No.100 Eskader, RAAF: Tweede Wêreldoorlog

No.100 Eskader, RAAF: Tweede Wêreldoorlog

No.100 Squadron (RAAF) tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Vliegtuie - Plekke - Groep en plig - Boeke

No.100 Squadron, RAAF, was die eerste Australiese eskader wat toegerus was met Australiese Beaufort -torpedobomwerpers, en het geveg in die verdediging van Australië en tydens die geallieerde veldtogte op Nieu -Guinee.

Die eskader is genommer om die No.100 -eskader RAF, wat 'n rol gespeel het in die verdediging van Singapoer, te vereer. Terwyl die grootste deel van hierdie eskader met die Vickers Vildebeest gesukkel het, is daar 'n losbandigheid gevorm in Bankstown, naby Sydney, waar dit die Australiese Beaufort-torpedobomwerpers sou ontvang. Toe die Japannese die oorlog betree, is hierdie eenheid losgelaat en het dit die kern geword van die nuwe No.100 -eskader, RAAF. Dit is gestig in Februarie 1942 in Richmond, dieselfde maand waarin No.100 Squadron RAF gedwing is om saam te smelt met No.36 Squadron.

In Mei 1942 verhuis die nuwe eskader na Mareeba naby Cairns, waar dit verdere opleiding kombineer met patrollies teen duikbote rondom die kus van Queensland. Afdelings is ook na Port Moresby gestuur om die bemanning vertroud te maak met die probleme om in 'n tropiese omgewing te werk.

Die eerste gevegsoperasie van die eskader het op 25 Junie 1942 plaasgevind toe 'n Japannese skip na Lae, aan die noordkus van Nieu -Guinee, ontdek is. Twee vliegtuie in Port Moresby is op 'n afleidingsaanval gestuur terwyl nog vyf vliegtuie die Japannese skip met normale bomme aangeval het. Die Japannese skip is getref en beskadig, maar een van die afleidingsvliegtuie het verlore gegaan.

Die eerste torpedo -aanval het op 7 September plaasgevind, toe die eskader vanaf Milne Bay aan die oostelike punt van Nieu -Guinee opereer het. Die eskader, ondersteun deur drie Beaufighters van No. 30 Squadron, RAAF, val 'n Japannese kruiser en verwoester aan wat die baai nader. Die aanval het misluk en die kruiser het Milne Bay gebombardeer, maar die dreigement van 'n torpedo -aanval het hulle in die toekoms weggehou. Die volgende torpedo -aanval, teen teikens van die Shortland -eilande op 4 Oktober, het ook geen treffers behaal nie. 'N Gemengde bom- en torpedo -aanval op 24 November was meer suksesvol, met een treffer wat aangeteken is

Die eerste suksesvolle sink het op 6 Januarie 1943 plaasgevind toe ses vliegtuie van die eskader 'n nagaanval op 'n Japannese konvooi naby Gasmata uitgevoer het. Twee vliegtuie het verlore gegaan in swak weer wat na die aanval teruggekeer het, maar twee vervoer is gesink en 'n ligte kruiser is beskadig. Torpedo -bombardemente is gou uitgefaseer - die eskader se laaste torpedomissie het agt vliegtuie aan die Slag van die Bismarcksee (Maart 1943) deelgeneem, maar met min sukses.

Hierna het die eskader sy Beauforts as vlakbomwerpers gebruik. Die Japannese basisse op New Britain, en veral in Rabaul, het 'n sleutelrol vir die eskader geword. In Mei 1943 begin die eskader 'n losskakel van Goodenough -eiland, wat hulle in staat stel om makliker Rabaul te bereik. Die dorpie Gasmata, aan die suidelike kus van New Britain, was ook 'n uitstekende teiken.

Op 22 Oktober het al drie die Australiese Beaufort -eskaders (nr. 6, 8 en 100) vir die eerste keer saam opereer in 'n aanval op 'n Japannese konvooi. Daar is destyds 'n paar suksesse aangevoer, maar kan nie met enige sinkings verbind word nie.

Gedurende 1944 is die eskader hoofsaaklik gebruik om Australiese troepe te ondersteun wat op New Britain en New Ireland werk, en om die geïsoleerde Japannese garnisoen van die Wewak -gebied aan te val.

In Junie verhuis die eskader na Aitape, gereed om die geallieerde landings ongeveer 100 myl van Wewak te ondersteun. Nr. 8 en 100 eskaders het hul Beauforts gebruik teen die Japannese teenaanval wat die landings gevolg het, en om die Wewak -vliegveld buite gebruik te hou.

Die pogings van die eskader is daarna verdeel, met 'n deel om die druk by Wewak te handhaaf en 'n deel om 'n landing op New Britain te ondersteun. Op 11 September 1944 het die eskader aan Operasie Wewak Welter deelgeneem en 78,000 pond bomme op die Wewak -vliegveld laat val.

In Oktober 1944 het nommer 7 -eskader aangesluit by nommer 8 en 100 eskader, RAAF, by Aitape (Nieu -Guinee) waar hulle 'n Beaufort -vleuel gevorm het.

Gedurende 1945 het die eskader baie van sy tyd daaraan bestee om Japannese teikens in die Wewak -gebied aan te val.

Die mees intensiewe tydperk van Beaufort -aanvalle op Wewak kom in die laaste twee weke van die oorlog, en eindig met 'n aanval op die Muschu -eilandgebied, net wes van die stad Wewak, op 15 Augustus.

Na afloop van die geveg is die eskader gebruik om pamflette na die Japannese posisies te stuur waarin hulle in kennis gestel word van die oorgawe sowel as begeleiding van eenmotorige vliegtuie wat die reis terug na Australië maak. Die eskader is op 19 Augustus 1946 ontbind.

Vliegtuie
Februarie 1942-: Bristol Beaufort (gebou in Australië)
Lente 1943-Augustus 1946: Bristol Beaufort VIII

Ligging
1942-1943: Torpedo-bombardement en vlakbomaanval, Nieu-Guinee
1943-1945: Vlakbomaanvalle, Nieu-Guinee en omgewing

Eskader kodes: Beaufort -kode: QH

Plig
1942-1943: Torpedo-bombardement en vlakbomaanval, Nieu-Guinee
1943-1945: Vlakbomaanvalle, Nieu-Guinee en omgewing

Boeke

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No 100 Squadron was 'n Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) bomwerper en maritieme patrollie eskader wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog opereer het. Die eskader, wat vroeg in 1942 opgestaan ​​het uit die oorblyfsels van 'n Britse eenheid wat in Malaya verwoes is, het Bristol Beauforts gevlieg vanaf basisse in Queensland en Nieu-Guinee, met torpedo- en vlakbomaanvalle teen Japanse teikens in die Stille Oseaan-teater. Na afloop van die vyandelikhede is die eskader in Augustus 1946 ontbind.

Ons wil veral individuele historici -navorsers of lede van eenheidsverenigings aanmoedig om by te dra tot die ontwikkeling van 'n meer gedetailleerde geskiedenis en foto's wat verband hou met hierdie eenheid en sy lede.

Kontak [email protected] (mailto: [email protected]) vir meer inligting oor hoe om by te dra.


Inhoud

Eerste Wêreldoorlog

No. 100 is op 23 Februarie 1917 in Hingham in Norfolk gestig as die eerste eskader van die Royal Flying Corps wat spesifiek gevorm is as 'n nagbommeenheid en bestaan ​​uit elemente van die Home Defense Wing. Die eenheid is op 21 Maart 1917 vanaf Portsmouth gemobiliseer en oorgesteek na Frankryk en was eers in St Andre-aux-Bois, waar dit twaalf FE2bs-vliegtuie as aanvulling ontvang het. Hierdie vliegtuie is teruggetrek uit ander eenhede waar hulle in daglig gedryf het, sodat veranderinge nodig was om dit aan te pas vir die operasionele rol van 100 eskader. [2] Op 1 April 1917 verhuis die eenheid na Izel-le-Hameau en neem nog vier vliegtuie in komplement in die vorm van BE2es. Die eskader het in die nag van 5/6 April 1917 begin werk, toe elf FE2b -vliegtuie die vliegveld van Douai aanval, waar Manfred von Richthofen se 'Flying Circus' gebaseer was. Richthofen verwys na hierdie aanval in sy boek 'Der Rote Kampfflieger'. Honderd agt en twintig 20 lb (9 kg) en vier 40 lb (18 kg) bomme is neergegooi. [2] Op 17 November 1918 verhuis 100 eskader na RAF Saint Inglevert. [3] Op 4 Maart 1918, [3] is die eskader na Ochey, naby Nancy, gestuur om die kern van die Onafhanklike Lugmag te vorm onder generaal -majoor Hugh Trenchard. In Augustus van daardie jaar het die eenheid omgeskakel na swaar bomwerpers van Handley Page 0/400, en gevolglik het langafstandreeks oor industriële terreine in Duitsland moontlik geword. Die eskader het gedurende die res van die oorlog hierdie aanvalle uitgevoer; 'n vliegtuig van die eenheid was die laaste in oorlogstyd wat teruggekeer het na die basis (die aand voor die wapenstilstand) van 'n aanval. [2]

Tussenoorlogse tydperk

Na die einde van die oorlog het die eskader tot September 1919 op die vasteland gebly as 'n kader voordat dit na RAF Baldonnel, naby Dublin, oorgeplaas is en weer op volle sterkte gevorm het, en weer toegerus met Bristol F.2 Fighters vir weermagsamewerking. Tydens die Ierse Onafhanklikheidsoorlog is noue lugondersteuningsoperasies uitgevoer. Na afloop van die vyandelikhede is die eskader na Spitalgate, Lincs, verskuif. in Februarie 1922 omgeskakel na bombardemente, hierdie keer met Vickers Vimys en DH9A's. [4]

In Mei 1924 is die eenheid weer toegerus met die Fairey Fawn. Met hierdie vliegtuie het die eskader lugposdienste verrig wat die Algemene Staking van 1926 verbreek het. In September van daardie jaar het die eskader Hawker Horsley-vliegtuie aangevul en in November 1930 na Donibristle, Fife, oorgeskakel na torpedo-bombardement. Die hersiene amptelike benaming as 'No. 100 (Torpedo-Bomber) Squadron 'kom later, in 1933. [4]

'N Verdere heruitrusting kom in November 1932, toe die Vickers Vildebeest 'n aanvulling kry en met hierdie vliegtuig is die eskader ontplooi as deel van die operasie om Singapoer te verdedig, wat in Januarie 1934 by Seletar aankom. [4]

Tweede wereld oorlog

Die eskader was gereed nadat die oorlog verklaar is, maar vir die tydperk tot Desember 1941 was daar min operasionele betrokkenheid terwyl dit nog steeds in Seletar was. In November en Desember 1941 is afdelings na Fisherman's Bend, in Victoria, Australië, gestuur. Die beoogde vervangingsvliegtuie (Bristol Beauforts) vir die oorblywende eskader kom nie voor nie, en as deel van die operasies teen die opkomende Japannese magte, is die eenheid se verouderde Vildebeest -vliegtuie gebruik in aanvalle op vyandse skeepvaart. As gevolg hiervan het die eskader gedurende Januarie 1942 die meeste van sy vliegtuie verloor in gesprekke met Japannese vegters. Ondanks verskeie pogings om as 'n gekombineerde eenheid saam met No. 36 -eskader RAF operasioneel te bly, namate Japan vordering in die Verre Ooste -teater gemaak het, het die meeste personeel uiteindelik krygsgevangenes geword. [5] Ander is na Australië ontruim. (In Februarie 1942 word nr. 100 -eskader, Royal Australian Air Force gevorm by RAAF Richmond, naby Sydney, uit 'n kern van 100 eskader -RAF -personeel. Ondanks hierdie skakel was die eskader 'n RAAF -eskader gedurende sy hele bestaan.)

Op 15 Desember 1942 is RAF proper Squadron No. 100 weer gevorm in die Verenigde Koninkryk, by RAF Grimsby, naby Waltham, as 'n swaar bomwerper-eskader in die nag en was deel van die nr. 1 groep, RAF Bomber Command. In Januarie 1943 ontvang die eskader die eerste van sy nuwe aanvulling van Avro Lancasters, die eerste operasie van die eskader was op 4 Maart 1943 teen 'n U-Boat-basis in St Nazaire. 'N Paar dae later was die eskader betrokke by 'n aanval op Neurenberg in Duitsland en het van toe af, ter ondersteuning van die strategiese rol van Bomber Command, teen Duitsland deelgeneem aan elke groot aanval. [6]

Aan die einde van 1943 het die eskader die tweede grootste aantal suksesvolle operasies van eenhede binne nommer 1 Group Bomber Command voltooi en die laagste 'verlies' -koers gehad. In die nag van 5 Junie 1944 het die eskader swaar geweerbatterye gebombardeer ter ondersteuning van die D-Day-inval. [6]

Vir die laaste maand van die oorlog het die eskader na Elsham Wolds in Lincolnshire verhuis. In die laaste stadiums van die oorlog en na-oorlog was die eskader betrokke by die humanitêre operasies Manna en Exodus.

Na-oorlog tot op hede

Tussen 1946 en 1950 was die eskader gebaseer by RAF Hemswell wat Avro Lancasters en later Avro Lincolns bedryf het. Die eskader verlaat Hemswell in 1950 en verhuis na Maleisië waar dit betrokke was by Operations Firedog en Musgrave. In Januarie 1954 het die eenheid tydens die Mau Mau -opstand na Eastleigh in Kenia ontplooi. Twee maande later is die eskader weer toegerus met English Electric Canberras, wat na Wittering in Cambridgeshire verhuis het. Dit is op 1 September 1959 ontbind, maar hervorm op Wittering op 1 Mei 1962, toegerus met Handley Page Victor B.2s, wat vanaf die vroeë 1964 die Blue Steel-missielkernwapen gedra het. Op 30 September 1968 ontbind die eskader weer in 1972 as 'n doelgeriewe-eenheid, met Canberra-vliegtuie in West Raynham, in Norfolk. 100 vierkante meter gekombineer met 85 en 98 eskaders en het 26 Canberra -vliegtuie van RAF Marham (Norfolk) bestuur voordat hulle in 1982 na RAF Wyton in Cambridgeshire verhuis het. In 1991 het die eskader oorgeskakel na HS Hawk T.1's, wat nou gebruik word vir opleiding en voorste ondersteuningsrolle. In 1994 verhuis die eskader na RAF Finningley. Na die nuus dat RAF Finningley gesluit sou word, het 100 vierkante meter sonder die grondpersoneel na RAF Leeming verhuis.


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TEMORA Sluit aan by RAAF SE HERSTIGTE NR. 100 EKWADRON

Temora speel vanjaar 'n unieke rol in die Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) se eeufeesvieringe.

Die beroemde lugvaartmuseum van die stad is binnekort die tuiste van die Temora Historic Flight-'n deel van die heroprigting van die RAAF van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog-era nr. 100-eskader.

Adjunk -premier en lid van Riverina Michael McCormack het gesê nr. 100 -eskader word hervorm as 'n RAAF -erfenis -eskader en sal die ouer -eenheid wees vir Temora Historic Flight en die RAAF se Museum Heritage Flight by Point Cook in Victoria.

McCormack verwelkom die waardige betrokkenheid van Temora by die viering van die RAAF se eeufees.

"Temora het 'n uitgebreide lugvaartgeskiedenis wat dateer uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, waar vlieëniers opgelei het by RAAF se No 10 Elementary Flying Training School," het mnr. McCormack gesê.

'Die opleidingsskool het na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op 12 Maart 1946 gesluit, maar sedertdien het Temora 'n sterk lugvaartfokus behou, wat onder meer deel uitmaak van die verjongde eskader nr. 100.

'Temora Historic Flight sal voortbou op die langdurige bydrae van die Riverina tot die RAAF, wat RAAF Base Wagga en die voormalige 5 Service Flying Training School in Uranquinty insluit.

"Die Temora Aviation Museum het natuurlik sedert 2000 'n spesiale rol gespeel in die behoud van die RAAF -geskiedenis deur te vlieg en 'n paar ikoniese oorlogsvliegtuie te vertoon, soos die Spitfire."

Minister van Personeel van Verdediging, Darren Chester, het gesê nr. 100-eskader het 'n trotse geskiedenis en na 'n afwesigheid van 75 jaar is dit gepas dat RAAF dit heraktiveer in dieselfde jaar as wat dit die eerste 100 jaar herdenk.

"Die eerste eskader tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op 15 Februarie 1942 by RAAF Base Richmond, was 'n lugmagbomwerper en maritieme patrollie-eskader wat opgelei is in die Australiese Bristol Beauforts," het Chester gesê.

“Die eskader het verskeie suksesvolle missies gedurende die oorlog uitgevoer, wat deelgeneem het aan die beroemde Slag van die Bismarcksee in Maart 1943 en uiteindelik op 19 Augustus 1946 in Nieu -Guinee ontbind het.

"Die erfenisvloot van nr. 100 -eskader sal die diens van vorige generasies erken en die volgende generasie vlieëniers inspireer."

No.100 Eskader sal 21 erfenisvliegtuie van Point Cook en Temora af vlieg.

Die nuwe Air Force Heritage Squadron -hoofkwartier by RAAF Base Point Cook bied 'n historiese band met die gemeenskap.

Die hervestiging van nr. 100-eskader val saam met die eeufees van die RAAF, wat op 31 Maart 1921 gestig is.


RAAF hervat nommer 100 eskader

Voor die eeufeesherdenking van die Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), sal nr. 100-eskader hervorm word as die Air Force Heritage Squadron, wat op twee plekke RAAF Base Point Cook en Temora werk. No. 100 -eskader sal 'n aantal vliegtuie uit die huidige erfenisvloot van Point Cook, Victoria en Temora, Nieu -Suid -Wallis, vlieg.

Minister van Personeel van Verdediging, Darren Chester, het gesê 100 eskader het 'n trotse geskiedenis en na 'n afwesigheid van 75 jaar is dit gepas dat RAAF dit heraktiveer in dieselfde jaar as wat dit die eerste 100 jaar herdenk. "100 Squadron was die eerste keer gestig tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Februarie 1942 by RAAF Base Richmond, en was 'n lugmagbomwerper en maritieme patrollie-eskader wat opgelei is op die in Bristol Beauforts gebou in Australië," het Chester gesê. “Die eskader het verskeie suksesvolle missies gedurende die oorlog uitgevoer, wat deelgeneem het aan die beroemde Slag van die Bismarcksee in Maart 1943 en uiteindelik ontbind in Nieu -Guinee op 19 Augustus 1946. Die erfenisvloot van 100 eskader sal die diens van vorige erken generasies en inspireer die volgende generasie vlieëniers. ”

Onder -premier en lid van Riverina Michael McCormack verwelkom Temora se waardige betrokkenheid by die viering van die RAAF se eeufees. "Temora het 'n uitgebreide lugvaartgeskiedenis wat dateer uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, waar vlieëniers by RAAF se nommer 10 Elementary Flying Training School opgelei het," het McCormack gesê. 'Die opleidingsskool het na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op 12 Maart 1946 gesluit, maar sedertdien het Temora 'n sterk lugvaartfokus behou, wat onder meer deel uitmaak van die verjongde nommer 100 -eskader. Temora Historic Flight sal voortbou op die lang bydrae van Riverina tot die RAAF, wat RAAF Base Wagga en die voormalige 5 Service Flying Training School in Uranquinty insluit. Die Temora Aviation Museum speel natuurlik sedert 2000 'n spesiale rol in die behoud van die RAAF -geskiedenis deur te vlieg en 'n paar ikoniese oorlogsvliegtuie te vertoon, soos die Spitfire.


Geskiedenis 100 m² RAAF en Beaufort Bomber Operations Pacific WW2

In hierdie boek word die voordele van die vlieëniers van die eerste Australiese Beaufort -eskader in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog opgeteken.
Die Beaufort, wat ontwikkel is as 'n torpedo- en algemene verkenningsbomwerper, was die swaarste, kragtigste en mees komplekse vliegtuig wat ooit in Australië (destyds) gebou is. Dit het diens gedoen by die Royal Australian Air Force in 'n tyd toe die Japannese inval op hande was. 'N Latere variant van die Beaufort was natuurlik die Beaufighter.

Aangesien die gety van die oorlog in die Suidwes-Stille Oseaan oorgegaan het van een wat meestal oor die oseaan geveg is na 'n operasie op die grond, het bykomende Beaufort-eenhede by die oorspronklike eskader aangesluit om die RAAF se No 71-vleuel te vorm.

Met behulp van nuwe metodes van oorlogvoering het die Beaufort -spanne die Amerikaanse en Australiese grondmagte ten nouste ondersteun. Deur die deelnemers se eie woorde te gebruik om gebeurtenisse te beskryf, van die gevare van opleiding tot die woede van offensiewe operasies, maak die skrywer die dapperheid van die vlieëniers lewendig en die toewyding en vaardigheid van die grondpersoneel wat Beauforts bedryf het tydens die langdurige veldtog oor die hele Suidwes-Stille Oseaan.


Kontak met Mike G0WKH en Louis Stanley ‘Doc ’ Watson van die RAAF

Op 30 April 2021, terwyl ek die spesiale roepsein van die Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) van VI100AF gebruik, het ek kontak gemaak met Mike G0WKH op die 20m band.

Mike het 'n baie interessante e-pos aan my opgevolg wat soos volg lui:-

Ek was bly om vandag met u kontak te maak. Ek het gedink dat u dalk sou belangstel om te weet dat my gesin tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gasheer was vir 'n aantal dienspligtiges. Ons het 'n groot huis gehad, want daar was 13 in die gesin van 3 generasies. Daar was 'n mobiele ekstra bevolking van diensmanne uit al die dienste, en diegene met groot huise is deur die oorlogsdepartement verplig om vir hulle plek te maak. In sommige gevalle is die hele eiendom aangevra. Onder die drie mans wat saam met ons ingeskakel was toe die Australiese 461 -eskader van Sunderland Flying Boats na Poole gekom het, was Louis (Doc) Watson. Hy vlieg as 'n lugskutter op anti -duikbootpatrollies in die Kanaal en die Baai van Biskaje. Hy was baie geliefd by my gesin. Ek was toe 11 en ek dink hy was bly om mee te gesels en met my te speel. Die eskader het uiteindelik na Pembroke aan die kus van Wallis verhuis en ons het kontak met hom verloor, soos ons inderdaad met al ons 'gaste' gedoen het. 'N Paar jaar gelede stig 'n paar ondernemende mense in Poole 'n klub genaamd die Friends of the Poole Flying Boats. Hulle het uitgebreide argiewe oor aktiwiteite wat hierdie vliegtuie dek, beide burgerlik en militêr. Tydens 'n vergadering 'n paar jaar gelede het ek hul sekretaris baie inligting gegee. Uit ons geheue oor ons kontakte, wat dok. Sy het daarna na my teruggekeer met die hartseer nuus dat hy op 'n patrollie oor die Baai van Biskaje neergeskiet en vermoor is. Sy vliegtuig is aangeval deur 6 Junkers88 en daar was geen oorlewendes nie. Die feit dat sy huis in die Mile End -omgewing van Adelaide was, was ingesluit in die materiaal wat sy vir my gegee het. Ek glo dat daar 'n soort Memorial vir Aussies in Thebarton kan wees. 'N Lang storie, maar dit was gepas!

As gevolg van die e -pos van Mike ’ het ek besluit om bietjie navorsing te doen oor Louis ‘Doc ’ Watson.

My eerste stop was die webwerf van die Friends of the Poole Flying Boats.

Louis Stanley Watson is gebore op die 12de dag van Februarie 1918 in Adelaide, Suid -Australië. Sy ouers was William Henry Watson (1881-1954) en Mabel Wilhelmina Watson nee Rogers (1880-1964).

Op 22 -jarige ouderdom het hy op die 21ste dag van Mei 1940 by die Royal Australian Air Force by Adelaide aangesluit. Sy naasbestaandes is aangeteken as sy pa William Watson.

Louis bereik die rang van sersant in die RAAF, met sy diensnommer 26588. Hy dien saam met 461 eskader.

Die nr. 461 -eskader van die Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) was 'n maritieme patrollie -eskader tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, wat onder beheer van die Royal Air Force funksioneer. Die eskader is gestig op die 25ste dag van April 1942 en is op die 20ste dag van Junie 1945 ontbind, na die einde van die oorlog in Europa. Die rol van 461 Eskader was om konvooie te beskerm en duikbootaanvalle af te weer. Hulle het oor myle van die Atlantiese Oseaan gevlieg om U -bote, die Duitse duikbote, te jag en te vernietig. Personeel kom uit baie lande van die Britse Ryk, hoewel die meerderheid Australiërs was.

Die eskader was oorspronklik gebaseer op Mount Batten en daarna na Hamworthy. In 1943 is die eskader verplaas na die Pembroke Dock in Wallis.

Die eskader het bestaan ​​uit vlieënde bote van Sunderland. Die Sunderland was 'n vliegtuig wat stadig vlieg en word gereeld deur vyandige Duitse vegters aangeval. As gevolg hiervan het die grondpersoneel die Sunderlands aangepas met tweelinggeweertorings en masjiengewere wat deur kombuis toegerus is. As gevolg hiervan het die vliegtuig bekend gestaan ​​as die ‘Flying Hedgehogs ’.

Gedurende die oorlog het die eskader 'n totaal van ses Duitse U-bote vernietig en hoofsaaklik in die Baai van Biskaje en die Atlantiese Oseaan bedryf. RAAF 461 -eskader het altesaam twintig (20) Sunderlands weens vyandelike optrede en ongelukke verloor. Altesaam 86 eskaderlede is dood tydens operasies, waaronder 64 Australiërs.

Omstreeks 12.55 op Woensdag, die 2de dag van Junie 1943, het 'n Short Sunderland GR3, reeksnommer EJ134, met sy beroemde roepsein van “N for Nuts ” opgestyg vanaf die Royal Air Force Base Pembroke Dock, onder bevel van die Kaptein van die vliegtuig Flight Lt. Colin Braidwood Walker. Die vlug is beskryf as 'n normale A/S (anti -duikboot) patrollie in die Bay of Biscay. ’ Sersant Louis Stanley Watson was die Rigger aan boord van die vliegtuig.

Hulle missie daardie dag was om te soek na 'n burgerlike vliegtuig, 'n DC-3 Dakota wat nie in Bristol aangekom het nie en vermoedelik deur die Luftwaffe neergeskiet is. Aan boord van die vliegtuig was die Britse akteur, Leslie Howard.

Die bemanning het geen teken van die vermiste Dakota opgespoor nie. Omstreeks 18:45. EJ134 het op 'n hoogte van 2 000 voet oor die Baai van Biskaje gepatrolleer, 'n gebied bekend as ‘ Tiger country ’. Dit het hierdie naam gekry as gevolg van die aantal eensame vliegtuie wat deur Duitse vegters in die omgewing neergeskiet is. Op hierdie tydstip het agt Duitse vliegtuie JU 88 vinnig op die vliegtuig toegesluit en die Sunderland word aangeval.

Die Junkers Ju 88 was 'n Duitse tweelingmotor-tweevliegmotor met tweeluik-gevegte in Duitse Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

In wat gevolg het, het die bemanning van EJ134 hul plekke in die geskiedenis van die lugvaart verower. In 'n langdurige aanval deur die Luftwaffe verloor die Sunderland een enjin en sy stertoring. Ten spyte hiervan het EJ134 daarin geslaag om drie van die agt Duitse vegters neer te skiet. Van die oorblywende vyf JU 88 ’'s wat deur EJ134 beskadig is, het slegs twee na Bordeaux in Frankryk teruggekeer. Die oorblywende drie JU 88 ’'s het vermoedelik in die see neergestort.

Tydens die brandgeveg was sersant Louis Stanley Watson in die neus -rewolwer van die vliegtuig.

'N Aantal van die bemanning het beserings opgedoen, terwyl Edward Charles Ernest ‘Ted ’ Miles, die eerste vlugingenieur, net 27 jaar oud, dood is.

Die erg beskadigde Sunderland EJ134, met ongeveer 500 gate, die grootste deel van die brug wat met alle radio vernietig is en 'n paar vlieënde instrumente vernietig is, het die 350 myl teruggekeer na Cornwall. Dit het nie by die Pembroke Dock gekom nie, en het geforseer geland in die vlak aan die oewer van Cornwall, by Praa Sands.

Sir Charles Portal, lugdienshoof, het die volgende aan die bemanning gestuur:

Ek het pas die verslag van die vlug deur Sunderland N/461 teen 8 JU88 op 2 Junie gelees. Ek sou graag wou hê dat Flight Lieutenant Walker en die oorlewende lede van sy dapper bemanning vertel word van die bewondering en trots wat ek gevoel het toe ek die besonderhede van hierdie epiese stryd gelees het, wat een van die beste gevalle in hierdie oorlog is, van die triomf van koelte, vaardigheid en vasberadenheid teen oorweldigende kans. Ek is seker dat nie net die swaar verliese wat die Duitse vegters aangerig is nie, maar veral die gees en reguit skiet van die bemanning 'n diepgaande indruk op die moraal van die vyand in die Baai van Biskaje sal maak en sodoende baie sal help in die oorlog op die U Boats. Van sir Charles Portal, hoof van lugdienste. ”

Vier van die bemanning van EJ134 (en 'n BBC -personeellid) neem die verhaal op van die ontmoeting met die JU88's in 'n BBC -ateljee. Sersant Watson is in die middel. Beeld c/o awm.gov.au

Baie van die bemanning van EJ134 was almal op 8 Julie 1943 terug op operasionele vlug en het saam nog vier operasionele vlugte voltooi. In Augustus 1943 het hulle deelgeneem aan die sink van U-106 met 'n 228 Squadron Sunderland. Sersant Watson sou egter nie so gelukkig wees gedurende Augustus 1943 nie.

Op 7.08 op Vrydag, die 13de dag van Augustus 1943, het 'n Short Sunderland Mk III, reeksnommer DV968, vanaf die Royal Air Force Base Pembroke Dock opgestyg vir 'n anti-duikbootpatrollie oor die Baai van Biskaje in die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Niks is tot 14:47 uit die vliegtuig gehoor nie. toe 'n sein ontvang word wat sê dat die vliegtuig deur ses JU 88 ’'s aangeval word.

Daar word vermoed dat die Sunderland deur een van die JU 88 ’'s neergeskiet is en in die Baai van Biskaje neergestort het. Louis ’s se vliegtuie is later opgeëis deur Lt. Artur Schroeder van 13/KG 40. Kampfgeschwader 40 (KG40) was 'n Luftwaffe medium en swaar bomwerpervleuel en die primêre maritieme patrollie.

Die volgende dag het Sunderland JM683 die gebied gepatrolleer waar vermoed word dat die vliegtuig neergeskiet is, maar geen rubberbote of oorlewendes is gevind nie.

'N Uittreksel uit die boek van Herrington J (John) wat aanspraak maak op Air War Against Germany and Italy 1939-1943, lui soos volg:-

Vliegtuigoffisier Dowling van nr. 461, wat die galante bemanning gelei het wat onder vlugluitenant Colin Braidwood Walker (404610) die heldhaftige stryd teen agt Ju-88's op 2 Junie gewen het, kon nie op 13 Augustus terugkeer van patrollie nadat hy vyandelike vegters aangemeld het nie nader sy Sunderland. ”

Die bemanningslede van DV968 was:

  • Vlieënde beampte Wilbur James Dowling (400788) (vlieënier)
  • Vlugsersant Alfred Eric Fuller (576061) (RAF) (Wireless Air Gunner)
  • Vlieënde beampte David Taylor Galt DFC (400976) (eerste vlieënier)
  • Akteoffisier Ray Marston Goode DFM (407499) (Air Gunner)
  • Vlieënde beampte James Charles Grainger (400411) (Tweede vlieënier)
  • Flight Sersant Albert Lane (414701) (Wireless Air Gunner)
  • Vlugsersant Charles Douglas Les Longson (415338) (Wireless Air Gunner)
  • Akteoffisier Harold Arthur Miller (405083) (Wireless Air Gunner)
  • Flight Lieutenant Kenneth McDonald Simpson DFC (403778) (Waarnemer)
  • Flight Sersant Phillip Kelvin Turner (26697) (Flight Engineer)
  • Sersant Louis Stanley Watson (26588) (Flight Mechanic / Air Gunner)

James Collier Amiss en Colin Braidwood Walker wat die dag in DV968 vlieg, was nie tydens die voorval op 2 Junie aan boord van die EJ134 nie.

Louis was net 25 jaar oud. Sy liggaam is nooit herstel nie.

Louis word onthou by die Runnymede Memorial, Surrey, Engeland. Hy word ook onthou op verskillende ander plekke, waaronder die Australian War Memorial in Canberra, en die National War Memorial of South Australia in North Terrace, Adelaide.


Enkele aantekeninge uit die bladsye van die verlede:

Australiese vliegkorps. Lugvaartskool wat gestig moet word.

Die minister van verdediging (mnr. Pearce) het 'n tydjie gelede, op advies van die lugkantoor, monoplanes en twee tweevliegtuie bestel. Dit sal na verwagting volgende maand aankom. 'N Militêre lugvaartskool word op Duntroon, naby die militêre kollege, gevestig. Twee vlieëniers is reeds aangestel Een is 'n Australiër, terwyl die ander Australiese ervaring het. Nog twee vlieëniers moet nog aangewys word. Sodra alles gereed is, sal vrywilligers van die militêre instelling opgeroep word om 'n onderrigkursus by te woon by Duntroon, wat ongeveer vier maande duur. Van hierdie skool gaan suksesvolle lede na die Australian Flying Corps. Daar word jaarliks ​​drie skole gehou en regulasies word nou oorweeg vir die beheer van die nuwe diens, en om spesiale toelaes vas te stel. Hy sal ook voorsiening maak vir mans wat die slagoffer van ongelukke kan wees. Hierdie vier vliegtuie vorm die kern van 'n nuwe onderneming, wat na verwagting verhoog sal word. Australiese vliegkorps. (1912, 13 Julie). Die Beverley Times(WA: 1905 - 1977), p. 7. Opgehaal van http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206507176

VLIEGTUIGKWADRON. AUSTRALIES. VLIEGENDE KORPSE GEVORM.

Lieut. Harrison, 'n gebore Australiese vlieënier, is teen £ 400 per jaar in die Australiese vliegkorps aangestel in die pos wat vakant geraak het deur die bedanking van Lieut. Besig. Lieut. Harrison is 26 jaar, 'n alleenstaande man, en hy word in Engeland beskryf as 'n onverskrokke 'voëlman'. Lieut. Petre., Wat in die ander pos aangestel is, is 'n prokureur van beroep, 27 jaar oud, en het ondervinding in die ontwerp, konstruksie en werking van vliegtuie. Die verwagting is dat die vier vliegtuie wat onlangs deur die verdedigingsowerhede vir £ 800 gekoop is, gedurende die volgende paar weke uit Engeland gestuur sal word, en die vlieëniers sal hulle waarskynlik vergesel.

Amptelike sanksie vir die stigting van die Australian Flying Corps is vandag gegee. Die eenheid bestaan ​​uit 'n 'vliegtuig -eskader', en die volledige personeel bestaan ​​uit vier offisiere, sewe lasoffisiere en sersante en 32 werktuigkundiges, of 'n totaal van 43 mans. Die korps sal deel uitmaak van die burgermagte, en inskrywing, wat vrywillig sal wees, sal vanaf 1 Januarie volgende begin. VLIEGTUIGKWADRON. (1912, 24 Oktober). Die joernaal(Adelaide, SA: 1912 - 1923), bl. 4. Opgehaal van http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article199899855

AUSTRALIESE VLIEGKORP. INSTRUKTOR SE KOMING. GRATIS. Dinsdag

Die passasiers deur die RMS Omrah, wat vandag aangekom het, "het mnr. H. Petre ingesluit, wat onlangs deur die Statebondregering aangestel is as instrukteur van die militêre vliegtuigkorps. nasies in lugvaart aangeleenthede, maar terwyl Engeland traag was, het sy baie goeie masjiene vervaardig, en die oorlogskantoor word as die beste ter wêreld beskou. Dit is hierdie masjiene wat deur die Statebond bestel is. in crossing the Atlantic, he said that he thought it very probable, and that the next few years would see it accomplished. Mr Eric Harrison, a colleague of Mr Petre, remained in England to superintend the shipment of the four flying machines which are now on the way out here. AUSTRALIAN FLYING CORPS. ( 1913, January 8 ). Mount Alexander Mail (Vic. : 1854 - 1917), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200464490

AUSTRALIAN FLYING CORPS. MEN AND MACHINES

Information has been received by the defence authorities to the effect that Lieutenant Eric Harrison took his departure from England for Australia on April 26. In his charge are three of the aeroplanes which were recently purchased by the Commonwealth Government at an average cost of £800 apiece. These will be delivered in Melbourne.

The fourth machine has already been landed in Sydney, but has not been unpacked from the cases, in view of the fact that no definite decision has yet been come to with regard to the site for the aerodrome.

Originally, it was intended that this should be situated within the Federal capital territory, but owing to its altitude the experts have reported unfavourably with regard to that locality. Investigations are now being made in other quarters, and the level lands in the vicinity of Werribee and Altona Bay are being inspected by Lieutenant Petre, the other Commonwealth military airman, who has been in Australia for about two months. AUSTRALIAN FLYING CORPS. ( 1913, May 10 ). The Argus(Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article10782835

AN AUSTRALIAN AVIATOR.

Lieutenant. Eric Harrison , the Commonwealth aviator, who arrived from England by the Otway recently, is a native of Castlemaine, Victoria, and his career is an example of the success attending grit and enterprise. After spending six years in the cycle and motor business he entered the engineering works of the Tarrant Motor Co.. Melbourne, where he speedily took a good position. During the visit to Australia of Mr. Hammond. Lieut. Harrison and others assisted that aviator in his flights. This experience gave him an impetus towards aviation, and decided to visit England, and learn all about the art, hoping that when the Defence authorities of the Commonwealth established the aviation corps he would have a chance to be "in it" so to speak.

Arriving in England, Lieut. Harrison went at once into the Aeroplane Construction Works of the British and Colonial Aeroplane works at Bristol, where he was appointed foreman of the engine-fitter, and was engaged in the manufacture of the celebrated "Gnome" engines. He had access to all the plans regard to aviation, and spent his spare time in studying them. Subsequently he entered upon his practical flying course, and after a fort-night's practice (on September 1, 1911) he obtained his pilot's certificate and became a member of the Royal Aero Club.

Since then Lieut. Harrison has followed aviation and was one of the instructors at the flying school on Salisbury Plain. He was sent to the Bristol Company to both Spain and Germany to instruct a number of officers in both countries to fly the Bristol machines, and afterwards went through the War office trials. He has also given demonstration with His machines before the various Continental military authorities, during which he made a record flight of 60 miles in 40 minutes at 4,000ft.

During the past five months Lieut. Harrison has been engaged in superintending the construction of the aeroplanes for the Commonwealth, and brings with him three machines and two expert mechanics. Lieut. Harrison is 27 years of age. AN AUSTRALIAN AVIATOR. ( 1913, June 13 ). Western Mail(Perth, WA : 1885 - 1954), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44872731

Point Cook in Victoria was the place finally settled on for our first military aviation base:

FIRST OFFICIAL FLIGHTS.B Y OUR SPECIAL REPORTER. POINT COOK, Thursday.

Today the first official flight by the Royal Flying Corps took place. The conditions which prevailed all the afternoon at the Commonwealth aviation ground could not be considered suitable, even though it was the occasion of the first official demonstration before military authorities of what the aeroplane corps is setting out to accomplish. -A thick haze, mostly of dust, enveloped, the aviation fields, and the wind, which was blowing at more than 30 miles an hour, was gusty and choppy. Two flights were successfully made, one by Lieutenant Petre and the other by Lieutenant Harrison, the former using his monoplane, and the latter a Bristol biplane. The machines rose only a few hundred feet, and each of the flights was short.

Mr. Harrison carried Brigadier-General Gordon as a passenger for a short distance, and then, fearing to turn with low-speed engines in such a wind, he alighted, and dropped the Chief of the General Staff, then returned to the hangar alone. A motor car rescued Brigadier-General Gordon from the midst of a field of thistles.

Point Cook is a minor point on the western shore of Port Phillip, about four miles from Werribee. Except for a few isolated farm houses the locality is a deserted one. Plains stretch for miles on either hand. From the point of view of the aviator- the spot is suitable enough, even if a little isolated- and remote. A huge tent is the temporary hangar which has been erected for stabling the two aeroplanes. The other two and later machines have not yet been brought to the aviation ground, as there is no place to house them. The delay in providing this is due to the Home Affairs department holding back the work of erecting permanent hangars for the five aeroplanes that are now owned by the Defence department.

Lieutenants Harrison (left) and Petre (right) in a B.E.2 at Central Flying School, Point Cook, 1914. Courtesy Australian War Memorial, photo Number: A03916

For four or five days the instructors have been testing the machines and getting accustomed to Australian air conditions. They have made a number of flights. Yesterday Lieutenant Harrison, in the Bristol biplane, flew across country towards Sunshine at an altitude of 1000 feet, and Lieutenant Petre flew up the coast to Williamstown in his monoplane. But today has marked the official opening of military flying in the Commonwealth. Both aviators have been anxious that the actual instruction of officers should commence as soon as possible, and are taking every opportunity to make .themselves quite at their ease in their machines. Brigadier-General Gordon, chief of the General Staff, and Major White, director of military operations, arrived from the barracks shortly after 4 o'clock. They had been delayed by the state of the roads, and did not witness the first flight that was made by Lieutenant Petre in his monoplane. This machine is of the Duperdessin type, and the wings are some feet longer than those of the Sopwith biplane that was used by Mr. Hawker. The engine, too, is of a make not familiar to the Australian public, being a three-cylinder Anzani, of 35 horse power, and capable of driving the monoplane at 48 miles an hour, whereas Mr. Hawker's machine has-a speed of 90 miles an hour, and is driven by an 80 horse power engine.

The flight was short, and what aviators describe as "'bumpy," for the strong southerly wind that was blowing at the rate, of over 30 miles an hour did not let the machine make much headway when travelling against it. When turning, the gusts, which came up fiercely, rocked the air craft, and it took all the pilot's skill to keep it steady. After circling round several hundred feet from the ground Lieutenant Petre descended.

Brigadier-General Gordon had now arrived, and was anxious to make the first official flight. He climbed into the seat behind Lieutenant Harrison when the Bristol biplane was wheeled out of the shed.

This type of aeroplane was seen in Australia some years ago, when Mr. Hammond made a series of splendid flights in what is now regarded as an old-fashioned type of machine. The speed of this aeroplane is only 45 miles an hour. It is fitted with a Gnome seven-cylinder engine, of 50 horse-power. These machines in England today on Salisbury plains are used for teaching beginners to fly. They are regarded as fairly safe, though, of course, not "fool proof." There is accommodation for a passenger behind the pilot.

Lieutenant Harrison's biplane was started with the usual twist of the propeller(the aeroplane being driven in this case), and,' rising' as if with difficulty, flew slowly across the ploughed field. It seemed as if in the wind, which was nearly "dead ahead," the weight of two people was too much. When about half a mile distant from the starting point the pilot was seen to be descending, and the machine travelled along the ground amongst high thistles. Brigadier-General Cordon then alighted, and the propeller having been set spinning again by the mechanics, who arrived by motor car, the biplane soared into the air, this time ascending to the height of several hundred feet. Then it flew on steadily, but just as it was crossing a road prior to entering the field where it was to alight, the pilot dived his machine towards earth, but righted it again, and flying within a few feet of the ground, alighted a hundred yards from the hangar. Lieutenant Harrison, speaking of the flight, said the wind was exceedingly choppy. -He had hesitated to tun in the wind with a passenger aboard with so little power available. "It was a rough passage," he went on "'one of the worst that I have experienced, and when I was crossing the road I was thrown out of my seat and, I tell you, it took me all my time to scramble back and get control. That was why the machine dipped like it did. When we get the Bristol B.E.- machines out we will have the power, and will be able to do anything in a wind like this."

Further flights had to be postponed, as the wind was increasing in violence. The machines were returned to the hangar, and the military party boarded the motor car and returned to Melbourne. THE AVIATION CORPS. ( 1914, March 7 ). Leader (Melbourne, Vic. : 1862 - 1918), p. 39. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article89314958

Flying Like a Bird.

Mr. Frank Hedges Butler(founder of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom) describing his impressions of his flight last month with Mr. Wilbur Wright, at Le Mans, France, said : — ' I have just flown the same as the birds. It is like gliding on beautiful water where you can seethe bottom — in perfect security.

Wright feels his levers and looks at his planes like a skipper looks at his sails. In 120 free balloon ascents that I have made, including twice crossing the Channel in the widest and narrowest parts, and once in a dirigible airship, the ' Ville de Paris,' nothing is !more charming than flying.

The first six Englishmen to fly in an aeroplane heavier than air are : —

Mr- Henry Farman, who resides in Paris Mr. Fordyce, who resides in Paris' Hon. C. S. Rolls, son of Lord Llangattock Mr Frank Hedges Butler, director of the well-known firm of wine merchants, Regent-street, London, W. Major Baden-Powell, brother of General Baden-Powell Mr. Griffith Brewer, a member of the Aero Club.' Flying Like a Bird. ( 1908, November 26 ). The Macleay Chronicle (Kempsey, NSW : 1899 - 1952), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article174463809

Right: Caricature of Butler by Leslie Ward from Vanity Fair, December 11, 1907 - Caption reads: "The Air"

Mr. Wilbur Wright, at Le Mans, France, yesterday, in his aeroplane, flew 66 kilometres (31 miles 672. yards) in one hour 31 minutes 25 seconds, being a record both as to distance and time. Mr. Wright's motor worked without a hitch.

The aeroplane rose over too feet, and when it descended the crowds frantically cheered the aeronaut.

Mr. H. White, the American Ambassador, in congratulating Mr. Wright, remarked, "The American nation may well be proud of you."

WRIGHT AEROPLANE. ( 1908, September 24 ). Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW : 1881 - 1940), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98782649

Mr. Frank Hedges Butler, the aeronaut, recalls that nine years ago--on October-13, 1908-describing in a London newspaper his impression of an aeroplane flight with Mr. Wilbur Wright at Le Mans, he made a forecast which, optimistic though it may have seemed then, falls short of the achievements of to-day:

" Lighthouses on land," he said in October, 1908, " will be erected by the Trinity Board to mark the way at night. Lamps on aeroplanes or fliers will be used.

The speed of the smaller planes will be terrific-200miles an hour. Twenty-one miles across the Channel means a very few minutes. Aeroplanes can be made to float on the water and raise themselves. No reason why, if now they can carry equal to three passengers, an aeroplane should not carry more with larger planes and engines." PROPHET OF THE AIR. ( 1918, January 25 ). Seymour Express and Goulburn Valley, Avenel, Graytown, Nagambie, Tallarook and Yea Advertiser (Vic. : 1882 - 1891 1914 - 1918), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article92149291

1908 -- People came from all over Europe to watch Wilbur fly. He demonstrates the Flyer for thousands of people that include heads of state, royalty, and the commanders of armies - photo courtesy Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company website

AUSTRALIAN AERO CLUB. INAUGURAL MEETING.

An important step has been made in the advancement of aviation in Australia. In November of last year an Aero Club was formed at Point Cook by the instructors of the Central Flying School, Captain Petre and Lieutenant Harrison and the first officer aviators who had obtained their pilot certificates at the school - Captain T. W. White, Lieutenants R. Williams, D. T. Manwell and G. P. Merz. It was then decided to form an Australian Aero Club to advance the cause of aviation, and to be a controlling body and social club. It was resolved that efforts should be made to conduct the club on lines similar to those of the Royal Aero Club of Great Britain. This club, with the Federation Aeronautiqe Internationale of France and its affiliated bodies controls aviation and grants pilots' certificates throughout the World.

As a result of the decision arrived at the inaugural meeting of the Australian Aero Club was held on Friday night last at the Cafe Francais, when military and civilian aviators and others directly interested met to elect office bearers, and lay down the work to be carried out. Captain H. Petre, who will he leaving shortly in command of the Central Flying Corps, which will proceed to the front with the Indian Army, presided.

On Friday night Lieutenant W. Sheldon of the Royal Australian Field Artillery was elected secretary in place of Captain White, who is leaving, shortly for the front with the Flying Corps. A committee was elected to draw up rules to be placed before the next meeting, which will be held shortly, qualifications for membership fixed, and some new members elected. The members of the committee are as follows - Major E. Harrison, Lieut. E. Harrison, Captain T. W. White Lieuts. Rolfe (R.A.G.A.) G. P Merz and Mr. Reynolds.

It is recognised by the founders or the club that the membership will not be large, but it is expected that the popularity of aviation, as its possibilities become more wide!y known, will tend to awaken greater interest in the science in Australia. At the conclusion of the meeting, Lieut. Eric Harrison proposed the health of Captains Petre and White and wished them a safe return. The toast was duly honoured, and appropriately responded to. AUSTRALIAN AERO CLUB. ( 1915, April 13 ). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1509465

AVIATION. Some years ago a number of enthusiasts inaugurated an aviation club, with the object of encouraging the science of aeronautics in Australia. Interest flagged, and want of support and public enthusiasm the association died down. It was on 6th November, 1914, when aviation began to hold the interest even of the ordinary man in the street, that the Australian Aero was established by the instructors of the Central Flying School, Captain Petre and his colleague, Lieutenant E. Harrison. At a meeting held at Point Cook, it was decided to form this club , including among its members, the first officer aviators to obtain their pilot certificates at the flying school. These officers included Captain T.W. White, Lieutenant A. G. P. Merz, Lieutenant R. Williams and Lieutenant D. T. Maxwell. At this little meeting it was agreed that the objects of the Australian Aero Club would be to advance the cause of aviation, and to be a controlling body and social club - run on similar lines as far is possible, as the Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom.

The inaugural meeting of the Australian Aero Club was held at the Café Francais on Friday evening, -9th April, when a strong attendance of military and civilian aviators, defence representatives and others, met to elect office bearers, and lay out plans of work to be proceeded with by the club. Lieutenant D. Sheldon., of the R.A.F.A., was elected secretary in place of Captain White, who is leaving shortly for the front with the flying corps. Captain H. Petre, who is also leaving very soon in command of the flying corps which will proceed to the front with the Indian army, presided. A committee, including the following, was elected: Major E. Harrison, Mr. Tom Reynolds, Lieutenant E. Harrison, Captain T. D. White, Lieutenant Ralfe and Lieutenant Merz. The committee agreed to draw up rules to be placed before the next meeting, which will be held at an early date. Qualifications for membership were fixed and some new members were elected. At the conclusion of the meeting, Lieutenant Eric Harrison proposed the healths of Captains Petre and White, wishing them both a safe return. AVIATION. ( 1915, April 17 ). Leader (Melbourne, Vic. : 1862 - 1918), p. 22 Edition: WEEKLY. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91374796

On August 4th, 1914 Britain declared war on Germany and many young Australians who had gone to England to also become 'airmen' were quickly in amongst the action in France. Aero Clubs, and the great ideas they would aim to take forward were placed on hold.

Mr. Glynn (Minister of External Affairs) received a telegram from the Prime Minister (Mr. Joseph Cook)at about 1 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon stating that official information has been received that war has broken out with Germany. Mr. Cook also stated:— "Australia is now at war."

The Governor-General has received a cable stating that war has broken out between Great Britain and Germany, and also messages expressing appreciation of Australia's offer of an expeditionary force.

The German cargo steamer Pfalz left her berth at Melbourne on Wednesday morning to proceed to sea, but inconsequence of official intervention she had to return to her berth.

Great Britain is now definitely at war with Germany. In the House of Commons yesterday, Mr. Asquith explained that Great Britain had asked Germany for an explanation of her intentions regarding the neutrality of Belgium, and had given the Berlin Government up to midnight to reply. Apparently the rejoinder was unsatisfactory, for later advices stated that a state of war existed between the two countries, and this was followed by an official declaration of war by Germany. It is stated that the German High Sea Fleet has left Kiel, and is steaming westward. If this be so, an engagement with the British Fleet now patrolling the North Sea, may be momentarily expected. Reports from Stockholm give details of a naval engagement between the Russians and Germans in the Baltic Sea. The Germans engaged the Russian Fleet near the Aland Islands, and the Russians, probably overwhelmed by numbers, were driven back, and have taken refuge in the Gulf of Finland. On land the Czar's forces are reported to have been more successful. Germany has been entered at several points on the eastern frontier, but no big engagements have yet been reported. Severe fighting has occurred between the Austrians and Servians near Belgrade, but Austria is believed to have abandoned her aggressive campaign against the little Kingdom in order to prepare in Galicia for the oncoming of the Russian Armies. There does not appear to have been any really serious fighting so far between the French and Germans, but it is now definitely announced that a German Army has crossed the north-east frontier . WAR BETWEEN ENGLAND AND GERMANY. ( 1914, August 6 - Thursday ).The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article6428546

A small insight into just one of these early Australian pilots experience in France, a man in his early 20's when this conflict began and who had gained his pilot's licence in 1912:

Australian Aviator. LIEUTENANT CONRAN'S WORK.

A couple of weeks ago …. it was intimated that Lieutenant Eric Conran, who is at the front with the Royal Flying Corps, had been mentioned in despatches which, of course, is a very high distinction. Many of the Australian papers printed the officer's name as "Conway," but he is the son of Mr. H. L. Conran, so well known from Queensland to Adelaide, where he resided for many years. Lieutenant Conran visited his native land on furlough a few months prior to the war, and gave an interesting interview on military aviation and flying generally.

Shortly after his return to London, hostilities broke out, and he was sent with his corps to the Allies' lines in France. Now we have received copies of a couple of letters from Lieutenant Conran, which have this peculiar interest, that they are intimate notes struck off hurriedly without the slightest idea of ever seeing print, They give an excellent idea of what our men at the front are doing and thinking about, and this gives them, a value that does not attach to more dramatic-* accounts of various phases of the operations.

"Very many' thanks for the parcel of socks' and cigarettes and woollen caps— they are topping.- - The weather has been very wet the last week, ruining everyday, but we are all merry and bright, and living very well. We-cook our own dinner which is nearly always the same—roast chicken . potatoes, onions, and anything we can pick up. The rain is sometimes rather, unkind, when it puts the fire out just at the time we want to cook. Rice is our strong point. There is a big battle going on to-day, and we can hear the guns having a great time.

"Have seen a great many German prisoners passing through, looking rat .cr' pleased to get away, from war, ic., or anything to do with it. Have seen quite a few lot of country houses. Some are lovely, with beautiful gardens, but they are all empty and everybody has gone away There is nothing I should like so much as for you to send a woollen waist coat and some cigarettes. Your. Papers arrived all right. Give my love to the family. Am very well indeed. Hope to hear from you soon."

October 1, 1914. . One of our officers is going home, so this is another chance for you to get a letter-quicker than' if I were to post it here. I get your letters all. right, and thank you so much for writing so often. It" is the greatest joy getting your letters, especially after one has been out all day under fire of the Germans All the parcels have arrived, and the parcel of foodstuff 'was excellent," and will be most useful.' Thank you so much for thinking of it. There is one thing we should love you to: send—that is a tin of curry powder. Now for a little news of myself, as you have asked so often..' It is really only in these letters I can say much, and then not so much ns I should like. Your letters are not opened, so you can say what, you like.

"Everything is going on all right, and it is only a matter of time before the Germans are smashed to bits. This battle has been a very long one, and the biggest tattle in the history of the world. Both sides have very strong positions, and it is really an artillery duel. Our men are doing awfully well. - The R.F.C. has made a name for itself, and especially No. ___squadron. The general has sent our colonel a wonderful chit about us. The work is interesting, by seeing everything that is going on, but it is not so nice, as now the whole time you are over the enemy, they are shelling you hard. The day before yesterday, my machine was under fire for an hour and a-half,. and at one time we counted 35 shells that burst quite close to us,- and when -we came down we found a large piece, of shell had gone through one of the wings, - and' that four bullets-had gone through the other wing. This happens every day, so am getting used to it by now.

"Yesterday I was told to go up behind the enemy's lines, and drop bombs on a railway station. The clouds were very low, so sneaked up to the place where I wanted, to get without getting shot at, but when I came up to the station, to drop 'the bombs, the beasts gave, me a terrible shock with their anti aircraft guns (which we call Archibald).

They frightened ten years out of my life, as I could heat the bursts but could not see the shells.' As I returned I dived into a cloud and then they fairly shelled the poor cloud, but anyhow I managed to sum up enough courage to come out of the cloud and drop the bombs, with what success I am not too sure, but the bombs

I use for that work are a 25-lb. shell.

"Something must have happened. Then I went off, dropping more bombs on troops and bivouac,' altogether dropping, so must have bagged something. – We know for certain that one of my – bombs killed a lot of men and horses at one place. 'It is a very cruel and terrible thing, but it must be done. -The general told me last night, that I was the only one who had gone over the enemy yesterday, and-that I was a very fine performer, so that cheered me up a bit. Today is my day off, so am lying in the sun, enjoying life. I have three days on duty and one off.

"The work is very hard on one really, although one does, not feel it at the time, so one earns a day off. 'As I am writing this, I can see one of our machine's getting a lovely time from “Archibald." Russia is the chief source of the petrol supply. Australian Aviator. ( 1914, December 11 ). The Week (Brisbane, Qld. : 1876 - 1934), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article190530147

Conran was a member of Squadron 3 of the newly formed RAF. Although he was one of the lucky ones to survive WWI he died a few years afterwards from an operation performed:

BIOGRAPHICAL PARTICULARS. MAJOR E. CONRAN.

On May 23rd, 1919 a New South Wales division of the Aero Club was formed:

A N.S.W. AERO CLUB. The Future of Aviation.

A New South Wales Aero Club has been formed in Sydney by returned members of the Australian Flying Corps and Royal Air Force , and others interested in the future of aviation, commercial and otherwise. The idea is to link up with the Australian Aero Club which was founded in Melbourne in 1915, and which has issued a number of pilot certificates, on the authority of the Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom, with which it is affiliated.

The following were elected provisional officers of the NSW club:—Chairman, Mr. H. C. Macfie chairman of the recently formed Aerial Company hon secretary and treasurer Mr. Edward J. Hart, managing director of 'Sea, Land, and Air' committee, Lieut. W. Stutt. A.I.F., chief instructor, aviation school Richmond, Lieut,S. H. Harper, A.F.C., Capt. H. G. Watson, D.F.C. Lieut. S. H. Deamer. A.F.C., Lt. Col. P. W. Wood. D.S.O. and bar. M.C.. and Messrs. W. E. Hart and F. Bignold. A N.S.W. AERO CLUB. ( 1919, May 27 ). The Farmer and Settler(Sydney, NSW : 1906 - 1957), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article123326737

1916. GROUP PORTRAIT OF OFFICERS OF NO. 1 SQUADRON AUSTRALIAN FLYING CORPS (AFC). IDENTIFIED PERSONNEL ARE (BACK ROW) LIEUTENANTS A. L. MACNAUGHTON C. J. BROOKES A. D. BADGERY C. A. KELLY S. WOODROW A. E. GEERE. (CENTRE ROW): LIEUTENANT R. ROSS CAPTAIN W. SHELDON MAJOR A. A. BROWN LT. COLONEL E. H. REYNOLDS CAPTAIN R. WILLIAMS LIEUTENANT E. G. ROBERTS R. S. BROWN S. J. L. TRELOAR. (FRONT ROW) LIEUTENANTS P. H. MEWLAND W. E. HART L. J. WACKETT CAPTAIN D. V. J. BLAKE CAPTAIN W. H. ANDERSON LIEUTENANTS F. H. MCNAMARA and A. MURRAY JONES. Image No.: A04544 courtesy Australian War Memorial


RAAF’s 100 SQN reborn

An historic World War II squadron has been reformed to keep Air Force history alive, and heritage aircraft flying.

The new No. 100 Squadron is the Air Force Heritage Squadron and was reformed on January 1, 2021.

Commanding Officer No. 100 Squadron Wing Commander Philip Beanland was formerly Executive Officer of Headquarters Air Academy.

“I feel extremely privileged to be the inaugural commander of a professional team working with these precious national artefacts,” Wing Commander Beanland said.

“I will draw on my range of operational and training experience to lead 100 Squadron by applying contemporary airworthiness practices, safely and effectively.

“Reactivating No. 100 Squadron in the same year as Air Force commemorates its first 100 years is especially fitting.

“No. 100 Squadron looks forward to safely displaying a well-preserved fleet to the Australian public over a wide range of settings and venues.

“The heritage fleet of No. 100 Squadron will continue to recognise previous generations and their service to our country and inspire the next generation to follow in their footsteps.”

The squadron was first formed on February 15, 1942, at RAAF Base Richmond with the personnel remaining in the Royal Air Force (RAF) No. 100 Torpedo Bomber Squadron, which had withdrawn from Malaya after RAF No. 100 Squadron was disbanded.

RAAF No. 100 Squadron was an Air Force bomber and maritime patrol squadron flying Australian-built Bristol Beauforts from bases in Queensland and New Guinea under the control of RAAF Southern Area Command.

During the war, No. 100 Squadron flew combat missions in the Pacific theatre before conducting further torpedo bomber training and anti-submarine patrols in Queensland.

It also flew reconnaissance and bombing missions against coastal shipping in Milne Bay and took part in the famous Battle of the Bismarck Sea in March 1943.

The squadron was disbanded in August 1946.

The new No. 100 Squadron is the parent unit for the Air Force’s Museum Heritage Flight and Temora Historic Flight.

The non-flying elements of the RAAF Museum will be transferred to History and Heritage Branch.

The new Air Force Heritage Squadron will be part of Air Academy within Air Force Training Group.

With its headquarters at RAAF Base Point Cook, the squadron will fly heritage aircraft from Point Cook, Victoria, and Temora, NSW.

There is a historical link with the Point Cook area as the original No. 100 Squadron was based at Laverton in July 1942.

Commander Air Force Training Group Air Commodore Greg Frisina said No. 100 Squadron was formed in a contemporary flying squadron structure to support the complex operation of flying and operating heritage aircraft from Point Cook and Temora.

“The commanding officer has a significant role to play in a disparate command and will be ably supported by an executive team and engineering staff,” Air Commodore Frisina said.

“The link with History and Heritage will still be maintained, so visitors to the RAAF Museum of old will not be disappointed.

“The museum will house an updated history and heritage ground display and professional flying displays from the aviators of No. 100 Squadron.

The squadron will develop its own unit badge to reflect its new role. The badge will have the motto ‘then, now, always’, drawn from the Air Force centenary motto.


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