Waarom is die Romeinse dobbelsteen verleng?

Waarom is die Romeinse dobbelsteen verleng?

Volgens hierdie artikel het die Romeinse dobbelsteen nie altyd die moderne kubusvorm gehad nie:

In teenstelling met moderne dobbelstene was dit nie altyd presies blokkies nie. Soms was hulle merkbaar effens platter as 'n ware kubus, of 'n bietjie langer, wat hulle meer geneig sou maak om op sommige gesigte as op ander te val.

'N Moontlike verduideliking word verskaf:

Maak dit vir die spelers saak dat hierdie dobbelstene nie regverdig was nie? 'Ons weet nie seker nie,' sê Eerkens. Die manier waarop die Romeine oor dobbelstene val, dui daarop dat hulle as tekens van bonatuurlike guns of van 'n speler se fortuin beskou is. Die argeoloog Ellen Swift, in haar boek Roman Artifacts and Society, skryf dat hoë rolle assosiasies van welwillendheid en vreugde het, en dat die rol van drie sesse terselfdertyd 'n Venus genoem is. 'Dobbel het moontlik 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die konseptualisering van goddelike optrede in die wêreld,' skryf sy.

As u gedink het dat u gebede meer te doen het met die resultaat van 'n rol as enigiets anders, is 'n perfekte vorm moontlik nie nodig nie. Eerkens sê: ''n Paar van die nie-simmetrie wat ons in die vorige dobbelstene sien, kan 'n newe-produk [van die idee] wees, dat dit nie in die funksie van die dobbelsteen as baie belangrik beskou word nie-dat dit nie Dit maak te veel saak, want ander dinge het bepaal of jy die wedstryd sou wen of verloor. ”

Dit is na my mening vindingryk, maar ook maar taai.

Ek het 'n alternatiewe verduideliking: soos bekend, is daar dobbelstene van bene gemaak, en bene het natuurlik 'n langwerpige vorm.

Is daar 'n paar bekende navorsing oor hierdie onderwerp?


Die gebruik van langwerpige of lang dobbelstene is bekend vir 'n aantal kulture, en dit lyk asof dit oor baie eeue heen met spesifieke speletjies verband gehou het. Boogskutter St. Clair in Carving as Craft merk op dat hierdie

was in die tweede eeu nC grotendeels deur kubieke dobbelstene in die Romeinse wêreld vervang.

St. Clair voeg dit by

dit word gewoonlik gemaak van die skagte van klein lang bene, en die getalle 1 en 2 word gewoonlik weggelaat. Selfs as dit stewig is ... word die punte gewoonlik leeg gelaat

Interessant genoeg is daar in Britainn ook dobbelsteentjies met parallelepipie gevind wat dateer uit beide voor en na die Romeinse besetting, maar blykbaar op dieselfde manier gemaak is. Arthur MacGregor in Bone, Antler, Ivory en Horn: The Technology of Skeletal Materials since the Roman Period, sê die meeste hieroor

gemaak van die skagte van klein, lang beendere, vergelykbaar met die metapodiale van skape, en die kenmerkende langwerpige vorm daarvan kan gesien word as gevolg van hierdie herhaalde seleksie. 'N Gevolg van hierdie keuse is dat die punte gewoonlik oop is en dat die waardes dus normaalweg beperk is tot die vier langwerpige sye, en die getalle 1 en 2 word gewoonlik weggelaat.

Daar word min melding gemaak van watter speletjies die Romeine met hierdie dobbelstene gespeel het, maar dit is van Pete Nash in Mythic Rome:

TALI (GEWALDE KNIKBONE)

Gespeel met werklike knokkelbene of langwerpige dobbelstene (tali) wat die langwerpige vorm van die bene naboots ... die sye is gemerk met die syfers 1, 3, 4 of 6 ... Met vier bene gespeel, is die doel van die spel om die hoogste te rol moontlike waarde.

F. N. David, in Speletjies, gode en dobbelary, met verwysing na Suetonius, noem dat dit jammer is dat die boek van die keiser Claudius 'How to Win at Dice' nie oorleef het nie. Hoewel Davis nie glo dat dit reëls oor speletjies bevat nie, het dit ons dalk iets vertel.


Jy is korrek.

Volgens hierdie webwerf (ongelukkig in Duits) oor die Romeinse Ryk was daar baie verskillende soorte dobbelstene wat deur die Romeine gebruik is. Afgesien van die 6-kantige blokkies wat ons vandag ken, was daar ook staafvormige dobbelstene met vier of ses sye.

Die webwerf berig:

"Vir baie dobbelstene van die antieke tye het 'n mens slegs vier moontlike onderskeidings (resultate) nodig gehad. Dit is afkomstig van klein beendere van diere, wat ook vir dobbelstene gebruik is.

Die bron wat deur die webwerf gegee word, is Marco Fitta, "Spiele und Spielzeug in der Antike".


Antieke Romeinse dobbelsteen wat in die verassingsput in Noorweë opgegrawe is

Op 'n krans wat uitkyk oor 'n smal seestraat in Wes-Noorweë, het argeoloë skaars wildstukke ontdek, insluitend langwerpige, langwerpige dobbelstene in 'n grafheuwel wat dateer uit die Romeinse ystertydperk, tussen 1 en 400 nC.

Die spelstukke, met bolle-oog-agtige merke wat vir verskillende getalle en 18 sirkelvormige stukke staan, is moontlik gemaak van skaars materiaal soos geweiers.

Die stukke is waarskynlik gebruik in 'n bordspel geïnspireer deur die Romeinse spel Ludus latrunculorum, voorloper van die beroemde Viking -bordspel Hnefatafl, wat honderde jare later gespeel is, luidens 'n verklaring van die Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen. Hierdie bordspeletjies was 'n 'simbool van posisie in die samelewing' en 'het die basiese vermoëns getoon om intelligent en strategies te dink', sê Morten Ramstad, 'n navorser van die Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen, wat die opgrawings gelei het.

Bordspeletjies in antieke Skandinawië is slegs deur die elite gespeel, en daarom het hierdie speelstukke en mdash en die begrafnis waarin hulle gevind is, waarskynlik aan 'n magtige persoon behoort, het Ramstad gesê. Maar die ontdekking van hierdie grafhok ('n klipstapel wat as 'n grafheuwel dien) was nie 'n verrassing nie.

Die bergagtige lande van Ytre Fosse omring 'n smal seestraat met die naam Alverstraumen, wat vroeër 'n ou seeroete was met die naam Nordvegen (waaruit Noorweë sy naam gekry het). Hierdie berge is 'besaai met grafmonumente', het Ramstad gesê. Die plasing van die grafte rondom hierdie ou seeroete en mdash wat belangrik was vir kommunikasie en handel, was 'n 'politieke' keuse wat 'mag' en 'beheer' toon, 'het hy bygevoeg.

Opnames van die terreine wat voor die bou van 'n nuwe huis gedoen is, het aan die lig gebring dat die graf opgegrawe is en opgrawings in April begin het, het Ramstad gesê. Die ou graf is ongeveer 8 meter in deursnee en 1,6 voet (0,5 meter) hoog, die grense word met klippe afgemerk. In die middel van die grafheuwel was 'n kleiner sirkelvormige struktuur van ongeveer 1 m in deursnee wat gevul was met klein stukkies houtskool en wit gestippelde stof.

'Ons het geweet dat ons onmiddellik die oorblyfsels van 'n verassing het,' het Ramstad aan Live Science gesê. 'Ons het nog nie die ontleding gedoen nie, maar ons dink nie daar is fragmente van die kop of bekken nie,' het hy gesê. Alhoewel die graf duidelik aan 'n elite -persoon behoort het, het hy bygevoeg, het die navorsers nie baie ander statusmerkers soos brons ketels en goue ringe gevind nie.

Hulle het wel gebrande glas ontdek (glas is ook 'n simbool van die elite), drie keramiekpotte en 'n bronspen. Maar wat hierdie graf werklik laat opval het, is die handjievol "skaars" speelstukke wat hulle binne gevind het, het Ramstad gesê. Soortgelyke dobbelstene is op verskeie ander plekke in Noorweë en op die Vimose-wapenaanbodsterrein in Denemarke ontdek, waar die raad van die die werklike wild is ook ontdek, lui die verklaring.

Vir 'n beperkte tyd kan u vir slegs $ 2,38 per maand 'n digitale intekening op enige van ons topverkopende wetenskapstydskrifte afneem, of 45% van die standaardprys vir die eerste drie maande.

Die artikel sê: "Die wildstukke, met bolle-oog-agtige merke wat vir verskillende getalle en 18 sirkelvormige stukke staan, is moontlik gemaak van skaars materiaal soos geweiers."

Aangesien daar takbokke, rendiere en elande in Noorweë is, verstaan ​​ek nie hoekom geweier as 'skaars materiaal' beskou kan word nie?

Is dit miskien bedoel om 'n materiaal te sê wat selde so lank oorleef?

Bly op hoogte van die nuutste wetenskapnuus deur aan te meld by ons Essentials -nuusbrief.

Dankie dat u by Live Science aangesluit het. U sal binnekort 'n verifikasie -e -pos ontvang.


Die ou oorsprong van dobbelstene

Dobbel is een van die oudste aktiwiteite van die mensdom. Uitgebreide tegnologieë en gebruike het ontstaan ​​rondom toevallige speletjies. Veral dobbelstene het die aandag van geleerdes getrek.

Dobbel is een van die oudste aktiwiteite van die mensdom. Veral dobbelstene het die aandag van geleerdes getrek, en 'n onlangse studie van dobbelstene toon aan dat werklik gebalanseerde dobbelstene eers in die Renaissance bestaan ​​het. Dit is moeilik om te sê hoe mense voor die renaissance hul wedstryde en billikheid gesien het, maar dobbelstene het 'n lang en fassinerende geskiedenis.

In die pre-koloniale Amerikas was dobbelstene gewoonlik net tweesydig, aan elke kant geverf. Volgens argeoloë Warren DeBoer en Barbara Voorhies het inheemse mense in Noord -Amerika en Meso -Amerika dobbelstene van 'n groot verskeidenheid materiale, soos vrugteputte, skulpe of tande, of selfs geskeurde riete of stokke. Die tipiese dobbelsteen was aan die een kant gebuig en aan die ander kant platter. Sesydige dobbelstene is later in gebruik geneem en is moontlik deur Europeërs bekendgestel.

Argeoloog H.S. Darlington het geglo dat baie Amerikaanse dobbelsteen -speletjies hul oorsprong het in heilige Asteekse rituele. As deel van die proses om hul kalender reg te stel vir dinge soos skrikkeljare, was priesters besig met 'n kansspel om te sien of hulle vuur in die liggaam van 'n offeroffer kon ontbied. Die stokke wat gebruik word om die weke van die kalender op te tel, is saamgevoeg en as deel van die ritueel gegooi. Dit was nie verbasend nie dat die priesters die spel aangepak het deur seker te maak dat die vuur sou ontstaan. Die sonsimboliek en stokke wat in baie voorkoloniale Amerikaanse dobbelsteen -speletjies voorkom, dui daarop dat die speletjies moontlik met hierdie ritueel begin het.

Gegewe die ongelyke vorms van baie vroeë dobbelstene, is dit onduidelik of die speletjies werklik toevallige speletjies was. Daarom, volgens DeBoer, het dobbelstene in die Amerikas nie net geluk behels nie, maar 'n aansienlike mate van vaardigheid om 'n gewenste gooi te behaal. Sommige dobbelaars het probeer om 'n ander taktiek, maar in sommige inheemse samelewings was bedrog blykbaar hoog.

Oorkant die Atlantiese Oseaan het Romeine in die fort Richborough, in die Verenigde Koninkryk, blykbaar die dobbelsteen as toevallig beskou en stappe gedoen om 'n billike uitkoms te verseker. Vir hierdie doel het sommige ou Romeine 'n toestel gebruik wat 'n dobbelsteen toring genoem word. Ongeveer 7,5 sentimeter lank, van been gemaak, met ingewikkelde ontwerpe, was die dobbelsteen toring 'n struktuur wat 'n reeks opritte omring. Die dobbelstene wat uit die 4de eeu G.J. dateer, is bo -op die toring gegooi. Deur die opritte was dit veronderstel om die rolprent reg te maak. Sulke torings verskyn in illustrasies en mosaïeke regoor die Romeinse wêreld, en dit moes dus wyd gebruik gewees het. Maar niemand weet of hulle volgens die bedoeling gewerk het nie.

Weeklikse vertering

Die presiese simboliek en regverdigheid van die speletjies kan wissel, maar hoë insette was algemeen. Europese koloniste het kansspeletjies opgemerk met groot hoeveelhede handelsware, kos, behuising of selfs mense. Maya's het edelgesteentes of vere as weddenskappe gebruik. Speletjies was 'n hewige saak. Die racket rondom een ​​so 'n speletjie het 'n baie beskrywende woord in die Algonquin -taal, wat later in die Engelse taal verskyn het: rumoer.


Hoe eeue-ou dobbelsteen veranderende houdings oor die noodlot onthul

As ons gaan sit om Yahtzee, backgammon of enige van die veelvoudige speletjies wat op dobbelstene staatmaak, te speel, verwag ons dat hierdie dobbelstene regverdig sal wees, of dat hulle ewe waarskynlik aan hul ses kante sal beland. Maar waarskynlikheid was nie altyd kommerwekkend as dit by die dobbelsteen kom nie. Soos Michelle Starr berig vir Science Daily, 'n onlangse studie het dobbelstene wat uit die Romeinse era tot die 17de eeu dateer, ontleed en bevind dat die alomteenwoordige blokkies mettertyd al hoe meer uniform geword het en#8212 en al hoe meer regverdig geword het.

Navorsers van die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Davis en American Museum of Natural History bestudeer 110 dobbelstene uit museums en argeologiese depots in Nederland en vergelyk dit met 62 dobbelstene uit die Verenigde Koninkryk. Hulle beskryf hierdie intrigerende evolusie van dobbelstene deur die eeue in 'n onlangse   studie gepubliseer in  the journal  Acta  Archaeologica.

Die navorsers het gevind dat dobbelstene voor 400 vC, of ​​tydens die Romeinse era, groot was en tipies by die konfigurasie gehou het, met teenoorgestelde sye tot die getal sewe (1-6, 2-5, 3 -4). Dit is die opset wat vandag algemeen gebruik word, maar anders as die simmetriese blokkies wat ons ken, was die Romeinse dobbelsteen baie onreëlmatig. Hulle is gemaak van 'n verskeidenheid materiale en was ook soos been, metaal en klei, en dit is dikwels gepluk en skeefgetrek. Dit is moontlik, sê die navorsers, dat antieke Romeine doelbewus onreëlmatige dobbelstene gebruik het omdat hulle gedink het dit sou help om die rol te manipuleer. Maar dit kan ook waar wees dat die Romeine nie veral bekommerd was oor die vorm van hul dobbelsteen nie, omdat hulle geglo het dat die uitslag van 'n rol deur die lot bepaal sou word.

Navorsers is seker dat die Romeine ’ wonderlike dobbelstene die invloed van die dobbelsteen sou beïnvloed het. “ Die meerderheid van die asimmetriese dobbelstene het die 1 en 6 aan weerskante van die afgeplatte kubus in posisies wat meer geneig is om op te rol, en#8217 ” verduidelik hulle in die studie.

Vanaf 1100 nC word dobbelstene meer gestandaardiseer, wat daarop dui dat Europese dobbelaars al hoe meer bekommerd raak oor die uitskakeling van spelers wat probeer het om 'n voordeel te trek met onregverdige dobbelstene. Die blokkies het kleiner geword, wat gelei het tot 'n verandering in die ontwerp. Voorheen was 'n dobbelsteen, pitte, of#8221 of kolletjies omring deur twee ringe om hulle in die 12de eeu; daar was slegs plek vir 'n enkele ring. Die konfigurasie van dobbelstene het ook oorgeskakel na 'n nommerstyl wat gewild was in antieke Egipte en Mesopotamië, wat die teenoorgestelde sye van 'n dobbelsteen tot 'n priemgetal (1-2, 3-4, 5-6) laat optel het.

Ons het nie regtig 'n goeie idee waarom die [verandering] plaasgevind het of wat die verskuiwing veroorsaak het nie, maar ons sien dit in die Verenigde Koninkryk en in Nederland, en Jelmer Eerkens, 'n antropoloog aan UC Davis en een van die skrywers van die studie, vertel Christina Ayele Djossa van  Atlas Obscura,  So, dit was iets waaroor mense moes ooreengekom het. ”

Gedurende die Renaissance het dobbelstene nog 'n belangrike verandering ondergaan. Vanaf 1450 word hulle minder gereeld in grootte en pypstyl, maar meer gestandaardiseer in simmetrie en opset, wat teruggekeer het na die “sevens ” -stelsel. Die toenemende aandag aan veral simmetrie is moontlik gedryf deur nuwe kennis van waarskynlikheid, 'n veld van wiskunde wat tydens die Renaissance geblom het.

'N Nuwe wêreldbeskouing het ontstaan, ” Eerkens sê   in 'n verklaring. Mense soos Galileo en Blaise Pascal ontwikkel idees oor kans en waarskynlikheid, en ons weet uit geskrewe rekords dat hulle in werklikheid met dobbelaars geraadpleeg het. Ons dink dat dobbelsteengebruikers ook nuwe idees aangeneem het oor billikheid, en kans of waarskynlikheid in speletjies. ”

Alhoewel die ontwikkelende vorm van dobbelstene na 'n nisonderwerp kan lyk, kan kennis van hierdie seskantige werktuie baie nuttig wees vir argeoloë en historici. Om te verstaan, kan die veranderinge in dobbelstene help met die datering van argeologiese terreine, veral as daar 'n skaarste aan ander materiaal is wat nuttig kan wees om te dateer.

Dobbelsteen bied ook insig in die oordrag van kennis in Noordwes -Europa. Alhoewel ou dobbelstene taamlik onreëlmatig was, is later dobbelstene gestandaardiseer, wat daarop dui dat daar 'n klein aantal vervaardigers is, of dat vervaardigers getrou bly aan die kultureel oordraagbare reëls oor die vervaardiging van matrikse. Dan, natuurlik, die veranderende rol van die dobbelsteen self, en stel voor dat wêreldbeskouings in Europa verander word.

Spelers het moontlik gesien dat dobbelstene gooi wat nie meer deur die noodlot bepaal word nie, en die navorsers skryf in hul studie, maar eerder as willekeurige voorwerpe wat deur toeval beheer word.


Yahtzee! Skaars 2000-jarige Romeinse ystertydperk sterf en speelstukke word in Noorweë opgegrawe

Vermaak vir ontspanning was veral bedoel vir die ultra-rykes wat dateer uit die Romeinse samelewing uit die Ystertydperk, wat onlangs deur 'n span Noorse argeoloë van die Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen opgegrawe is.

Skoolwetenskaplikes het oorblyfsels opgegrawe binne die grense van 'n klein begraafplaas uit die vroeë Ystertydperk, naby die dorp Ytre Fosse in die weste van Noorweë, toe die skaars bordspelstukke ontdek is.

Meer bordspeletjies

Te midde van die puin van gebreekte pottebakkiesfragmente en verkoolde glas, is 13 hele en vyf gebreekte wildskyfies gevind langs 'n byna ongeskonde langwerpige dobbelsteen. Hierdie skaars spelmonsters is uiters skaars en dateer uit die Romeinse ystertydperk ongeveer 300 nC. Beenskerwe, versierde erdewerk en verskroeide glas vertel navorsers dat die persoon wat veras en begrawe is in die graf waarskynlik 'n lid van die hoër klas was.

Krediet: Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen

'Dit is wonderlik opwindend', het Morten Ramstad van die Universiteit van Bergen gesê. "Sulke ontdekkings is nog nooit so gereeld in Noorweë of Skandinawië gemaak nie. Die besondere ding hier is dat ons byna die hele stel, insluitend die dobbelsteen, gevind het."

Die speeltydoorblyfsels is ontbloot in die omgewing van die Alverstraumen -seestraat, 'n belangrike plek op die ou seevaartroete Nordvegen (The Northern Way), wat tussen die noorde en suide van Noorweë loop.

Altesaam minder as 15 van hierdie artefakte van die spel is ooit in Noorweë ontdek. Soortgelyke dobbelstene is gevind in die beroemde Vimose-wapenofferplek in Fyn in Denemarke in 1850-1860. By Vimose was die speelbord ook volledig, wat 'n tydkapsule-blik bied op die vroeë Ystertyd-bordspeletjies wat gespeel word tussen Germaanse stamme wat in Skandinawië woon.

Hierdie primitiewe bordspeletjies is waarskynlik geïnspireer deur die Romeinse spel Ludus latrunculorum, en is blykbaar gebruik deur die elite van die Romeinse ystertyd Skandinawië, en was die voorgangers van die meer bekende Viking Age (AD 750-1050) bordspel van Hnefatafl .

Tafl-speletjies verteenwoordig 'n gesin van ou Nordiese en Keltiese strategie-bordspeletjies wat afstammelinge is van 'n variant van Griekse vermaaklikhede bekend onder die name Petteia, pessoí, poleis en pente grammaí, wat almal geniet op 'n tweesydige geruite of gerasterde speelbord.

Krediet: Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen

'Dit is statusvoorwerpe wat getuig van kontak met die Romeinse Ryk, waar hulle graag bordspeletjies geniet het,' voeg Ramstad by. "Mense wat sulke speletjies gespeel het, was plaaslike aristokrasie of hoërklas. Die spel het getoon dat jy die tyd, winste en die vermoë gehad het om strategies te dink. Dit is ongelooflik fassinerend om 'n speletjie te vind wat byna tweeduisend jaar oud is. Dit vertel ons dat die mense toe was dit nie so baie anders as ons nie. ”

By ondersoek word die antieke dobbelsteen aangeteken met verskeie punte bekend as sirkelpunte (kolletjies in sirkelsimbole), wat die numeriese waardes nul, drie, vier en vyf dra. Ontspanningsartefakte soos hierdie skatte is in die Viking -tydperk gebruik vir eenvoudige pret, strategiese geestelike opleiding, of om net tyd te spandeer op epiese see -odysseys tussen draaiende garings van heroïese sage.

Krediet: Universiteitsmuseum van Bergen

"Hierdie opgrawing verbind Noorweë met 'n groter netwerk van kommunikasie en handel in Skandinawië," het argeoloog Louise Bjerre aan Life In Norway gesê. "Terselfdertyd kan die bevindings ons help om die begin van die ystertydperk in Noorweë te verstaan."

Hierdie argaïese dobbelstukke en die dobbelsteen word tans ondersoek en bewaar in die laboratorium van die Universiteit in Bergen. Die kosbare bene en ander seldsame voorwerpe uit die grafheuwel sal binnekort vir die publiek te sien wees by die Universiteit van Bergen se Departement vir Kultuurhistoriese Museum.


Waarom is die Romeinse dobbelsteen verleng? - Geskiedenis

Sulke dobbelstene is dwarsdeur die Romeinse Ryk gedra deur legioenskapsreisigers gedurende die 1ste tot 3de eeu nC. Na 'n lang, harde dag van swoeg en ellende, sou soldate in 'n taai stryd om vure en in tavernes bymekaarkom en drink en kansspeletjies speel met hul dobbelstene.

Daar word selfs in die Bybel na hulle verwys:
Johannes 19:24 Toe neem die soldate toe hulle Jesus gekruisig het, sy bo -klere, en hulle maak vier dele, 'n deel vir elke soldaat. Daarom sê hulle vir mekaar: Laat ons dit nie skeur nie, maar lot daarvoor werp, om te besluit wie dit sal wees. & quot
Lukas 23:34 Jesus het gesê: & quotVader, vergeef hulle, want hulle weet nie wat hulle doen nie. & Quot En hulle het sy klere verdeel deur loot te werp (dobbelstene gooi).

Elkeen van hierdie dobbelstene is met die hand uit 'n stuk dierbeen gesny en klein genoeg gemaak om in die mond gedra te word, indien nodig. Tensy anders aangedui, is hulle ontdek by 'n Romeinse militêre kamp naby die Donau -rivier in Oos -Europa.
* Elke matriks word uit die verskillende hoeke op die foto's hieronder getoon. Daar is enkele dobbelstene (dobbelstene) en pare. elkeen is dienooreenkomstig gemerk.


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Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-2de eeu nC. Groot gesnyde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 12x10 mm, met 'n mooi ligte patina, erde afsettings in die splete, krake op die ouderdom. Gevind in die Heilige Land! ex-Kanadese private versameling. #AR2819: $ 225 VERKOOP
Antieke Romeinse Brittanje, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende BAIE GROOT PAAR Romeinse dobbel dobbelstene, met ring-en-kolletjies gemerk 1: 6, 2: 3, 4: 5. Meet 13 mm elk! Groot ligbruin toon met ligte erde neerslae wat opvallende kontras in die besonderhede gee. Gevind in Brittanje! Ex-versameling in Londen, Engeland, verkry in die laat 1960's-vroeë 1970's. 'N Uitstekende kwaliteit, ongewoon groot en skaars bypassende paar! #AR3113: $ 475 VERKOOP
Mooi ou Griekse loodbeen. 5de-3de eeu v.C. Die vroegste dobbelsteen! Gemaak van lood in die vorm van die knokbeen van 'n dier. Dit is soos moderne dobbelstene gegooi, en elke kant het 'n ander betekenis. Ligte grys patina. 26 mm (1 duim) en swaar! oud-CNG. #AR2112: $ 125 VERKOOP - Vra oor alternatiewe!

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Antieke munte en artefakte:

Baie groot Romeinse beenspel dobbelsteen (enkel), 1ste-3de eeu nC. Mooi patina, met aangename patina en mooi getalle. Groot deursnee van 15 mm! Gevind in Gallië. #LG1043: VERKOOP
Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende stel. Mooi patina, 'n paar erge afsettings in die splete. Elkeen is 8-9 mm groot. #85517: $ 299 VERKOOP
Antieke Romeinse Heilige Land! c. 1ste eeu nC. Lekker enkelbeen -dobbelsteen. Mooi diep detail met 'n paar erde afsettings in die splete. Oorspronklike Holy Land aarde! Afmetings 9 mm. 'N Baie cool stuk, skaars uit hierdie omgewing. Voormalige Midde-Ooste-versameling, gevind in Israel/Palestina. #85435: $ 199 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, 1ste - 3de eeu nC. Uitstekende enkelbeen -dobbelsteen. Mooi patina, 'n paar erge afsettings in die splete. 10 mm (3/8 "deursnee). Uitstekende detail. #20256: $ 175 VERKOOP

Antieke Romein, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende BAIE GROOT PAAR van & quotLOADED & quot ROMAANSE DUBBELE met ring-en-kolletjies op elke gesig, een gerangskik 1: 6, 2: 3, 4: 5, die ander 'gelaaide dobbelsteen' ongewoon gemerk 4: 4, 5: 5, 6 : 6. Meet 12 mm elk! Groot donkerrooi-bruin toon met ligte erde neerslae wat opvallende kontras in die besonderhede gee. Gevind in Brittanje! Ex-versameling in Londen, Engeland, verkry tussen 1970-1980. 'N Uitstekende kwaliteit, ongewoon groot en selde paar! #AR3111: VERKOOP Pragtige PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. 'N Pragtige stel met skerp detail in die algemeen. Elke deursnee van 9-10 mm (3/8 "). Baie mooi! #05478: $ 299 VERKOOP
Uitstekende PAAR van klein Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Helderwit patina, goeie detail. Elke 7-8 mm. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). Baie mooi. #2646571: $ 299
VERKOOP - alternatiewe kan beskikbaar wees
Antieke Rome, 1ste - 3de eeu nC. Fantastiese en groot enkelbeen -dobbelsteen (groot vir die tipe). Pragtige patina, perfekte detail. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). 11-12 mm. #2646572: $ 225 VERKOOP
Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Helderwit patina, goeie detail. Elke 9-10 mm. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). #AR2045: $ 350 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, 1ste - 3de eeu nC. Fantastiese en groot enkelbeen -dobbelsteen (groot vir die tipe). Pragtige erde patina, groot detail. 11 mm dia. #AR2108: $ 199 VERKOOP
Romeinse Brittanje, c. 1ste-2de eeu nC. Groot groot beensterf (enkel). Groot 14 mm deursnee. Mooi rooierige patina. Op die oppervlak verskyn nog steeds die ruwe lêermerk wat oorgebly het toe die stuk haastig in die oudheid gemaak is. miskien as 'n plaasvervanger vir 'n verlore of beskadigde dobbelsteen. Enigiets om die spel aan die gang te hou! #AR2064: $ 275 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Baie groot PAAR Romeinse keramiek dobbelstene. Elkeen ongeveer 15 mm x 15 mm (1/2 "). Selde in keramiek aangetref. Mooi pienk kleur met erde neerslae. Ex Arizona versameling. #AE2333: $ 350 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, 1ste - 3de eeu nC. Baie groot enkelbeen -dobbelsteen. Mooi patina, goeie detail. In die oudheid gekap. 12 mm dia. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). #AR2110: $ 150
VERKOOP - WISSELS BESKIKBAAR!
Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Mooi patina, 'n paar erge afsettings in die splete. Meet 8-9 mm. #85517: $ 299 VERKOOP - WISSELS BESKIKBAAR!
Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Mooi patina, 'n paar erge afsettings in die splete. 8-9 mm.
ex-Oostenrykse private versameling. #AR2428: $ 299 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende Romeinse dobbelsteen (enkel). Groot detail, met ligte wit patina, 'n paar erde afsettings in die besonderhede. Afmetings 8-9 mm. ex-Los Angeles, CA versameling. #AR2381: $ 150 verkoop
Romeinse Gallië, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene. Mooi patina, ligte erge neerslae in die splete.
9 mm elk. Gevind in die Ryn, Duitsland. oud-Oostenrykse versameling. #AR2588: $ 299 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Fantastiese gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). 9 mm, met ligbruin patina, ligte erge afsettings. Ex-Jerusalem versameling. #AR2435: $ 250 VERKOOP
Romeinse Gallië, 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR groot Romeinse dobbelstene. Meet 10 mm elk. Uitstekende patina, ligte erge neerslae. Gevind in die Ryn, Duitsland. oud-Oostenrykse versameling. #AR2584: $ 299 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR gekerfde beenblokkies. Meet 10 mm elk, met mooi patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind in die Heilige Land! #AR2626: $ 425 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Fantastiese gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). 9 mm, met liggroen patina, ligte erge afsettings. #AR2619: $ 225 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Fantastiese en baie groot gesnyde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 13 mm (1/2 duim), met groot rooibruin patina, ligte erge afsettings. #AR2755: $ 199 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR gekerfde beenblokkies. Meet 10 mm elk, met mooi patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind in die Heilige Land! #AR2622: $ 425 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Gesnyde beensterf (enkel).
Meet 8 mm, met donkergrys patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2722: $ 135 verkoop
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Pragtige en groot gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 12 mm met 'n groot donkerrooi-bruin patina, ligte erge afsettings. #AH2241: $ 250 VERKOOP

Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Fantastiese PAAR gekerfde beenstene. Meet 9-10 mm, met mooi patina, ligte erge afsettings. #AH2239: $ 450 VERKOOP
Antieke Romein, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Pragtige PAAR Romeinse dobbel dobbelstene. Meet 8-9 mm elk. Mooi spierwit tot donkerbruin toon. ex-Los Angeles, CA versameling. #AR2772: $ 299 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Fantastiese gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). Meet 10 mm, met mooi ligte patina, erde afsettings in die splete. #AH2242: $ 250 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Gesnyde beensterf (enkel). Afmetings 8 mm, met spierwit patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2720: $ 150 verkoop
Romeinse Gallië, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR van groter Romeinse dobbelstene. Meet 9 mm elk. Mooi, wit kleur, ligte erge neerslae. Gevind in die Ryn, Duitsland. oud-Oostenrykse versameling. #AR2612: $ 299 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Pragtige gesnyde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 8x9 mm, met mooi ligte patina, erde afsettings in die splete. #AR2434: $ 225 VERKOOP
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Mooi gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 9x11 mm, met donker patina, erde afsettings in die splete. Goed gedra van uitgebreide gebruik in die oudheid! #AH2244: $ 225 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Gesnyde beensterf (enkel). Meet 8 mm, met donkergrys patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2721: $ 150 verkoop
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Gesnyde beensterf (enkel). Afmetings 7x8 mm, met ligbruin patina, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2827: $ 150 verkoop
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Gesnyde beensterf (enkel). Afmetings 9 x 8 mm, met 'n donker toon, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2932: $ 150 verkoop
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Groot beenvorm (enkel). Meet 10 mm, met rooibruin toon, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2946: $ 175 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Lekker beensterf (enkel). Meet 9 mm, met rooibruin toon, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. #AR2943: $ 150 verkoop
Romeinse Gallië, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende groot gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). Afmetings 12x10 mm. Mooi gebroke wit ligrooi kleur, glansende oppervlaktes, ligte erge neerslae. Wonderlike detail, gevind in die Ryn, Duitsland. voormalige Oostenrykse versameling. #AR2617: $ 199 VERKOOP
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende gekerfde beenvorm (enkel). Meet 8 mm, met 'n mooi ligbruin toon, ligte erge afsettings. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. ex-Los Angeles, CA private versameling. #AR2925: $ 150 verkoop
Antieke Rome, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende klein gesnyde beenvorm (enkel). Meet 9 mm, met 'n mooi spierwit toon, ligte uitstekende detail. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. ex-Los Angeles, CA private versameling. #AR2941: $ 150 verkoop
Heilige land. Romeinse tydperk, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Groot gesnyde beenvorm (enkel). Meet 11 mm, met mooi patina, erde afzettings. ex-Kanadese private versameling. #AR2821: $ 225 VERKOOP
Antieke Romein, c. 1ste-3de eeu nC. Uitstekende PAAR Romeinse dobbelstene. Meet 8-9 mm elk. Mooi, spierwit beenkleur met ligte erge afsettings wat opvallende kontras in die besonderhede gee. Gevind naby die Donau -rivier, Oos -Europa. Versameling Wien, Oostenryk. 'N Uitstekende kwaliteit en 'n skaars bypassende paar! #AR3080: $ 399 VERKOOP - Vra oor alternatiewe! Antieke Griekeland, 5de-3de eeu v.C. Die vroegste dobbelsteen! Gemaak van die knokbeen van 'n dier en gevul met lood vir gewig. Dit is soos moderne dobbelstene gegooi, en elke kant het 'n ander betekenis. Geëtste lyne aan die een kant. 28 mm lank en baie dik. Uiters skaars! #1483: $ 175 VERKOOP
Pragtige ou Griekse loodbeen. 5de-3de eeu v.C. Die vroegste dobbelsteen! Made from lead in the form of the knuckle-bone of an animal. These were thrown like modern dice, and each side bore a different significance. A fascinating piece. 28 mm long and heavy! #lead3511: $125 SOLD
Ancient Greece, 5th-3rd century BC. The earliest dice! Made from the knuckle-bone of an animal, and filled with lead for weighting. These were thrown like modern dice, and each side bore a different significance. 31x20x16 mm. #11173: $225 SOLD

Extremely rare pair of 14-sided Roman bone dice. 1st - 3rd century AD. Used for a very special and specific Roman game. The six sides of each have the regular numbers, and each corner is leveled off with a single "1" number cut into it. Each 9 mm (3/8") diameter. Very nice and extremely rare! #20273: $375 SOLD
Roman Britain, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Large elk-bone gaming die (single). Huge 15mm diameter, nice large concentric-circle drilled "numbers" with some ancient earthen deposits in the details. Nice patina, great piece! #85578: $299 SOLD
Beautiful PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. A nice set with great detail. Each 9 mm (3/8") diameter. #65540: $299 SOLD
Beautiful PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Bright white patina, great detail. Each 9-10 mm (3/8") diameter. #25207: $299 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Nice single bone gaming die. Well weathered and worn but with good detail and nice patina. Lots of character! 9 mm dia. #AR2107: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Very nice single bone gaming die. Lovely patina, sharp detail.10x9 mm. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). #AR2106: $175 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Fabulous large PAIR of lead gamimg dice. One die is a trick die, with no "3" but two "5's". Very interesting! Each about 15 mm, and together weigh a whopping 1.86 oz! ex-Daniel Frank Sedwick, FL. #AR2158: $399 SOLD
Ancient Greece, 5th-3rd century BC. The earliest dice! Made from the knuckle-bone of an animal, drilled and filled with lead for weighting. These were thrown like modern dice, and each side bore a different significance. 29 mm (1 1/8") long. Found in former Thrace-Macedonia. ex-UK collection. #AR2080: $250 SOLD
Ancient Greece, 5th-3rd century BC. The earliest dice! Made from the knuckle-bone of an animal, drilled and filled with lead for weighting. These were thrown like modern dice, and each side bore a different significance. 30 mm (1 1/8") long. ex-British collection. #AR2115: $199 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent Roman bone gaming die (single). Lovely gray patina, light earthen deposits overall. 9 mm. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2322: $150 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Light white patina, some earthen deposits in the details. Measure 8-9 mm. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-old Erlenbach, Germany collection. #AR2378: $299 SOLD
Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices. 8-9 mm.
ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2336: $299 SOLD
Nice and rare black Roman bone gaming die (single). 1st-3rd century AD. 8 mm. Black to deep reddish-brown color. Great surfaces, light earthen deposits in the crevices. Much nicer than this terrible, blurry photo. #AG2085: $175
SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices. 9 mm. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2368: $299 SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Small carved bone die (single). 8x6 mm, with light brown patina, light earthen deposits. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2700: $99 SOLD
Roman Britain, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Great large bone die (single). Big 13 mm diameter. Nice burnished reddish patina, light earthen deposits. ex-Oxfordshire, UK collection. #AR2410: $250 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of small Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2590: $299 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Fantastic carved bone die (single). 10 mm, with light tan patina. Deep-cut detail, some age cracks. #AR2621: $225 SOLD
Roman Britain, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Great large bone die (single). Big 14 mm diameter. Nice burnished light tan patina, light earthen deposits. Deep-cut details. ex-British collection. #AR2737: $275 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2594: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of large Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 9-10 mm each. Nice white to silvery-black tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2604: $299 SOLD

Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 9 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. ex-CNG. #AR2811: $299 SOLD
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-10 mm each. Nice tan coloration. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2793: $299 SOLD
Roman Britain, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Great large bone die (single). Big 14 mm diameter. Nice burnished reddish patina, light earthen deposits. ex-British collection. #AR2302: $275 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 8x9 mm, with off-white patina, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2785: $150 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Large carved bone die (single). Measures 12 mm, with nice patina, light earthen deposits. #AH2240: $250 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Fantastic carved bone die (single). 12x10 mm, with light green patina, light earthen deposits. #AR2620: $225 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Nice carved bone die (single). Measures 10 mm, with nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices. Repaired crack. #AH2243: $199 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Large carved bone die (single). Measures 11 mm, with great reddish-brown patina, light earthen deposits. Quite large for these, displays nicely! Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2882: $175 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 9 mm, with light brown patina, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2787: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 10 mm, with white tone, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2547: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 9 mm, with light brown patina, earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. Cracked, a budget example! ex-CNG. #AR2189: $99 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 9.5 x 8 mm, with light tone, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2947: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Very large bone die (single). Measures 12 mm, with light reddish-brown tone, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. Nicer than photo allows! #AR2945: $199 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Very large bone die (single). Measures 12 mm, with light reddish-brown tone, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2944: $199 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Fantastic carved bone die (single). Measures 10 mm, with nice patina, light earthen deposits. #AR2816: $225 SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measure 9 mm. Nice off-white tone, glossy surfaces, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2615: $225 SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent pair of large Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 10 mm (3/8 inch) each. Nice off-white bone color. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. An excellent quality and rare matched pair! #AR3047: $450 SOLD - Alternate evailable!
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Large carved bone die (single). Measures 12 mm, with nice tone, light earthen deposits. From the John Slocum antiquities collection, Newport. Mr. Slocum was a world renowned antiquities and ancient coin collector in the middle part of the 20th century, traveling the world as an attache for the United States government. At one time he had what was considered the largest ancient coin collection in the world which was auctioned at Sotheby's nearly 20 years ago. #AR3036: $199 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Nice carved bone die (single). Measures 9x10 mm, with nice light patina, earthen deposits in the crevices. Found in the Holy Land! ex-Canadian private collection. #AR2818: $250 SOLD Excellent PAIR of rare black Roman bone gaming dice. 1st--3rd century AD. Very nice specimens! Nice deep-cut detail and nice contrast. 9 mm dia each. #bl0893: $299 SOLD
Very rare "4-5-6" black Roman bone gaming die (single). 1st-3rd century AD. Special variation with two number "4s", two number "5s" and 2 number "6s"! Used for a particular dice game in ancient times. Or perhaps could be a "loaded" die for more mischevious purposes. Shows only 4-5-6! Large for the type at 12 mm diameter. #85377: $225 SOLD
Nice and rare black Roman bone gaming die (single). 1st-3rd century AD. 10-11 mm. A very fine piece with great surfaces and some earthen deposits in the crevices. Much nicer than photo shows. #85499: $175 SOLD
Very rare "4-5-6" Roman bone gaming die (single). 1st-3rd cent. AD. Special variation with two number "4s", two number "5s" and 2 number "6s"! Used for a particular dice game in ancient times. Or perhaps could be a "loaded" die for more mischevious purposes. Shows only 4-5-6! Silverish in appearance, may have once been black or perhaps burned at some point in antiquity. Very interesting! Measures 9 mm. #85508: $199 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Excellent and large single bone gaming die. Big 10 mm (big for the type). Beautiful detail. #29942: $199 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Nice single bone gaming die. 9x6 mm. Deep-cut detail! An interesting shape, with lots of character. #19583: $125 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Very nice single bone gaming die. 10x8 mm. Nice patina. #26488: $175 SOLD
Extremely rare 14-sided Roman die carved of black bone. 1st - 3rd century AD. Used for a very special and specific Roman game. The six sides of each have the regular numbers, and each corner is leveled off with a single "1" number cut into it. Each 9 mm (3/8") diameter. Nice and rare! 10 mm dia. #AR2109: $225 SOLD
Nice PAIR of small Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Light brown patina, good detail. Each 8-9 mm. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). #AR2047: $299 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Nice single bone gaming die (huge for the type). Bright white color. ex-Classical Numismatic Group (CNG). 10 mm. #2646573: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Nice lead gamimg die (single, various sides shown below). Very interesting! Measudes 10 mm (3/8-inch) . Intact with nice grey patina, light earthen deposits. Ex-Los Angeles, CA private collection. #AR2307: $135 SOLD
Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Both intact with very nice patina. Measure 8 mm each. Ex Anthony Kurland estate. #AR2359: $299 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Nice single bone gaming die. Great patina, light earthen deposits. 10 mm (3/8"), great detail! ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR23201: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, 1st - 3rd century AD. Nice single bone gaming die. Great patina, light earthen deposits. 10 mm (3/8"), good detail. Much better than photo. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR23202: $150 SOLD - Ask about alternates!
Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the details. Measure 9-10 mm. ex-Wien, Austria collection. #AR2324: $299 SOLD
Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice, 1st-3rd century AD. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices. 7-8 mm.
ex-Edgar Owen. #AR2334: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices.
8 mm each. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2586: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices.
10-11 mm. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2582: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Nice patina, light earthen deposits in the crevices.
Measure 8-9 mm each. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. Nice white tone, light earthen deposits. #AR2716: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of large Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 9-10 mm each. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. #AR2606: $299 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Nice PAIR of carved bone dice. Measure 8-9 mm, with nice patina, light earthen deposits. Both repaired. Found in the Holy Land! #AR2624: $275 SOLD
Roman Gaul, 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2596: $299 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single).
Measures 8 mm, with light brown patina, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2718: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Nice Roman bone gaming die (single). Light pinkish-tan patina, some earthen deposits in the details. Measures 8-9 mm. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2373: $150 SOLD

Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 9-10 mm each. Nice bright tone. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2557: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of larger Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 11 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2592: $325 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 8 mm, with nice light patina, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2723: $150 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Carved bone die (single). Measures 9 mm, with light brown patina, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. #AR2719: $150 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Fantastic and large carved bone die (single). Measures 12 mm, with nice dark patina, light earthen deposits. #AR2817: $250 SOLD
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 9-10 mm each. Nice tan coloration. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2805: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of larger Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2558: $299 SOLD
Beautiful ancient GREEK lead knuckle-bone. 5th-3rd century BC. The earliest dice! Made from lead in the form of the knuckle-bone of an animal. These were thrown like modern dice, and each side bore a different significance. Small hole on either side. Great grey patina. 29 mm (1 1/16") and heavy! ex-CNG. #AR2111: $175 SOLD
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of larger Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. Ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2828: $299 SOLD
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of larger Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice off-white tone, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2614: $299 SOLD
Holy Land. Roman period, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Nice carved bone die (single). Measures 9x10 mm, with nice light patina, earthen deposits in the crevices. Cracked edge. #AH2245: $225 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Rare BLACK bone die (single). Measures 8 mm, with deep black tone, light earthen deposits in the crevices. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. Rare in black! A beautiful example. #AR2942: $175 SOLD
Roman Gaul, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Large carved bone die (single). Measure 11x9 mm. Nice off-white tone, deep-cut detail, light earthen deposits. Found in the Rhine area, Germany. ex-Austrian collection. #AR2593: $225 SOLD
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Very large PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 11 mm each. Reddish-brown color, much larger than usually found! The only pair I've ever had in this size. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2939: $450 SOLD
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice off-white bone color. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. ex-Los Angeles, CA collection. #AR2937: $325 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-2nd century AD. Great carved bone die (single). Measures 10 mm, with dark tone, light earthen deposits. From the John Slocum antiquities collection, Newport. Mr. Slocum was a world renowned antiquities and ancient coin collector in the middle part of the 20th century, traveling the world as an attache for the United States government. At one time he had what was considered the largest ancient coin collection in the world which was auctioned at Sotheby's nearly 20 years ago. #AR3039: $225 SOLD
Ancient Rome, c. 1st-2nd century AD. HUGE carved bone die (single). Measures 14 mm, with nice tone, light earthen deposits. From the John Slocum antiquities collection, Newport. Mr. Slocum was a world renowned antiquities and ancient coin collector in the middle part of the 20th century, traveling the world as an attache for the United States government. At one time he had what was considered the largest ancient coin collection in the world which was auctioned at Sotheby's nearly 20 years ago. #AR3032: $299 SOLD
Ancient Roman, c. 1st-3rd century AD. Excellent PAIR of Roman bone gaming dice. Measure 8-9 mm each. Nice off-white bone color with light earthen deposits giving striking contrast in the details. Found near the Danube River, Eastern Europe. Wien, Austria collection. An excellent quality and rare matched pair! #AR3083: $399 SOLD

Gambling in Ancient Civilizations

When you talk about gambling usually your mind goes to casinos, baccarat, roulette, lottery, dice etc. But have you ever thought about when or how gambling first originating? The fact is that some forms of gambling have existed in virtually the same form for thousands of years.

Gambling has been of interest to the Greeks since ancient times and it seems that we haven’t forgotten the bad habits of the past. Who would think that the origin of poker goes back to the Minoan civilization, more than 3,500 years ago? Nowadays, we consider that throwing a double six in a dice game is lucky and this too has its ancient origins. Thousands of years ago, rolling two sixes was called the ‘throw of Aphrodite’ and would indicate victory in a game.

From references in Homer and other ancient texts we can find out that gambling games have been used widely in ancient Greece. Dice games, head and tails, and other games based on ‘luck’ have always been played by different groups. Special places even existed where people passionate about gambling would go to play. However, like the casinos of today, those places carried a bad reputation and it was considered shameful for someone to go there. People would lose fortunes in gambling, exactly in the same way that we do today. However in ancient Greece gamblers had the support of a couple of Gods - Hermes and Pan. Even the Gods were said to have played a game or two – in Greek mythology, Zeus, Hades and Poseidon played ‘throw the dice’ in order to split the Universe between them.

Most ancient Greek authors and philosophers condemned gambling and they mention that at some point gambling became like a plague resulting in government measure to reduce those activities. Obviously whenever gambling exists, cheating goes hand by hand, and that was the case in ancient times too.

Checkers is a game that was called ‘tilia’ in ancient Greece and in the Roman era it was called the game of the 12 lines. Scenes on pottery show that betting on animal fights (including chickens, birds and dogs) was also active and animals would be bred for that reason.

Heads and tails was also popular and was played with a shell and later on during the roman period with a coin, as it is today. Dice was a popular ancient Greek game where they used three cubes made of clay and later on the game continued in the Roman Era but the number of dice was reduced to two, and in this forms it continues today.

In ancient Rome, gambling was practiced amongst slaves and masters and for a period of time it was popular even amongst the Emperors. In ancient China, Egypt and Islam, gambling was also popular. We can also find references in the Jewish Talmud and Buddhism. In all cases at some point it was regulated and severe punishment would come upon the gamblers. The ‘casting of lots’ was a popular gambling practice in ancient Rome and there are even references in biblical texts that Roman guards cast the lots for the garment of Jesus during the Crucifixion. Gambling was used to settle disputes or reveal ‘gods’ answers to questions.

In China we have the game of keno, which is played with cards with numbers from 1 to 80 in squares. You were allowed to circle a set of number and then a lottery would take place (like in the lotto today) to identify the ‘lucky’ numbers. The origin of this game goes back to 2,000 years ago and the original game was called ‘white pigeon ticket’. The game would be allowed to be played in gambling houses with the permission of the province governor, who would receive a percentage of the profits. Another game of chance was invented by the Chinese in 2,300 BC using tiles and by 900 AD the Chinese had invented card games decorated with human forms, which later expanded throughout Europe by the Mamalukes (Islam followers) who used shapes, and later on the Europeans adjusted the cards to show the Kings and Queens that we see in card decks today.

Incredibly, dice objects have been found going back 40,000 years and cave drawings of games provide further evidence that games and gambling have been around for a very long time. It seems that gambling is very much in our nature.


Geskiedenis

Dice and their forerunners are the oldest gaming implements known to man. Sophocles reported that dice were invented by the legendary Greek Palamedes during the siege of Troy, whereas Herodotus maintained that they were invented by the Lydians in the days of King Atys. Both “inventions” have been discredited by numerous archaeological finds demonstrating that dice were used in many earlier societies.

The precursors of dice were magical devices that primitive people used for the casting of lots to divine the future. The probable immediate forerunners of dice were knucklebones (astragals: the anklebones of sheep, buffalo, or other animals), sometimes with markings on the four faces. Such objects are still used in some parts of the world.

In later Greek and Roman times, most dice were made of bone and ivory others were of bronze, agate, rock crystal, onyx, jet, alabaster, marble, amber, porcelain, and other materials. Cubical dice with markings practically equivalent to those of modern dice have been found in Chinese excavations from 600 bce and in Egyptian tombs dating from 2000 bce . The first written records of dice are found in the ancient Sanskrit epic the Mahabharata, composed in India more than 2,000 years ago. Pyramidal dice (with four sides) are as old as cubical ones such dice were found with the so-called Royal Game of Ur, one of the oldest complete board games ever discovered, dating back to Sumer in the 3rd millennium bce . Another variation of dice is teetotums (a type of spinning top).

It was not until the 16th century that dice games were subjected to mathematical analysis—by Italians Girolamo Cardano and Galileo, among others—and the concepts of randomness and probability were conceived (kyk probability and statistics). Until then the prevalent attitude had been that dice and similar objects fell the way they did because of the indirect action of gods or supernatural forces.


Romans Used 20-Sided Dice Two Millennia Before D&D

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

Many of us geeks take great pride in the ability to recite the history of role-playing games based on the 20-sided die, but what about the history of the die itself? Apparently it predates the original Dungeons and Dragons by almost two millenia.

Christie's, auctioneer to the rich and famous, sold a glass d20 from Roman times. It was included in a collection of other antiquities that sold in 2003. The markings on the die don't appear to be either Arabic or Roman numerals, but it's probably a safe bet that it was used in a game of chance. As the auction catalog notes that several polyhedral dice are known from the Roman era, but remarks, " Modern scholarship has not yet established the game for which these dice were used."

I wonder - how do you say "critical hit" in Latin? (Ed. note: "maxima plaga")

The seller acquired this die from his father, who picked it up in the 1920s in Egypt. Sounds like the beginning of an Indiana Jones movie, doesn't it?


How the Design of Dice Evolved Over Time

Someone about to roll some dice. Alex Chambers / Public Domain

Think of all the games that would be impossible to play without dice. Dungeons and Dragons, Yahtzee, craps, and backgammon are just a few examples. Whether its a dodecahedron or octahedron, a uniform die gives us a fair shot at winning a play or sadly losing another bet. Yet, a new anthropological study found that dice weren’t always all that uniform.

The earliest dice can be traced back to 6000 B.C. in Mesopotamia, and were often used to tell fortunes. Ancient Egyptians played one of the oldest known board games called Senet with dice, and during the Tang Dynasty in China, people gambled using dice. Back then, people carved the objects into conical or knucklebone-like shapes from horse hooves or bone. It was not until the Roman Empire that the predominance of cubic dice emerged.

Excavating dice is a matter of odds. They aren’t found in archaeological sites, like fossils or prehistoric tools are. Rather, dice are commonly found in the deep innards of trash bins or graveyards. For archaeologists, these are perfect places to find what people leave behind in the past.

The study’s co-authors, Jelmer Eerkens from University of California, Davis, and Alex de Voogt from the American Museum of Natural History, analyzed 110 dice from museums and depots across the Netherlands and cross-compared them to 62 dice from the United Kingdom. Their findings, which were published in Acta Archaeologica, uncovered a surprising evolution over the centuries.

Various dice from the Netherlands. a) Roman die from Vechten b) Medieval die from Nijmegen c) Post-Medieval die from Rasquert. Eerkens, J. W. and de Voogt, A. (2017), THE EVOLUTION OF CUBIC DICE. Acta Archaeologica, 88: 163�.

According to the study, cubic dice created around or before 400 B.C., in the Roman era, were misshapen and asymmetrical trinkets made from ivory, metal, or wood, with the numbers one through six on the faces. Opposing sides for six-sided cubic dice added up to seven. Roman dice makers relied on this general cuboid template, but put an individual spin on each die design. That’s why Roman era dice came in diverse variations. As for the asymmetry of dice options back then, researchers aren’t sure if designers were motivated by a desire to manipulate games or by the concept of fate. If fate decided the outcome of games, it didn’t matter that the dice weren’t symmetrical.

By 1100, there was some dice standardization and a size decrease, but Roman dice largely remained lopsided throughout the early medieval times. One major shift did occur though. The numbers on the sides appeared in an arrangement where opposite faces equated to prime numbers. For instance, five and six would sit opposite one another, because they add up to the prime number eleven.

“We don’t really have a good idea why that [change] happened or what caused that shift, but we see it both in the U.K. and the Netherlands. So, it was something people must have agreed upon,” Eerkens says.

Around 1450, the Renaissance ushered in a new set of novel philosophies and beliefs. Great thinkers such as Galileo and Blaise Pascal conceptualized theories about probability and chance, using gamblers as research. This ideological change also translated to how people sculpted dice, which had disappeared during the Dark Ages and materialized once again.

“We think users of dice also adopted new ideas about fairness, and chance or probability in games,” said Eerkens in a statement. The numbering style changed from the prime number configuration (1-2 3-4 5-6), one heavily influenced by popular ancient Egyptian numerical arrangements, back to the style “where opposite sides add up to seven (6-1 5-2 3-4).” Eerkens suggests that while the direct cause for this shift is unclear, it could possibly be related to an gradual effort to make fair and balanced dice.

These 14th-century medieval dice were discovered during an excavation in the 1990s. Jelmer Eerkens, UC Davis / Public Domain

By the late 1600s, as dice lost favor to card games, the study suggests, “gamblers may have seen dice throws as no longer determined by fate, but instead as randomizing objects governed by chance.” In Northwestern Europe, people exchanged cultural ideas and information on what a die should look like. From this cultural transmission, people developed standard practices and rules for die manufacturing.

Therefore, a standardized symmetrical die shape developed en masse as people’s beliefs about fairness, randomness, and chance advanced. The pips—the dots on the sides of dice—also changed from a “dot-ring-ring pattern to simple dots,” the design we know today. The pip redesign is less related to the changing worldview, but Eerkens surmises that it could be related to dice size. Eerkens explains that from 1100 until the Renaissance, gambling and dice usage was illegal. He theorizes that black market dice manufacturers carved smaller dice and pips so people could efficiently hide them.

Eerkens and de Voogt acknowledge that their research is just the beginning. The goal is to use this study to increase the sample size well beyond the Roman period, expand research outside Europe, and assist future studies. The researchers conclude the data, most importantly, offers information “on cultural transmission processes in northwest Europe.” People migrating throughout Europe were influenced by different styles and ideas, and then incorporated those aspects into dice design.


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