Silwer beker van Troy

Silwer beker van Troy


Die grafiek van die geskiedenis van Cap tot Troy ons silwer toon alle aanhalings van die afgelope 5 jaar. 'N Grafiek van die geskiedenis van Cap tot Troy ons silwer sedert 2014 met 'n kwotasie vir elke jaar. Grafiek van die geskiedenis van aanhalings van Cap tot Troy ons silwer sedert 2014 aanlyn en gratis. Beweeg oor die grafiek van die geskiedenis van Cap tot Troy ons silwer om die presiese koers vir die afgelope jaar uit te vind. Gebruik die gereedskapstips op die grafiek van die geskiedenis van aanhalings van Cap tot Troy ons silwer.

Die geskiedenis van Cap tot Troy ons silwer wisselkoerse is beskikbaar in die tabel vir elke jaar sedert 2014. U kan die geskiedenisstabel vir Cap wisselkoerse sedert 2014 op die webwerf sien. Hierdie silwer wisselkoerse van Cap tot Troy in die tabel vir elke jaar is gratis hier. Die geskiedenis van die wisselkoerse van elke jaar vir maande is beskikbaar deur op die skakel van die jaar in die geskiedenisstabel van cryptocurrency te klik. Klik op die skakel 2021 in die tabel oor jare om die silwer kwotasies van Cap to Troy vir 2021 vir elke maand te sien.

'N Verandering in die wisselkoers oor 'n lang tydperk is duidelik sigbaar op ons bladsy oor die geskiedenis van wisselkoerse. Die styging en daling van Cap tot Troy ons silwer sedert 2014. Die langtermyn-dinamika van Cap tot Troy ons silwer oor 'n dekade is moontlik op hierdie bladsy te skat. Op ons webwerf is daar 'n geskiedenis van die tariewe van alle kripto -geldeenhede relatief tot almal.

Kies 'n ander cryptocurrency in plaas van Troy ons silwer om die geskiedenis van Cap teenoor 'n ander cryptocurrency uit te vind. Kies 'n kripto -geldeenheid in plaas van 'n cap om die geskiedenis van die wisselkoers na ons tros silwer uit te vind. Cap to Troy ons silwer vir 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020. Die geskiedenis van Cap -wisselkoers vir enige geselekteerde jaar is gratis beskikbaar as u op die skakel van die jaar in die aanhalingstabel klik.

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DIE SKATTE VAN DIE HUIS VAN DIE HERE


Baie mense in die wêreld vandag is nie bewus van die prag en rykdom van eertydse Israel nie. Sedert die vernietiging van Jerusalem in 70 n.C. is Israel trouens onder die nasies versprei in nederigheid en onduidelikheid. Slegs in ons eie generasie (sedert 1948) is hierdie ou mense weer gevestig as 'n beskeie nasie wat haar voorvaderlande beset. Hernude en uitgebreide argeologiese studies in die heilige land vestig egter die aandag op die dramatiese geskiedenis van hierdie, Abraham se afstammelinge deur sy seun Isak, vandag soos nog nooit tevore nie.

Die doel van hierdie opstel is om kortliks die rykdom van eertydse Israel te beskryf wat verband hou met die verborgenheid van die tabernakel in die wildernis en die tempels wat in Jerusalem gebou is. Omdat die Tempelberg in Jerusalem baie ondergrondse kamers bevat wat nou vol puin is, het argeoloë en Bybelstudente gevra of dit moontlik is dat tempelskatte onder die rots weggesteek was voor die tye van inval en vernietiging van Jerusalem deur buitelandse indringers. Die beginselverwysing oor hierdie onderwerp is die Bybel, aangesien min ander historiese verslae of betroubare tradisionele verslae oorbly.

Alhoewel die presiese datum van die Joodse uittog uit Egipte nog steeds in twis is, dui die boeke Exodus en Numeri aan dat ongeveer 600 000 weerbare mans ouer as 20 (plus vroue en kinders) die 40-jarige reis vanaf die Nyl-delta gemaak het. uiteindelik aan die oostekant van die Jordaan. Tydens hul woestynwandelinge het die volk Israel die Tien Gebooie ontvang en gedetailleerde wette, regulasies en instruksies wat op die berg Sinai aan Moses gegee is. Moses het ook die opdrag gekry om 'n groot draagbare tabernakel of tent te bou wat aan die sorg van die priesters van Aäron toevertrou is. 'N Gedetailleerde beskrywing van hierdie tabernakel word gegee in Exodus 25-30. Die Tabernakel is gebou deur vrywillige aanbiedings wat deur die mense in sulke ruim hoeveelhede geskenk is dat daar meer as genoeg materiaal beskikbaar was.

Die materiaal wat vir die tabernakel saamgestel is, word breedvoerig beskryf in Exodus 35-38 en opgesom in Exodus 38: 21-30. Die totale hoeveelheid goud wat ingesamel is, was ongeveer een ton silwer, 3-3/4 ton en brons, 2-1/2 ton. Teen die huidige pryse is goud ongeveer $ 500 per troy ounce, of $ 6000 per pond, of $ 12,000,000 per ton. Silwer kos tans ongeveer $ 12 per troy ounce, of $ 144 per pond, wat $ 288,000 per ton is. Daarom sou die goud en silwer wat in die tabernakel van Moses gebruik is, vandag meer as $ 13 miljoen werd wees. In Exodus 12:35 staan ​​dat die Jode goud, silwer en ornamente gekry het deur die Egiptenare tydens die vertrek uit Egipte. Die goue kandelaar in die tabernakel weeg 'n talent en sal vandag 'n halfmiljoen dollar vir sy goud alleen werd wees. 'N Replika van hierdie menora word nou gemaak by die Temple Institute in Jerusalem.

Die Ou Testament gee 'n paar besonderhede oor die beweging van die tabernakel, die ark en die heilige voorwerpe na die verowering (Ref 1). Die Verbondsark was jare lank by Shiloh vermoedelik in 'n huis, tent of tempel wat daarvoor gebou is (Rigters 18:31, I Samuel 1:39, 3: 3 Rigters 21:19). Op 'n latere tydperk is die Ark tydens die oorlog met Gibea na Bet-el op die grens van Benjamin gebring (Rigters 20: 26-27). Die Ark is toe sewe maande lank deur die Filistyne gehou. Nadat dit weer gevang is, is dit 20 jaar lank in Kiriath-jearim geleë. Koning Saul het die Ark in die algemeen verwaarloos (1 Kronieke 13: 3), maar Dawid het dit ongeveer 1003 vC na Jerusalem gebring (II Samuel 6 I Kronieke 13:15). Die Ark het tydelike skuiling in Jerusalem gekry voordat dit geïnstalleer is in die eerste tempel wat koning Dawid se seun, die beroemde Salomo, gebou het. Ondanks die tydelike verwydering deur die afvallige koning Manasse, (II Kronieke 33: 7 35: 3), word daar deur die Ark gedink dat baie in die heiligdom van die eerste tempel gebly het tot die vernietiging van Jerusalem in 586 v.C. deur Nebukadnesar. Volgens Josephus (Die oorloë van die Jode, boek vyf) het die tempel na die ballingskap blykbaar geen ark bevat nie.

Die apokriewe boek II Makkabeërs (2: 1-8) sê dat die profeet Jeremia die Ark en die goue wierookaltaar in 'n grot op die berg Nebo weggesteek het voor die ballingskap van Babilon. Jeremia is na die val van Jerusalem deur 'n oorblyfsel van die Jode na Tahpanhes in Egipte geneem (Jeremia 42: 1-43: 7), so dit is denkbaar dat hy die ark onderweg in 'n grot vasgemaak het. Ander sê dit is meer waarskynlik dat die Ark onder die Tempelberg of elders in Jerusalem versteek sou wees as op Nebo, ongeveer 40 kilometer oos van Jerusalem. Miskien het die Ark in die vlamme omgekom toe die tempel afgedank en verbrand is. Omstredenheid oor die lot van die Ark is in ons tyd hernu (Ref. 2).

Dit is bekend dat die meeste of al die heilige voorwerpe van goud en silwer uit die tabernakel by die ark was toe dit deur Salomo uit die stad Dawid na die eerste tempel gebring is (I Konings 8: 4). Alhoewel Dawid 'n permanente huis van God in Jerusalem wou bou, het sy seun Salomo die eerste tempel gebou. Die planne was van Dawid, en Dawid het die materiaal bymekaargemaak (I Kronieke 28: 1-19 II Kronieke 2-4 I Konings 6-7). Hierdie materiaal bevat 100 000 talente (Verw. 3) goud en 1 000 000 talente silwer (1 Kron. 29). Uit sy eie fortuin het David ook 3000 talente goud en 7000 talente silwer van hoë gehalte gegee. Dit is 'n enorme hoeveelheid goud en silwer volgens enige standaard: 100,000 talent goud = 3750 ton, waarde vandag = $ 45 miljard $ 1,000,000 talente silwer = 37,500 ton, waarde vandag = $ 10,8 miljard. In ronde getalle was die rykdom van die eerste tempel ongeveer $ 56 miljard.

Benewens al die goud en silwer, is groot hoeveelhede brons, sederhout, yster en edelgesteentes bygedra. Die heiligste plek van die tempel van Salomo was bekleed met sederhout uit Libanon en bedek met 600 talente goud. Hierdie vergulding alleen, ongeveer 540 000 troy onse, sou vandag ongeveer $ 270 miljoen werd wees. Die deure van die tempel was ook bedek met goue plate. Gedurende hierdie tydperk van Israel se geskiedenis was Salomo se inkomste 666 talente goud per jaar of ongeveer 600 000 troy onse, vandag ter waarde van $ 300 miljoen. Gedurende die bewind van Salomo en kwartsilwer was so algemeen soos klip & quot in Jerusalem, (I Konings 10:27). Salomo het 200 massiewe skilde van elke 300 sikkels gewig gemaak om aan die mure van sy paleis te hang. Sy troon van ivoor was met goud oorgetrek. "So het koning Salomo al die konings van die aarde in rykdom en wysheid oortref" (II Konings 10:23). Die prag van Salomo se koninkryk het hom erkenning en roem besorg wat baie vreemde aandag getrek het. Byvoorbeeld, tydens haar besoek en kwototoets het Salomo met harde vrae & quot; die Koningin van Skeba vir Salomo 120 talente goud ($ 54,000,000) gebring, en 'n baie groot speserye en edelgesteentes, & quot (I Konings 10 II Kronieke 9).

In hul kommentaar op die Ou Testament vestig Keil en Delitzsch die aandag op die groot hoeveelhede goud en silwer wat deur Alexander die Grote in Asië geneem is: 2600 talente goud en 600 talente silwer uit Damaskus, 50,000 talente goud en 40,000 talente ongekapte goud en silwer van Susa en van Persepolis 120 000 talente goud. (Die ruïnes van Persepolis is net noord van Shiraz in Iran geleë). Alhoewel die hoeveelhede baie hoog is, is dit nie onredelik in vergelyking met die rykdom van ander omliggende antieke koninkryke nie.

'N Kubus goud wat 3750 ton weeg, sou ongeveer 6 meter (19,68 voet) aan 'n kant meet, en 37,500 ton silwer in 'n enkele kubus sou ongeveer 16 meter (52,48 voet) aan 'n kant wees. Die totale hoeveelheid goud wat tot die huidige tyd in die hele wêreld gemyn en opgeberg is, beloop ongeveer 88.000 ton (Ref. 4). As hierdie goud saamgevoeg word, sou die volume van 'n kubus 16,5 m (54 voet) aan 'n kant wees. Daar word beraam dat slegs ongeveer 40 000 ton goud op die aarde oorbly wat nog ontgin moet word. Suid -Afrika se goudproduksie beloop vandag ongeveer 950 ton per jaar. Die Sowjetunie produseer ongeveer 550 ton, Kanada 70 ton en die Verenigde State ongeveer 40 ton. Die totale wêreldproduksie van goud is jaarliks ​​ongeveer 1 850 ton.

Die tempel van Salomo het 7-1/2 jaar nodig gehad om te bou en die inspanning van ongeveer 180 000 arbeiders (I Konings 7:13, 5: 6, 13, 14 II Kronieke 2: 17-18). Groot hoeveelhede plaaslike klip en ingevoerde sederhout is gebruik. Die rykdom van die eerste tempel is onmiddellik na die dood van Salomo geplunder. Tydens die bewind van Salomo se seun Rehabeam, het Sisak (Seshonk), die koning van Egipte, omstreeks 925 vC op Jerusalem toegeslaan en die skatte van die huis van die Here en die skatte van die koning se huis weggeneem, en hy het alles weggeneem. Hy het ook die goue skilde (ongeveer 500 miljoen) wat Salomo gemaak het, weggeneem. & quot (II Kronieke 12: 1-12). Volgens Tweede Kronieke 12 het Shishak se leër 60 000 ruiters en 1200 strydwaens gehad. As elke man 100 pond buit teruggeneem het, is dit slegs 3000 ton goud en silwer. Die mense wat by hom was, was egter & quot; sonder getal & quot; & quot; die Lubim, die Sukkim en die Ethiopiërs. & Quot Hierdie mense het moontlik ook baie goud en silwer weggedra. Dit lyk redelik dat daar 'n bietjie goud en silwer in die tempel oorgebly het na die aanvalle van Shishak. Waarskynlik sou goud bo silwer geneem word.

Na Salomo se dood het die koninkryk van Israel steeds agteruitgegaan, behalwe af en toe herlewing, tot die tyd van die Babiloniese ballingskap in 586 vC. is deur die burger gemaak vir herstelwerk en opknapping van die tempel. Behalwe vir hierdie herlewings blyk dit dat baie van die rykdom van die tempel gekonfiskeer is om nasionale uitgawes te betaal en hulde te bring aan bedreigende buitelandse moondhede. Asa het die skatte van die tempel uitgeput deur 'quota' van die silwer en goud na Ben-Hadad, die koning van Sirië, te stuur om sy hulp teen Baasha, die koning van Israel, te koop (I Konings 15:18, 19).

'N Nuwe plundering het plaasgevind tydens die bewind van Ahasia, toe Joas, die koning van Israel, na goud en silwer in die tempel en die paleis na Samaria gegaan het (II Konings 14:14). Agaz het selfs verder gegaan as enige van sy voorgangers in heiligmaking, want behalwe dat hy die tempel en paleis van hulle skatte beroof het om die hulp van die koning van Assirië te bekom, het hy die koperaltaar van sy eertydse plek verwyder, asook die basisse en versierings van die waskwas en die osse onder die bronssee (II Konings 16: 10-17).

Hiskia het hulde gebring aan Sanherib, die koning van Assirië, 300 talente silwer en 30 talente goud, & quotand Hiskia het vir hom al die silwer gegee wat in die huis van die Here en in die skatte van die koning se huis gevind is. In daardie tyd het Hiskia die goud afgesny van die deure van die tempel van die Here en van die deurposte wat Hiskia, die koning van Juda, oorgetrek het, en dit aan die koning van Assirië gegee, & quot (II Konings 18: 13-16). Later ontvang Hiskia dwase die gesante van die koning van Babilon en wys hulle sy oorblywende staatskatte: & quotHezekiah. het hulle die hele huis van die kosbare dinge, die silwer en die goud en die speserye, en die kosbare salf en die hele huis van sy wapenrusting gewys, en alles wat in sy skatte gevind is: daar was niks in sy huis of in alles sy domein wat Hiskia hulle nie gewys het nie, & quot (II Konings 20: 12-13). Die rykdom van die tempel in die tyd van Hiskia was klaarblyklik meer as genoeg om die gierigheid van die koning van Babilon aan te wakker, sodat hy haastig Jerusalem kon verower nadat sy afgesante hom die nuus van die groot rykdom daar gebring het.

Die val van Jerusalem in 586 vC het gepaard gegaan met vreeslike vernietiging en groot lewensverlies. & quot En al die voorwerpe van die huis van God, groot en klein, en die skatte van die huis van die Here en die skatte van die koning en sy vriende, dit alles het hy (Nebukadnesar) na Babel gebring. En hulle het die huis van God verbrand en die muur van Jerusalem afgebreek en al sy paleise met vuur verbrand en al sy kosbare voorwerpe vernietig, & quot (II Kronieke 36: 18,19). 'N Parallelle verslag in II Konings 25 beskryf die beslag wat in beslag geneem is uit die huis van die Here, soos potte, snuffers, wierookskottels, vuurpanne, bakke, ens. Dit is moontlik dat sommige van die rykdom van die tempel en sommige van die skatte van die huis van die koning was onder die tempelberg versteek, hoewel dit meestal spekulasie is. As iets weggesteek is, sou dit waarskynlik die Ark van die Verbond gewees het wat van groot gewyde belang was. Die Skrif dui aan dat alles van waarde na Babilon oorgedra is. Gedurende die ballingskap is sommige van die gesteelde heilige goud en silwer voorwerpe uit die tempel van Jerusalem deur Belsasar gebruik op die aand van sy berugte fees toe handskrif op die muur van sy paleis verskyn wat aandui dat die oordeel van God op hom geval het (Daniël 5). Aan die einde van die 70-jarige ballingskap in Babilon is die terugkerende Jode toegelaat om ten minste sommige van hierdie goud en silwer heilige voorwerpe na Jerusalem terug te bring (Esra 1: 5-10). Die lys met items wat teruggegee is, bevat 1000 wasbakke goud, 1000 silwerbakke, 29 bakke, 30 bakke goud, 2410 silwerbakke en ander voorwerpe goud en silwer met 'n totaal van 5 469.

Die totale aantal Jode wat uit hierdie ballingskap teruggekeer het, was 42 360, plus 7 337 bediendes en 200 sangers. Daar was 736 perde, 245 muile, 435 kamele en 6720 esels in hul konvooi (Esra 2: 64-67). Die terugkerende ballinge het begin om die tempel en die mure te herbou. Die tweede tempel was beskeie in vergelyking met die van Salomo en is in 515 vC voltooi. Besonderhede word gegee in die boeke Nehemia en Esra. Die tweede tempel bevat nietemin aansienlike hoeveelhede goud en silwer wat blykbaar gedurende die lewe van die tempel toegeneem het.

Histories kom die volgende rekords uit die tyd van die Makkabeërs. 'N Beskrywing van die plundering van die tempel deur Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 170 vC, word in 1 Makkabeeërs 1: 20ev gegee en is ook deur Josephus beskryf. In daardie tyd het die tempel ten minste 'n reukaltaar van goud bevat, die tafel van toonbrode, die kandelare, baie bekers, bakke en wierookhouers, krone en goudplaat teen die muur waar die gerubs in die ou dae was. Antiochus het ook die & verborge skatte & quot van die tempelterrein ingeneem. Binne drie dae het hy 40 000 Jode vermoor en 'n gelyke aantal as gevangenes gelei. Daarna het hy die tempel ontheilig deur 'n vark op die altaar te offer.

Die totale rykdom van die Tweede Tempel was altyd klein in vergelyking met die grootheid van die Eerste Tempel, hoewel daar gedurende die 400 jaar na die sluiting van die kanon van die Ou Testament baie veranderings aangebring is. Die Romeinse heerser Herodes het besluit om die Tweede Tempel heeltemal te herbou en te vergroot vanaf sy 18de regeringsjaar (ongeveer 20 v.C.). Herodes het 10 000 werkers en 1 000 waens in diens gehad. Die grootte van die tempelgebied is vergroot van 17 tot 34 hektaar deur opgrawings in die noorde en deur die bou van groot keermure wat 450 voet van die Kidronvallei in die suidooste af styg. Binne hierdie gebied, wat nou 351 meter aan die noordekant, 512 in die ooste, 536 in die weste en 309 in die suide meet, het die tempel met sy brons kolomme van Korinte, sy verskillende voorhowe en poorte en glinsterende, ruim kloosters verrys. Die geboue en mure wat ons gebou het, was omvangryk en massief. Dit is in hierdie vergrote Tweede Tempel wat deur Herodes gebou is, dat Jesus toegewy is, en waar hy later by twee afsonderlike geleenthede die geldwisselaars geleer en uitgedryf het.

Die tweede tempelskatkis het wel baat gevind by 'n groot toestroming van goud en silwer uit alle lande wat deur aanbidders bygedra is. Cicero het gedurende sy leeftyd geskryf oor groot toestromings van goud na Jerusalem. Ander geskenke as goue of silwer muntstukke is verkoop en die waarde daarvan is aan die skatkis gegee. 'N Ander groot bron van inkomste was die wins uit die verkoop van die vleisoffers wat die Leviete berei het en elke dag aan die aanbieders verkoop het. Verreweg die grootste bedrag is waarskynlik verkry uit die halwe sikkel tempelheffing wat van elke manlike Israeliet, insluitend proseliete en slawe, vereis is. Die totale som van goud en silwer wat jaarliks ​​bygedra is ten tye van Jesus, is na raming ongeveer $ 500 000 per jaar. 'N Groot fraksie van hierdie rykdom het ongetwyfeld jaar na jaar opgehoop gedurende die leeftyd van die tweede tempel, (515 vC tot 70 n.C.). Daar was talle tempeluitgawes, maar die bewyse dui daarop dat die grootste deel van die inkomste jaar na jaar gestoor is.

Dus kon die Romeinse plundering tientalle miljoene dollars werd gewees het. Die plundering van die tempel, die totale vernietiging daarvan en die verbranding van Jerusalem met verskriklike lyding en lewensverlies het plaasgevind in 70 nC onder die Romeinse generaal Titus (Josefus, Oorloë van die Jode). Volgens tradisie het die intense vlamme van die tempelvuur die goud en silwer van die tempel gesmelt sodat dit tussen die krake van die rotse loop. Romeinse soldate het die tempel dan klip vir klip heeltemal afgebreek om die goud te onttrek (sien Matteus 24: 1-2). Dit lyk asof niemand met sekerheid weet of enige van die vate of heilige voorwerpe uit die tempel van Herodes in die ondergrondse gange weggesteek was tydens die lang beleg van Titus nie. Meestal is alles van waarde na Rome gebring.

Die algemene indruk uit al die Bybelse verslae en uit tradisie is dat die verskillende plundering van die tempels van Jerusalem altyd deeglik en totaal was. Alhoewel geen goud of silwer onder die tempelberg begrawe mag word nie, lê voorwerpe van onskatbare argeologiese, historiese en godsdienstige betekenis daar. Die profeet Jeremia het moontlik gesuggereer dat die Ark egter permanent verlore gegaan het (Jeremia 3:16), of ten minste dat dit nie meer van groot betekenis sal wees as die Messias kom nie.

Die Ou Testament vertel van die toekomstige herstel van die Joodse tempel in Jerusalem wanneer die Messias kom, en 'n nog groter toekomstige heerlikheid vir Israel as wat gedurende die tyd van Dawid en Salomo bereik is (Miga 4: 1-4 Sagaria 8 Sefanja 3: 14-20). Die grafte van sommige van die groot konings van Israel kan nog gevind word in die Stad van Dawid langs die tempelberg wat nou deur die Hebreeuse Universiteit in Jerusalem opgegrawe word. 'N Interessante verwysing na hierdie koninklike grafte word gevind in Esegiël, Hoofstuk 43. Natuurlik kan die historiese, kulturele en godsdienstige betekenis van enige nuwe argeologiese vondste in en om Jerusalem nie gemeet word aan goud of silwer nie.

NOTAS:

1. 'n Kaart van die bewegings van die ark gedurende hierdie tydperk word gegee in die Encyclopedia Judaica, 1972 -uitgawe.

2. Ander tradisies rakende die lot van die ark word gelys in die Encyclopedia Judaica, 1972 -uitgawe. Een interessante legende beweer dat die ark deur die koningin van Skeba na Ethiopië geneem is, waar dit tot vandag toe in 'n kerk in Aksum gebly het. Hierdie legende is onlangs deur Graham Hancock in sy intrigerende boek The Sign and the Seal, Crown Books, New York 1992, in groot besonderhede ondersoek en gerapporteer.

3. Die talent het gewissel tussen 28,8 en 30,27 kg, wat 66 tot 75 pond is. Die sikkel was 11,23 gram of 0,403 onse. In hierdie artikel het ek 'n talent geneem om 75 pond en 12 troy onse gelyk aan een pond te wees. Die ton wat ek gebruik het, is die gewone Engelse ton, 2000 lbs.

VERWYSINGS:

1. Mazar, Benjamin, The Mountain of the Lord, Doubleday Publishing, New York (1975).

2. Yadin, Yigael, Jerusalem Revealed, Yale University Press, Londen (1976).

3. Kenyon, Kathleen M., Digging Up Jerusalem, Londen (1974).

3. Landay, Jerry M., Silent Cities, Sacred Stones, McCall Books, New York (1971).

4. Keil, C. F. en F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. III, Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, herdruk in Oktober 1978.

6. Ironside, H. A., The Four Hundred Silent Years, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptunus, New Jersey, (1914).

7. Herzog, Chaim en Gichon, Mordechai, Battles of the Bible, Random House, New York, (1978).

8. Gulston, Charles, Jerusalem, Zondervan Publishing, Grand Rapids, Michigan, (1978).

8. Edersheim, Alfred, The Temple, Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, (1979).

9. Landay, Jerry M., Dome of the Rock, Newsweek Publishing, New York (1972).

Die skatte van die huis van die Here

deur Lambert Dolphin
E -pos: [email protected]
Webbladsye: http://ldolphin.org/

Terug na die Templemount.org -tuisblad

Julie 1981, hersien November 1992. 5 Junie 2019

Gorham sterling silwer Martelé Art Nouveau waterkruik

Art Nouveau blomme, blare en skoenlapper dekor. Bears -handelsmerk, 8992, en Spaulding & amp. Ligte gebruik. Hoogte: 9-1/2 "gewig: 33,5 oz.

Verkoopprys: $ 27,000 (Morphy Auctions - 2/12)


Die Troy Ounce Today

Voordat die metrieke stelsel aangeneem is, het die Fransgebore koning Henry II van Engeland die Britse muntstelsel aangepas om meer te reflekteer op die Franse troy-stelsel. Die stelsel is periodiek aangepas, maar troy -gewigte soos ons dit vandag ken, is in die 1400's die eerste keer in Engeland gebruik. Teen 1527 het die troy ounce die amptelike standaardmeting vir goud en silwer in Brittanje geword, en die VSA het uiteindelik in 1828 sy voorbeeld gevolg.

Vandag is die troy ounce die enigste maateenheid van die troy -gewigstelsel wat ons gebruik. Net soos die handelaars van Troyes in Frankryk, het kopers en verkopers vandag 'n goeie, gestandaardiseerde metingsvorm vir edelmetale nodig.


POARCH CREEK INDIAN NATION 2007 SILVER DOLLAR

Hierdie aantreklike silwer dollar van 2007, uitgereik deur die Sovereign Nation of Poarch Creek Indians, The Poarch Creek Indiane is afstammelinge van die oorspronklike Creek Nation, wat eens byna die hele Alabama en Georgia beslaan het. Anders as by baie Oos -Indiese stamme, is die Poarch Creeks nie uit hul stamlande verwyder nie en woon hulle al byna 200 jaar lank saam in en om die reservaat in Poarch, Alabama. Hulle is die enigste federale erkende stam in Alabama. Die muntstuk bevat 'n Indiese danser en die stamembleem aan die een kant en 'n Indiër te perd aan die ander kant. Die stamme maak aanspraak op die reg om munte as 'n soewereine Indiese nasie uit te reik. Die munt sonder sirkulasie bevat 1 troy ounce .999 fyn silwer en het 'n maksimum toegelate munt van slegs 20.000 stukke.

Silwer beker van Troy - Geskiedenis

1852 Tiffany, Young & Ellis (vervaardiger J.C. Moore)
B • c. 1853 (J.C. Moore, vervaardiger)
C • c.1854

1891 (direkteurskap van Edward Moore)
E • 1892

1902 (direkteurskap van Charles L. Tiffany)
F • 1902

1907 (direkteurskap van Charles T. Cook)
G • 1907

1947 (direkteurskap van John C. Moore II)
H • 1947

1956 (direkteurskap van Louis deBebian Moore)
Ek • 1956

c.1965 (direkteurskap van William T. Lusk)
J • c. 1965


Sterling "Tiffany Pattern" vurke, c.1869


Japanse Sterling Box, c.1873


"Framboosstok" bediener, omstreeks 1890's

Tiffany Silver
Charles H. Carpenter Jr. met Mary Grace Carpenter (red. Red.)
Alan Wofsy, 1997

Elegante bord: drie eeue edelmetale in New York
Deborah Dependahl Waters red.
Museum van die Stad New York, 2000

Silwer in Amerika, 1840-1940: 'n Eeu van prag
Charles L. Venable
Harry N. Abrams, 1994

Versamel Amerikaanse 19de -eeuse silwer
Katherine Morrison McClinton
Bonanza, 1968

Prestasiepunte: Vier eeue Amerikaanse silwer
D. B. Warren, K. S. Howe & M. K. Brown
Harry N. Abrams, 1987


Inhoud

Oorsprong Redigeer

Nadat die lord Stanley van Preston op 11 Junie 1888 deur koningin Victoria as goewerneur -generaal van Kanada aangestel is, het hy en sy gesin baie entoesiasties geraak oor yshokkie. [8] Stanley is die eerste keer blootgestel aan die wedstryd tydens die Winter Carnival van 1889 in Montreal, waar hy sien hoe die Montreal Victorias die Montreal Hockey Club speel. [9] [10] Die Montreal Gazette berig dat hy "sy groot vreugde uitgespreek het oor die hokkiespel en die kundigheid van die spelers". [8] Gedurende daardie tyd was georganiseerde yshokkie in Kanada nog in die kinderskoene en slegs Montreal en Ottawa het iets wat soos ligas lyk. [8]

Stanley se hele gesin het aktief geword in yshokkie. Twee van sy seuns, Arthur en Algernon, stig 'n nuwe span genaamd die Ottawa Rideau Hall Rebels. [11] Arthur speel ook 'n sleutelrol in die vorming van wat later bekend geword het as die Ontario Hockey Association (OHA), en word die stigter van yshokkie in Groot -Brittanje. [12] Arthur en Algernon het hul pa oorreed om 'n trofee te skenk as ''n uiterlike en sigbare teken van die hokkiekampioenskap'. [11] Stanley het die volgende boodskap gestuur na die oorwinningsviering wat op 18 Maart 1892 in Ottawa's Russell House Hotel vir die driemalige kampioen Ottawa Hockey Club gehou is: [8] [13] [14]

Ek het al geruime tyd gedink dat dit 'n goeie ding sou wees as daar 'n uitdagingsbeker was wat jaarliks ​​deur die kampioen -hokkiespan in die Dominion [van Kanada] gehou sou word.

Daar is tans geen uiterlike tekens van 'n kampioenskap nie, en in die lig van die algemene belangstelling wat die wedstryde uitlok, en die belangrikheid daarvan dat die spel regverdig en volgens reëls algemeen erken word, is ek bereid om 'n beker te gee wat word jaarliks ​​deur die wenspan gehou.

Ek is nie heeltemal seker dat die huidige regulasies vir die rangskikking van wedstryde volle tevredenheid bied nie, en dit is die moeite werd om te oorweeg of hulle nie so gereël kan word dat elke span een keer tuis en een keer op die plek waar hul teenstanders vandaan kom, speel nie. [13]

Kort daarna koop Stanley wat gereeld beskryf word as 'n dekoratiewe ponsbak, maar wat die silwerkenner John Culme as 'n roosbak identifiseer, [15] gemaak in Sheffield, Engeland, en verkoop word deur die Londense silwersmid GR Collis and Company (nou Boodle en Dunthorne Juweliers), vir tien guineas, gelyk aan tien en 'n half pond sterling, US $ 48,67, wat gelyk is aan $ 1,402 in 2020 dollar. [8] [16] Hy het die woorde "Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup" aan die een kant van die buitekant gegraveer en aan die ander kant "From Stanley of Preston". [17] Die naam "Stanley Cup" is al op 1 Mei 1893 daaraan gegee toe 'n Ottawa Journal artikel gebruik die naam as 'n titel. [18]

Oorspronklik was Stanley van voorneme dat die beker aan die beste amateurhokkiespan in Kanada toegeken sou word, deur die aanvaarding van 'n uitdaging van 'n ander span. Hy het vyf voorlopige regulasies gemaak: [8] [14]

  1. Die wenners moet die beker in goeie orde teruggee wanneer die trustees dit vereis, sodat dit aan enige ander span wat dit kan wen, oorhandig kan word.
  2. Elke wenspan mag op sy eie koste die klubnaam en jaar gegraveer op 'n silwer ring op die beker hê.
  3. Die beker bly 'n uitdagingsbeker en behoort nie die eiendom van een span te word nie, selfs al word dit meer as een keer gewen.
  4. Die trustees behou absolute gesag in alle situasies of geskille oor die wenner van die beker.
  5. As een van die bestaande trustees bedank of uitval, moet die oorblywende kurator 'n plaasvervanger benoem.

Stanley het die balju John Sweetland en Philip D. Ross (wat 56 jaar gedien het) as trustees van die beker aangestel. Sweetland en Ross het die trofee in 1893 vir die eerste keer aan die Montreal Amateur Athletic Association oorhandig namens die aangeslote Montreal Hockey Club, die kampioene van die Amateur Hockey Association of Canada (AHAC), aangesien hulle "alle komers in die laat seisoen verslaan het, insluitend die kampioene van die Ontario Association "(Ottawa). [19] Sweetland en Ross het ook geglo dat die AHAC die hoogste liga is, en as die eerste plek in die AHAC was Montreal die beste span in Kanada. [20] Uiteraard was die Ottawas ontsteld oor die besluit omdat daar geen uitdagingswedstryde was nie en omdat die trustees nie die reëls oor die toekenning van die beker voor die aanvang van die seisoen kon oordra nie. [20]

As gevolg hiervan het die beker -trustees meer spesifieke reëls uitgevaardig oor hoe die trofee verdedig en toegeken moet word: [21] [22]

  • Die beker word outomaties toegeken aan die span wat die titel van die vorige bekerkampioenliga wen, sonder dat 'n ander spesiale ekstra wedstryd nodig is.
  • Uitdagers vir die beker moet van senior hokkieverenigings wees en moes hul ligakampioenskap gewen het. Uitdagers sal erken word in die volgorde waarin hul versoek ontvang word.
  • Die uitdagingswedstryde (waar die beker die liga kan verander) moet beslis word in 'n eenwedstryd, 'n tweedeligwedstryd of 'n beste van drie reekse, tot voordeel van beide betrokke spanne. Alle wedstryde vind op die tuisys van die kampioene plaas, hoewel spesifieke datums en tye deur die trustees goedgekeur moet word.
  • Kaartjieontvangste uit die uitdagingswedstryde moet gelykop tussen beide spanne verdeel word.
  • As die twee mededingende klubs nie tot 'n skeidsregter kan instem nie, sal die trustees een aanstel, en die twee spanne sal die uitgawes gelykop dek.
  • 'N Liga kon nie twee keer in een seisoen om die beker uitdaag nie.

Stanley never saw a Stanley Cup championship game, nor did he ever present the Cup. Although his term as Governor General ended in September 1893, he was forced to return to England on July 15. In April of that year, his elder brother Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby died, and Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby. [12]

Challenge Cup era Edit

During the challenge cup period, none of the leagues that played for the trophy had a formal playoff system to decide their respective champions whichever team finished in first place after the regular season won the league title. However, in 1894, four teams out of the five-team AHAC tied for the championship with records of 5–3–0. The AHAC had no tie-breaking system. After extensive negotiations and Quebec's withdrawal from the championship competition, it was decided that a three-team tournament would take place in Montreal, with the Ottawa team receiving a bye to the final because they were the only road team. On March 17, in the first ever Stanley Cup playoff game, the Montreal Hockey Club (Montreal HC) defeated the Montreal Victorias, 3–2. Five days later, in the first Stanley Cup Finals game, Montreal HC beat the Ottawa Hockey Club 3–1. [23] [24]

In 1895, Queen's University was the first official challenger for the Cup, although it was controversial. The Montreal Victorias had won the league title and thus the Stanley Cup, but the challenge match was between the previous year's champion, Montreal HC, and the university squad. The trustees decided that if the Montreal HC won the challenge match, the Victorias would become the Stanley Cup champions. The Montreal HC won the match 5–1 and their cross-town rivals were crowned the champions. [25] The first successful challenge to the Cup came the next year by the Winnipeg Victorias, the champions of the Manitoba Hockey League. On February 14, 1896, the Winnipeg squad defeated the champions 2–0 and became the first team outside the AHAC to win the Cup. [26]

As the prestige of winning the Cup grew, so did the need to attract top players. Only nine months after winning the Cup, in March 1906, the Montreal Wanderers pushed through a resolution at the annual meeting of the Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Association (ECAHA) to allow professional players to play alongside amateurs. Because the ECAHA was the top hockey league in Canada at the time, the Cup trustees agreed to open the challenges to professional teams. [27] The first professional competition came one month later during the Wanderers' two-game, total goals challenge series, which they won 17 goals to 5. [28]

The smallest municipality to produce a Stanley Cup champion team is Kenora, Ontario the town had a population of about 4,000 when the Kenora Thistles captured the Cup in January 1907. [29] Aided by future Hall of Famers Art Ross and "Bad" Joe Hall, the Thistles defeated the Montreal Wanderers in a two-game, total goals challenge series. The Thistles successfully defended the Cup once, against a team from Brandon, Manitoba. In March 1907, the Wanderers challenged the Thistles to a rematch. Despite an improved lineup, the Thistles lost the Cup to Montreal.

In 1908, the Allan Cup was introduced as the trophy for Canada's amateurs, and the Stanley Cup started to become a symbol of professional hockey supremacy. [27] In that same year, the first all-professional team, the Toronto Trolley Leaguers from the newly created Ontario Professional Hockey League (OPHL), competed for the Cup. [30] One year later, the Montreal HC and the Montreal Victorias, the two remaining amateur teams, left the ECAHA, and the ECAHA dropped "Amateur" from their name to become a professional league. [27] In 1910, the National Hockey Association (NHA) was formed. The NHA soon proved it was the best in Canada, as it kept the Cup for the next four years. [31]

Prior to 1912, challenges could take place at any time or place, given the appropriate rink conditions, and it was common for teams to defend the Cup numerous times during the year. In 1912, Cup trustees declared that it was to be defended only at the end of the champion team's regular season. [32]

Organized interleague competition Edit

In 1914, the Victoria Aristocrats from the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) challenged the NHA and Cup champion Toronto Blueshirts. A controversy erupted when a letter arrived from the Stanley Cup trustees on March 17, that the trustees would not let the Stanley Cup travel west, as they did not consider Victoria a proper challenger because they had not formally notified the trustees. [33] However, on March 18, Trustee William Foran stated that it was a misunderstanding. PCHA president Frank Patrick had not filed a challenge, because he had expected Emmett Quinn of the NHA to make all of the arrangements in his role as hockey commissioner, whereas the trustees thought they were being deliberately ignored. In any case, all arrangements had been ironed out and the Victoria challenge was accepted. [34] [35]

Several days later, trustee Foran wrote to NHA president Quinn that the trustees are "perfectly satisfied to allow the representatives of the three pro leagues (NHA, PCHA, and Maritime) to make all arrangements each season as to the series of matches to be played for the Cup". [36] One year later, when the Maritime league folded, the NHA and the PCHA concluded a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other for the Cup, similar to baseball's World Series, which is played between the American League and National League champions. Under the new proposal, the Stanley Cup Finals series alternated between the East and the West each year, with alternating games played according to NHA and PCHA rules. [37] The PCHA's Vancouver Millionaires won the 1915 series three games to none in a best-of-five series. [38]

Prior to organized ice hockey expanding to any serious extent outside Canada, the concept that the Stanley Cup champion ought to be recognized as the world champion was already firmly established – Stanley Cup winners were claiming the title of world champions by no later than the turn of the century. After the Portland Rosebuds, an American-based team, joined the PCHA in 1914, the trustees promptly issued a formal statement that the Cup was no longer for the best team in Canada, but now for the best team in the world. [37] Ice hockey in Europe was still in its infancy at this time, so it was without much controversy that winners of the Stanley Cup continued styling themselves as the world champions just like in baseball. Two years later, the Rosebuds became the first American-based team to play in the Stanley Cup Finals, although all its players were Canadians. [39] In 1917, the Seattle Metropolitans became the first American-based team to win the Cup. [40] After that season, the NHA dissolved, and the National Hockey League (NHL) took its place. [37]

The Spanish influenza epidemic forced the Montreal Canadiens and the Seattle Metropolitans to cancel the 1919 Stanley Cup Finals after game five, marking the first time the Stanley Cup was not awarded. [41] The series was tied at 2–2–1, but the final game was never played because Montreal Manager George Kennedy and players Joe Hall, Billy Coutu, Jack McDonald, and Newsy Lalonde were hospitalized with influenza. Hall died four days after the cancelled game, and the series was abandoned. [42]

The format for the Stanley Cup Finals changed in 1922, with the creation of the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL). Three leagues competed for the Cup: two league champions faced each other for the right to challenge the third champion in the final series. [43] This lasted three seasons as the PCHA and the WCHL later merged to form the Western Hockey League (WHL) in 1925. [44] In 1924–25 the Victoria Cougars won the Cup, the last team outside the NHL to do so. [45]

NHL takes over Edit

The WHL folded in 1926 and was quickly replaced by the Prairie Hockey League. However, in the meantime, the NHL (which had entered the U.S. only two years before) bought up the contracts of most of the WHL's players and largely used them to stock the rosters of three new U.S. teams. In what would turn out to be its most significant expansion of its pre-Original Six era, the Chicago Blackhawks, Detroit Cougars (now called the Detroit Red Wings), and New York Rangers joined the NHL. With the NHL now firmly established in the largest markets of the Northeastern United States, and with the Western teams having been stripped of their best players, the PHL was deemed to be a "minor league" unworthy of challenging the NHL for hockey supremacy.

The PHL lasted only two seasons. Over the next two decades, other leagues and clubs occasionally issued challenges, but none were accepted by the Cup's trustees. Since 1926, no non-NHL team has played for the Cup, leading it to become the de facto championship trophy of the NHL. [44] [46] In addition, with no major professional hockey league left to challenge it, the NHL began calling its league champions the world champions, notwithstanding the lack of any interleague championship. In doing so, the NHL copied a policy that had been adopted by the then still-fledgling National Football League from its start in 1920 (and which the National Basketball Association also asserted upon its founding in 1946).

Finally in 1947, the NHL reached an agreement with trustee J. Cooper Smeaton to grant control of the Cup to the NHL, allowing the league to reject challenges from other leagues that may have wished to play for the Cup: [46] [47] [48]

  1. The Trustees hereby delegate to the League full authority to determine and amend from time to time the conditions for competition of the Stanley Cup, including the qualifications of challengers, the appointment of officials, the apportionment and distribution of all gate receipts, provided always that the winners of this trophy shall be the acknowledged World's Professional Hockey Champions.
  2. The Trustees agree that during the currency of this agreement they will not acknowledge or accept any challenge for the Stanley Cup unless such a challenge is in conformity with the condition specified in paragraph one (1) thereof.
  3. The League undertakes the responsibility for the care and safe custody of the Stanley Cup including all necessary repairs and alterations to the cup and sub-structure as may be required from time to time, and further undertakes to ensure the Stanley Cup for its full insurable value.
  4. The League hereby acknowledges itself to be bound to the Trustees in the sum of One Thousand Dollars, which bond is conditioned upon the safe return of the Stanley Cup to the Trustees in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, and it is agreed that the League shall have the right to return the trophy to the Trustees at any time.
  5. This agreement shall remain in force so long as the League continues to be the world's leading professional hockey league as determined by its playing caliber and in the event of dissolution or other termination of the National Hockey League, the Stanley Cup shall revert to the custody of the trustees.
  6. In the event of default in the appointment of a new trustee by the surviving trustee, the "Trustees" hereby delegate and appoint the Governors of the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston, Ontario, to name two Canadian trustees to carry on under the terms of the original trust, and in conformity with this Agreement.
  7. And it is further mutually agreed that any disputes arising as to the interpretation of this Agreement or the facts upon which such interpretation is made, shall be settled by an Arbitration Board of three, one member to be appointed by each of the parties, and the third to be selected by the two appointees. The decision of the Arbitration Board shall be final. [22]

This agreement was amended on November 22, 1961, substituting the Governors of the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston, Ontario with the Committee of the Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto, Ontario as the group to name the two Canadian trustees, if need be. In the 1970s, the World Hockey Association sought to challenge for the Cup. By this time, all Cup Trustees were longtime NHL loyalists, and under the direction of NHL President Clarence Campbell the WHA's challenge for the Cup was blocked. However, notwithstanding the aforementioned legal obligation, the NHL (considering not only the WHA's presence but also the rising caliber of European ice hockey leagues) quietly stopped calling its champions the world champions.

Nevertheless, the NHL came under pressure to allow its champion to play the WHA champion. Eventually, following the establishment of the Canada Cup as the first best-on-best international hockey tournament, NHL President Clarence Campbell (who was a vocal opponent of the tournament) made public overtures to establish a true world professional championship in ice hockey, "just like the World Series". [49] Under Campbell's proposal, the NHL champion would have played the WHA champion for the right to face the European champion. In the end, Campbell's proposal went nowhere – eventually, the NHL resolved the WHA challenge by agreeing to merge with its rival, by which time the older league had quietly withdrawn its support for the idea. Neither the NHL nor any other professional hockey league makes a claim to its champions being the world champions.

The Cup was awarded every year until 2005, when a labour dispute between the NHL's owners and the NHL Players Association (the union that represents the players) led to the cancellation of the 2004–05 season. As a result, no Cup champion was crowned for the first time since the flu pandemic in 1919. The lockout was controversial among many fans, who questioned whether the NHL had exclusive control over the Cup. A website known as freestanley.com (since closed) was launched, asking fans to write to the Cup trustees and urge them to return to the original Challenge Cup format. [50] Adrienne Clarkson, then Governor General of Canada, alternately proposed that the Cup be presented to the top women's hockey team in lieu of the NHL season. This idea was so unpopular that the Clarkson Cup was created instead. Meanwhile, a group in Ontario, also known as the "Wednesday Nighters", filed an application with the Ontario Superior Court, claiming that the Cup trustees had overstepped their bounds in signing the 1947 agreement with the NHL, and therefore must award the trophy regardless of the lockout. [51]

On February 7, 2006, a settlement was reached in which the trophy could be awarded to non-NHL teams should the league not operate for a season. The dispute lasted so long that, by the time it was settled, the NHL had resumed operating for the 2005–06 season, and the Stanley Cup went unclaimed for the 2004–05 season. [48] Furthermore, when another NHL lockout commenced in 2012 the Trustees stated that the 2006 agreement did not oblige them to award the Cup in the event of a lost season, and that they were likely to reject any non-NHL challenges for the Cup in the event the 2012–13 season were cancelled, which it was not. [4]

In 2007, the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) formalized the "Triple Gold Club", the group of players and coaches who have won an Olympic Games gold medal, a World Championship gold medal, and the Stanley Cup. [52] [53] [54] The term had first entered popular use following the 2002 Winter Olympics, which saw the addition of the first Canadian members. [55] [56] [57]

125th anniversary Edit

In March 2017, to commemorate the Stanley Cup's 125th anniversary, the original Cup and the current Stanley Cup were the focus of a four-day tour of Ottawa, including a stop at Rideau Hall. [58] The Royal Canadian Mint produced two commemorative coins to mark the anniversary. [59] The first is a roll of Canadian quarters with an image of the Stanley Cup, the word Stanley Cup in English and Coupe Stanley in French with two ice hockey players and "125 years/ans" on the reverse and an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse using plated steel. The second coin was designed with the Stanley Cup on the reverse and an effigy of Elizabeth II, "Stanley Cup" in English and "Coupe Stanley" in French and "50 dollars" above the effigy. It was made using 99.9% silver.

In October 2017, the Lord Stanley's Gift Monument, commemorating the donation of the Stanley Cup was erected in Ottawa at Sparks Street and Elgin Street, near the location of the dinner party announcing the Cup at the Russell House, which has since been demolished. [60]

Like the Grey Cup, awarded to the winner of the Canadian Football League, the Stanley Cup is engraved with the names of the winning players, coaches, management, and club staff. However, this was not always the case: one of Lord Stanley's original conditions was that each team could, at their own expense, add a ring to the Cup to commemorate their victory. [8] [14] Initially, there was only one base ring, which was attached to the bottom of the original bowl by the Montreal Hockey Club. Clubs engraved their team names, usually in the form "TEAM NAME" "YEAR WON", on that one ring until it was full in 1902. With no more room to engrave their names (and unwilling to pay for a second band), teams left their mark on the bowl itself. The 1907 Montreal Wanderers became the first club to record their name on the bowl's interior surface, and the first champion to record the names of 20 members of their team. [61]

In 1908, for reasons unknown, the Wanderers, despite having turned aside four challengers, did not record their names on the Cup. The next year, the Ottawa Senators added a second band onto the Cup. Despite the new room, the 1910 Wanderers and the 1911 Senators did not put their names on the Cup. The 1915 Vancouver Millionaires became the second team to engrave players' names, this time inside the bowl along its sides. [61]

The 1918 Millionaires eventually filled the band added by the 1909 Senators. [61] The 1915 Ottawa Senators, the 1916 Portland Rosebuds and the 1918 Vancouver Millionaires all engraved their names on the trophy even though they did not officially win it under the new PCHA-NHA system. They had won the title of only the previous champion's league and would have been crowned as Cup champions under the old challenge rules. The winners in 1918 and 1920 to 1923 did not put their winning team name on it. [62]

No further engraving occurred until 1924, when the Canadiens added a new band to the Cup. [61] Since then, engraving the team and its players has been an unbroken annual tradition. Originally, a new band was added each year, causing the trophy to grow in size. The "Stovepipe Cup", as it was nicknamed because of its resemblance to the exhaust pipe of a stove, became unwieldy, so it was redesigned in 1948 as a two-piece cigar-shaped trophy with a removable bowl and collar. This Cup also properly honoured those teams that did not engrave their names on the Cup. Also included was the 1918–19 no decision between the Montreal Canadiens and Seattle Metropolitans. [63]

Since 1958, the Cup has undergone several minor alterations. The original collar and bowl were too brittle, and were replaced in 1963 and 1969, respectively. The modern one-piece Cup design was introduced in 1958, when the old barrel was replaced with a five-band barrel, each of which could contain 13 winning teams. [64] Although the bands were originally designed to fill up during the Cup's centennial year in 1992, the names of the 1965 Montreal Canadiens were engraved over a larger area than allotted and thus there are 12 teams on that band instead of 13. [65] When the bands were all filled in 1991, the top band of the large barrel was preserved in the Hockey Hall of Fame, and a new blank band was added to the bottom so the Stanley Cup would not grow further. [65]

Another new band was scheduled to be added to the bottom of the cup following the 2004–05 season, but was not added because of the 2004–05 NHL lockout. After the 2005–06 champion Carolina Hurricanes were crowned and the new bottom ring was finally added (along with the retiring of the band listing the 1940–41 to 1952–53 champions), the cancelled season was acknowledged with the words "2004–05 Season Not Played". [66]

Following the crowning of the 2017–18 champions, the Washington Capitals, the band listing the 1953–54 to 1964–65 winners was removed in September 2018, with a new band for the 2017–18 to 2029–30 champions added to the bottom of the cup. [67] [68] Since the introduction of the five-band cup, each engraved team is displayed on the trophy between 52 and 65 years (though in practice, this was reduced by one year as a result of the 1953–1965 band only containing 12 teams prior to its removal), depending on the order they are engraved on the relevant band. [6]

Currently, the Cup stands at 89.5 centimetres (35¼ inches) tall and weighs 15½ kilograms (34½ lb). [5] By its 125th anniversary in 2017, the Stanley Cup had had 3,177 names engraved on it of those, 1,331 belong to players. [69]

Name inscriptions Edit

Currently, to qualify for automatic engraving, a player:

  1. Must have played, or have dressed as the backup goaltender, for at least half of the championship team's regular season games. OF:
  2. Must have played, or have dressed as the backup goaltender, for at least one game of the Stanley Cup Finals for the championship team, AND:
  3. Must be on the roster when the team wins the Stanley Cup.

However, since 1994 teams have been permitted to petition the NHL Commissioner, to be considered on a case-by-case basis, to engrave a player's name on the cup if the player was unavailable to play due to "extenuating circumstances". [70] For example, the Detroit Red Wings received special permission from the NHL to inscribe the name of Vladimir Konstantinov, whose career ended after a car accident on June 13, 1997, on the Stanley Cup after Detroit defended their title in 1998.

With the Montreal Canadiens having won by far the most Cup championships of any team, the list of the players who have been engraved on the Cup the most often is dominated by Montreal players. Henri Richard of the Canadiens, with his name engraved eleven times, played on more Stanley Cup champions than any other player. He is followed by Jean Beliveau and Yvan Cournoyer of the Canadiens with ten championships, Claude Provost of the Canadiens with nine, and three players tied with eight: Red Kelly (four with the Red Wings, four with the Leafs, the most for any player who was not a member of the Canadiens) and Canadiens players Jacques Lemaire, Maurice Richard. Beliveau's name appears on the Cup more than any other individual, ten times as a player and seven times as management for a total of seventeen times. [71]

Fifteen women have had their names engraved on the Stanley Cup. The first woman to have her name engraved on the Stanley Cup is Marguerite Norris, who won the Cup as the President of the Detroit Red Wings in 1954 and 1955. The only Canadian woman to have her name engraved on the Stanley Cup is Sonia Scurfield (born in Hafford, Saskatchewan) who won the Cup as a co-owner of the Calgary Flames in 1989. [5]

In 2001, Charlotte Grahame, the Colorado Avalanche's Senior Director of Hockey Administration, had her name engraved on the trophy. Her son John later had his name engraved as a member of the Tampa Bay Lightning in 2004.

Engraving errors Edit

There are several misspellings and illegitimate names on the Cup. Many of them have never been corrected. Examples include: [5] [70] [72]

    's name is misspelled "McCeavy" as a member of the 1941 Boston Bruins on the second cup created during the 1957–58 season. McReavy's name was often misspelled as "McCreavy" on team pictures of the Boston Bruins. When the Replica Cup was created in 1992–93, the misspelling was not corrected. , who won the Cup six times, had his name spelled differently five times (D. Moore, Richard Moore, R. Moore, Dickie Moore, Rich Moore).
  • Similarly, Jacques Plante won the Cup five times in a row, and his name was spelled differently every tyd. 's name was misspelled as "Glin" in 1951–52. 's name was misspelled as "Belvecchio" in 1954. was spelled "Gainy" when he was a player for Montreal in the 1970s. was spelled "Kennedyy" in the 1940s. was spelled "Leaes" in 1963. was spelled "BQSTQN" in 1972. was spelled "Ilanders" in 1981. , the Conn Smythe Trophy winner of the 2014 Los Angeles Kings, was spelled "JUSTIN WILLIVIS".
  • One name was later scratched out: Peter Pocklington, a former Edmonton Oilers owner, put his father's name, Basil, on the Stanley Cup in 1984 today, there is a series of "X"s over Basil's name.
  • In 1996, Colorado Avalanche's Adam Deadmarsh's last name was spelled "Deadmarch". It was later corrected, marking the first correction on the Cup. Similar corrections were made in 2002, 2006 and 2010 for the names of Detroit Red Wings goalie Manny Legace ("Lagace"), Carolina Hurricanes forward Eric Staal ("Staaal") and Chicago Blackhawks forward Kris Versteeg ("Vertseeg"). [73] had his name spelled differently on the Cup twice - "Patrick Maroon" as a member of the 2019 St. Louis Blues and "Pat Maroon" as a member of the 2020 Tampa Bay Lightning.

There are many traditions associated with the Stanley Cup. One of the oldest, started by the 1896 Winnipeg Victorias, dictates that the winning team drink champagne from the top bowl after their victory. [74] The Cup is also traditionally presented on the ice by the NHL commissioner to the captain of the winning team after the series-winning game each member of the victorious club carries the trophy around the rink. However, this has not always been the case prior to the 1930s, the Cup was not awarded immediately after the victory. The first time that the Cup was awarded on the ice may have been to the 1932 Toronto Maple Leafs, but the practice did not become a tradition until the 1950s. [74] Ted Lindsay of the 1950 Cup champion Detroit Red Wings became the first captain, upon receiving the Cup, to hoist it overhead and skate around the rink. According to Lindsay, he did so to allow the fans to have a better view of the Cup. Since then, it has been a tradition for each member of the winning team, beginning with the captain, to take a lap around the ice with the trophy hoisted above his head. [74]

The tradition of the captain first hoisting the Cup has been "breached" a few times. In 1987 after the Edmonton Oilers defeated the Philadelphia Flyers, Wayne Gretzky handed the Cup to Steve Smith, a year after Smith made a costly gaffe that cost the Oilers the chance of making their fourth consecutive Stanley Cup Finals appearance. The second occurred in 1993 after the Montreal Canadiens defeated the Los Angeles Kings, Guy Carbonneau handed the Cup to Denis Savard, as Savard had been the player that many fans had urged the Canadiens to draft back in 1980. The third was in 2001 involving Joe Sakic and Ray Bourque when the Colorado Avalanche won the Cup in 2001, as the seventh and deciding game of the finals was the last of Bourque's 22-year NHL career, having never been on a cup-winning team until that time (until being traded to the Avalanche on March 6, 2000, Bourque had played only for the Boston Bruins). When Sakic received the trophy, he did not hoist it, but instead immediately handed it to Bourque Sakic then became the second player on the team to hoist the trophy. [75]

The Stanley Cup championship team is allotted 100 days during off-season to pass around the Cup. It is always accompanied by at least one representative from the Hockey Hall of Fame. [76] Although many players have unofficially spent a day in personal possession of the Cup, in 1995 the New Jersey Devils started a tradition wherein each member of the Cup-winning team is allowed to retain the Cup for a day. [77] [78] After the 1994–95 season, the NHL made it mandatory that one of the official Cup handlers always be present while the Cup is passed around among players in the off-season. [79] This may have been related to Eddie Olczyk's handling of the Cup after the New York Rangers' 1994 win - Olczyk brought the Cup to the Belmont Stakes, where Kentucky Derby winner Go for Gin ate out of it. [79]

Victors of the Cup have used it to baptize their children. Three players (the New York Islanders' Clark Gillies, the Anaheim Ducks' Sean O'Donnell, and the Pittsburgh Penguins' Nick Bonino) even allowed their dogs to eat out of the Cup. [80] [81]

Original, authenticated, and replica versions Edit

There are technically three versions of the "Stanley Cup": the original 1892 bowl or Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup, 1963 authenticated "Presentation Cup", and the 1993 "Permanent Cup" at the Hall of Fame.

The original 1892 Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup, purchased and donated by Lord Stanley, was physically awarded to the Champions until 1970, [82] and is now displayed in the Vault Room at the Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto, Ontario. [82]

The authenticated version or "Presentation Cup" was created in 1963 by Montreal silversmith Carl Petersen. NHL president Clarence Campbell felt that the original bowl was becoming too thin and fragile, and thus requested a duplicate trophy as a replacement. [83] The Presentation Cup is authenticated by the seal of the Hockey Hall of Fame on the bottom, which can be seen when winning players lift the Cup over their heads, and it is the one currently awarded to the champions of the playoffs and used for promotions. [64] This version was made in secret, and first awarded in 1970. [83]

The replica "Permanent Cup", was created in 1993 by Montreal silversmith Louise St. Jacques to be used as a stand-in at the Hockey Hall of Fame whenever the Presentation Cup is not available for display. [83]

As a morale booster Edit

The Stanley Cup has served as a valuable morale booster for both American and Canadian troops, as well as their NATO allies. In 2004, the Cup was displayed at MacDill Air Force Base, located near Tampa, Florida. The visit gave both American troops and a visiting Canadian unit the thrill of seeing the trophy at close hand. The event was later touted by officials at MacDill as "a huge morale booster for our troops". [84] In 2006, the Cup toured Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where wounded Marines were given the opportunity to view and be photographed with the Cup.

In 2007, the Stanley Cup made its first trip into a combat zone. During the trip to Kandahar, Afghanistan from May 2 to 6, organized by the NHL, the Hockey Hall of Fame, the NHL Alumni and the Canadian Department of National Defence, the Cup was put on display for Canadian and other NATO troops. It briefly endured a rocket attack on May 3, but emerged unscathed. [85] [86]

The Stanley Cup did a second tour in Afghanistan as part of a "Team Canada visit" in March 2008. [87] [88] In the spring of 2010 the Stanley Cup made its fourth trip to Afghanistan, accompanied by ex-players. [89]

On June 27, 2010, Chicago Blackhawks defenceman Brent Sopel paid tribute to his friend, former Toronto Maple Leafs general manager Brian Burke and Burke's late son, Brendan, by accompanying the Cup to the 2010 Chicago Gay Pride Parade. [90]

In 2018, the Cup was used to improve the spirits of those who were affected by either of two significantly tragic events which claimed the lives of multiple individuals, the Humboldt Broncos' bus crash on April 6, and the Capital Gazette shooting on June 28. For the former, the Stanley Cup was brought to the hospital where the crash survivors were recuperating on April 15, [91] and for the latter, it was presented to Capital Gazette employees at their temporary office on July 3. [92] [93] Chandler Stephenson of the 2018 champion, the Washington Capitals, also spent his day with the Stanley Cup with the Broncos that August. [94]

The regulations set down by Lord Stanley call for two Trustees, who had the sole, joint right to govern the Cup and the conditions of its awarding until 1947, when they ceded control to the NHL. While the original regulations allow for a Trustee to resign, to date, all Cup Trustees have served until their deaths. In the event of a vacancy, the remaining trustee names the replacement for the deceased or resigned Trustee.


The Five Most Popular Silver Varieties

You can find many different kinds of silver in the marketplace today. Some of the oldest American silver is "coin," which contains at least 89.2 percent of silver if it was made between 1792 to 1837, an amount set by the U.S. Mint after the American Revolution-which rose to 90 percent in the years after 1837. Sterling, on the other hand, must be at least 92.5 percent silver. This standard-92.5 parts pure silver to 7.5 parts copper alloy, which strengthens softer silver-was established by the English during the 12th century and later adopted by most of the silver-making world, including the United States in 1868. Many people think of coin as much less valuable than sterling, but it has only about two percent less silver and, in some rare cases, may even contain more. Because of its age and beauty, a piece made from coin can sometimes be worth more than American sterling.

Silver plate is a coating of pure silver on a base metal such as copper or nickel silver (an alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc) and was developed later than sterling or coin, but various forms date to the 18th century. Electroplating processes were invented in England in the 1830s and 1840s this method is still used today. "Hotel" silver is a form of electroplate that was manufactured for use in trains, on ships, in restaurants, and hotels. You can dent a sterling sugar bowl very easily-but a similar piece of hotel silver can be dropped without much harm because the underlying base metal is stronger than its silver exterior.

Certain alloys, referred to as Venetian silver and Nevada silver, consist of nickel and silver. Although they&aposre solid metal rather than plated, they contain less silver than sterling pieces. These lower-grade compounds are less expensive than silver-plated items, but don&apost polish up as easily.


Insilco Corporation

As early as the 1920s, ISC was informally known as Insilco. It officially became the Insilco Corporation in 1969, by which time silver was a minor part of its operations. Insilco was out of the silver business by 1983, with its headquarters moved to Midland, Texas. ISC's diversification began in the 1950s, when inexpensive flatware from overseas threatened its primary business. Over the next decades, Insilco subsidiaries included home builders, office products, military hardware, electronics and textbooks. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1991 but within a few years was back on a strong financial footing.

  • University of Connecticut: International Silver Company Records
  • Lehman Brothers Collection: The International Silver Company
  • City of Meriden: Documentation of International Silver Company Factory Buildings 7,15,29,30 Substation and Boiler House Meriden Connecticut
  • Connecticut History: Meriden’s Silver Lining
  • Funding Universe: Insilco Corporation History
  • New York Times: Insilco Declares Bankruptcy
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  • Bard College. "The Rise of Money and Class Society: The Contributions of John F. Henry," Page 14. Accessed July 8, 2020.
  • CME Group. "CBOT 100 oz. Gold Sets New Volume Record." Accessed July 8, 2020.
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Jane Meggitt has been a writer for more than 20 years. In addition to reporting for a major newspaper chain, she has been published in "Horse News," "Suburban Classic," "Hoof Beats," "Equine Journal" and other publications. She has a Bachelor of Arts in English from New York University and an Associate of Arts from the American Academy of Dramatics Arts, New York City.


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