee op, maar hy voeg Artemis by die
ander drie in die volgende gedeelte uit Boek XX van die Odyssey: ”

Teen die tyd van Homerus het Artemis 'n status bereik wat gelyk is aan die ander
belangrike godinne. Homerus bespreek nie eens die oordeel van Parys nie. In
Boek III van die Ilias Hector sê die volgende oor Parys: “When I look
by jou vandag, kan jy wees die man, vra ek, wat vir u 'n span gekies het
van vriende, oorsee geseil in u baie gereisde skepe, saam met hulle gehuil
vreemdelinge en het 'n pragtige vrou uit 'n ver land en oorlogsvoos weggevoer
familie, en#8230. U sal binnekort uitvind watter soort vegter sy liefste is
vrou wat jy gesteel het. Jou lier sal jou glad nie help nie, en ook nie geskenke van Aphrodite nie,
daardie lokke van jou en jou mooi voorkoms, …. ” Daar moet seker ander wees,
vorige verhaal oor Parys, wat behels dat hy Helen gesteel het as gevolg van
geskenke wat hy van Aphrodite ontvang het. Hy het ook geskenke van Hera en
Athena, maar hy moes daardie geskenke verwerp het sodat hulle vir hom kwaad was. Jane
Ellen Harrison stel voor dat Hera Royalty of Grandeur, Athena, saamgebring het
het Prowess gebring, en Aphrodite het liefde gebring. Let op
hoe die beelde van die oordeel van Parys verander van drie godinne wat dra
geskenke aan drie godinne wat beoordeel word.

In die Ilias, boek XXIV, sê Homeros: 'Dit was alles hiervan
bewaar net Hera, Poseidon, en Zeus se grysogdogter, wat
volhard in die haat wat hulle ooit teenoor Ilius gedra het
met Priam en sy mense, want hulle het vergewe dat die verkeerde dinge nie gedoen is nie
hulle deur Parys in die minagting van die godinne wat na hom toe gekom het
toe hy in sy skaaptuine was, en verkieslik die wat aangebied het
hom 'n versugting aan sy ondergang. ”

Meer besonderhede van hierdie verhaal kan gevind word in die Cypria, 'n epos soos die Illiad wat uit die oog verloor is. Daar bestaan ​​ongeveer 50 reëls wat deur ander aangehaal is, maar daar is baie opsommings en verwysings daarna.

Die hedendaagse siening van die oordeel oor Parys as 'n skoonheidskompetisie blyk nie uit argaïese verwysings gebore te wees nie. Maar dit is in elk geval 'n wedstryd van keuse. Die verband met vrugbaarheidsfeeste waar die beste jong man by die beste jong vrou gekoppel is, moet opgemerk word. Verskillende keusemetodes is genoem. Voetspore is algemeen. Die Herarae was van hierdie soort. Maar dit lyk asof daar ook skoonheidskompetisies gehou is. Die kinders wat na die Minotaur gestuur is, is in 'n loting en 'n ander deur Minos. Dit kan dieselfde tipe oordeel wees. As Theseus eerste gekies is, was skoonheid moontlik 'n maatstaf.

Daar word verwys na die oordeel van Parys in die drama Andromache deur Euripides, reël 283:

Die name Paris en Alexander word uitruilbaar gebruik. In The Trojan Woman by Euripides, reël 997, word die name geïdentifiseer en gedefinieer:

Die eerste stem ooreen met 'n Indo-Europese afleiding van die naam Alexander, terwyl die tweede nie. Dit lyk asof die naam nie verband hou met die konteks van die verhaal van die oordeel nie.

Die plek van Hermes in die uitspraak kan veelvoudig wees. Eerstens dien Hermes as 'n aankondiger wat die godin voorafgegaan het en dit aan Parys aangekondig het. Hy het ook as hul gids gedien. Volgens WKC Guthrie in The Greeks and Their Gods, p. 88, “Hermes is 'n ou god van die platteland wat vernoem is na die ἕρμα, ook genoem ἑρμαῐον, wat 'n steenbak of kliphoop was, en Hermes merk nie net grense nie, maar ook lei die pad vir die reisiger. Toe hy meer antropomorf was, het hy 'n fallus gekry om vrugbaarheid te bevorder. Dit gaan moontlik oor die keuses wat u maak wat vrugbaarheid bevorder. Parys kies vir Aphrodite, 'n duidelike keuse vir vrugbaarheid, terwyl Athena in werklikheid 'n beter keuse sou gewees het.

As 'n laaste opmerking, Euripides, in sy drama noem The Trojan Women die hele verhaal 'n leuen. Ten minste bied hy goeie argumente aan waarom hierdie verhaal nie waar moet wees nie. Hy plaas hierdie argumente in die mond van Hecuba wat staar na reël 969,

Prente:

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Vrae en antwoorde

Vraag: watter dosis beteken dit?

Antwoord: Die latere klassieke skrywers het die oordeel van Parys as 'n
skoonheidskompetisie wat veroorsaak word deur die nietigheid van drie vrouegodinne. Dit was 'n
lewer kommentaar op die nietigheid van vroue. Vroeëre skrywers was meer bekommerd oor
die lewenskeuses wat elke mens moet maak tussen liefde, krag en wysheid.
Robert Graves was van mening dat Parys die vroegste interpretasie behels
gekry van die godinne, moontlik die alfabet.

Vraag: Het Peter Paul Rubens die opdrag gekry om The Judgment of Paris te skilder?

Antwoord: Dit is in opdrag vir die Spaanse hof en hang nou in
die Museo de Prado, Madrid. Hierdie foto is 'n olie op doek
voltooi 1638-9. Venus in die middel is 'n gelykenis van die kunstenaar se vrou.
Let op dat die godinne hul naakte skoonheid vertoon, net soos die
geval met die latere kunstenaars. Die kunstenaars van antieke Griekeland was meer geneig
om die gawes wat hulle sou gee, te beklemtoon. Dit was immers
Aphrodite se geskenk wat Parys beïnvloed het, nie haar voorkoms nie.

Antwoord: Helen was die mooiste vrou ter wêreld.

Vraag: wie het Paris oordeel?

Antwoord: Die oordeel van Parys word in kuns dikwels as 'n skoonheid uitgebeeld
wedstryd wat die kunstenaar die wonderlike geleentheid gebied het om drie te skilder
pragtige naakte vroue. Die uitgebeelde vroue was die godinne Aphrodite,
Athena en Hera. Maar eintlik was dit nie die godinne wat geoordeel is nie,
maar eerder hul geskenke. Athena sou wysheid gegee het. Hera sou
eer gegee. Die drie godinne is so mooi dat geen mens dit kon nie
het hulle beoordeel. Artemis sou gesondheid gegee het, maar die rede hiervoor
sy is weggelaat uit hierdie oordeel is 'n lang verhaal. Sy is so mooi
as die ander godinne en eindig met Aphrodite as die implikasies van
hierdie oordeel word uitgespreek.

Vraag: Wie is weggelaat van die troue?

Antwoord: Eris, die godin van onenigheid. Eris is die godin van twis en die
suster van Ares. Dit is sy
wat die goue appel gegooi het met die woorde ‘for the fairest ’ wat dit veroorsaak het
die drie godinne Athena, Aphrodite en Hera om die appel te bekamp.
Paris het die beoordeling gedoen en Aphrodite het hom saam met Helen omgekoop. Hy het weggehardloop met
Helen en dit het die Trojaanse Oorlog begin.

Van Eris sê Hesiodos “ Op 'n vyfde dag, sê hulle, het die Erinyes gehelp by
die geboorte van Horcus (eed) wat Eris (Strife) gebaar het om die versweerde te benadeel. ”

Vraag: Waarom plaas u vals stellings hier?

Antwoord: Ek weet van geen vals stellings nie. Baie van die stellings is
noukeurig ondersoek. As u een van die stellings bevraagteken, dui dit dan aan
uit. Ek sal dit graag weer oorweeg, veral omdat dit 'n tikfout kan wees. As
verdere navorsing bewys dat 'n stelling verkeerd is, dan verander ek dit.

Vraag: wat was die berg

Antwoord: Mount Ida in die omgewing van Troy. “ …wanneer 'n tweede [p. 47]
baba was op die punt om gebore te word. Hecuba het gedroom sy het 'n vuurmerk laat ontstaan,
en dat die vuur oor die hele stad versprei en dit verbrand het.4 Toe Priam
toe hy van Hecuba van die droom verneem het, stuur hy sy seun Aesacus, want hy was 'n
tolk van drome, nadat hy geleer is deur sy moeder Merops se pa. Hy
verklaar dat die kind die ruïne van sy land is, en het advies gegee
dat die baba blootgestel moet word. Toe die baba gebore is, het Priam dit vir a
dienskneg om vir Ida te neem en bloot te stel, nou is die dienaar Agelaus genoem. Blootgestel
deur hom is die baba vyf dae lank deur 'n beer verpleeg, en toe hy dit kry
veilig, neem hy dit op, dra dit weg, bring dit op as sy eie seun op syne
plaas, en noem hom Parys. Toe hy 'n jong man geword het, het Parys baie uitgeblink
in skoonheid en krag, en is daarna die bynaam Alexander, omdat hy
rowers afgeweer en die kuddes verdedig.5 En nie lank daarna nie
het sy ouers ontdek. ” (Apollodorus, 3.12.5

Vraag: kan ek die stad “PARIS ” in verband bring met The Judgment of Paris

Antwoord: Ek dink nie so nie. Die stad is vernoem na 'n woord vir moeras.

Vraag: uit watter eeu het die oordeel van Parys ontstaan?

Antwoord: Die Grieke beskou die oordeel van Parys as 'n historiese feit.
Dit het ongeveer 1194 vC plaasgevind.

Vraag: Hoe hou die mite verband met skildery?

Antwoord: Kunstenaars het gevind dat die mite 'n gewilde onderwerp vir skildery is. Dit
leen hom tot pastorale landskappe met pragtige godinne wat aantreklik gestel is.

Vraag: Kan u my al die broers en susters van Hera gee?

Antwoord: Die kinders van Cronus en Rhea is Hestia, Pluto, Poseidon, Zeus,
Hera en Demeter.

Vraag: Weet iemand waar hulle foto's oor die vonnis kan kry
van Parys? Ek benodig 'n paar nie-naaktheid foto's vir my mitologie klas .. dankie

Antwoord: Gedurende die klassieke tydperk het die oordeel ontaard in 'n skoonheid
'n wedstryd wat kunstenaars die geleentheid bied om naakte godinne te skilder
lyk pragtig. Maar die gretiger interpretasie was 'n oordeel van die
geskenke wat die godinne kan bring. 'N Vorige beeld volg:
Klik hier

Vraag: In watter tydperk is dit geskryf?

Antwoord: Die oordeel van Parys het omstreeks 1200 vC plaasgevind, en dit was so
sedertdien oor geskryf.

Vraag: Wat is die uitbeelding van Athena in The Judgement of Paris?

Antwoord: Oorspronklik was die oordeel van Parys waarskynlik 'n oordeel van die
waarde van die geskenke van die godinne. In die Odyssee die storie
oor die dogters van Pandereus dui daarop dat die geskenke van Athenas vaardig was
alles beroemde handewerk, terwyl Hera skoonheid en wysheid gee. Maar later as
Athena het die ryk van wysheid oorgeneem, sy het wysheid en kuns gegee, terwyl
Hera gee waardigheid en Aphrodite gee skoonheid.

Vraag: Was die weergawe van Athena in The Judgement of Paris akkuraat?

Die Grieke was nie so bekommerd oor die akkuraatheid van hul mites nie
geen definitiewe behandeling van die uitspraak van Parys nie. Athena se uitbeelding
Dit wissel van bron tot bron, so dit is nie so akkuraat nie.

Vraag: Artemis was lieflik, mooi, lank en mooi
van gestalte. Maar sy was nie betrokke by die uitspraak van Parys nie. Was dit
omdat sy nie mooi genoeg was nie, of omdat dit nie omgee nie
of was dit omdat dit nie haar beeld as 'n kryger sou pas nie?

Antwoord: Dit was eintlik omdat sy nie as 'n godin in Griekeland aanvaar is nie
ten tyde van die uitspraak van Parys. Maar sy was net daarna omdat
sy word deur Homerus in die Ilias en die Odyssee genoem. Sy het wel deelgeneem
in die Trojaanse oorlog, maar nie in die vroeë voorrondes nie. Dit was sy wat vereis het
die offer van Iphiginia, en sy baklei met Apollo aan die kant van die
Trojane. U kan ook sê dat sy nie tevergeefs was om deel te neem nie
in so 'n gebeurtenis. Hestia is ook uitgesluit, miskien om hierdie rede. Hierdie
was later meer waar toe die oordeel in 'n skoonheidskompetisie onder naakters ontaard het
godinne. Dit was eintlik net afrodite wat tevergeefs was.

Vraag: Wat is die verskillende weergawes van die uitspraak van Parys?

Antwoord: Oorspronklik was die oordeel oor die geskenke van die godinne en
hulle is in koninklike klere uitgebeeld met hul geskenke. Later het dit 'n
skoonheidswedstryd en die godinne is naak vertoon.

Vraag: Wat is die betekenis van die gevleuelde kind?

Antwoord: Die manlike kind met arendvlerke is Eros. Die vroulike kind
met vlindervlerke is Psyche.

Vraag: watter een is afrodiet? Wie is die manlike figuur agter die boom?

Antwoord: Die godinne word geïdentifiseer deur hul simbole: Athena dra 'n
helm, dra Aphrodite 'n kroon. Hermes is dikwels die ekstra figuur. Maar hierdie
kwessies wissel van prent tot prent. Identifiseer die prentjie waarna u verwys.

Vraag: wie is die ander twee meisies? Hoe het die keuse van Parys die trojaanse oorlog tot gevolg gehad?

Antwoord: Nimfe waarskynlik. Die geskenk van Aphrodite was die liefde van 'n getroude vrou.

Vraag: Wat was aan die gang terwyl Parys die godinne beoordeel het?

Antwoord: Mycenae het aan die einde van 'n periode van 150 jaar oorlog begin
wat daardie kultuur vernietig is.

Antwoord: Aphrodite het gewen deur Parys te omkoop met die liefde van die mooiste
vrou in die wêreld.

Vraag: wat is die grootte van die oorspronklike skildery deur Marcantonio Raimondi?

Antwoord: 29,2 x 43,6 cm (11 1/2 x 17 3/16 in) is die grootte van die kopie wat die
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Dit is 'n afdruk van 'n skildery deur Rubens.

Vraag: Was Artemis betrokke by die uitspraak van Parys?

Antwoord: Nee. Maar hierdie feit is interessant. Van die vyf groot godinne
drie, Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, was in die oordeel van Parys. Hestia en
Artemis is nie. Artemis is waarskynlik weggelaat omdat die verhaal haar voorafgaan
aankoms. Hera, Athena en Aphrodite het van Kreta af in Griekeland aangekom
Dit lyk asof Artemis uit die noorde gekom het.

Vraag: watter godinne het met Hermes getrou?

Antwoord: Hermes was betrokke by die volgende vroue:

  1. Acacallis
  2. Agraulos
  3. Alcidameia
  4. Amaltheia
  5. Antianeira
  6. Apemosyne
  7. Aphrodite
  8. Artemis
  9. Carmenta
  10. Liefdadigheidsorganisasies
  11. Chelone
  12. Chione
  13. Chthonophyle
  14. Cleobule
  15. Creusa
  16. Daeira
  17. Dryope
  18. Erytheia
  19. Eupolemeia
  20. Hermafroditus
  21. Herse
  22. Iptime
  23. Issa
  24. Laothoe
  25. Libië
  26. Maia
  27. Myrto
  28. Ocyrrhoe
  29. Pandora
  30. Pandrosos
  31. Penelope
  32. Phaethusa
  33. Philodameia
  34. Philonis
  35. Polymela
  36. Telemaat
  37. Themis
  38. Theobule
  39. Thriae
  40. Timbris

Ek laat dit aan die leser oor om te bepaal watter een hiervan vroue is en
wat godinne is.

Vraag: Waarom was Hera so 'n brak?

Antwoord: Klik op die menu hieronder en klik op Hera.

Vraag: Waarom is Parys gekies om die godinne te oordeel?

Antwoord: Eerstens het die godinne na Zeus gegaan om die oordeel te neem.
Hy was baie verstandig om na Parys uit te stel omdat die regter die geld verdien
vyandigheid van die twee verloorder -godinne. Hecuba, die ma van Parys, het 'n droom gehad
toe sy swanger was, het sy geboorte gegee aan 'n brandende fakkel waaruit
slange uitgegee. Sieners het haar toe aangeraai om die kind te vernietig. Hulle duidelik
het geweet van die diepe probleme wat Parys sou veroorsaak, maar hulle het die besonderhede gemis.
Zeus, wat alles weet, sou die ware betekenis verstaan ​​en toegeken het
die taak na Parys, omdat hy geweet het dat hy bestem was om dit te doen. Dit is verder
versterk deur die feit dat die woord vir appel en herder dieselfde is in
Grieks. Paris was 'n herder op die berg Ida toe hy gevra is om die taak uit te voer.
Weens die omstandighede van sy lewe was hy moontlik die enigste herder
destyds wat ook 'n prins was.

Vraag: was hier meer 'n godin of menslike

Antwoord: Hera was 'n godin met menslike eienskappe.

Vraag: waar het hera gewoon?

Antwoord: op die berg Olympus in die paleis van Zeus.

Vraag: was hier 'n mooier afrodiet

Antwoord: Die meeste godinne is pragtig, veral Aphrodite, Hera, Athena en
Artemis maar Aphrodite is deur Parys gekies om die mooiste te wees.

Vraag: watter karakter is wat in Claude Lorrain se skildery op die
judgemnet of paris stel die skape ook enigiets voor
besondere ??

Antwoord: Hierdie beeld kan besigtig word by: Klik hier. Van links blyk die karakters te wees
Parys, Eros, Aphrodite, Hera en Athena. Die skape en bokke is teenwoordig
want in daardie tyd was Parys 'n herder. Hy het 'n herder geword, want wanneer
hy is gebore as 'n prins en sy ma het 'n voorgevoel gehad van sy toekomstige gedrag.
Haar familie het hom toe op die berg Ida laat sak, waar hy deur herders gevind en grootgemaak is.

Vraag: Met die dood van Achilles blyk dit dat die Trojane nog sou wen, hoe dink die Grieke aan die Trojaanse perd?

Antwoord: Athena het Odysseus gehelp met die idee.

Vraag: Hoe was Hera die suster van os Zueses se vrou toe Hera sy vrou was?

Antwoord: Hera was beide Zeus se suster en sy vrou. Die gode moes
trou met broers en susters omdat daar in die begin so min van hulle was. Hulle het
maar nie soos mense wat met broers en susters trou nie.

Vraag: Het u enige inligting oor “the drie godinne ” geverf
vir Elizabeth I?

Vraag: Wat het gebeur as gevolg van Pari se keuse?

Antwoord: Toe Paris Aphrodite gekies het, beloon Aphrodite hom deur te maak
Helen raak so verlief op hom dat sy saam met hom weggeloop het. Dit, in
ondanks die feit dat sy wettiglik met Menelaus getroud was.

Vraag: Wat het Athena belowe dat Parys die mooiste van alle godinne genoem word?

Antwoord: Die wysheid om in oorlog te wen.

Vraag: Word die stroy van die oordeel oor paris vertel in enige van die ou mites, die oddysey, die illiad, die aneid of metamorfose?

Antwoord: Homerus maak 'n verbygaande verwysing in XXIV. Die Aeneïs en
Metamorfose is Romeinse werke en nie relevant hier nie.

Vraag: Watter rol speel Hermes in hierdie verhaal?

Antwoord: Hermes is die boodskapper van Zeus wat aan Parys sal verduidelik
sy plig. Hy sal ook die wil van Zeus uitvoer.

Vraag: Wanneer en hoe is Parys dood? Watter rol speel Hermes in hierdie verhaal?

Antwoord: Nadat Achilles deur Parys vermoor is, het Philoctetes Parys gewond
'n pyl uit die boog wat Hercules hom gegee het. Parys het Oenone versoek,
die nimf wat hy verwerp het, om hom te genees, maar sy het hom laat sterf en later doodgemaak
haarself.

Vraag: Met watter items het athena hera en aprodite paris omgekoop om die skoonheidskompetisie te wen?

Antwoord: In die oudste weergawes van die verhaal wat op antieke geïllustreer word
keramiek dit is die geskenke van die godinne
wat blykbaar beoordeel word. In latere weergawes is dit die skoonheid van die godinne
wat geoordeel word. In die Ilias 24.28-30 die enigste opmerking
is dat hy die een goedgekeur het wat hom 'n voorwerp van erge wellus goedgekeur het. ”
In die Kypriaons word vertel dat Parys deur die belofte van
huwelik met Parys, maar daar word geen melding gemaak van wat Hera en Athena mag hê nie
beloof. In Dionysalexandros van Kratinos (430 of 429 vC) drie
omkoopgeld word genoem: Hera – politieke mag, Athena – sukses in die geveg,
Aphrodite - aantreklik en seksueel aantreklik.

Vraag: In watter boek is die verhaal van die oordeel van Parys die eerste keer genoem?

Antwoord: Waarskynlik die Ilias.

Vraag: Hoe glo historici dat die oordeel van Parys die Griekse kultuur of oortuigings beliggaam het?

Antwoord: Daar is verskillende maniere waarop die oordeel van Parys gestalte kry
Griekse geloof. Hierdie gebeurtenis was deel van die ketting van oorsake wat die ontstaan ​​van die
Trojaanse oorlog. Die antieke Grieke was baie geïnteresseerd in oorsake van dinge en
het dit breedvoerig bespreek. Die feit dat dit 'n skoonheidskompetisie was onder
drie godinne het beteken dat 'n ideaal uit verskeie gekies moes word
alternatiewe. Die antieke Grieke was baie betrokke by die idealisering
van dinge. Laastens het die uitspraak die verduideliking van die sake van
mans as 'n reaksie op die emosies van die goddelikhede. Dit is 'n algemene tema
in die antieke Griekse kultuur.

Vraag: Waar het dit plaasgevind?

Antwoord: Mount Ida, in Turkye. Om daaroor te lees:
Klik hier

Antwoord: Normaalweg behels 'n verduideliking die ontwikkeling van oorsake en
gevolge rondom die geleentheid. Maar in werklikheid is die oordeel van Parys een
element van 'n verduideliking van die Trojaanse oorlog. Dit toon die kommer
antieke Grieke het verhoudings met oorsaak en gevolg gehad. Een rede hiervoor
'n verhaal bestaan, kan wees dat dit 'n gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis weerspieël wat 'n
oorsaak van die Trojaanse oorlog. Dit kan ook 'n nuwe besef van die
krag van vroue. Of dit die Trojaanse oorlog 'n konflik tussen passie maak
en die rede is aanvegbaar.

Vraag: Het Griekse vaasskilders Parys uitgebeeld as 'n barbaar of iets anders?

Antwoord: Ten tye van die Trojaanse oorlog het die inwoners van Troje Grieks gepraat
en aanbid die Griekse Pantheon. Gedurende die Argaïese tydperk het die Ioniese
gebied aan die oostelike oewer van die Egeïsche See gedy as 'n Griekse gebied. Maar die
Perse het die meeste van hierdie gebiede verower en deur die
Klassieke tydperk. Terwyl die Perse die Ioniese gebiede besit het, was Troy
gesien as 'n barbaarse gebied. Of Parys as 'n barbaar beskou is
kan soortgelyk beskou word.

Vraag: Wat het Parys verkeerd gedoen?

Antwoord: 'n Wyse man vermy die keuse tussen vroue. Die een wat u kies, is moontlik
wees gelukkig, maar diegene wat jy verwerp, sal ongelukkig en geminag word. Maar as jy
moet kies tussen Athena, Hera en Aphrodite, en kies dan Athena as
Oenone voorgestel. U het ten minste wysheid aan u kant wanneer die
moeilikheid begin. En waarom sou u 'n lojale minnaar soos Oenone opsy sit?
die mooiste vrou in die wêreld. Die enigste fout met Oenone was
dat haar liefde te maklik was. Sy was pragtig en lief vir Parys, alhoewel hy
was net 'n herder. Maar dan het die keuse van Helen baie gebring
opgewondenheid in sy lewe. Die oorlog wat hy veroorsaak het, sal nooit vergeet word nie. En
as hy nie gewond was nie, sou die uitslag dalk beter gewees het. Maar
toe hy gewond is, was dit Oenone wat hom kon red. En sy was so
seer dat sy hom laat sterf het.

Vraag: Wie was die godin wat die appel na Tetis se onkruid gegooi het?

Antwoord: Eris, die godin van onenigheid, gooi die appel op Thetis se troue.

Vraag: Wat is die naam zueses perde

Antwoord: Zeus het Pegasus gebruik om sy donderslae te dra. Pegasus was die
gevleuelde perd of vlieënde perd. Pegasus is die simbool van poësie en die
skeppende kunste, want hy het 'n sprong gebring vir die muses wat gestimuleer het
poësie en skeppende kunste.

Vraag: Wat is daar soveel foto's van die oordeel van Parys?

Die idee om drie naakte godinne uit te beeld, is onweerstaanbaar.

Vraag: het die ander godinne hom ook omgekoop?

Antwoord: Eintlik het geen van die godinne hom omgekoop nie. Die moraal van die verhaal
is dat 'n godin volgens haar gawes beoordeel moet word. Parys het Aphrodite ten spyte daarvan gekies
van die waarskuwing van Oenone om Athena te kies. Maar dit sou nie die enigste wees nie
keer dat Afrodite 'n man in 'n blitsende idioot verander het. Hera ’s geskenk sou
trots of status was. Athena sou wysheid en liefde vir Afrodite gegee het.
Die fisiese skoonheid van 'n godin is redelik perfek, so daar is eintlik niks
fisies om te oordeel. Maar hul geskenke kan baie belangrik wees
oor jou situasie.

Vraag: wat was die impak op die Griekse kultuur uit die “Vonnis van Parys ”?

Antwoord: Aanvanklik was die oordeel van Parys een van die oorsake van die Trojaan
oorlog. Alhoewel hierdie oorlog moontlik die ondergang van die Mykeneër teweeggebring het
Beskawing, dit het min invloed op die politiek van die klassieke Griekeland. Maar
die verhale rondom hierdie oorlog het 'n merkwaardige uitwerking op die literatuur gehad
en kuns van antieke Griekeland. En dit het weer die denke en kultuur beïnvloed
van daardie tydperk. Een konsep hou verband met die rol van keuse en lot. Die
Die oordeel oor Parys handel baie oor die gevolge van 'n keuse op die lang termyn.
Trouens, die onbeduidendheid van sy keuse kan opgemerk word. Hoe kon enigiemand
het geweet dat die gevolg van 'n keuse van wie die mooiste sou wees
'n oorlog tot gevolg het wat duisende en selfs die dood van hul eie sou doodmaak? Tog
die keuse was ligsinnig. Hy was vry om te kies. As daar 'n keuse was
dan sou Athena gekies gewees het. En tog, sodra die keuse gemaak is, is die
gevolg noodwendig gevolg. Dit het die Griekse verstand laat soek na oorsake en
toe dit gebeur het, het dit filosofie, logika, wiskunde en wetenskap ontdek.

Vraag: wat is die onderskeidende punte in hierdie kunswerk?

Antwoord: Daar is baie literêre werke en kunsvoorwerpe wat beskryf en
illustreer hierdie verhaal.

Vraag: Ek bestudeer Wtewael's Judgement of Paris en ek het 'n paar vrae daaroor gehad.
Op u webwerf het iemand uitgevra oor die man naby die boom. Hy staan ​​in
die agtergrond, amper in die skaduwee. Weet jy wie hy is en hoekom hy is
daar?
Op die agtergrond kan ek ook nie agterkom wat hulle doen nie. Hulle
dit lyk asof hulle feesvier en 'n engel kom uit die hemel neer. Wat is die
die betekenis van die agtergrondtoneel?

Vraag: Wat sou Hera dra?

Antwoord: Daar is baie foto's van die oordeel van Parys wat die
godinne heeltemal naak as hulle beoordeel word. Die meriete hiervan is
dat niks bedek of verborge is nie. Daar is geen misleiding in die siening van
die godinne. Maar baie dink daar is 'n voordeel vir misleiding. As
die waarde van 'n vrou is haar geslagsorgaan, en dan wys dit al die raaisel.
Die bedekking van die orrel verhoog die raaisel. Om dit met 'n totem te bedek, is gelyk
beter. Die totem verhoog die krag van die orrel en maak dit vrugbaarder.
Hera sou dan 'n voorskoot dra met 'n pou of koei daarop.

Nog meer geheimsinnigheid kan veroorsaak word deur 'n filmagtige, rokagtige rok wat krommes openbaar
maar verberg vlekke. Hierdie rokke was baie in styl onder die antieke
Griekse vroue, veral die hetaerae. Hulle sou sy -weergawes koop wat
het elke tipe verbeelding geïnspireer

Dan is daar die uitrustings wat geskik is vir 'n koningin. Doek van goud, en swaar
juweliersware, met 'n kroon bo -op. Die juweliersware sal so briljant wees dat dit
is al wat die kyker sal sien.

Vraag: is daar nog foto's van die oordeel van paris?

Antwoord: Daar is nog vele meer. Dit is een van die gewildste beelde in
alles van kuns. Ek kan nie hoop om hulle almal te noem nie.

Vraag: Hoekom het Hera met haar eie broer getrou?

Antwoord: As 'n sterflike broer en suster trou en seks het, is die baba
word dikwels misvormd gebore. Maar dit is nie waar met gode en godinne nie. Zeus
was seksueel opgewonde toe sy suster Hera kaal uit hul pa kom.
Hy het toe besluit om haar te mislei om seks met hom te hê. Hera dadelik
het geweet dat Zeus haar swanger gemaak het, en daarom het sy besluit om met haar te trou
'n pa sou hê. Sy was immers die godin van die huwelik.

Vraag: wie was die hoofkarakters van Illisd en Oddysey?

Antwoord: Die hoofkarakters is vir Homeros die gode en godinne. Die
sterflinge is sekondêr. Vir die verhale van die Trojaanse oorlog was die belangrikste gode
is die twisgodinne, Hera, Athena en Aphrodite. Die belangrikste temas
van hierdie werke behels sterflike verblyf by hierdie godhede.

Vraag: wat en waar is die museum waarin Wtewael -skilderye van die
oordeel van Parys

Antwoord: Die skildery is NG6334. Bemaak deur Claude Dickason Rotch, 1962
na die National Gallery of London. Klik hier

Vraag: wat volgens die mite “The Judgement of Paris ” presies sou wees
vertaling van die mite in moderne konteks? Met ander woorde as iemand het
wat sou 'n goeie onderwerp wees om die mite in die moderne tyd oor te skryf?

Antwoord: Moderne mense fokus graag daarop dat dit 'n skoonheidskompetisie van naakte vroue is
maar u moet besef dat die godinne almal ideaal is. So moet jy draai
aan die godinne ’ ander eienskappe. Dit is die kenmerke van die koninkryk wat
elke godin het geheers. Die ou mense het hierna verwys as die geskenke van die godinne. Die mite
verander die geskenke in omkoopgeld. Maar die werklike vraag behels die keuse van 'n lewensrigting
vir sukses. Dit is soos die woord ‘plastics ’ in die film ‘The Graduate ’. Watter van hierdie
godinne sal lei tot sukses in die lewe as jy op haar ryk fokus. Aphrodite is 'n fokuspunt
oor sukses met seks. Hera is sukses met status. En Athena is sukses met kennis.
Parys het seks gekies, maar Oenone het gesê dat hy kennis moes gekies het.


The Judgement of Paris Mosaic - Geskiedenis

Dit was die titel van die boek van George M Taber, wat in 2005 deur Scribner uitgegee is en nooit uit druk was nie. Dit bevat Kalifornië en sy wyne in die tweede helfte van die vorige eeu, en die vleis in die toebroodjie is die blinde smaak van Kalifornië en Franse wyne wat deur my wynskool gemaak is, L’Académie du Vin, op 24 Mei 1976. Taber, deel van die Tyd tydskrifburo in Parys op daardie tydstip, was ook by die wynskool wat ek begin 1973 bygewoon het. As hy nie ons uitnodiging om dit by te woon aanvaar het nie, en as my vrou Bella nie daar was om die foto's te neem nie, sou die resultate van daardie dag moontlik wees het nie internasionale nuus geword nie, en die betekenis daarvan sou amper nie opgemerk gewees het nie.

By L’Académie du VinOns het baie besoeke ontvang van wynmakers uit Kalifornië en top Amerikaanse wynskrywers, wat almal bottels saambring om te probeer. Amerikaans gebore Patricia Gallagher-wat destyds die skool bestuur het, aangesien ek baie betrokke was by die besige wynwinkel-het voorgestel dat ons 'n proe gee om aandag te vestig op die wyne van hoë gehalte wat Kalifornië te bied het. Sy het in September 1975 in Napa deurgebring en was nog meer beïndruk met die Chardonnays en Cabernet Sauvignons. Daarna besoek ek Paasfees 1976 om 'n finale keuse van die beste te maak, ses van elk.

Ons het voorheen gereeld proe van nie-Franse wyne (afkomstig van die ambassades), maar ons het geweet dat hierdie spesiaal spesiaal moet wees: hierdie wyne verdien aandag. Ons het besluit om 'n paar van die beste en invloedrykste wynowerhede van regoor Frankryk uit te nooi. Fortunately, we had gained ourselves a decent reputation by that time, and they all accepted. Now all we needed was a ‘peg’ to hang it on, and Patricia provided the perfect answer: 1976 was the bi-centennial of the American War of Independence. What better year in which to draw attention to their wines?

It was not planned as a blind tasting, but a while before the event I realized that of the nine tasters, only one – Aubert de Villaine, co-owner of the Domaine de la Romanée-Conti – would have experienced such wines before (he was married to a girl from San Francisco). I feared that had they known what they were, the panel might have damned the wines with faint praise – ‘c’est pas mal’ – and we were after more than that. So I selected four of the best white burgundies and four of the very top red Bordeaux from the shop to be tasted blind with the Californians, to make an interesting comparison, as indeed it turned out to be.

The 10 wines, whites first, were served one by one. The tasters then tasted them and ranked them using the 20 point scale their marks were then added up and divided by nine (the number of tasters). Here are the results, wines starred being from California.

*Chateau Montelena 1973 (14.67).

Meursault-Charmes Roulot 1973 (14.05)

*Chalone Vineyard 1974 (13.44)

*Spring Mountain Vineyard 1973 (11.55)

Beaune Clos des Mouches Joseph Drouhin 1973 (11.22)

*Freemark Abbey Winery 1972 (11.11)

Bâtard-Montrachet Les Pucelles Domaine Leflaive 1972 (10.44)

Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles 1972 (9.89)

*Veedercrest Vineyards 1972 (9.78)

*David Bruce Winery 1973 (4.67)

*Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars 1973 (14.7)

Château Mouton Rothschild 1970 (14.00)

Château Montrose 1970 (13.94)

Château Haut-Brion 1970 (13.55)

*Ridge Vineyards Monte Bello 1971 (11.50)

Château Léoville Las Cases 1971 (10.78)

*Mayacamus Vineyards 1971 (9.94)

*Clos du Val Winery 1972 (9.72).

*Heitz Wine Cellars Martha’s Vineyard 1970 (9.39).

*Freemark Abbey Winery 1969 (8.67).

So, three California whites were in the top five (six tasters put Montelena first, three preferred Chalone) and two California reds (Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars and Ridge Vineyards). Once the word got out, the telephone rang off the hook at Stag’s Leap… Warren Winiarski went on to sell his property for $185 million in 2007 Mike Grgich of Montelena went on to found his own highly successful Napa winery, Grgich Hills. After that tasting in 1976, California wine was firmly on the map. It is no coincidence that the first vintage of ‘Opus One’, the Napa Valley joint venture between Philippe de Rothschild and Robert Mondavi, was 1979, just three years later.

Twenty years after the Judgement of Paris, bottles of Chateau Montelena 1973 Chardonnay and Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars 1973 Cabernet Sauvignon were placed in Washington DC’s Smithsonian National Museum of American History, and a further 20 years on, in May 2016, Bella and I were guests of the Smithsonian for a three-day celebration of the ‘Judgement’. The House of Representatives had recently voted that May 24 th 1976 had become an important day in American History, in honour of which they gave me a signed and sealed document and an American flag. On the second night of the celebrations there was a black tie dinner for 600 at the Smithsonian and I was asked to wrap up the evening. Taking into account the room’s anticipation, I said: ‘It is very just and fitting that we should be here at the Smithsonian to celebrate how a Croat (Grgich) and a Pole (Winiarski) made American history in Paris with a little help from an Englishman.’

Whatever May 24 th 1976 in Paris did for California, it subsequently inspired a series of Old World/New World blind tastings. Its lasting legacy was to have created a template whereby little-known wines of quality could be compared to well-known wines of quality. If the judges themselves were of quality, too, then their opinions on the wines would be respected. Never was this better illustrated than by the ‘Berlin Tastings’, about which I will write next month…

Wine writer and consultant Steven Spurrier, joined the wine trade in London in 1964 and later moved to Paris where he bought a wine shop in 1971, and then opened L’Académie du Vin, France’s first private wine school in 1973. Spurrier organized the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, which unexpectedly elevated the status of California wine and promoted the expansion of wine production in the New World.


The Results

The results of the blind tasting shocked not only the participants, but the United States and, eventually, France. No one — literally no one — had expected Californian wines to even stack up against French wines, let alone win both the red and white categories.

For the white wine tasting, three of the top four wines were Californian, not French, with Chateau Montelena winning handily: 132 points total, nearly ten points ahead of the second-place Meursault Charmes, which received 126.5 points.

For the red wine tasting, the scores were much closer than with the white wines. But that didn’t change the fact that a Californian wine won again, beating out some of the greatest wines in Bordeaux. It was the Stag’s Leap Cabernet Sauvignon that carried the day.


Analysis of The Judgement of Paris by Rubens

The Greek mythological story of the Judgment of Paris appears briefly in Homer's Iliad (24.25㪶), and is mentioned by several later writers including Ovid and Lucian. Images of the story appeared regularly on Greek Pottery as early as the sixth century BCE, and the theme continued to be popular in the art of classical antiquity, before enjoying a major revival in Renaissance art - not least because it afforded artists the opportunity to depict three female nudes. The subject was painted many times by Rubens himself: see, for instance, the 1599 version in London's National Gallery the 1606 version in the Prado Museum, Madrid the 1606 version in the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna the 1636 version in the Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden and the second version (1638-9) in the Prado.

Note: Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, was abandoned as an infant due to ill omens associated with his birth, but was rescued by shepherds (he was later received home again by his father Priam). Later, he was chosen by Zeus (Jupiter) to decide which of three Greek (Roman) goddesses was the most beautiful: Aphrodite (Venus), Hera (Juno) or Athena (Minerva). He chose Aphrodite and awarded her a golden apple. Helped by Aphrodite, Paris then seduced Helen (the wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta), which - aggravated by the discontent of Hera and Athena - precipitated the Trojan War.

Rubens' painting depicts the moment when Parys awards the golden apple to Aphrodite. She is standing between Athena en Hera, while Hermes, the messenger of the gods, stands behind Paris. Visible in the clouds above is the Greek Fury, Alecto. As mentioned above, the scenario gives the artist an easy opportunity to paint three nudes, and Rubens takes full advantage to create the voluptuous female figures for which he is famous. They present the image of ideal female beauty which was used by both Leonardo (1452-1519) (Mona Lisa, 1503-6) and Titian (c.1485-1576) (Bacchus and Ariadne, 1523).

Aphrodite (Venus), goddess of love, beauty and fertility, has roses (love symbols) in her hair, as well as pearls that recall the legend of her birth. She tells Paris that if he chooses her, she will make Helen (the most beautiful woman in the world) fall in love with him. Her bribe succeeds Paris chooses her as the most beautiful goddess. Athena (Minerva), goddess of war and wisdom, stands to the left, recognizable from the helmet and shield lying next to her, the latter featuring an image of Medusa the snake-haired demon whom Athena had helped to kill. On Aphrodite's right wearing a velvet wrap is Hera (Juno), the wife of Zeus. Rubens cleverly manages to paint the same female model viewed from all sides. Athena is seen from the front Aphrodite from the side and Hera from behind. The model is probably Rubens' second wife, Helene Fourment.

Meanwhile, Paris, in an allusion to his birth is dressed in the clothes of a shepherd and armed with a crook. Hermes, standing alongside him is wearing a winged hat and holding a caduceus - a wand wrapped with two serpents. On the far left is Cupid, god of love, shown here as a young child. Like Mercury he too has wings as well as a quiver of golden arrows to make people fall in love. He will soon be despatched by Aphrodite to Helen in order to make her fall in love with Paris. Compare: Amor Vincit Omnia (Victorious Cupid) (1602, Gemaldegalerie SMPK, Berlin) by Caravaggio (1573-1610).

Soaring above the scene, with a snake in her hand is Alecto the Fury. She has already summoned thunder clouds to indicate that trouble is not far off. This sets the scene for the final part of the saga - not shown by Rubens - the abduction of Helen from her home in Sparta by Paris. Although, as promised by Aphrodite, Helen falls in love with him, her abduction leads to war.

Like a number of Old Masters, Rubens used colour to create the illusion of space. In the background, for instance, the bright blue of the distant hills and sky recedes creating the impression of depth. In the middleground, green is the dominant colour, while the darkest reds and browns appear in the foreground, making it feel closer. For more about colour in painting, see also: Titian and Venetian Colour Painting (1500-76).

Interpretation of Other Baroque Paintings

• Allegory of Divine Providence (1633-39) by Pietro da Cortona.
Palazzo Barberini, Rome.

• Judith Beheading Holofernes (1620) by Artemisia Gentileschi
Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

• Abduction of the Sabine Women (1634-5) by Nicolas Poussin.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

• Et in Arcadia Ego (1637) by Nicolas Poussin.
Louvre, Paris.

• Apotheosis of St Ignatius (1688-94) by Andrea Pozzo.
Jesuit Church of Sant'Ignazio, Rome.


The Judgment of Paris Turns 40

On May 24, 1976, the seemingly impossible happened. Though French wines ruled the world, two upstart California producers triumphed over first-growth and other renowned bottlings from Bordeaux en Burgundy at a blind tasting judged by France’s foremost wine experts. Dubbed the Judgment of Paris, the event put Napa Valley among the world’s great wine regions. Today, you can taste that history by visiting four wineries with deep connections to this historic event.

Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars

The Connection: Warren Winiarski founded Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars in 1970. His 1973 S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon was the winning red at the 1976 tasting.

Marcus Notaro, winemaker at Stag’s Leap since 2013, recently tasted the ’73 Cab.

“It still had this really nice red currant and cedary-spicy notes with some tobacco,” he says. “You see these characteristics in our younger wines as well.”

At the new Fay Outlook & Visitor Center, special tastings in May will showcase both library wines and barrel samples. Memorabilia include a bottle of the 1973 Cab and copies of the judges’ score sheets. The 2013 S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon (scheduled to release on May 1) bears a throwback label designed after its victorious predecessor.

Chateau Montelena Winery

The Connection: The 1973 Chateau Montelena Chardonnay was the winning white at the Paris Tasting.

Chateau Montelena Winery produced its 1973 Chardonnay to improve cash flow because its newly planted Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards would not yield quality wine for several years. Today, two-thirds of Chateau Montelena’s production is Cabernet, and the combination of estate vineyard soils deliver wines with a distinct sense of place. Or, as CEO Bo Barrett says, “Nobody can copy this dirt.” Tasting rooms in the grand 1888 manse showcase Judgment of Paris keepsakes, including a bottle of the victorious white, the congratulatory telegram from France and newspaper clippings.

Grgich Hills Estate

The Connection: Founder/owner Miljenko “Mike” Grgich (below) was the winemaker at Chateau Montelena Winery who crafted the winning Chardonnay.

Wanneer Die New York Times called Grgich in 1976 to discuss the victory, the recent émigré from communist Yugoslavia at first thought he was in trouble with the authorities. The resulting acclaim encouraged Grgich to found his own winery in 1977. Each year, he produces a reserve-style Paris Tasting Commemorative Chardonnay priced at his current age—$93 for the 2016 release. Grgich just published his autobiography, A Glass Full of Miracles (Violetta Press, 2016).

Gustavo Wine

The Connection: Gustavo Brambila began work as cellar master at Chateau Montelena Winery just three weeks before the Paris results were announced. A lead character in Bottle Shock, the 2008 film about the tasting, is based on his experiences.

The son of an immigrant vineyard worker from Mexico, Brambila was one of the first Latino graduates from the oenology program at UC-Davis. He worked with Mike Grgich at Grgich Hills for 23 years before starting his own brand in 1999. Brambila makes a wide range of wines, but the Chardonnay remains closest to his heart. “For me, it’s all about making a wine that takes you back to a memory of each vintage.”

Judgement of Paris: What’s New?

Bottle Shock: The Musical. “You can get away with things in a song—the inner landscape of very passionate people—that you can’t do in a movie,” says James D. Sasser, co-creator of the new musical based on the 2008 film. A gala takes place at the Napa Opera House on June 18 the stage production by FOGG Theatre Company is slated to debut in October in San Francisco.

Judgment of Paris: The Film. “American Dream stories always resonate with people—if you work hard, you would succeed,” says Robert Mark Kamen, screenwriter for the upcoming movie Judgment of Paris, which chronicles the red-wine side of the 1976 tasting. The film is scheduled to begin production this summer. Kamen, who wrote The Karate Kid en die Taken trilogy, also owns Kamen Estate Wines in Sonoma.

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Bride Valley Sparkling Wine. The former wine merchant who staged the Judgment of Paris tasting, British wine journalist and author Steven Spurrier has gone over to the bubbly side. He and his wife, Arabella, have launched Bride Valley, which produces sparkling wines grown on the chalky slopes of Dorset. U.S. distribution coming soon.

Judgement of Paris: Fun Facts

* The 1976 Time magazine article on the winning California wines said they were “rather expensive ($6 plus).”

* Although Chateau Montelena Winery is in the Napa Valley, most grapes for the winning Chardonnay came from neighboring Sonoma County (Russian River and Alexander valleys).

* At the Paris Tasting of the Chardonnays, two other California wineries beat out French competitors: the 1974 Chalone Vineyard finished third and the 1973 Spring Mountain Vineyard was fourth.

* The blend for the 1973 Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon included—surprise—1% Pinot Noir.

* Want to own wine history? At the 2016 Auction Napa Valley (scheduled for June 2–5), a lot to be auctioned live includes one bottle of each of the winning 1976 Judgment of Paris wines.


The Judgement of Paris

The 44th anniversary of the tasting that took place on 24th May 1976 and was subsequently written up in Time Magazine under the title “The Judgement of Paris”, it is worth giving a little background to the event that, according to author George Taber, “revolutionised the world of wine.”

Les Caves de la Madeleine

In autumn 1970, after a couple of years in Provence, my wife Bella and I decided to move to Paris where I said I would get back into the wine trade. Of course Paris did not have the same structured wine trade as London, but walking through a small mews-like street just off the Place de la Madeleine to have lunch with a lawyer friend we passed a small wine shop called Les Caves de la Madeleine. Pausing, I told my friend that that was exactly the sort of shop I could make a go of and he dragged me inside only to reveal, after a conversation in his fluent French with the lady owner, that it was in fact for sale.

The price was agreed, but both sides thought a waiting period of six months would allow us to be certain of the deal, so I began working for Madame Fougeres as a cellar rat and delivery boy and on April 1st 1971 the keys were handed over to me. My first action was to place a classified ad in the Herald Tribune (“The Trib”) which was the ex-pats daily newspaper with the line “Your wine merchant speaks English, call Steven Spurrier.”

L’Academie du Vin

The Place de la Madeleine on the smart Right Bank of the city, was the true centre of Paris and at that time English speaking banks, law firms and the like were mostly in the area. I very quickly acquired a clientele who not only wanted to buy wine, but wanted to know more about it, so when, eighteen months later, the premises next door became available, I took them over and opened L’Academie du Vin, the very first private wine school in France. Since I was very busy with the shop this needed a manager. Patricia Gallagher, a young American lady who worked at The Trib, applied for the job and was taken on right away. This was early 1973 and the courses we created were popular as was the shop and, for non-French speakers, especially visitors, we were really the only game in town.

Californian wine and the seed of an idea

Thus it was that the occasional producer of Californian wine came to show their wines to us, and American wine writers, Robert Finigan of San Francisco and Alexis Bespaloff of New York, dropped by with bottles that we enjoyed over lunch. Patricia, who was from the East Coast, might have tasted such wines before but I certainly had not. We were both impressed and enthusiastic and since at L’Academie du Vin we had been breaking Parisian wine rules by putting on tastings of wines from countries other than France, Patricia suggested we present a range of these at some point. Fired up, Patricia decided to spend some of her vacation time in California and got in touch with Robert Finigan who offered to take her round a few wineries. She returned more impressed than ever, particularly by the Chardonnay whites and the Cabernet Sauvignon reds, and in autumn 1975 we put together plans to present a selection of these wines to a handful of the best and most influential wine people in France.

L’Academie du Vin was both known to such people and very well-respected as we were now teaching as many courses in French as in English, including the Parisian Sommeliers, so it was not difficult for us to receive acceptances from our first choice of nine exceptional tasters, including the owners of Le Grand Vefour and Le Taillevent, Paris’s two best 3 Michelin rosette restaurants. We decided that such an event needed prestigious premises and through a client were offered a fine space at the Intercontinental Hotel, a short walk from L’Academie du Vin. Finally, since all the tasters were French and might not have been aware that California even produced wine, I told Patricia that we needed a “peg” to hang this on. She immediately suggested that 1976 was the bicentennial of the 1776 American War of Independence, the French under General Lafayette joining in to fight the British, and although this was not a high point in my country’s history, I willingly agreed.

Selecting the wines

A date was set for late May and Bella and I flew into San Francisco over the Easter holidays to make the final selection. Patricia had made a shortlist and thanks to Robert Finigan and advice from John Avery MW, whose company in Bristol was already importing some of the best labels, we criss-crossed the wine regions to come up with a selection of six Chardonnays and six Cabernet Sauvignons. After the tasting I was asked why there were none of the big, established names like Mondavi and Beaulieu Vineyard, replying that I preferred the much smaller and often recently created wineries, where the owners themselves were totally involved.

Customs Conundrum

Two bottles of each of these wines, purchased by me from the cellar door, were now in our hotel bedroom and the question was: how to get them to Paris? My experience in 1972 in trying to clear English wine through airport customs for the visit of the Queen to Paris had shown me that the chances of my being able to clear 24 bottles of “foreign” wine were slim and that even if possible, French bureaucracy would risk holding the wines well past the planned date for the tasting. Fortunately (and there was a huge amount of luck around the Paris Tasting from start to finish) I had met at one of the wineries a lady named Joanne Dickinson who had put together a group of 30 winery owners for a comprehensive tour of the main vineyards in France. They were to leave in mid-May and agreed to bring in the wines as their personal allowance of one bottle per head. I met Joanne and her group at Charles de Gaulle airport and was overjoyed to see the two cartons on the luggage carousel.

Patricia and I had prepared a tasting and buffet lunch for the group and then unpacked the bottles, one of which had been broken in transit, but there was a back-up. With about a week to go before the actual day – the tasters had confirmed their attendance and the Intercontinental Hotel the allotted space – I began to be concerned as to the outcome of what had been six months in the planning. Our aim was simple: to get recognition from this influential group as to the high quality of wines from California.

However, of the nine, I was sure that only one – Aubert de Villaine, co-owner of Burgundy’s most famous vineyard the Domaine de la Romanee-Conti – would have ever tasted such wines before, due to his having married a girl from San Francisco. The others, knowing that California was on the west coast of America a little north of Mexico, would have correctly assumed that the wines came from a warm climate and might have “damned them with faint praise”. We were after more than the French phrase “c’est vraiement pas mal”/it’s really not bad.

My solution was to select the four best white Burgundies from my shop and the four best Cabernet Sauvignon dominated red Bordeaux and put these in, thus creating a comparative tasting and to make this more interesting, to have the wines served “blind”, with their labels covered up.

Patricia pointed out that this was not what our guests were coming for and I said I would put it to them on the day and if they were not interested in the comparison, we would just taste the Californian wines.

The day itself

May 24th rolled around and assuming our guests would accept, I had written the names of each of the ten white and ten red wines on a bit of paper, folded them up and placed them in a hat, Patricia drawing them out to create the order of tasting. Once everyone was seated, I unveiled my idea to make it a blind tasting, to see how the “Californian Cousins” would stand up to the best from France, and the guest all agreed that it was an excellent idea.

The tasting progressed, wine by wine, first whites then reds, the tasters ranking the wines on the 20 point scale, their marks being added and divided by nine to obtain the result, and the rest, as they say, is history. Here are the results:

CHARDONNAY WHITES.
Chateau Montelena 1973 (Ca).
Meursault-Charmes 1973 (Fr).
Chalone Vineyard 1974 (Ca).
Spring Mountain 1973 (Ca).
Beaune Clos des Mouches 1973 (Fr).
Freemark Abbey 1972 (Ca).
Batard-Montrachet 1973 (Fr).
Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles 1972 (Fr).
Veedercrest 1972 (Ca).
David Bruce 1973 (Ca).

Given the quality (and price) of the French wines I would have been happy to see Californian with say a 3rd and a 5th, but they got 1st, 3rd and 4th. Six of the tasters voted Montelena top and three voted for Chalone (my choice).

CABERNET SAUVIGNON REDS.
Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars 1973 (Ca).
Ch. Mouton-Rothschild 1970 (Fr).
Ch. Haut-Brion 1970 (Fr).
Ch. Montrose 1970 (Fr).
Ridge Montebello 1971 (Ca).
Ch. Leoville-Las Cases 1971 (Fr).
Mayacamus 1971 (Ca).
Clos du Val 1972 (Ca).
Heitz Martha’s Vineyard 1970 (Ca).
Freemark Abbey 1969 (Ca).

This was a much tighter contest with Stag’s Leap winning by just 127.5 points over Mouton-Rothschild’s 126, but there were still two Californian wines in the top five. The result was particularly shocking for the Bordeaux chateaux owners, whose reply was that their wines had been tasted far too young and needed at least 10 years to come into their own.

A decade on and a re-match

So, in 1986 I re-held the tasting of the same red wines in New York with once again a panel of nine expert palates. That time the top five were:

Clos du Val 1972 (Ca).
Ridge Montebello 1971 (Ca).
Ch. Montrose 1970 (Fr).
Ch. Leoville-Las Cases 1971 (Fr).
Ch. Mouton-Rothschild 1970 (Fr).

California on top 30 years on

I felt I had rebutted the Bordeaux point of view and saw no reason to hold it again 20 years on and it was only after a good deal of arm-twisting from Jacob Lord Rothschild in the UK and Robert Mondavi in California that I prepared, with the help of Patricia Gallagher, a “last hurrah” on May 24th 2006, simultaneously at 10am in Napa and 6pm in London, with once again nine tasters, one of the original 1976 guests being present at each, and once the rankings of the 18 judges were collated, the Californian Cabernets took the top five places:

Ridge Monte Bello 1971.
Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars 1973.
Heitz Martha’s Vineyard 1970.
Mayacamas 1971.
Clos du Val 1972.

So, this just about wrapped up the ‘Judgement of Paris’, as George Taber had entitled his article a couple of weeks after the May 1976 event in Time Magazine, thus telling it to the world. Two decades later he published a book, a superb overview of Californian wines, under the same title, with the strapline “the tasting that revolutionised the world of wine.”

This is in fact the case, for while 1976 put California wines on the map and created a much-needed “kick in the pants for French wine” as said Aubert de Villaine, what Patricia and I created 44 years ago quite simply levelled the playing field for range after range of international wines that had been excluded from a closed European shop. From that day on, it was possible for unknown wines of quality to be tasted blind against known wines of quality and it the tasters were themselves of quality, then their views would be respected.


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Back in control

Winemaker Herzberg was thrilled to finally get a chance to taste these grapes herself. The Bacigalupis were only farmers, selling all their grapes, until the 2011 vintage, when they decided to start a wine brand and hired her. At that point, that fabulous block of their ranch was under long-term contract to Rudd.

Rudd founder Leslie Rudd died in May 2018 at age 76. I have a funny story to tell about Leslie, a gregarious man who once also owned the gourmet food stores Dean & Deluca and Oakville Grocery. On my first visit to his estate winery he showed off all the state-of-the-art equipment he had purchased, including an impressive door he had shipped from Italy. As he talked about how expensive everything was, and how he didn't plan to make very much wine at Rudd Estate so he could keep the quality high, I asked: "How can you ever turn a profit?"

Rudd told me, "We don't have to make a profit for 100 years."

But his daughter Samantha may not agree with that timeline, as within three months of his death, she contacted the Bacigalupis to tell them they could keep their expensive Chardonnay grapes if they wanted she would let them out of the contract.

"When we got the phone call that we were going to be able to take that fruit back in, you have those moments in your life where this is just a wave that comes over you," Herzberg told Wine-Searcher. "My first thing to do was to jump up and down and scream inside of my head. This is a big deal. This is momentous. It still feels that way. Wine is so special in that way, in that it connects you to pieces of history."

Herzberg is only 36 and has never tasted the Judgment of Paris-winning Chardonnay that was made 11 years before she was born. And she says she's never really heard descriptions of how it tasted. She sat down with members of the Bacigalupi family to ask them what they remembered about 1973, but it was a long time ago, and they didn't even remember the harvest date (which must have been much later before decades of climate change). So she went to the Rudd winemakers and asked them how they had worked with the block.

"There is a lot of variability in the block," Herzberg said. "Both of them said that part of the charm of the block is to pick it all together as one block. You get that mixture. It's old Wente clone. You get a lot of hens and chicks [large and small berries]. When you pick it all together you get little pops of acidity and also some riper flavors. Picking it all together gives you this complexity."

Winemaking like that is allowing the terroir to express itself, rather than have the winemaker pick every row of vineyards separately at the peak of ripeness, fermenting 10 (or 50) different lots and later blending them together, as is much more common in California high-end wines today.

"My philosophy and the Bacigalupis' philosophy is we don't add anything," Herzberg said. "We use indigenous yeast. The only thing we put in the wine is oak – French oak barrels. We don't fine, we don't filter, we don't blend, which makes it fun, because you have a true sense of what the vineyard wants to do. Luckily John Bacigalupi is one of the most amazing farmers I have worked with. The block was beautiful."

Herzberg normally makes the picking decisions herself but for this one she consulted with John Bacigalupi, because, she said, "I'm only 10 years into making wines from their property. He knows every single vine on every one of their ranches. I don't have that."

The winemaking was simple, and kind of a throwback.

"We whole-cluster pressed and we went straight to barrels, 50 percent new and 50 percent used," Herzberg said. "Nothing above a medium toast. From there, I just let it go. No additions. No water, no acid, no nutrients, nothing added. The barrel sat in a little part of a warmer area in the winery until it got going. It took about a week to kick off. Then we moved it to a cooler part, about 56 degrees [Farenheit]. That fermentation took about three weeks. It was beautiful. I like to ferment my Chardonnay quite cold. I think that slow consumption of sugar by the yeast makes it so the yeast doesn't get overly stressed or overly vigorous, for the slow building of flavors. That's something I like."

The Bacigalupis have never done a full replant, and they are lucky that phylloxera has never reached the ranch because the old own-rooted vines would be vulnerable to it. They have replaced some vines as they died with young vines.

"That adds to the nuance of an old vine block," Herzberg said. "It adds to the layers and texture of the finished wine."

Nonetheless, it's remarkable that the family persevered with a block that produces so few grapes – especially with Chardonnay. That's why Rudd charged so much and why the Bacigalupis' version isn't cheap either. They made only 99 cases of the 2018 vintage because, despite the vineyard's history, they aren't sure how much they can sell of a Chardonnay that costs $82 from the winery. The remaining fruit ended up adding interesting notes to the Bacigalupis' other Chardonnays, albeit at a big loss financially.

"We have replanted missing and dead vines over the years, but have never considered a full replant," Nicole Bacigalupi told Wine-Searcher. "You could not replicate the fruit that we get from the Paris Tasting Block. It would take generations. These vines helped to shape our family's farming legacy and are representative of the sweat equity of my grandparents and my parents over the last 60-plus years. The quality of the fruit in the Paris Tasting Block has always been extremely high – the variation it gets and the complexities outweigh any low yields due to its age. It's why the fruit was under contract up until a couple of years ago. We always knew when it became available to us once again, we wanted to share their magic and story."

Now it can be told: with the New World wines that upended the wine world, winemaking mattered, but terroir mattered too.


Kyk die video: Het Oordeel van Paris