Eskader nr. 4 (IAF): Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Eskader nr. 4 (IAF): Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Eskader nr. 4 (IAF) tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Vliegtuie - Plekke - Groep en plig - Boeke

No.4 Squadron, IAF, het tussen April 1944 en April 1945 as 'n vegvliegtuig-eskader oor Birma gedien, voordat hy aan die Geallieerde besetting van Japan deelgeneem het.

No.4 -eskader was die eerste eskader van die Indiese lugmag wat gevorm is na die Japanse toetrede tot die oorlog. Dit is op 1 Februarie 1942 gestig as 'n taktiese verkenningskader wat toegerus is met die Westland Lysander, wat 'n paar vliegtuie ontvang het van No.1 Squadron, IAF en 'n paar nuwe vliegtuie uit Brittanje. Dit is op die Noordwes -grens gebruik voordat dit in Augustus 1943 deur Hawker Hurricanes vervang is.

Aan die begin van 1944 het die eskader operasionele opleiding ontvang in die gebruik van die orkaan as 'n vegvliegtuig, voordat dit in Maart na die Birma-front verhuis het. Veg-bomwerper-missies het in April begin en tot April 1945 voortgeduur. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die eskader opgetree ter ondersteuning van die Geallieerde leërs in Birma.

In April 1945 is die eskader teruggetrek om na die Spitfire oor te skakel. Die nuwe vliegtuig het in Junie 1945 aangekom, te laat vir die eskader om na die voorkant terug te keer. In Maart 1946 het die nr.5 -eskader, IAF, na Japan verhuis as deel van die Britse Gemenebest -besettingsmag. Die eskader, saam met nommer 11 en 17 eskader RAF, het met die vervoerder HMS na Japan gereis Wraak, en bedrywighede het op 30 April 1946 begin.

Die eskader het net meer as 'n jaar in Japan gebly. In Julie 1947 vertrek die personeel van die eskader na Indië en verlaat die Spitfires in Japan. Eers in Indië het die eskader deel geword van die nuut onafhanklike Royal Indian Air Force, wat die Hawker Tempest gevlieg het.

Vliegtuie
Februarie 1942-Augustus 1943: Westland Lysander II
Augustus 1943-Augustus 1946: Hawker Hurricane IIC
Junie 1945-Julie 1947: Supermarine Spitfire VIII
Januarie-Maart 1946: Supermarine Spitfire XIV

Ligging
Februarie 1942: Peshawar
Februarie 1942-Junie 1943: Kohat
April-September 1942: Afskeiding van Miranshah
September 1942-Februarie 1943: Afskeiding na Hyderabad
Junie-Augustus 1943: Risalpur
Augustus-September 1943: Phaphamau
September-November 1943: Bairagarh
November-Desember 1943: Sulur
Desember 1943-Februarie 1944: Yelahanka
Februarie 1944-Maart 1945: Ranchi
Maart-Julie 1944: Feni
Julie 1944-Januarie 1945: Cox's Bazaar
Januarie-Maart 1945: Madhaibun (Madarboniya, NW Birmaanse kus)
Maart-April 1945: Kyaukpyu
April 1945-Maart 1946: Yelahanka
Maart-Mei 1946: Iwakuni (Japan)
Mei 1946-Julie 1947: Miho (Japan)
Julie 1947: Keer terug na Indië

Eskader kodes: sss

Plig
Julie 1944: No.167 Wing, No.224 Group, Third Tactical Air Force, Eastern Air Command

Boeke

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4 -eskader (IAF): Tweede Wêreldoorlog - Geskiedenis

Die Slag om Imphal wat van Maart tot Julie 1944 gewoed het, was in wese 'n belegeringsoperasie deur die Japannese teen die Geallieerde magte wat in die Imphal -vallei konsentreer. Die Britse en Indiese magte in die vallei was omring deur drie afdelings van die Japaense -weermag, en hul standpunt om die Japannese offensief af te weer, is slegs versterk deur die massiewe toevoerketting deur die lug wat deur die Gemenebest -lugmag en die Amerikaanse lugmagte onderhou is. In die tyd toe die offensief begin het, was die Imphal -vlakte die tuiste van die RAF 221 -groep, onder bevel van lugvisemarskalk S F Vincent, wat vanaf ses vliegbane werk. Imphal Main (huidige Koreingi) was in die noorde en was die belangrikste. Palel in die suide was die tweede groot vliegveld wat die hele jaar deur kon werk. Bykomende landingsgronde bestaan ​​by Wangjing, Sapam, Kangla en Tulihal.

Imphal main was die belangrikste landingsterrein vir die lugvoorsieningsbedrywighede. Dit was ook die tuiste van twee Hurricane Squadrons wat in 'n Tac/Recce -rol gewerk het. No.1 Squadron, Indian Air Force onder Sqn Ldr Ajran Singh en No.28 Squadron, Royal Air Force onder Sqn Ldr H G F Larsen. Nog twee Hurricane Squadrons, nrs 34 en 42, het in die Bomber -rol vanaf Palel -vliegveld gewerk. Sapam -vliegveld het nog twee RAF -eenhede gehad, No 5 Squadron on Hurricanes en No.136 Squadron op Spitfire VIIIs.

Nog ses Dakota -eskaders en 'n Wellington -eskader van die RAF het die vervoerkomponent bestuur wat na die vallei vlieg.

Namate die beleg vorder, sou meer RAF -eskaders aan die geveg deelneem, waaronder vyf addisionele Spitfire -eskaders (81,136,152,607 en 615) en 'n Beaufighter -eenheid (nr. 177 eskader).

Teenoor die krag van 'n halfdosyn orkaan eskaders was 'n Japannese lugkomponent van agt 'Sentais' (eskaders). Dit het bestaan ​​uit vier Sentais wat die Nakajima Ki-43 Oscars verower het. (Nos 50 64 87 204), Een eenheid elk met die Kawasaki Ki48 Lily, Mitsubishi Ki21 Sally, Nakajima Ki49 Helen en die Mitshubishi Ki46 Dinah.


Inhoud

Die Indiese Nasionale Kongres, onder leiding van Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel en Maulana Azad, het Nazi -Duitsland veroordeel, maar sou dit of niemand anders beveg totdat Indië onafhanklik was nie. [15] Die kongres het in Augustus 1942 die Quit India Movement van stapel gestuur en geweier om op enige manier met die regering saam te werk totdat onafhanklikheid verleen is. Die regering, wat nie gereed was nie, het onmiddellik meer as 60 000 nasionale en plaaslike kongresleiers gearresteer en daarna die gewelddadige reaksie van ondersteuners van die kongres onderdruk. Sleutelleiers is tot Junie 1945 in die tronk gehou, hoewel Gandhi weens sy gesondheid in Mei 1944 vrygelaat is. Die kongres, met sy leiers in die wiele, het 'n klein rol gespeel op die tuisfront. Anders as die oorwegend Hindoe -kongres, het die Moslemliga die Beweging van Indië verwerp en nou saamgewerk met die Raj -owerhede. [16]

Ondersteuners van die Britse Raj het aangevoer dat dekolonisasie onmoontlik was te midde van 'n groot oorlog. Dus, in 1939, verklaar die Britse onderkoning, lord Linlithgow, Indië se toetrede tot die oorlog sonder om vooraanstaande Indiese kongresleiers te raadpleeg wat pas in vorige verkiesings verkies is. [1]

Subhas Chandra Bose (ook Netaji genoem) was 'n toonaangewende kongresleier. Hy breek met die kongres en probeer 'n militêre alliansie met Duitsland of Japan sluit om onafhanklikheid te verkry. Bose het met die hulp van Duitsland die Indiese legioen gevorm uit Indiese studente in die as -besette Europa en die Indiese weermag krygsgevangenes. Met die Duitse omkering in 1942 en 1943 is Bose en die legioene se offisiere per U -boot na die Japannese gebied vervoer om sy planne voort te sit. By aankoms het Japan hom gehelp om die Indian National Army (INA) op te rig wat onder Japannese leiding geveg het, meestal in die Birma -veldtog. Bose was ook die hoof van die Voorlopige Regering van Vrye Indië, 'n ballingskapregering in Singapoer. Dit het geen Indiese gebied beheer nie en is slegs gebruik om troepe vir Japan in te samel. [17]

In 1939 het die Britse Indiese leër 205 000 man getel. Dit het vrywilligers ingeneem en teen 1945 was dit die grootste vrywillige mag in die geskiedenis, met meer as 2,5 miljoen mans. [18] Hierdie magte het tenk-, artillerie- en lugmag ingesluit. Indiese personeel van die Britse Indiese leër het 4 000 toekennings ontvang vir dapperheid, waaronder 31 Victoria Crosses. [19]

Die Midde -Ooste en Afrikaanse teater Redigeer

Die Britse regering het intussen Indiese troepe gestuur om in Wes -Asië en Noord -Afrika teen die as te veg. Indië was ook gereed om noodsaaklike goedere soos voedsel en uniforms te vervaardig.

Die 4de, 5de en 10de Indiese afdeling het aan die Noord -Afrikaanse teater teen Rommel se Afrika Korps deelgeneem. Boonop het die 18de brigade van die 8ste Indiese afdeling by Alamein geveg. Vroeër het die 4de en 5de Indiese Afdeling deelgeneem aan die Oos -Afrikaanse veldtog teen die Italianers in Somaliland, Eritrea en Abessinië wat die bergvesting Keren verower het.

In die Slag van Bir Hacheim het Indiese kanonniers 'n belangrike rol gespeel deur gewere in die anti -tenkrol te gebruik en tenks van Rommel se panserdivisies te vernietig. Maj PPK Kumaramangalam was die battery bevelvoerder van 41 Field Regiment wat in die anti -tenk rol ingespan is. Hy is bekroon met die DSO vir sy dapperheid. Later word hy in 1967 die hoof van die weermagpersoneel van Indië.

Suidoos-Asiatiese teater Redigeer

Die Britse Indiese leër was die belangrikste Britse ryk wat teenwoordig was in die Birma -veldtog. Die Royal Indian Air Force se eerste aanvalsmissie is uitgevoer teen Japannese troepe wat in Birma gestasioneer was. Die Britse Indiese leër was die sleutel tot die verbreking van die beleg van Imphal toe die opmars in die westelike rigting van die keiserlike Japan tot stilstand gekom het.

Die formasies het die Indian III Corps, IV Corps, die Indian XXXIII Corps en die Veertiende Leër ingesluit. As deel van die nuwe konsep van Long Range Penetration (LRP), is Gurkha -troepe van die Indiese leër opgelei in die huidige deelstaat Madhya Pradesh onder hul bevelvoerder, toe krishnasamy (later generaal -majoor) Orde Charles Wingate.

Hierdie troepe, in die volksmond bekend as Chindits, 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die stop van die Japanse opmars na Suid -Asië. [20]

Vaslegging van die Indiese gebied Redigeer

Teen 1942 is die naburige Birma binnegeval deur Japan, wat toe reeds die Indiese gebied Andaman en Nicobar -eilande verower het. Japan het die voorlopige regering van Vrye Indië op 21 Oktober 1943 die beheer oor die eilande gegee, en in die daaropvolgende Maart het die Indiese nasionale leër met die hulp van Japan na Indië gegaan en tot by Kohima in Nagaland gevorder. Hierdie vooruitgang op die vasteland van Suid -Asië het sy verste punt op Indië se gebied bereik, en het in Junie teruggetrek uit die Slag van Kohima en vanaf dié van Imphal. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Herowering van die as-besette gebied Redigeer

In 1944–45 was Japan tuis onder swaar lugbombardeering en het hy groot vlootnederlae in die Stille Oseaan gely. Aangesien sy Imphal -offensief misluk het, het harde weer en siektes en die onttrekking van die lugbedekking (weens dringender behoeftes in die Stille Oseaan) ook die tol geëis van die Japannese en die oorblyfsels van die INA en die Birma National Army. In die lente van 1945 het 'n opkomende Britse leër die besette lande herower. [21]

Die inval van Italië Edit


Indiese magte het 'n rol gespeel om Italië uit Nazi -beheer te bevry. Indië het ná die Amerikaanse en Britse magte die derde grootste geallieerde kontingent in die Italiaanse veldtog bygedra. Die 4de, 8ste en 10de afdeling en 43ste Gurkha Infanteriebrigade het die opmars gelei, veral tydens die uitmergelende Slag van Monte Cassino. Hulle het in 1944 en 1945 op die Gotiese lyn geveg.

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die IAF 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die stop van die opmars van die Japannese weermag in Birma, waar die eerste IAF -lugaanval uitgevoer is. Die doelwit vir hierdie eerste missie was die Japannese militêre basis in Arakan, waarna IAF se stakingsmissies voortgegaan het teen die Japannese lugbase in Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai en Chiang Rai in die noorde van Thailand.

Die IAF was hoofsaaklik betrokke by stakings, noue lugondersteuning, lugverkenning, bombardemente en opspoormissies vir swaar bomwerpers van RAF en USAAF. RAF- en IAF-vlieëniers sou oefen deur met hul nie-inheemse lugvlerke te vlieg om gevegservaring en kommunikasievaardigheid op te doen. Behalwe operasies in die Birma -teater het IAF -vlieëniers ook deelgeneem aan lugoperasies in Noord -Afrika en Europa. [22]

Benewens die IAF, het baie inheemse Indiane en ongeveer 200 Indiërs wat in Brittanje woon, vrywillig by die RAF en Women's Auxiliary Air Force aangesluit. Een so 'n vrywilliger was sersant Shailendra Eknath Sukthankar, wat as navigator by die eskader 83 gedien het. Sukthankar is as offisier aangestel, en op 14 September 1943 ontvang hy die DFC. Eskaderleier Sukthankar het uiteindelik 45 operasies voltooi, 14 daarvan aan boord van die RAF Museum se Avro Lancaster R5868. 'N Ander vrywilliger was die assistent -afdeling, Noor Inayat Khan, 'n Moslem -pasifis en 'n Indiese nasionalis wat hom in November 1940 by die WAAF aangesluit het om teen Nazisme te veg. Noor Khan het dapper as geheime agent by die Special Operations Executive (SOE) in Frankryk gedien, maar is uiteindelik verraai en gevange geneem. [22] Baie van hierdie Indiese vlieëniers is gesekondeer of oorgeplaas na die uitbreidende IAF, soos eskaderleier Mohinder Singh Pujji DFC wat die vierde eskader IAF in Birma gelei het.

Tydens die oorlog het die IAF 'n fase van bestendige uitbreiding beleef. Nuwe vliegtuie wat by die vloot gevoeg is, sluit in die Vultee Vengeance wat in die VSA gebou is, Douglas Dakota, die British Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire, Bristol Blenheim en Westland Lysander.

Ter erkenning van die dapper diens deur die IAF verleen koning George VI die voorvoegsel "Royal" in 1945. Daarna word na die IAF verwys as die Royal Indian Air Force. In 1950, toe Indië 'n republiek word, word die voorvoegsel laat vaar en word dit weer die Indiese Lugmag. [24]

In 1934 het die Royal Indian Marine sy naam verander, met die inwerkingtreding van die Indian Navy (Discipline) Act van 1934. Die Royal Indian Navy is formeel ingehuldig op 2 Oktober 1934 in Bombay. [26] Die skepe het die voorvoegsel gedra HMIS, vir Sy Majesteit se Indiese skip. [27]

Aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was die Royal Indian Navy klein, met slegs agt oorlogskepe. Die begin van die oorlog het gelei tot 'n uitbreiding van vaartuie en personeel wat deur een skrywer as 'fenomenaal' beskryf word. Teen 1943 het die sterkte van die RIN twintigduisend bereik. [28] Tydens die oorlog is die Women's Royal Indian Naval Service gestig, wat vroue vir die eerste keer 'n rol in die vloot gegee het, hoewel hulle nie aan boord van sy skepe gedien het nie. [26]

In die loop van die oorlog is ses vliegvliegtuie en verskeie vlootmynveërs in die Verenigde Koninkryk vir die R.I.N. Na die ingebruikneming het baie van hierdie skepe by verskillende begeleidingsgroepe aangesluit wat in die noordelike benaderings na die Britse Eilande bedrywig was. HMIS Sutlej en HMIS Jumna, elk gewapen met seshoekige 4 "gewere, was teenwoordig tydens die Clyde" Blitz "van 1941 en het die verdediging van hierdie gebied gehelp deur lugafdekking te bied. Vir die volgende ses maande het hierdie twee skepe by die Clyde Escort Force aangesluit, werksaam in die Atlantiese Oseaan en later die Ierse See-escortmag waar hulle as senior skepe van die groepe opgetree het. Terwyl hulle hierdie pligte aangewend het, is talle aanvalle op U-bote uitgevoer en aanvalle deur vyandige vliegtuie afgeweer. waarby die Bismarck betrokke was, het die Sutlej, met alle versending as senior lid van 'n groep, Scapa Flow verlaat om 'n konvooi by die vernietigers oor te neem wat uiteindelik besig was om die Bismarck te laat sink. [29]

Later HMIS Cauvery, HMIS Kistna, HMIS Narbada, HMIS Godavari, ook lugweer-sloepe, het soortgelyke tydperke in die Britse waters voltooi wat konvooie in die Atlantiese Oseaan begelei en aanvalle van vyandige U-bote, vliegtuie en sweeftuigbomme hanteer. Hierdie ses skepe en die mynveërs het almal uiteindelik na Indië gegaan om verskillende pligte in die Noord -Atlantiese, Middellandse See en Kaapse stasies te onderneem. Die vlootmynveërs was HMIS Kathiawar, HMIS Kumaon, HMIS Baluchistan, HMIS Carnatic, HMIS Khyber, HMIS Konkan, HMIS Orissa, HMIS Rajputana, HMIS Rohilkhand. [29]

HMIS Bengale was tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deel van die Oostelike Vloot en het tussen 1942-45 talle konvooie begelei. [30]

Die sloepe HMIS Sutlej en HMIS Jumna 'n rol gespeel in Operasie Husky, die geallieerde inval in Sicilië deur lugverdediging en anti-duikbootondersoek aan die invalsvloot te bied. [31] [32]

Verder het die Royal Indian Navy deelgeneem aan konvooi -begeleide pligte in die Indiese Oseaan en die Middellandse See en was hy sterk betrokke by gevegsoptrede as deel van die Birma -veldtog, met strooptogte, bombardemente op die see, ondersteuning van vlootinvalle en ander aktiwiteite wat uitloop op Operasie Dracula en die bedrywighede tydens die laaste stadiums van die oorlog op te knap. [33]

Royal Indian Naval bestry verliese Redigeer

Die sloep HMIS Pathan op Junie 1940 deur die Italian Navy Submarine gesink Galvani tydens die Oos -Afrikaanse veldtog [34] [35] [36] [37]

In die dae onmiddellik na die aanval op Pearl Harbor, HMS Glasgow was besig om die Laccadive -eilande te patrolleer op soek na 'n Japannese skepe en duikbote. Om middernag op 9 Desember 1941 het HMS Glasgow die RIN-patrollievaartuig HMIS Prabhavati gesink met twee aanstekers wat op pad was na Karachi, met 6-duim-skulpe op 5,500 m. Prabhavati was saam met die aanstekers en word verwar met 'n opgedaagde Japannese duikboot. [38] [39] [40]

HMIS Indus is tydens Burma -veldtog op 6 April 1942 deur Japannese vliegtuie gesink. [41]

Suksesse van die Royal Indian Naval Bewerk

HMIS Jumna is in 1939 bestel en gebou deur William Denny and Brothers. Sy is in 1941 in opdrag, [42] en met die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan die gang, is sy onmiddellik as 'n konvooi -begeleiding ontplooi. Jumna het as 'n vliegtuig-begeleier gedien tydens die Javasee-veldtog vroeg in 1942, en was betrokke by intensiewe lugweeraksie teen aanvalle op Japannese tweemotorige vlakbomwerpers en duikbomwerpers, en beweer dat vyf vliegtuie van 24 tot 28 Februarie 1942 neergeslaan het.

In Junie 1942 HMIS Bombaai was betrokke by die verdediging van die Sydney Harbour tydens die aanval op die Sydney Harbour.

Op 11 November 1942 het Bengaals het die Nederlandse tenkwa begelei Ondina [43] suidwes van Cocos -eilande in die Indiese Oseaan. Twee Japannese handelaars wat met ses duim gewere gewapen was, het aangeval Ondina. Bengaals het haar enkele vierduim geweer afgevuur en Ondina het haar 102 mm afgevuur en albei het slae aangeteken Hōkoku Maru, wat kort opgeblaas en gesink het. [43] [44]

Op 12 Februarie 1944 is die Japannese duikboot RO-110 diepte gelaai en oos-suid-oos van Visakhapatnam, Indië, gesink deur die Indiese sloep HMIS Jumna en die Australiese mynveërs HMAS Launceston en HMAS Ipswich (J186). RO-110 het konvooi JC-36 (Colombo-Calcutta) aangeval en die Britse handelaar Asphalion (6274 BRT) getorpedeer en beskadig. [42] [45]

Op 12 Augustus 1944 die Duitse duikboot U-198 is naby die Seychelle gesink, in posisie 03º35'S, 52º49'E, deur dieptelastes van die HMIS Godavari en die Britse fregat HMS Findhorn. [46] [41]

Verskeie leiers van die radikale revolusionêre Indiese onafhanklikheidsbeweging het van die hoofkongres losgemaak en oorlog teen Brittanje uitgevoer. Subhas Chandra Bose, wat eens 'n prominente leier van die kongres was, het vrywillig hulp verleen om Duitsland en Japan te help. [47] Verder het hy aangevoer dat dit nie Duitsland en Japan was nie, maar die Britse Raj wat die vyand was, aangesien die Britte Indiese hulpbronne vir die oorlog oorbenut het. [47] Bose het voorgestel dat daar min moontlikheid is dat Indië deur enige van die asmagte aangeval kan word, mits dit nie die oorlog aan Brittanje se kant voer nie. [47]

Berlyn was bemoedigend, maar het min hulp verleen. Bose nader toe Tokio wat hom beheer gee oor die Indiese magte wat dit georganiseer het. [49]

Die Indiese Nasionale Weermag (INA), wat eers deur Mohan Singh Deb gevorm is, het aanvanklik bestaan ​​uit gevangenes wat deur die Japannese in Malaya en in Singapoer geneem is, wat die keuse gebied is om die INA deur Japan te dien of in 'n baie negatiewe toestand in krygsgevangenekampe te bly. Later, nadat dit onder Subhas Chandra Bose geherorganiseer is, het dit burgerlike vrywilligers uit Malaya en Birma gelok. Uiteindelik is 'n mag van minder as 40 000 gevorm, hoewel slegs twee afdelings ooit aan die geveg deelgeneem het. Intelligensie- en spesiale diensgroepe van die INA was 'n belangrike rol in die destabilisering van die Britse Indiese leër in die vroeë stadiums van die Arakan -offensief. Dit was gedurende hierdie tyd dat die Britse militêre intelligensie met propaganda begin het om die ware getalle wat by die INA aangesluit het, te beskerm, en ook verhale beskryf van Japannese wreedhede wat op INA se betrokkenheid dui. Verder is die Indiese pers verbied om enige rekeninge van die INA te publiseer.

Toe die Japannese offensief begin, is die INA in die geveg gestuur. Bose het gehoop om veldslaggevegte te vermy waarvoor dit nie wapens, bewapening sowel as mannekrag het nie. [50] Aanvanklik het hy probeer om wapens te bekom en sy geledere te vergroot van Britse Indiese soldate wat hy gehoop het dat hy sy saak sou afwyk. Sodra die Japannese magte die Britse verdediging by Imphal kon breek, het hy beplan dat die INA die heuwels van Noordoos-Indië sou oorsteek na die Gangetic-vlakte, waar dit as 'n guerrilla-leër sou werk, en van die land verwag sou word, kry ondersteuning, voorraad en geledere uit die plaaslike bevolking om uiteindelik 'n rewolusie aan die gang te sit.

Prem Kumar Sahgal, 'n beampte van die INA wat vroeër militêre sekretaris van Subhas Bose was en later in die eerste Rooi Fort -verhore probeer het, verduidelik dat hoewel die oorlog self in balans was en niemand seker was of die Japannese sou wen nie, maar 'n gewilde revolusie met gras begin het -wortelsteun in Indië sou verseker dat selfs as Japan uiteindelik die oorlog verloor, Brittanje nie weer in staat sou wees om sy koloniale gesag te herbevestig nie, wat uiteindelik die doel van die INA en Azad Hind was.

Toe Japan sy offensief na Indië begin, het die INA se eerste afdeling, bestaande uit vier Guerrilla -regimente, in 1944 aan die Arakan -offensief deelgeneem, met een bataljon tot by Mowdok in Chittagong. Ander eenhede is na Imphal en Kohima gerig, asook om die Japannese flanke ten suide van Arakan te beskerm, 'n taak wat dit suksesvol uitgevoer het. Die eerste afdeling het egter dieselfde lot gely as Mutaguchi se weermag toe die beleg van Imphal verbreek is. Met min of geen voorraad en toevoerlyne wat deur die moesson geteister is, geteister deur die geallieerde oorheersing van die geallieerde gebiede, het die INA begin terugtrek toe die 15de weermag en die leër van die Birma -gebied begin terugtrek, en het hulle dieselfde verskriklike lot gely as wat gewonde, verhongerde en siek mans tydens die haastige terugtrekking in Birma. Later in die oorlog was die INA se tweede afdeling, wat verantwoordelik was vir die verdediging van Irrawaddy en die aangrensende gebiede rondom Nangyu, 'n belangrike rol in die opposisie van Messervy se 7de Indiese Infanteriedivisie toe hy probeer het om die rivier by Pagan en Nyangyu oor te steek tydens die suksesvolle Birma -veldtog deur die Geallieerdes die volgende jaar. Die 2de afdeling het 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer tot die ontkenning van die 17de Indiese Infanteriedivisie in die gebied rondom die berg Popa, wat die flank van Kimura se magte sou blootstel wat probeer het om Meiktila en Nyangyu terug te neem. Uiteindelik is die verdeling egter uitgewis. Sommige van die oorlewende eenhede van die INA het oorgegee toe Rangoon geval het, en het gehelp om orde te hou totdat die geallieerde magte die stad binnegekom het. Die ander oorblyfsels begin saam met Subhas Chandra Bose met 'n lang opmars oor die land en te voet na Singapoer. Namate die Japannese situasie onseker geword het, het Bose na Mantsjoerije gegaan om die Russe te kontak, en na berig word is hy dood in 'n lugongeluk naby Taiwan.

Die enigste Indiese gebied wat die Azad Hind -regering beheer het, was nominaal die Andaman- en Nicobar -eilande. Dit was egter basisse vir die Japannese vloot, en die vloot het nooit beheer oorgegee nie. Woedend oor die gebrek aan administratiewe beheer, het die Azad Hind -goewerneur, luitenant -kolonel Loganathan, later sy gesag prysgegee. Na die oorlog is 'n aantal beamptes van die INA verhoor weens verraad. Met die moontlikheid van massiewe burgerlike onrus en 'n muitery in die Indiese leër, het die Britse amptenare egter besluit om die krygsgevangenes ook vry te laat, maar die gebeurtenis het 'n keerpunt geword om die proses van transformasie van mag en onafhanklikheid te bespoedig van Indië. [51] [ bladsy benodig ]

Die streek Bengale in Indië het gedurende 1940-43 'n verwoestende hongersnood gely. Enkele van die belangrikste redes vir hierdie hongersnood is:

  1. Britse uitvoer van voedsel en materiaal vir die oorlog in Europa
  2. Japannese inval in Birma wat voedsel en ander noodsaaklike voorrade aan die streek afgesny het
  3. Britse ontkenningsbevele vernietig noodsaaklike voedselvervoer in die Oos -streek
  4. Britte het die oordrag van graan uit ander provinsies verbied en graanaanbiedings van Australië van die hand gewys
  5. wanbestuur deur die Britse Indiese streeksregerings
  6. bou 900 vliegvelde (2000 hektaar elk) wat die groot hoeveelheid grond uit die land neem in 'n tyd van groot nood
  7. prysinflasie veroorsaak deur oorlogsproduksie
  8. toename in die vraag gedeeltelik as gevolg van vlugtelinge uit Birma en Bengale.

Die Britse regering het 'n dringende versoek van Leopold Amery, die Indiese minister van buitelandse sake, en Archibald Wavell, die onderkoning van Indië, ontken om die uitvoer van voedsel uit Bengale te stop om dit vir hongersnood te help. Winston Churchill, destydse premier, verwerp hierdie versoeke op 'n manier wat Amery as 'Hitler-agtig' beskou, deur te vra hoekom, as die hongersnood so verskriklik was, Gandhi nog nie van hongersnood gesterf het nie. [52]

Die Indiese ekonoom Amartya Sen (1976) betwis hierdie ortodoksie en herleef die bewering dat daar geen voedseltekort in Bengale was nie en dat die hongersnood deur inflasie veroorsaak is. [53]

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, in 1941, het die Britte 'n gevange Duitse Bf109-enkelmotorjagter aan die Nizam van Hyderabad aangebied, in ruil vir die finansiering van 2 RAF-vegvliegtuie. [54]

Daar was 'n kampplek vir Poolse vlugtelinge in Valivade, in die staat Kolhapur, dit was die grootste nedersetting van Poolse vlugtelinge in Indië tydens die oorlog. [55] [56] [57] Nog 'n kampplek vir Poolse vlugtelingkinders was in Balachadi geleë, dit is gebou deur K. S. Digvijaysinhji, Jam Saheb Maharaja van die staat Nawanagar in 1942, naby sy someroord. Hy het toevlug gegee tot honderde Poolse kinders wat uit Sowjet -kampe gered is (Gulags). [55] [58] [59] Die kampplek is nou deel van die Sainik -skool. [60]

Van 1944 tot 1945 het Daru Khan Badinzai 'n opstand gelei teen die owerhede van die Raj. Dit het begin in die eerste helfte van 1944, toe rebelle van die Badinzai -stam begin inmeng het met die bou van paaie aan die Britse kant van die grens van Balochistan. [61] Die opstand het teen Maart 1945 bedaar. [62]

In 1944 het die suidelike en oostelike provinsies van Afghanistan ontsteld geraak, terwyl die stamme Zadran, Safi en Mangal teen die Afghaanse regering opstaan. [63] Onder die leiers van die opstand was die Zadran-hoofman, Mazrak Zadran, [64] wat laat 1944 besluit het om die Britse besette Indië binne te val. [65] Mazrak is gedwing om terug te trek in Afghanistan weens Britse lugbombardeer. [66]

  1. ^ ab Kux, Dennis (1992). Indië en die Verenigde State: vervreemde demokrasieë, 1941–1991. DIANE Publishing, 1992. ISBN9781428981898.
  2. ^Commonwealth War Graves Commission Jaarverslag 2013-2014 Geraam op 4 November 2015 by die Wayback-masjien, bladsy 44. Syfers bevat geïdentifiseerde begrafnisse en begraafplase met gedenktekens.
  3. ^
  4. Gupta, Diya (8 November 2019). "Honger, honger en Indiese soldate in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog". Livemint . Besoek op 26 Augustus 2020.
  5. ^
  6. "Bladsy nie gevind nie". www.cwgc.org. Cite gebruik algemene titel (hulp)
  7. ^
  8. "Gearchiveerde kopie". Gearchiveer uit die oorspronklike op 24 Mei 2015. Besoek op 24 Mei 2015. CS1 -onderhoude: argiefkopie as titel (skakel)
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  10. Mishra, Basanta Kumar (1979). "Die reaksie van Indië op die Britse aanbod van Augustus 1940". Verrigtinge van die Indian History Congress. 40: 717–719. JSTOR44142017. Besoek op 2 November 2020.
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  12. Broad, Roger (27 Mei 2017). Vrywilligers en perspersone: hoe Brittanje en sy ryk sy magte in twee wêreldoorloë verhoog het. Verenigde Koninkryk: Fonthill Media. ISBN978-1781553961.
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  14. Manu, Bhagavan (2 Maart 2012). The Peacemakers: India And The Quest For One World. Indië: HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN978-93-5029-469-7.
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  19. Weigold, Auriol (6 Junie 2008). Churchill, Roosevelt en Indië: Propaganda tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Taylor & Francis. ISBN9780203894507 - via Google Books.
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  21. Nolan, Cathal J. (21 April 2019). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: FL. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN9780313307423 - via Google Books.
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  25. ^
  26. Frank Moraes (2007). Jawaharlal Nehru. Uitgewery Jaico. bl. 266. ISBN9788179926956.
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  28. Sankar Ghose (1993). Jawaharlal Nehru: 'n biografie. Geallieerde uitgewers. pp. 114–18. ISBN9788170233435.
  29. ^ Leonard A. Gordon, Brothers Against the Raj: A Biography of Indian Nationalists Sarat & Subhas Chandra Bose (2000)
  30. ^
  31. Compton McKenzie (1951). Oos -epos. Chatto & Windus, Londen. , p.1
  32. ^
  33. Sherwood, Marika. "Kolonies, kolonialiste en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog". BBC geskiedenis. Besoek op 8 Oktober 2009.
  34. ^
  35. Peter Liddle J. M. Bourne Ian R. Whitehead. Die Groot Wêreldoorlog, 1914–45: Weerlig slaan twee keer . HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN9780004724546.
  36. ^ Edward M. Young en Howard Gerrard, Meiktila 1945: Die stryd om Birma te bevry (2004)
  37. ^ ab
  38. "Royal Indian Air Force". RAF Museum. Besoek op 12 Mei 2020.
  39. ^BURMA na JAPAN met Azad Hind: A War Memoir (1941–1945) Air Cmde R S Benegal MVC AVSM
  40. ^
  41. Ahluwalia, A. (2012). Airborne to Chairborne: Memoirs of a War Veteran Aviator-Lawyer van die Indiese Lugmag. Xlibris Corporation. bl. 41. ISBN978-1-4691-9657-2.
  42. ^http://indianairforce.nic.in/show_unit.php?ch=7
  43. ^ ab Bhatia (1977), p. 28
  44. ^ D. J. E. Collins, Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939-45, vol. 1 (Bombay, 1964)
  45. ^
  46. Mollo, Andrew (1976). Vloot-, mariene en lugmaguniforms van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. bl. 144. ISBN0-02-579391-8.
  47. ^ ab Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945 - Collins, p248
  48. ^
  49. Kindell, Don. "OOSTERVLOOT - Januarie tot Junie 1943". ADMIRALITEITOORLOGSDAGBOEKE VAN WORRELDOORLOG 2.
  50. ^InmedArchived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945 - Collins, p252
  52. ^ Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945 - Collins, p255 - p316
  53. ^ Rohwer & amp; Hummelchen, p.23
  54. ^
  55. Collins, D.J.E. (1964). Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945, amptelike geskiedenis van die Indiese weermag in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Gekombineerde historiese afdeling tussen dienste (Indië en Pakistan).
  56. ^
  57. "Debat oor die huis van die algemeen - Indiër, Burman en koloniale oorlogspoging". House of Commons van die Verenigde Koninkryk. 20 November 1940.
  58. ^
  59. "Veg teen die U-bote = Indiese vlootmagte". Uboat.net.
  60. ^
  61. "Geallieerde oorlogskepe - HMIS Prabhavati".
  62. ^ Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945 - Collins, p96
  63. ^ Neil MacCart, Stadsklas Cruisers, Maritieme boeke, 2012, 978-1-904-45952-1, p. 153
  64. ^ ab
  65. Collins, J.T.E. (1964). Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945. Amptelike geskiedenis van die Indiese weermag in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Nieu-Delhi: Gekombineerde historiese afdeling tussen dienste (Indië en Pakistan).
  66. ^ ab
  67. "HMIS Jumna (O 21)". uboat.net . Besoek op 6 April 2016.
  68. ^ ab
  69. Visser, Jan (1999–2000). "Die Ondina -verhaal". Vergete veldtog: Die Nederlands-Oos-Indiese veldtog 1941-1942.
  70. ^
  71. L, Klemen (2000). "Vergete veldtog: Die veldtog vir Oos -Indië 1941–1942".
  72. ^ Die Royal Indian Navy, 1939–1945 - Collins, p309
  73. ^http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/3922.html
  74. ^ abc
  75. Bose, Subash Chandra (2004). Azad Hind: geskrifte en toesprake, 1941–43. Anthem Press. ISBN978-1-84331-083-9.
  76. ^
  77. Aldrich, Richard J. (2000), Intelligensie en die oorlog teen Japan: Brittanje, Amerika en die politiek van geheime diens, Cambridge, VK: Cambridge University Press, p. 371, ISBN978-0-521-64186-9, 6 November 2013 opgespoor
  78. ^
  79. Horn, Steve (2005). Die tweede aanval op Pearl Harbor: Operasie K en ander Japannese pogings om Amerika in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te bombardeer. Naval Institute Press. ISBN9781591143888.
  80. ^Fay 1993, bl. 292 298
  81. ^Fay 1993
  82. ^
  83. Mishra, Pankaj (6 Augustus 2007). "Exit Wounds" - via www.newyorker.com.
  84. ^
  85. Khan, Yasmin (2008). Die groot verdeling: die maak van Indië en Pakistan .
  86. ^
  87. Manu Pubby (4 November 2006). "'N raaisel agter die geskiedenisvliegtuig". Indian Express.
  88. ^ ab
  89. Piotrowski, Tadeusz (17 September 2015). Die Poolse deporteurs van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: herinneringe aan die verwydering na die Sowjetunie en verspreiding oor die hele wêreld. McFarland. ISBN978-0-7864-5536-2.
  90. ^
  91. Phadnis, Samrat (13 Februarie 2014). "Meer as 70 Poolse vlugtelinge om die stad in Maart te besoek, herleef herinneringe uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog". The Times of India. Gearchiveer van die oorspronklike op 1 Februarie 2020.
  92. ^
  93. Deshpande, Devidas (31 Julie 2011). "The last Pole of Valivade". Pune Mirror. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019.
  94. ^
  95. "Little Warsaw Of Kathiawar". Outlook. 20 December 2010 . Retrieved 7 May 2016 .
  96. ^
  97. "Good Maharaja saves Polish children - beautiful story of A Little Poland in India". newdelhi.mfa.gov.pl. 10 November 2013 . Retrieved 7 May 2016 .
  98. ^
  99. "Origin and History". Welcome to Sainik School Balachadi. 27 April 2016 . Retrieved 7 May 2016 .
  100. ^
  101. Preston, Paul Partridge, Michael Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern Affairs, January 1944-June 1944. University Publications of America. bl. 141. ISBN9781556556715 .
  102. ^
  103. Preston, Paul Partridge, Michael Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern affairs, July 1944-March 1945. University Publications of America. bl. 348. ISBN9781556556715 .
  104. ^
  105. Giustozzi, Antonio (2008). "AFGHANISTAN: TRANSITION WITHOUT END" (PDF) : 13. S2CID54592886. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  106. ^
  107. "Coll 5/73 'Afghan Air Force: Reports on' [57r] (113/431)". Qatar Digital Library. 21 December 2016 . Retrieved 26 December 2019 .
  108. ^
  109. Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. bl. 34. ISBN978-1-55655-765-1 .
  110. ^
  111. Preston, Paul Partridge, Michael Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern affairs, July 1944-March 1945. University Publications of America. bl. 348. ISBN9781556556715 .

26. Henry Boot and Ray Sturtivant. Gifts of War 27. Brett Holman. The Imperial Aircraft Flotilla - II


Last word

The life of Squadron Leader Dalip Singh looks like a page from a romantic novel. He continued flying till 1980 and then began to concentrate more and more on golf. Dalip Singh is a man who can be ideal for the youth of today. Here is a man who was a fighter pilot and continued flying until the age of 60. He also had a wonderful love marriage and the good lady is still with him.

Right down from the Chief of Air Staff, the Air Force remembers this man. It is a moving sight to watch the squadron leader being felicitated along with his wife Joan. The air force band trumpeter playing happy birthday brings a lump in one&aposs throat. Dalip Singh was born in 1920 and yesterday celebrated his hundredth birthday. I also wish him all the best in the years to come. I must point out that Dalip Singh is extremely fit and I have been told just two days back he had a game of golf.


Inhoud

Mohinder Singh Pujji was born in Simla, British India, on 14 August 1918, the fourth son of Sardar Sohan Singh Pujji and his wife—Sant Kaur. His father was a senior government official who worked in the department of health and education. [5] He attended the Sir Harcourt Butler High School in Simla, then on his father's retirement to his home state of Punjab attended the Government College and later the Hindu College in Lahore. [1] [6] [7] [8] [9]

He learned to fly in 1936 as a hobby pilot at the Delhi Flying Club, where he fell in love with flying and in April 1937 achieved his "A" certificate of flying competency. [1] His first job was with Himalayan Airways as a line pilot, flying passengers between Haridwar and Badrinath, but soon after was offered a better job with Burmah Shell, where he worked as a refuelling superintendent in 1938. [1] [6] [7]

Pujji married his wife Amrit Kaur in November 1944. Their first daughter Veena was born in March 1946. The couple had two more children Rita and Satinder. [10]

In 1940, news of the unceasing German air attacks besieging Britain and civilian losses was reaching British India, Pujji's sense of duty and daring adventurism instinctively caused him to attend the advertised appeal for pre-qualified "A" licensed pilots at the fourth pilot's course of the Royal Indian Air Force—despite his parents' fears becoming one of the first batch of 24 pre-qualified "A" licensed Indian pilots accepted through this route to receive a Volunteer Reserve commission with the Royal Air Force during the early part of the Second World War. [1] [4] [6] [7] [11]

United Kingdom and Europe Edit

Embarking for the United Kingdom aboard SS Strathallan, arriving in Liverpool on 1 October 1940, Pujji's first posting was on 8 October 1940 to No. 1 RAF Depot in Uxbridge. Within a few days he was posted to No. 12 Elementary Flying Training School RAF at Prestwick in Scotland. From there the first 24 volunteer Indian pilots went on to No. 9 (Pilot) Advanced Flying Unit RAF at RAF Hullavington. From the first 24 volunteer candidates, 18 including Pujji, successfully completed the course and qualified as Royal Air Force pilots, receiving their RAF wings on 16 April 1941. A few weeks later Pujji and a handful of other pilots from the first 24 went on to the renowned No. 56 Operational Training Unit (OTU) at RAF Sutton Bridge, where they joined British and other foreign-allied pilots for advanced fighter pilot training on the Hawker Hurricane. [1] [6] [7]

Pujji flew active service first with No. 43 Squadron RAF from 2 June 1941, the formidable 'Fighting Cocks' fighter squadron, before being posted later in the same month to No. 258 Squadron RAF. [1] [6] [7] Operating from RAF Kenley, Pujji escorted bomber offensives over occupied France, conducted Rhubarb patrols over Europe, coastal patrols and other operational sorties in defence of Britain. [1] [6] [7] He flew mainly Hurricanes, which he preferred to Spitfires, for their relative ease of flying. [12] He was forced down on several occasions in one instance, his aircraft was disabled over the English Channel by a Messerschmitt Bf 109, but he managed to coax his aircraft to dry land, crashing near the White Cliffs of Dover. He was rescued from the burning wreckage and after a week in hospital returned to duty. [1] [6] [7] [8]

He was treated well in England, experiencing as a volunteer RAF service-member favourable treatment at local cinemas and restaurants, often without payment. [3] He subsequently commented, "I felt very welcome indeed, I never felt different or an outsider and my experiences in this country made me keen to return some time after the War. I was made to feel very much at home by everyone I met" [8] and "I wrote back to my father saying that I did not mind if I was killed because the British people were wonderful and so brave, and I was being so well treated. I could not queue for a movie without being told to move to the front". [1] [6] [7] [9]

As a Sikh, Pujji insisted on retaining his dastar Sikh headwear—even while flying, upon which he had also attached his RAF insignia, even carrying a spare dastar, in case it was needed. Die dastar, however, would interfere with use of the pilot flight headgear. On request, he was permitted to use a modified flight headgear, designing a special harness that would permit him to wear the dastar and still use his radio headphone receivers. Pujji's insistence on wearing the dastar inflight meant he could not attach the oxygen mask, it would later cost him an irreparably damaged lung caused by exposure to high-altitude flying. [12] Subsequently, in 1960, he ceased wearing the customary dastar Sikh headwear, "Times changed," he said. [6] [7] [12]

Mediterranean and Middle East Edit

After serving four months of active service in the European theatre of World War II, Pujji was dispatched at the end of September 1941 to Air Headquarters Western Desert in the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II. [1] [6] [7] In late 1941, during the North African campaign, his aircraft was forced down in the West African desert, but luckily was found and picked up by British rather than German desert troops. [1] [6] [7] [12] Desert living conditions were somewhat challenging, resulting in Pujji suffering from dietary problems, living often only on hardtack biscuits, since he could not eat the British staple issue service food bully beef for religious reasons, but was compensated by allowing him to fly at weekends to Cairo where he could enjoy a decent meal. [1] [6] [7]

South-East Asia Edit

On 16 January 1942, Pujji embarked at Suez for Colombo, British Ceylon in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II. From February 1942 through 1943, on transferring to No. 4 Squadron IAF of the Royal Indian Air Force at Kohat, Pujji would fly both the Hurricane and Westland Lysander over the North-West Frontier Province and other locations in British India. [1] [6] [7]

On 20 December 1943, Pujji was dispatched as flight commander to No. 6 Squadron RAF at Cox's Bazar, this time flying the Hurricane in a tactical role, rather than a fighter role, for the RAF Third Tactical Air Force crucially providing specialist support to the British Fourteenth Army campaign. Pujji served from March 1944 in Burma, where the Japanese posed a threat to British India, moving with the squadron to the Buthidaung region which was the theatre of a major ground offensive. When some 300 US troops were lost without rations, food and radio contact, in the dense Burmese jungle swarming with Japanese soldiers, the US sent out a search party to locate them, however, after the US search party failed after 3-days to locate them, Pujji was personally requested by General William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim of the British Fourteenth Army to find them. [6] [13] Pujji climbed into his plane and in adverse weather flew low over treetops across Japanese occupied territory into the suspected area—and with jubilation for everyone—Pujji found them. [6] [7] [13]

From April 1944, Pujji transferred as flight commander to No. 4 Squadron IAF at Fenny Airfield, carrying out transport escort and merchant shipping escort. [1] [6] [7] In June 1944, No. 4 Squadron IAF transferred to Comilla. With the approaching monsoon season, the role of the squadron was changed from fighter reconnaissance to light bombing, seeing action along the Sangu River during the Third Arakan Offensive. In early 1945, Pujji was transferred on attachment to Command and Staff College in Quetta (then in British India). Pujji had spent almost four years on continuous operational flying duty, considered unusual even by standards of the Second World War. [1] [6] [7]

Distinguished Flying Cross Edit

For his service bravery over Japanese occupied territory, Pujji was awarded the DFC, in recognition of gallantry and devotion to duty in the execution of air operations. [1] [2] [6] [7] Announced in The London Gazette on 17 April 1945, [2] and followed with a personal letter of congratulations from Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Park, [14] the DFC citation reads in part:

Acting Flight Lieutenant Mahinder Singh Pujji No. 4 (RIAF) Squadron

"This officer has flown on many reconnaissance sorties over Japanese occupied territory, often in adverse monsoon weather. He has obtained much valuable information on enemy troop movements and dispositions, which enabled an air offensive to be maintained against the Japanese troops throughout the monsoon. Flight Lieutenant Pujji has shown himself to be a skilful and determined pilot who has always displayed outstanding leadership and courage."

In late 1946, after suffering from a long illness of tuberculosis, which nearly cost him his life, caused him to become classified unfit for military service and receive a permanent disability discharge from service in the Indian Air Force. [1] [6] [7] From 1947, Pujji was employed as an Aerodrome Officer at Safdarjung Aerodrome, Delhi, where he also continued to fly in a civilian role. [1] From the 1950s, he went on to aspire as a recreational motor racing champion and holder of gliding records. [1] [3] [11] [15] During his career and life, he had the opportunity to personally give Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru a glider flight tour in 1959, including a glider flight for Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma and US president Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1961, he had the opportunity to personally greet Queen Elizabeth II on her visit to Udaipur and Jackie Kennedy in 1962. [3] [6] [7]

Pujji returned and emigrated to England in 1974, where he worked as an air traffic controller at Heathrow Airport. [11] Some years later, Pujji moved to the United States to work as manager of a pizza retail chain, [3] before returning to England in 1984 and settling in East Ham, and in 1998 retiring to Gravesend, Kent. On 12 October 2000, he was made an Honorary Freeman of the Borough of Newham. [3] [6] [7] [9]

In 2005, Pujji protested the British National Party's symbolic usage of a Spitfire aircraft image in their political campaign literature. He was reported as saying,

"The BNP are wrong to use the Spitfire as representative of their party. They forget people from different backgrounds helped in the Second World War. I am proof of this - I was flying a Spitfire. I also met Winston Churchill. Even in those days, there were ethnic minorities fighting for the British. I would recommend the armed forces for young people, regardless of race." [16]

In August 2010, Pujji's autobiography For King And Another Country was vrygestel.

Pujji died of a stroke at Darent Valley Hospital, England, on 18 September 2010, aged 92. He is survived by two daughters, one son, seven grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. The local authority Gravesham Borough Council, celebrated his life and heroism with an exhibition. [15]

Despite the high respect that Pujji experienced during the War, he believed that war films presented a "white-only view of the RAF". [12] He campaigned to raise awareness of the Indian contribution to the British war effort, which he, like many veterans, believed had been largely ignored. [4] In 2009, Pujji acknowledged he had received no invitations to any of the many commemorative events in Britain that marked the 70th anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War, or any other year, he says. He is quoted as saying, "As far as I think, no one in authority remembers that we are here, and we were a part of World War II". [4] [17]

In an effort to redress the balance, the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford opened a permanent exhibition in January 2009 ("Diversity in the Royal Air Force"), intended to "challenge negative perceptions, by celebrating the racial diversity of its history". The museum's curator—Al McLean, is quoted as saying: "Too many of our visitors are white, over 50 and middle class. I want to appeal to more than just those people. This exhibition explains a side of our story that isn't recognised – that the RAF is not just a white public schoolboy occupation". Pujji was the guest of honour at the opening. [12]

Shortly before his death on 18 September 2010 aged 92, Pujji was invited to attend a wreath-laying ceremony by Philip Sidney, 2nd Viscount De L'Isle, at a memorial outside the former RAF Station Gravesend Airport, to commemorate "The Few" on the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of Britain. [18]

In 2011 the short film The Volunteers was dedicated to Pujji after he contributed to its making but died before the film's completion.

Statue Edit

A statue of Squadron Leader Pujji, by English sculptor Douglas Jennings, was unveiled by Air Vice-Marshal Edward Stringer in St Andrew's Gardens, Gravesend, on 28 November 2014. It bears the inscription: "To commemorate those from around the world who served alongside Britain in all conflicts 1914-2014". [11] [18] The Gravesend community, which has one of the largest gurdwaras in the UK, raised £70,000 for the statue in a month. [4] [19]


Epiloog

Early in August 1944 I joined the training school at Andheri. The school was just about to be shifted to Hakimpet to be merged with the school established there. On reporting to Andheri I explained that I was coming from the operational area and that I had no leave for a long time. I was granted leave immediately. On return from leave, the school moved to Hakimpet.

This training unit moved in March 1947 to Tambaram. All technical trade training was concentrated in this one unit. I got my promotion as Flight Sergeant and worked in the School Trade Test Board. I still remember very vividly the midnight of Aug 14, 1947, when we all sat around the radio in the SNCO’s Mess and listened to the famous speech of Nehru – “the tryst with destiny.” In 1949 No 3 GTS was formed at Jalahalli for all Signals training. I was then posted to CTTB at Kanpur. Within six months on promotion as Warrant Officer I went back to Tambaram. As a W.O. I was in independent charge of the Signals Section at Tambaram.

I remained there till 1954 when, based on the results of written examinations and the tests at the Selection Board, Dehra Dun, I was selected for commissioning. Accordingly I underwent the Officers Training Course at AFTC, Jalahalli, and stood first in the course. I was commissioned in Feb 1956, with two years ante date.

As a Plt Offr I got a supernumerary posting to Tambaram but within a year was moved to No 3 GTS. Air HQ was pleased to move me again to Tambaram after spending exactly one year at 3 GTS. Here I became a Flt Lt.

In 1960 I was posted to a Signals Unit in Jammu and being the only officer in the unit was the CO of the unit. I got my “last posting before retirement” in 1962 and it was again to Tambaram upon request. As a Flt Lt I sat on the same chair which eight years earlier I left as a W.O. But the Chinese war of 1962 upset so many plans. I was promoted and posted to No 6 GTS Jalahalli — a newly formed training unit for Radar trades. On reaching superannuation, I retired from No 6 GTS in 1966.

Air HQ kindly gave me three years of re-employment of which the first year was at 6 GTS and the last two years at No 3 GTS. Since both units were on the same station, I was in Jalahalli from 1963 to 1969. In July I bid farewell to active service in the Air Force which was my home from Dec 1939 — a period of almost 30 years.Looking back in reminiscence, I am happy to say that I have no regrets and no axe to grind. I loved and enjoyed my work. And in all humility and thankfulness Imust acknowledge that wherever I was in whatever rank, I received respect, love and consideration from all those around me.

XIX Course Passing Out December 1960


Air War Over Kashmir

Pakistan Air Force Squadron Leader Muhammad Alam climbs aboard a North American F-86F at Sargodha air base in 1965.

The 1965 Indo-Pakistani War pitted Sabres and Starfighters against British and French fighters in low-level combat.

All over the world, fighter pilots are the same. They won’t stand for enemy aircraft attacking their nest. In early September 1965, Squadron Leader Muhammad Alam of the Pakistan Air Force dived his North American F-86F Sabre after seven Indian Air Force Hawker F.56 Hunter fighter- bombers raiding Sargodha, a Pakistani air base 80 miles west of the Indian border.

“I took the last man and dived behind him, getting very low in the process,” recounted Alam. He had flown the Hunter in Britain, and knew that it “can out-run the Sabre—it’s only about 50 knots faster, but has a much better acceleration, so it can pull away very rapidly.” But Alam had 1,400 hours in the F-86, some of the highest gunnery scores in the PAF and a pair of heat-seeking missiles under his wings. “Since I was diving, I was going still faster, and as he was out of gun range, I fired the first of my two GAR-8 Sidewinder missiles at him. In this case, we were too low and I saw the missile hit the ground short of its target.”

As the Indian formation broke up, Alam fired his second missile. “I didn’t see it strike,” he said. “The next thing I remember was that I was overshooting one of the Hunters and when I looked behind, the cockpit canopy was missing and there was no pilot in the aircraft.” He went after the rest. “When I was in gun­­fire range they all saw me. They all broke in one direc­tion, climbing and turning steeply to the left, which put them in loose line astern. This, of course, was their big mistake.”

The next 30 seconds have passed into PAF legend. “It all happened very fast,” Alam admitted. “We were all turning very tightly—in excess of 5g or just about on the limits of the Sabre’s very accurate A-4 radar-ranging gunsight. And I think before we had completed about 270 degrees of the turn, at around 12 degrees per second, all four Hunters had been shot down.”


Alam was credited with shooting down five Hawker Hunters on September 7, 1965 (including this one), but the Indian Air Force reported only two pilots killed. (Pakistan Air Force)

To this day, both sides in the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War deny most of each other’s claims, yet the conflict provided a unique test of Western weapons in combat. Pakistan fought with American-made tanks and airplanes. Though flirting with the Soviets, India bought the bulk of its armor and aircraft in Europe. Both air forces were organized in the British colonial tradition. But ever since their mutual independence in 1947, Pakistan considered the northern Indian territory of Kashmir to be on the wrong side of the border. In August it invaded, and on September 1 Indian army units called in air support. The PAF was outnumbered 5-to-1.

The IAF’s twin-boom de Havilland Vampire jets had first flown during World War II. A dozen sent to strafe Pakistani tanks on September 1 proved easy meat for PAF Sabres, which in the conflict’s first dogfight scored three victories for no losses. With war having not yet been declared, Sabre pilot Sqd. Ldr. Sarfaraz Rafiqui scored two before querying his radar ground controller, “Did you mean us to shoot to kill or to frighten?”

“To kill,” was the answer, “and you’ve done it.”

The next day, however, the Indians moved a flight of little Folland F.1 Gnat fighters up to the front. “We want you to shoot down Sabres,” their pilots were briefed. “How you do it is your problem, but the Sabres have to be tackled.”

On the morning of September 3, PAF Sabres scrambled to meet four IAF Dassault MD.454 Mystère IVa fighter-bombers. The Mystères, mere bait, fled. Four Gnats rose in their place. PAF Sqd. Ldr. Yusuf Ali Khan banked his F-86F into the middle of their formation. “Just as I was about to launch my GAR-8,” he said, “I felt a series of thuds on my aircraft.”

IAF Sqd. Ldr. Trevor Keelor closed to 200 yards, firing his Gnat’s twin 30mm cannons. Seeing an explosion on the Sabre’s right wing and the aircraft plunge away, he would claim the IAF’s first air-to-air kill. The PAF reported a cannon shell hit one of Khan’s Sidewinders, causing the explosion, but he managed to return to Sargodha. One Gnat was lost when Sqd. Ldr. Brijpal Singh Sikand, low on fuel and lost, landed on a PAF airfield. The Pakistanis claimed he surrendered to a Lockheed F-104 Starfighter flown by Flt. Lt. Hakimullah Khan Durrani at any rate, Sikand’s Gnat is on display to this day at the PAF museum in Karachi. Much to the derision of the Pakistanis, the Indians nicknamed the Gnat the “Sabre Slayer.”


PAF Flight Lt. Syed Saad Akhtar Hatmi stands beside a Gnat of No. 2 Squadron, IAF, captured at Pasrur on September 3. (Pakistan Air Force)

On the 4th, PAF Flt. Lt. Aftab Alam Khan dived his Star­fighter through four Indian Mystères that were strafing a passenger train. As they scattered low over the deck, he swung back around on their tails to fire a Sidewinder. “The flash of the missile blinded me for a few seconds,” Khan recalled. “The radar controller, who was also monitoring the radio of the Mystères, immediately informed me that one Mystère had been shot down and that another had been damaged …. It was also the first combat kill by any Mach 2 aircraft and the first missile kill for the Pakistan Air Force.” India claimed their aircraft had merely dropped its external fuel tanks, which exploded on impact.

Meanwhile, flying at low level to attack the Indian base at Adampur, Alam’s three-Sabre flight spotted four IAF No. 7 Squadron Hunters crossing their path about 500 feet off the ground. “I never fought at such low altitudes again,” Alam said, “nor often at such low speeds.” The seven jets got into a turning battle, down to 200 knots and treetop level. “In maneuverability, the Sabre was undoubtedly better than the Hunter,” Alam noted. He saw his first target flick over into the ground, “although I’m not certain whether I hit him or not.” IAF Sqd. Ldr. A.K. “Peter” Rawlley was killed. Alam claimed a second Hunter as well, which the Indians did not concede.

Elsewhere, three Sabres led by Sqd. Ldr. Rafiqui jumped two Hunters covering the IAF base at Halwara. Rafiqui shot down the leader, but four more Hunters arrived, two from each side. “My guns have stopped firing,” Rafiqui reported. In a confused ground-level dogfight, the Pakistanis claimed four Hunters, but two Sabres were shot down, including Rafiqui, who ejected too low and was found near his wrecked aircraft. He was posthumously awarded the Crescent of Courage, Pakistan’s second-highest military award.

On September 7, probably the critical day of the air war, the IAF was determined to take the fight to Pakistan. A dawn raid by Mystères took Sargodha by surprise. As the Indians scattered homeward, Flt. Lt. Amjad Hussain Khan pursued two of them in his F-104A. He returned to base later that day via bicycle, horse and helicopter, reporting that he’d shot down both Mystères, the second so close that his Starfighter ingested exploded debris, forcing him to eject. The Indians claimed that Khan fired on the same target twice: Sqd. Ldr. Ajjamada B. Devayya, who heroically shot down the Starfighter before succumbing himself. But witnesses from a Pakistani village told a third version: “…two aircraft approached from the direction of Sargodha and got into a turning fight for several minutes. Then the rear aircraft [the Starfighter] started firing its cannon it was, however, so fast that it collided with the front one.” Both pilots won medals, Devayya posthumously.

A subsequent wave of IAF Hunters was scattered in Alam’s legendary attack. Asked by his ground controller what he was counting, Alam answered, “Don’t you see, I’ve just shot down five Hunters.” His victories, confirmed by his wingman and several other PAF pilots on the scene, are vigorously denied by the Indians, though two Hunters crashed in Pakistani territory. Alam’s kills brought his score to seven, making him the war’s leading ace.

That day both sides took the air war to another level, opening a new front with East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh). From Kalaikunda, a former WWII bomber base west of Calcutta, the IAF launched a dawn raid by two English Electric Canberra bombers, across the Bay of Bengal, against a PAF Sabre base at Chittagong. Wing Commander Peter Wilson’s 1940s-vintage 1,000-pound bombs failed to explode, which hardly mattered, as there were no Sabres on base. On their return approach the Canberras were intercepted by Indian Hunters, whose pilots only at the last second recognized their side-by-side cockpits crews of Pakistan’s American-made Martin B-57 Canberras sat in tandem.

Chittagong’s Sabres had actually taken off from Tejgaon to attack Kalai­kunda. The two Can­berras, refueled and being rearmed, were destroyed where they sat, along with four Vam­pires. All the Sabres returned home unscathed. Wil­­son’s report summed up the morning’s action: “FIASCO!”

The PAF, however, erred in launching a follow-up strike. IAF Flt. Lt. Alfred Cooke and his wingman, waiting in their Hunters, caught four Sabres over the field. Both sides split up, and Cooke got behind the second F-86 pair. He and Flying Officer Afzal Khan, in the trailing Sabre, scissored back and forth at ground level. “I started firing at a range of 600 yards, and I could see that he was below tree-line height,” Cooke recalled. “I did not realize that I was that low and that my wing tip was actually hitting the scrub. I stopped firing to get away from the ground and saw his aircraft explode into a ball of flame, and I could not avoid flying through the fireball and debris.” Khan was killed.

But meanwhile the lead Sabre had come around on Cooke’s tail. “I took violent evasive manoeuvres,” Cooke said, “and during the criss-cross scissors we would cross very close to each other …. I kept on firing and closing in rapidly on him, and I could see pieces of his aircraft disintegrating. I stopped firing, as I was so close (100 yards) that if I did not break away I would collide with him.” Flight Lieu­tenant Tariq Habib Khan escaped back to base, but his Sabre was written off.

“On recovering from this I immediately pulled upward to the right and saw another Sabre behind me,” reported Cooke. “I out-manoeuvred him and got behind as he pulled up in a vertical climb and then winged over to go into a vertical dive with me following and firing at him all the time. In the vertical dive I kept firing at him as he pulled out of the dive …. I pulled back on the joystick with my finger on the trigger and got out of the dive with guns still firing until I had expended my ammunition.”

Cooke spotted the remaining Sabre closing on his wingman, and attacked. “This guy tried to shake me off by doing loops and barrel rolls right over the airfield. I got behind him to firing range and tried to take a shot but there was no ammo …. It was at this stage that I noticed grey puffs of smoke appearing in front of me and all around me and I realised that the AA was firing at me as well.” He chased the Sabre back across the border and, on finally landing, flamed out for lack of fuel several hundred yards short of his parking area, his port wing trailing foliage and his wingtip pitot tube bent upward from snagging brush. The surviving PAF pilots reported being attacked by nine Hunters.

After the 7th, commemorated thereafter in Pakistan as Air Force Day, both sides dialed back the air war. Their NATO suppliers, disconcerted to see client states using their weaponry on each other, had curtailed delivery of replacement aircraft and parts. Fighter pilots turned to ground-attack missions. PAF B-57s flew so many night nuisance raids that Indian base person nel collectively called them “8-Pass Charlie,” on the assumption one pilot was making eight separate attacks every night. They had no night fighter capability, but the Pakistanis did.

On the night of September 20-21, four IAF Canberras bombed Sargodha. As they headed for the border, an F-104 rose up in the darkness behind them. Wing Commander Jamal Ahmed Khan tracked his target on radar, closing to within just over a mile before triggering a Sidewinder. “It was pitch black and I had no visual contact with the Canberra until the flash of the missile strike,” he reported. “…It started spiraling down, and then flames started coming out of it when it had got down to about 15,000 ft. I circled round and watched it until it hit the ground. I felt good, but when the Indian pilot was picked up he said he thought the whole business was ‘very unfair.’” It was worse for the Indian navigator/bombardier, who rode the bomber into the ground.

By this time, the United Nations was pressuring both sides to desist. Before hostilities ended, however, Pakistan’s redoubtable Alam and his wingman drew up a pair of Hunters over Indian territory on September 16. He and the IAF leader, Flying Officer Prakash Pingale, went after each other’s wingmen, shot them both down, then turned on each other. “As we crossed head-on, he opened fire on me,” remembered Pingale. The two jets got into a turn­ing battle, the Sabre’s (and Al­am’s) forte. Pingale reported, “I attempted to close in but lost contact with Sabre No. 1 because I blacked out due to excessive g (around 8-10 as recorded by my g-meter).”

Alam fired both of his Side­winders at Pingale, the second of which “hit on his wing root. As it began to smoke, I saw that…I was well inside Indian territory and getting a bit short of fuel.” He opted to break off. Pingale made it home, but Alam was credited with two kills, bringing his total to nine (hotly disputed by the Indians) and making him Pakistan’s ace of aces.

A ceasefire was declared on September 23. Neutral estimates put aircraft losses at 70-odd Indian (about 10 percent of the country’s strength) and 20 Pakistani (seven percent). The venerable F-86, when flown by skilled pilots, proved still capable. The Starfighter, conceived as a high-level interceptor, was less effective as a low-level, slash-and-run dogfighter. The Western military embargo, however, had the effect of turning both countries toward China and the Soviet Union. Their confrontation con tinues to blow hot and cold, making it one of the world’s longest ongoing crises and arguably among the most likely to go nuclear.

For the Pakistani view of the war, frequent contributor Don Hollway recommends Battle for Pakistan: The Air War of 1965 , by John Fricker for the Indian viewpoint, try India-Pakistan Air War of 1965 , by P.V.S. Jagan Mohan and Samir Chopra.

This story was originally published in the May 2017 issue of Aviation History magazine. Subscribe hier.


Assam Regiment, Arunachal Scouts sign affiliation with IAF’s SU-30 squadron

NEW DELHI: The Assam Regiment and Arunachal Scouts of the Indian Army signed an affiliation with 106 Air Force Squadron at Tezpur in Assam on Monday for capability building.

The 106 Air Force Squadron is the SU-30 Squadron of the Eastern Air Command of the Indian Air Force.

The affiliation will assist them in development of mutual understanding of joint ethos, capability, limitations and core competencies of other services through common understanding of tactical military doctrines and concepts in the contemporary conflict environment.

“The Guard of Honour was inspected by Major General P.S. Behl, Colonel of the Assam Regiment and Arunachal Scouts. Thereafter the ‘Charter of Affiliation’ was signed by Maj Gen Behl and Gp Capt Varun Slaria, Commanding Officer, 106 Squadron,” the Ministry of Defence said.

The Assam Regiment was raised on June 15, 1941 and stood its ground to turn defeat into victory, winning six battle honours in the Second World War. The contribution of the regiment in the Burma Campaign and in the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war in changing the course of the battle is well documented in history.

The 106 Squadron, IAF, was raised on December 11, 1959 and currently operates the air dominance fighter Sukhoi 30 MKI. It is the most decorated squadron of the Indian Air Force with three Mahavir Chakras and seven Vir Chakras. The squadron has been awarded the prestigious President’s Standard.

The contribution of the IAF squadron and the Assam Regiment in the 1971 war and the combined war waging efforts of the regiment and Eastern Air Command in the Burma Campaign speaks volumes of their martial ardour, resoluteness and dauntless courage.

Maj Gen Behl talked about the importance of affiliation and its far reaching impact in the present day. He highlighted that the idea behind the affiliation was aimed at greater understanding of each other’s operational ethos, building camaraderie and ‘espirit-de-corps’.

This enhanced synergy and understanding of each other’s strengths will act as a force multiplier within our armed forces, he said.

Later, Maj Gen Behl flew a familiarisation sortie on a Sukhoi 30 MKI to acquaint himself with its capabilities. The ceremony was also marked by an aerobatics display by the formidable warplane.


Inhoud

The rank originated in the British Royal Air Force and was adopted by several other air forces which use, or used, the RAF rank system.

On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenant commanders and Royal Flying Corps majors becoming majors in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own rank titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navy's officer ranks, with the word "air" inserted before the naval rank title. For example, the rank that later became squadron leader would have been air lieutenant commander. However, the Admiralty objected to this modification of their rank titles. The rank title squadron leader was chosen as squadrons were typically led by RAF majors and the term squadron commander had been used in the Royal Naval Air Service. The rank of squadron leader has been used continuously since 1 August 1919.


Military units similar to or like No. 17 Squadron RAF

Squadron of the Royal Air Force based at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. Currently responsible for training all RAF crews assigned to the Sentry AEW1, Sentinel R1, Shadow R1, RC-135W Rivet Joint and Poseidon MRA1. Wikipedia

Flying squadron of the Royal Air Force providing Elementary Flying Training with the Grob Tutor T.1 from RAF Wittering. Disbanded in 1919 with the end of the First World War. Wikipedia

One of the oldest and most successful squadrons of the Royal Air Force, with battle honours from many of the significant air campaigns of both the First and Second World Wars. During the First World War, the squadron had many aces amongst its ranks such as James McCudden, Albert Ball, Reginald Hoidge and Arthur Rhys-Davids, developing a fierce reputation for the unit. Wikipedia


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