Killer smog eis bejaarde slagoffers

Killer smog eis bejaarde slagoffers

Die rookmis gaan steeds oor Donora, Pennsylvania, op 29 Oktober 1948. Oor 'n tydperk van vyf dae het die rookmis ongeveer 20 mense doodgemaak en duisende ernstiger siek geword.

Donora was 'n stad met 14 000 mense aan die Monongahelarivier in 'n vallei omring deur heuwels. Die stad was die tuiste van staalmeulens en 'n sink -smeltingsaanleg wat jare voor die ramp groot hoeveelhede swaelsuur, koolstofmonoksied en ander besoedelstowwe in die atmosfeer vrygestel het. Gedurende die twintigerjare het die eienaar van die sinkfabriek, Zinc Works, plaaslike inwoners afbetaal vir skade wat deur die besoedeling veroorsaak is. Tog was daar min of geen regulering van die lugbesoedeling wat deur die nywerhede van Donora veroorsaak word nie.

Die weerstoestande in die vallei het op 26 Oktober 'n hewige mis in Donora ingebring. Dit lyk asof hierdie mis die lugbesoedeling wat uit die sinksmeltingsaanleg en staalmeulens naby die grond gestroom het, vasgevang het, waar dit deur die plaaslike inwoners ingeasem is. Binnekort het 'n golf oproepe na hospitale en dokters in die omgewing gekom. Dr William Rongaus, die hoof van die plaaslike raad van gesondheid, het voorgestel dat alle inwoners met reeds bestaande asemhalingsprobleme die stad onmiddellik verlaat. 11 mense, almal bejaardes en met hartprobleme of asma, was egter reeds dood.

Die meeste inwoners het daarna probeer ontruim, maar die groot rookmis en toenemende verkeer het die vertrek bemoeilik. Duisende het die hospitale oorstroom toe hulle probleme ondervind om asem te haal. Eers op 31 Oktober het Zinc Works sy bedrywighede gestaak. Later die dag het reën op Donora geval en die besoedeling versprei. Teen daardie tyd het nog nege mense reeds omgekom.

Die Donora -rookmisramp het nasionale aandag geniet toe dit deur Walter Winchell op sy radioprogram berig is. In die nadraai het lugbesoedeling uiteindelik 'n saak van openbare belang geword; die voorval het gelei tot die goedkeuring van die Wet op Skoonlug van 1955. Die Donora Zink Works het sy bedrywighede in 1957 gesluit. Hoewel die tipe swaar sigbare besoedelstowwe wat verantwoordelik is vir die sterftes in Donora nou meestal verbied en uitgeskakel is, bly onsigbare besoedeling soos osoon 'n bedreiging vir mense met chroniese respiratoriese siektes.

Jare later het 'n plaaslike hoërskoolleerling se navorsing en aktivisme daartoe gelei dat die Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission 'n gedenkplaat in Donora geplaas het ter ere van die slagoffers van die moordenaarsmog.


Die Onvertelde Waarheid Van Die Cheshire Dubbele Moorde

In die loop van 24 jaar, tussen 1996 en 2020, het ten minste vyf paartjies in die Cheshire-streek van Engeland gesterf in wat die polisie aanvanklik vasgestel het as moord-selfmoorde. In al die gevalle was die paartjies ver gevorderd, en hoewel dit uiters jammer is, is dit nie so ongewoon dat bejaarde paartjies op hierdie manier sterf nie. Miskien moedeloos oor die verwoestende ouderdom op hul liggame, of as gevolg van lang en pynlike sterftes as gevolg van terminale siektes, of miskien as gevolg van geestesongesteldheid, sterf soms bejaarde paartjies deur die kombinasie van een maat wat die ander vermoor en dan hul eie lewe neem.

In Cheshire is die vyf sake aanvanklik beskou as oop-en-toe voorbeelde van tragiese moord-selfmoorde. 'N Onwrikbare lykskouer het egter geweier om te glo dat daar geen gemene spel betrokke was nie, en uiteindelik het bewyse ontbloot wat daarop dui dat die vyf sake nie net verband hou nie, maar dat hulle almal kan dui op die werk van 'n reeksmoordenaar wat nog steeds op vrye voet is. in die streek.

Dit is die onbekende waarheid van die dubbele moorde in Cheshire.

As u of iemand wat u ken selfmoordgedagtes het, skakel die National Suicide Prevention Lifeline by 1-800-273-TALK (8255).


Hy beweer dat hy Amerika se dodelikste reeksmoordenaar is met 90 slagoffers. Die polisie glo hom.

Hierdie ongedateerde foto wat deur die Ector County Texas Sheriff's Office verskaf is, wys Samuel Little. 'N Aanklaer in Texas sê Little, skuldig bevind aan drie moorde in Kalifornië, maar lank vermoedelik in tientalle sterftes, beweer nou dat hy betrokke was by ongeveer 90 moorde landwyd. Ector County Texas Sheriff's Office via AP

'N Groep vriende wat hul vuilfietse deur die bos buite Saucier, Mississippi, gesny het, het Julia Critchfield gevind. Dit was Januarie 1978. Die 36-jarige ma van vier kinders was kaal en haar liggaam was langs 'n pad. Sy was verwurg. Haar moordenaar het 'n swart rok oor haar raam gehang.

Byna 500 myl daarvandaan en vier jaar later is die lyk van Rosie Hill ontdek naby 'n varkhok in Marion County, Florida. Die 21-jarige is in Augustus 1982 laas gesien hoe hy 'n kroeg by 'n vreemdeling verlaat het. Sy is ook verwurg.

Byna 700 myl oos, het Melissa Thomas opgedaag in 'n kerkbegraafplaas in Opelousas, Louisiana. Dit was Januarie 1996. Weereens, verwurg.


Die ses mees skrikwekkende seriemoordfamilies in die geskiedenis

Paartjies wat saam doodmaak - Fred en Rosemary West, Karla Homolka en Paul Bernardo, David en Catherine Birnie - kry baie ink. Maar wat van broers en susters en groter gesinsgroepe wie se gedeelde goddeloosheid hulle daartoe lei om gruwelike misdade te pleeg? Lees verder vir ses veral nare voorbeelde.

1) “The Bloody Benders”

'N Bende van vier wat so wreed is dat hulle die pakkende bynaam het om dit te bewys, het die Benders in die vroeë 1870's in die geïsoleerde Labette County, Kansas, gevestig. Hulle was volgelinge van die nuutste Spiritualism -beweging, en die superster van die gesin was die mees aangename lid (en ook die een wat die meeste Engels magtig was, aangesien almal groot Duitse aksente gehad het), Kate, wat vroeg in die twintigerjare was. Alhoewel die belangrikste Bender -onderneming 'n klein winkel en herberg vir reisigers was, was Kate ook bekend vir sy sessies wat haar sielkundige vermoëns toon. Tussen die gunstige ligging van die hotel, net langs die Osage -roete, en Kate se geheimsinnige aantrekkingskrag, was daar geen tekort aan vreemdelinge wat toevallig verbygekom het nie.

Maar dit was nie alles wat dit gelyk het in hierdie winderige hoek van die suidooste van Kansas nie. Alhoewel die Benders in 'n gesinsvormige samestelling van man, vrou en jong-volwasse seun en dogter saam gewoon het, vermoed historici dat hulle nie net eintlik familie was nie, maar dat hulle nie eens Bender genoem is nie. Wat gewoonlik, wie werklik omgee, nie waar nie? Dit is net so dat soveel mense wat deur Labette County gekom het, nooit na hul eindbestemmings gekom het nie, waaronder 'n bekende plaaslike dokter, William York. Nadat 'n gemeenskapsvergadering (bygewoon deur beide manlike Benders) gelei het tot die stigting van 'n soekgeselskap, is dit gou opgemerk dat die Bender -opstal onlangs verlate verskyn het.

Die Benders was weg, maar hulle het baie bewyse agtergelaat wat onthul het wat op hul plaas gebeur het:

Naby die tafel waar gaste bedien is, was 'n valdeur en die stinkende gat onder die deur was vol bloed. Die grond in 'n boord naby die huis is versigtig geploeg, maar 'n klein gedeelte is merkbaar ingekap. Die grond is opgegrawe en onthul die ontbinde liggaam van dr. York. Sy skedel is verpletter en sy keel is afgesny. Voordat dit aand word, is nog sewe lyke onttrek en die volgende dag nog een gevind.

Die slagoffers was twee kinders, waaronder 'n baba wat dood is nadat hy lewend begrawe is. Maar die meeste reisigers het bloediger einde gekry:

Gaste in die herberg is aangemoedig om op die ereplek te sit, teen 'n gordyn wat die huis se kamers verdeel]. Terwyl hy eet, word die eregas met 'n hamer van agter die gordyn in die kop geslaan, sy keel word gesny en sy liggaam val in die valdeur na die kelder. Een man, meneer Wetzell, het die verhaal gehoor en onthou toe hy by die herberg was en wou nie op die aangewese plek gaan sit nie. Sy besluit het veroorsaak dat Ma Bender kwaad en beledigend teenoor hom geword het, en toe hy die mannetjie Benders agter die gordyn sien opkom, besluit hy en sy metgesel om te vertrek.

Hulle motief? Roof. of net die opwinding daarvan. Ten spyte van 'n beloning en verskeie ongegronde bewerings dat hulle gevange geneem is deur verskillende besittings, lyk dit asof die Benders met moord weggekom het, en hul grimmige verhaal bly intrige. Vanaf 1961-1978 het die stad naaste aan hul moordgrond in Kansas, Cherryvale, 'n museum bedryf wat 'n presiese kopie van hul huis was (kyk na foto's van die vreemde installasie hier).

In 2012 is gerugte dat Guillermo del Toro betrokke sou wees om die Benders se werklike verhaal van afgryse op die groot skerm te bring. Alhoewel dit nooit gebeur het nie, het die moordenaarsfamilie deur die jare al in die literatuur en popkultuur verskyn, om nie eens te praat van die ontvanger van hul eie staatshistoriese merker nie:

2) Delfina en María de Jesús González

Hierdie susters het die Guinness -wêreldrekord vir 'Most Prolific Murder Partnership', 'n twyfelagtige eer wat hulle verdien het weens hul beraamde 91 moord. Hulle slagoffers is uit die bordeel gehaal wat hulle saam in Mexiko, die Rancho El Angel, gehardloop het. (Twee bykomende susters, Carmen en Maria Luisa, was ook betrokke by die sterftes, hoewel hulle om watter rede ook al nie die snit vir 'n Guinness-uitroep gemaak het nie.)

Daar is nie soveel inligting oor die González -gesin as die Bloody Benders nie, ondanks die feit dat die susters eintlik gevang is en hul misdade meer onlangs gepleeg is. (Albei het in 1964 40 jaar vonnisse gekry). Volgens Murderpedia:

Die polisie het 'n vrou met die naam Josefina Gutiérrez, 'n aanklaer, opgelaai op die vermoede dat sy jong meisies in die Guanajuato -omgewing ontvoer het, en tydens die ondervraging het sy die twee susters betrek. Polisiebeamptes het die susters se eiendom deursoek en die lyke van 11 mans, 80 vroue en verskeie fetusse gevind, altesaam meer as 91.

Ondersoeke het aan die lig gebring die plan was dat hulle prostitute sou werf deur advertensies wat deur hulp gesoek is, hoewel die advertensies sou verklaar dat die meisies diensmeisies vir die twee susters sou word. Baie van die meisies is met heroïen of kokaïen gevoed. Die susters het die prostitute vermoor toe hulle te siek geword het, deur herhaalde seksuele aktiwiteite beskadig is, hul voorkoms verloor het of opgehou het om die kliënte tevrede te stel.

Hulle sou ook kliënte doodmaak wat met groot bedrae kontant opgedaag het. Op 'n verduideliking van die sterftes het een van die susters na bewering gesê: "Die kos stem nie saam nie."

3) Sawney Bean Clan

As jy gedink het Die Heuwels het oë'Sjarmante familie kannibalistiese grotbewoners wat kwesbare reisigers aangeval het, was 'n deel van die filmmaker Wes Craven se wonderlike verbeelding, dink weer. Papa Jupiter en sy geselskap het historiese inspirasie gehad. Alhoewel die verhaal moontlik gedurende die 18de eeu as politieke propaganda uitgevind is, bestaan ​​die legende al eeue lank, en sommige dink (of hoop) dat dit ten minste gedeeltelik op feite gebaseer is. Die opspraakwekkende verhaal is in elk geval nog meer skrikwekkend as 'n horrorfilmhommage.

Sawney Bean (of Beane), volgens die verhaal, was die aartsvader van 'n groot stam wat sy bevolking deur middel van bloedskande vergroot en geniet het van menslike vlees, verkry deur ongelukkige reisigers wat toevallig by hul lêplek verbygekom het: 'n seegrot aan die westelike rand van Skotland.

Uiteindelik word gesê dat die aantal vermiste mense (en herhaaldelike voorkoms van liggaamsdele wat op plaaslike strande uitgespoel het) 'n ondersoek aangespoor het. Volgens die verhaal het nie minder nie as koning James IV die saak aangepak en 400 mans en 'n pak bloedhonde ontplooi om Sawney se ingeteelde pretklomp op te spoor en hul afstootlike misdade bloot te lê. Wat hulle gevind het, was inderdaad maagdraaiend:

Die mans het die grot binnegekom en 'n afskuwelike toneel gevind: droë dele van menslike liggame hang alles van die dak af, ingelegde ledemate lê in vate, en oral lê hope geld en snuisterye uit die dooiesakke in hope.

Weereens, hierdie een waarskynlik nie waar nie, maar dit is hier ingesluit vanweë sy heerlike gruwelike besonderhede, en die feit dat die verhaal so lank bestaan. Dit word steeds deur middel van toeriste -aantreklikhede soos die Edinburgh Dungeon na kontemporêre kennis oorgedra.

Beeld van Sawney Bean (en vrou in die agtergrond met 'n paar gepekelde ledemate!) Gelisensieer onder Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons

4) Die Briley -broers

Die Bean -brigade het moontlik nooit bestaan ​​nie, maar die drie broers wat aan die einde van die sewentigerjare in Richmond, Virginia, rondgetrek het, het dit beslis gedoen. 'Briley is van plan om laat vanaand te sterf', 'n sombere 1985 Washington Post die opskrif lees bo -op 'n verhaal waarin die laaste hoofstuk van die skrikbewind deur James (of "J.B."), Linwood en Anthony Briley beskryf word. James en Linwood bereik hul eindes binne maande na mekaar in die elektriese stoel van Virginia.

Linwood, die oudste broer, was 30 toe hy dood is. Sy eerste moord was op die ouderdom van 16, toe hy 'n bejaarde buurman, wat toevallig buite was en binne die bereik van sy kamervenster was, geskiet het. Hy het slegs een jaar vir die misdaad uitgedien. 'N Paar jaar later begin hy en sy twee broers, plus 'n vierde medepligtige, met hul wrede roof, verkragting en moordtog, en stuur ewekansige slagoffers met buitengewoon wrede metodes (insluitend om 'n tiener se skedel met 'n blik te verpletter). Dit het sewe maande geduur en tien lewens geëis, waaronder verskeie bejaardes, 'n swanger vrou en haar vyfjarige seun. Nog twee slagoffers wat deur gas gedompel en aan die brand gesteek is, het daarin geslaag om te oorleef.

Na hul moordveroordelings het Linwood en J.B. in 1984 nog meer opslae gemaak toe hulle 'n groep van ses gevangenes gelei het in 'n dramatiese ontsnapping uit die doodstraf. (Hulle is 19 dae later weer gevange geneem. Die kinderhuis van die Brileys het einde verlede jaar 'n nuusberig geword toe 'n ontwikkelaar, wat die fixer-upper van die broers se pa gekoop het, dit vinnig teen 'n winskopie op die mark gebring het nadat hy die bekendheid van die adres besef het.

5) "Groot" en "Klein" Harpe

Alhoewel die geskiedenis nie heeltemal kan bevestig of 'Amerika se eerste reeksmoordenaars' eintlik broers of neefs was nie, het Micajah, gebore in Noord-Carolina (die groter, vandaar die bynaamverspreiding) en Wiley Harpe gesorg vir 'n ergste duo. Hulle was voor, tydens en na die Revolusionêre Oorlog en het die oorspronklike loopbaanplan (om plantasie -opsieners te wees) omgee om aan die kant van die Britte te veg en onderweg talle verkragtings en brandstigting gepleeg. Hulle was ook perddiewe, 'n misdaad wat hulle op die radar van die wet geplaas het. en het hulle aangespoor tot hul ware roeping, dié van moorddadige outlaws.

Volgens 'n wonderlik beskrywende Nashville -toneel storie:

Hulle slagspoor begin laat in 1798 by Hughes Tavern, 'n watergat wes van Knoxville. 'N Taverne uit die 18de eeu kan dien as 'n stadsaal of 'n sentrum van vroeë bestuur, maar nie hierdie' woelige groggery 'wat die Harpes en ander rowwe nekke ken nie. Klein Harpe kry selfs 'n skraap wat eindig met 'n meswond in sy bors, met vergunning van ene John Bowman, wat destyds nie veel beteken nie. Dit sal meer as 'n katskraap verg om 'n Harpe uit te lê.

Onder die drinkers byderhand is 'n man met die naam Johnson. Of hy op 'n stadium op die Harpes gekruip het, is 'n kwessie van bespiegeling. Ongeag, 'n paar dae later sien 'n reisiger iets wat in die nabygeleë Holstonrivier dryf. Dit is 'n man se liggaam, wat op 'n afskuwelike manier weggedoen word.

Die man se ingewande is uitgeruk. Die holte is vol klippe wat bedoel is om die karkas tot onder te laat sak. Hulle moes ontwyk het, anders sou die man wat bekend staan ​​as Johnson nie sy enigste aanspraak op die nageslag hê nie - as die eerste van wat nog baie meer slagoffers sou word.

Die egpaar, vergesel van 'n groep "vroue" wat al dan nie gewillige medepligtiges was, pleeg meer as 40 moorde (lees genoeg oor die Harpes, en u sal sien dat sekere woorde begin herhaal, insluitend 'onthoofde') "En" ontbloot "). Hulle was ook besig met rivierpiratery.

Uiteindelik is hulle gevange geneem en hul eindes bereik op 'n manier wat by die manier waarop hulle geleef het, pas. 'Big' Harpe is in 1800 gevange geneem, terwyl 'Little' sy einde bereik in 1804, skryf Legends of America. Albei is onthoof en hul koppe is vertoon as afskrikmiddel vir almal wat daaraan gedink het om hul lewenswyse na te volg, sien die Kentucky -padmerker wat die ondergang van Big Harpe hier herdenk.

6) Inessa Tarverdiyeva en gesin

Hierdie kleurvolle Russiese gesin is in September 2013 ingesluit sodat niemand dink dat gesinsmoordgesinne iets van die verre verlede is nie. Volgens 'n asemhaling Daaglikse pos Inessa Tarverdiyeva, die kleuterskoolonderwyser, en haar man, tandarts Roman Podkopayev, was agter '' 'n skrikbewind van ses jaar, waaronder minstens 30 moorde en ontelbare rooftogte '. Onder die dooies: ses polisiemanne en veelvuldige kinders, onder wie Inessa se tienerdogter, wie se oë uitgesteek is.

Die dogter van Tarverdiyeva uit haar eerste huwelik Viktoria Tarverdiyeva (25) en haar 13-jarige dogter Anastasiya het 'aktief aan alle misdade deelgeneem', sê die polisie in die Rostov-streek.

Die Pos wys daarop dat die gesin kampuitstappies sou beplan om dekking te bied vir hul roof en moord. Gemotiveer deur hebsug en 'n oënskynlike haat teenoor die polisie, het hulle jare lank onder die radar gewerk.

Vladimir Markin, hoof van Rusland se ekwivalent van die FBI, het gesê: 'Dit het gelyk soos 'n baie goeie, goeie gesin. Stel jou voor - 'n ma, 'n pa, twee kinders, waaronder 'n minderjarige meisie.

'Ek is seker dat as hulle saam was, 'n mens skaars kon dink dat hulle selfs 'n misdaad kon beplan.'

Deel hierdie storie

Kry ons nuusbrief

BESPREKING

Van waar ek groot geword het in die noord-sentrale Louisiana: http://www.thepineywoods.com/westKimb.htm

Dit is 'n verhaal wat nog nie volledig vertel moet word nie. So onlangs as in die 1990's het ek eerstehands kennis van verbale bedreigings deur die afstammelinge van die West/Kimbrell -stam. Terwyl ek op die nagraadse skool was, het ek gedurende die somer van 1994 'n navorsingsprojek begin met die hoop om 'n proefskrif te skryf oor hierdie onbekende stuk Louisiana -geskiedenis met die hoop om eendag 'n roman of reeks romans te skryf wat die verhaal fiksionaliseer. Terwyl ek vrae gevra het tydens 'n begraafplaaswerkdag, is twee ouere my genader en beveel om die begraafplaas te verlaat of weggegooi te word. Ek het later agtergekom dat een van die twee mans die oupagroot-neef van Lawson Kimbrell was. Drie jaar gelede het ons kontak gemaak met 'n gesin in Detroit wat die direkte afstammelinge is van Pad West of Patch West, 'n eens slaaf van die West Clan, wat, nadat hy na die Burgeroorlog bevry is, gekies het om voort te gaan om sy voormalige meester te dien. 'N Plaaslike legende beweer dat oom Pad die opsigter gesterf het van 'n aansienlike hoeveelheid geplunderte goud en silwer, waarvan niks ooit gevind is nie, wat na bewering êrens in die dennebos naby sy tuiste begrawe is. Hy word begrawe in 'n slawe -begraafplaas langs my familie se eiendom. Verskeie lede van sy uitgebreide familie, wat nog steeds die naam West het, het gekom om hul eie navorsing te doen, en ek word meegedeel met wat ongesproke of subtiele dreigemente kan genoem word, en hulle het iets te sê gekry om goed genoeg alleen te wees. Moeilik om dit voor te stel, maar ongeveer 140 jaar later loop daar nog steeds slegte bloed deur die deel van Louisiana.


Die histories vaag verhaal van Donora se dodelike rookmis

Die uitwerking van die sinkwerke op Webster Hill. Met vergunning van Donora Historical Society

Die inwoners van Donora, Pennsilvanië, het geweet hul fabrieke aan die rivier is lank voor 1948 vuil. Hulle kon weet watter sektor van die Amerikaanse staal- en draadkompleks die grootste deel van die dag se besoedeling veroorsaak deur die lugtint en die oop haard. rooibruin uitlaat, die hoogoond was swart, en die sinkwerke, moontlik die ergste daarvan, het 'n skadelike geel rook afgegee as gevolg van die swaeldioksied waarmee dit vasgemaak is.

Besoedeling was een ding, maar American Steel and Wire -werknemers het nog meer ernstige gevare in die gesig gestaar. Werkers het gereeld op 30 -jarige ouderdom met pensioen gegaan en die vader van die plaaslike historikus, David Lonich, 'n hyskraanoperateur in die sinkwerke, verloor sy reuksin toe 'n ketting hom oor die gesig slaan. 'N Meer algemene toestand was sink jitters, wat behandel is met 'n mengsel van water, ys, melk, hawermout en whisky, die water en ys vir hidrasie, die melk en hawermout om die metaal uit hul liggame af te laat, en volgens Brian Charlton, wat die Donora Historical Society en die Donora Smog Museum bestuur, die whisky sodat hulle eintlik die goed drink.

Hierdie daaglikse besoedeling alleen sou die stad 'n onwaarskynlike episentrum maak vir 'n ontluikende omgewingsbeweging. Maar nadat Donora die plek van 'n mis geword het wat tientalle mense sou doodmaak en duisende meer sou doodmaak, en een van die ergste omgewingsrampe in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, het die naam van die stad 'n erkende afkorting geword vir die gevare van 'n ongereguleerde bedryf en die behoefte aan federale skoon lugwette. Eerstens sou die verhaal van die ramp egter vertel word in 'n moderne oënskynlike heen-en-weer van verkeerde interpretasies en teenverhalings. Die Donora Smog het 'n ideologiese moeras geword van subjektiewe geheue, die beskermende halwe waarhede van insiders, die verdraaiing van buitestaanders, samesweringsteorieë en die verduisterende wettige van die verantwoordelikes, wat almal meeding om die reg om te vertel wat werklik in die mis gebeur het.

Donora in 1910. Library of Congress/ LC-USZ62-131258

Verhale van grusame gevolge van Donora het dekades voor die gebeurtenis teruggegaan. Een storie lui dat in 1919 'n 22-jarige veteraan uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog met die naam Andrew Posey as 'n lepel-kontroleerder op die hoogoond gewerk het toe 60 ton gesmelte yster op hom gegooi is, wat hom binne sekondes verbrand het. American Steel and Wire het 'n gedenkteken op die erf opgerig en vermoedelik die hele metaalblok in die plek van 'n lyk begrawe. Sommige beweer dat die erts tydens die materiaaltekort in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog opgegrawe is. Nie almal in die stad glo hierdie verhaal nie. Die gedenkteken self is nog steeds daar.

Tog onthou baie ouer Donorane die meulens vir die florerende, diverse gemeenskap wat die fabrieke ondersteun het. Dit was 'n vuil stad, sê Charles Stacey, 'n inwoner van Donora, maar dit was 'n welvarende stad. Vallei. By 'n temperatuurinversie dien 'n koue lugfront as 'n kap, wat verhoed dat warm lug en in hierdie geval die uitlaatgasse van die fabrieke styg. Teen die oggend, teen die tyd dat die rookmis gewoonlik afgebrand het, het 'n stilstaande waas van besoedeling deur die sinkwerke steeds die vallei gevul. Straatligte bly die middag aan. Stacey, wat destyds 'n hoërskool was, onthou dat hy ekstra versigtig moes wees om huis toe te stap, want hy kon nie sy voete sien om te bepaal waar die sypaadjie die randsteen word nie.

Lugfoto van Donora en die American Steel and Wire -kompleks, 1941. Met vergunning van Donora Historical Society

Baie Donorane het die volgende paar dae steeds voortgegaan asof die rookmis 'n deel was van die gewone besoedeling van die stad, selfs al het hulle sakdoeke oor hul gesigte gehou en nooddienste het 60-pond suurstoftenks van huis tot huis gedra om te behandel bejaarde inwoners en asmate. “ 'n Baniergeleentheid ten spyte van weer, ” Donora ’s Herald-Amerikaans beweer dat die plaaslike Halloween-parade, direk onder 'n opskrif oor rookmisverwante sterftes, bygevoeg het, en#8220Deelnemers geniet 'n goeie tyd vir baie pryse. ” Donora High's#Dragons 8217's wat rokers styg) verloor 'n sokkerwedstryd met 27-7 teen sy mededinger Monongahela. Charles Stacey sê dat hy nie die omvang van die ramp geweet het nie, totdat hy Walter Winchell se radioprogram aangeskakel het en besef het dat die nasionale gesindikeerde joernalis oor sy stad praat.

Die rookmis het nie vir een dag opgeneem nie, toe twee. Teen Saterdag, toe die begrafnisondernemings vol was, is die kelder van die Donora Hotel as 'n lykshuis in gebruik geneem. Die rookmis het nog steeds nie opgehef nie. Die meule het Sondag uiteindelik sy bedrywighede gestaak, teen die tyd dat reënbuie die omkering gebreek het en die rookmis in elk geval gedwing het om te verdwyn. David Lonich sê dat sy pa die mis beskryf het soos 'n gordyn wat styg en 'n reeks bote wat op die rivier gerugsteun word, onthul en wag om hul vragte by die meulens af te lewer. Amptelik word die sinkwerke vir die volgende twee weke gesluit, maar Lonich sê sy pa was Maandag terug by die werk, wat sou beteken dat die meul minder as 'n dag ledig was. Na raming is 4 000 van die 14 000 inwoners van die stad siek met asemhalingsprobleme, hoofpyn, braking en maagpyn. Die aantal sterftes is steeds in geskil. Hulle het Sondag opgehou tel, ” sê Lonich.

'N Sinkwerker maak 'n lugopening bo die retorte oop. Met vergunning van Donora Historical Society

Die besonderhede van die Donora -voorval is soortgelyk aan 'n paar ongeveer gelyktydige rampe —Liege, België het in die dertigerjare 'n soortgelyke dodelike luginversie gehad, en die Groot Smog van Londen sou meer as 4 000 mense doodmaak en 100 000 meer in die dood in 1952. Maar wat onderskei Donora: dat dit 'n keerpunt in die destydse omgewingsbeweging is, en wat fokus op 'n vreemde paradoksale konflik: hoe vertel jy die verhaal van 'n mis nadat dit opgehef is?

Baie publikasies probeer. Binne 'n week was die geleentheid hoofnuus in nasionale publikasies van Die New York Times aan Lewe, in artikels wat gelei het met gruwelike, viscerale beskrywings van die mis. A Inwoner van New York 'n artikel deur Berton Rouech é vertel van die roete van dr. Ralph Koehler deur 24 uur huisoproepe na pasiënte wat nie kon asemhaal nie, dikwels te laat om hulle te red. 'N Konsensus, gebaseer op alle beskikbare bewyse en gesonde verstand, het vinnig gevorm dat besoedeling die skuld is: 󈬃 Die Here As Result of Killer Smog, en#8221 blaas 'n opskrif van 1 November in Donora's Herald-Amerikaans.

Soos 'n onlangse Quartz -artikel aantoon, was daar destyds geen nasionale wette wat lugbesoedeling reguleer nie, maar Die Pittsburgh Press het Donora al gebruik as 'n voorbeeld van hoe die stad onlangs rookbeheerwette uitgevaardig het, wat die industriële gebruik van brandstowwe wat skoner as bitumineuse steenkool verbrand het, sy waarde verbeter het. sy skuld, om binne 'n paar weke 'n koerantadvertensie uit te haal, hul innige meegevoel met diepe opregtheid aan slagoffers te smokkel, terwyl hulle terselfdertyd die skuld ontken en oplet dat 'n verteenwoordiger van die Amerikaanse Openbare Gesondheidsdiens beweer dat daar geen bewyse is vir & #8220Krimineer enige spesifieke plant of meule in hierdie gebied. ”

'N Verpleegster gee suurstof toe aan 'n rookmisoffer by 'n onbekende noodtoets. Met vergunning van Donora Historical Society

Die meeste Donorane, hul lewensbestaan ​​op die spel en sonder illusies rakende die gevaar van hul werk, het gekies om saam te gaan met die verhaal van U.S. Steel ’. Devra Davis, in Toe rook soos water loop, haal 'n sinkwerker en lid van die Donora Borough Council aan vir 'n jarelange teenstander van die meulbesoedeling deur die nabygeleë Webster, en ek het 'n goeie werk gekry, en ek sal dit behou. Ek gee nie om wat dit doodmaak nie. ” Dave Lonich het gesê dat sy pa 'n grap gemaak het oor die gevare en gesê het dat die sink in sy stelsel die rede was waarom hy nooit verkoue gekry het nie. Dit was moeilike ouens, en hy sê. Hulle het teruggekeer nadat hulle die strand in Normandië binnegestorm het en op 21, 22 jaar oud, die meulens in gegaan om hul gesinne te onderhou. ”

Toe 'n nasionale kommissie vir openbare gesondheidsdiens in 1949 gestig is, het die Herald-Amerikaans berig dat nie een van die 8 000 mense wat middel Desember ondervra is, erken het dat hulle behandel is vir asemhalingsnood nie. Hulle versigtigheid was waarskynlik buitensporig, en die kommissie, gevul met navorsers met bande in die bedryf, het grond- en lugmonsters geneem en in 'n sekere sin probeer om die mis te kwantifiseer, en dan die skuld heeltemal op die inversie van die lug geplaas en die hele gebeurtenis genoem #8220 'n daad van God. ”

Met objektiewe maatreëls in geskil, het teenstrydige weergawes van die erns van rookmis 'n laag onbetroubaarheid bygevoeg tot baie eerste-persoon verslae. Baie verslae oor die voetbalwedstryd beweer dat spelers nie die bal kon sien nie en dat Stanley Sawa van Donora huis toe is genoem omdat sy pa, 'n meulwerker, aan respiratoriese nood gesterf het, maar die boks tellings toon 'n buitengewoon pas-gelukkige spel ( Charles Stacey wys daarop dat die voetbalveld hoog op 'n heuwel, bo die smoglyn geleë was), en verslae toon dat Sawa se pa nie dood is tot 'n paar dae later nie. Die Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph 'n foto van 'n donker Donorastraat gedruk en beweer dat dit die middag geneem is, terwyl Brian Charlton wys op verklarings van die brandweerman wat die foto geneem het, wat gesê het dit is 7 of 8 in die nag. En baie Donorane het die nasionale reaksie as oorvol of vernederend beskou. Voeg 'n uitroepteken en opskrifte oor die rookmis begin lees soos 'n kopie van 'n B-filmplakkaat, met 'n “ Killer Smog, ” “Death Over Donora, ” en 'n “Scene of Desolation. ” At ten minste een hoedemaker het begin met die vervaardiging van smogmaskers van die ontwerpersfabriek. ” Die National Enquirer beweer 13 000 mense is dood.

'N Smog-slagoffer herstel in 'n suurstoftent in die Charleroi-Monessen-hospitaal. Met vergunning van Donora Historical Society

Uiteindelik het die rookmis nooit 'n direkte uitwerking op die uiteinde van die Amerikaanse staal gehad nie, afgesien van 'n groepsgeding wat $ 250,000 beloop, sonder erkenning van verantwoordelikheid vir die mis of die sterftes as gevolg daarvan. Wat Donora betref, vir al sy burgers se pogings om die sinkwerke oop te hou, het dit in 1957 gesluit. Die res van die meulens het kort daarna gesluit. Sommige van die ou geboue is hergebruik (miskien is dit die beste een van die stasies vir openbare busse in Mid Mon Valley Transit Authority wat op saamgeperste aardgas ry), maar die meeste daarvan is weg.

Onlangse sensusgetalle stel die bevolking van Donora op ongeveer 5000 mense, ongeveer 'n derde van wat dit was ten tyde van die rookmis. 'N Teken in die Smog Museum volg die afstammeling van die Wet op Skoonlug van 1970, die sterkste (en tans bedreigde) federale lugbesoedelingsregulasie wat ooit in werking getree het, terug na die 1955 Wet op die Besoedeling van Lugbesoedeling, wat in reaksie op die Donora Smog aanvaar is. Dit lees, met ewe veel trots en ironie, “Clean Air Started Here. ”

Donora vandag. Liam Baranauskas

Hierdie ligte oordrywing is geskik vir 'n gebeurtenis waarin gedrukte ongevalle -talle wissel van so laag as 11 sterftes tot soveel as 60. Die Donora Historical Society gebruik 'n totaal van 27, met die voorbehoud dat daar geen manier is om te weet hoe sterftes as gevolg van langdurige respiratoriese siektes oor die jare kan aan die rookmis gekoppel word. Maar tragedies gaan oor meer as bloot die kwantifisering van sterftes, en hierdie een, gesentreer op 'n wolk, daardie argetipiese simbool van kortstondigheid, miskien meer as die meeste. Many of the originally reported inaccuracies—the invisible football game, for example, or the day-for-night photo—are still repeated, as time solidifies the “print the legend” version of history.

As horrific as the facts were, it may have been those legends, from Berton Roueché’s evocative prose to the sensationalistic journalism of less reputable outlets, that captured imaginations and spurred legislative action. As ever, stories reflect the world the teller wants to see. To that point, David Lonich said that some older Donora residents, perhaps trying to salvage the town’s past reputation for prosperity, to this day consider the smog a non-event, or even a conspiracy akin to “the man on the moon.” Smog deniers claim that the weather that week was basically the same as usual, and that the deaths were nothing but a statistical blip, a mere coincidence.


Inhoud

As the killer's epithet implies, the victims usually were attacked with an axe, which often belonged to the victims themselves. [2] In most cases, a panel on a back door of a home was removed by a chisel, which along with the panel was left on the floor near the door. The intruder then attacked one or more of the residents with either an axe or straight razor. The crimes were not motivated by robbery, and the perpetrator never removed items from his victims' homes. [3]

The majority of the Axeman's victims were Italian immigrants or Italian-Americans, leading many to believe that the crimes were ethnically motivated. Many media outlets sensationalized this aspect of the crimes, even suggesting Mafia involvement despite lack of evidence. Some crime analysts have suggested that the killings were related to sex, and that the murderer was perhaps a sadist specifically seeking female victims. Criminologists Colin and Damon Wilson hypothesize that the Axeman killed male victims only when they obstructed his attempts to murder women, supported by cases in which the woman of the household was murdered but not the man. A less plausible theory is that the killer committed the murders in an attempt to promote jazz music, suggested by a letter attributed to the killer in which he stated that he would spare the lives of those who played jazz in their homes. [4]

The Axeman was not caught or identified, and his crime spree stopped as mysteriously as it had started. The murderer's identity remains unknown to this day, although various possible identifications of varying plausibility have been proposed. On March 13, 1919, a letter purporting to be from the Axeman was published in newspapers, saying that he would kill again at 15 minutes past midnight on the night of March 19 but would spare the occupants of any place where a jazz band was playing. That night all of New Orleans' dance halls were filled to capacity, and professional and amateur bands played jazz at parties at hundreds of houses around town. There were no murders that night. [5]

The Axeman's letter Edit

Hottest Hell, March 13, 1919

Esteemed Mortal of New Orleans: The Axeman

They have never caught me and they never will. They have never seen me, for I am invisible, even as the ether that surrounds your earth. I am not a human being, but a spirit and a demon from the hottest hell. I am what you Orleanians and your foolish police call the Axeman.

When I see fit, I shall come and claim other victims. I alone know whom they shall be. I shall leave no clue except my bloody axe, besmeared with blood and brains of he whom I have sent below to keep me company.

If you wish you may tell the police to be careful not to rile me. Of course, I am a reasonable spirit. I take no offense at the way they have conducted their investigations in the past. In fact, they have been so utterly stupid as to not only amuse me, but His Satanic Majesty, Francis Josef, etc. But tell them to beware. Let them not try to discover what I am, for it were better that they were never born than to incur the wrath of the Axeman. I don't think there is any need of such a warning, for I feel sure the police will always dodge me, as they have in the past. They are wise and know how to keep away from all harm.

Undoubtedly, you Orleanians think of me as a most horrible murderer, which I am, but I could be much worse if I wanted to. If I wished, I could pay a visit to your city every night. At will I could slay thousands of your best citizens (and the worst), for I am in close relationship with the Angel of Death.

Now, to be exact, at 12:15 (earthly time) on next Tuesday night, I am going to pass over New Orleans. In my infinite mercy, I am going to make a little proposition to you people. Here it is: I am very fond of jazz music, and I swear by all the devils in the nether regions that every person shall be spared in whose home a jazz band is in full swing at the time I have just mentioned. If everyone has a jazz band going, well, then, so much the better for you people. One thing is certain and that is that some of your people who do not jazz it out on that specific Tuesday night (if there be any) will get the axe.

Well, as I am cold and crave the warmth of my native Tartarus, and it is about time I leave your earthly home, I will cease my discourse. Hoping that thou wilt publish this, that it may go well with thee, I have been, am and will be the worst spirit that ever existed either in fact or realm of fancy.

--The Axeman [6]

Crime writer Colin Wilson speculates the Axeman could have been Joseph Momfre, a man shot to death in Los Angeles in December 1920 by the widow of Mike Pepitone, the Axeman's last known victim. Wilson's theory has been widely repeated in other true crime books and websites. However, true crime writer Michael Newton searched New Orleans and Los Angeles public, police and court records as well as newspaper archives, and failed to find any evidence of a man with the name "Joseph Momfre" (or a similar name) having been assaulted or killed in Los Angeles. [7]

Newton was also not able to find any information that Mrs. Pepitone (identified in some sources as Esther Albano, and in others simply as a "woman who claimed to be Pepitone's widow") was arrested, tried or convicted for such a crime, or indeed had been in California. Newton notes that "Momfre" was not an unusual surname in New Orleans at the time of the crimes. It appears that there actually may have been an individual named Joseph Momfre or Mumfre in New Orleans who had a criminal history, and who may have been connected with organized crime however, local records for the period are not extensive enough to allow confirmation of this, or to positively identify the individual. Wilson's explanation is an urban legend, and there is no more evidence now on the identity of the killer than there was at the time of the crimes. [7]

Two of the alleged "early" victims of the Axeman, an Italian couple named Schiambra, were shot by an intruder in their Lower Ninth Ward home in the early morning hours of May 16, 1912. The male Schiambra survived while his wife died. In newspaper accounts, the prime suspect is referred to by the name of "Momfre" more than once. While radically different than the Axeman's usual modus operandi, if Joseph Momfre was indeed the Axeman, the Schiambras may well have been early victims of the future serial killer. [4]

According to scholar Richard Warner, [8] the chief suspect in the crimes was Frank "Doc" Mumphrey (1875–1921), who used the alias Leon Joseph Monfre/Manfre.


The stock market before the 1929 crash

Black Tuesday hits Wall Street as investors trade 16,, shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day.

Brief History of The Crash of - TIME

Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors, and stock tickers ran hours behind because the machinery could not handle the tremendous volume of trading. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression.

During the s, the U. By then, production had already declined and unemployment had risen, leaving stocks in great excess of their real value. Among the other causes of the eventual market collapse were low wages, the proliferation of debt, a weak agriculture, and an excess of large bank loans that could not be liquidated. Stock prices began to decline in September and early October , and on October 18 the fall began.

Panic set in, and on October 24—Black Thursday—a record 12,, shares were traded. Investment companies and leading bankers attempted to stabilize the market by buying up great blocks of stock, producing a moderate rally on Friday. On Monday, however, the storm broke anew, and the market went into free fall. Black Monday was followed by Black Tuesday, in which stock prices collapsed completely.

After October 29, , stock prices had nowhere to go but up, so there was considerable recovery during succeeding weeks. Overall, however, prices continued to drop as the United States slumped into the Great Depression, and by stocks were worth only about 20 percent of their value in the summer of The stock market crash of was not the sole cause of the Great Depression, but it did act to accelerate the global economic collapse of which it was also a symptom.

It would take World War II , and the massive level of armaments production taken on by the United States, to finally bring the country out of the Depression after a decade of suffering. Nearly four decades after he became the first American to orbit the Earth, Senator John Hershel Glenn, Jr. At 77 years of age, Glenn was the oldest human ever to travel in space.

Wall Street Crash of - Wikipedia

John Hancock resigns his position as president of the Continental Congress, due to a prolonged illness, on this day in Hancock was the first member of the Continental Congress to sign the Declaration of Independence and is perhaps best known for his bold signature on the ground-breaking document.

Duane Allman, a slide guitarist and the leader of the Allman Brothers Band, is killed on this day in when he loses control of his motorcycle and drives into the side of a flatbed truck in Macon, Georgia.

He was 24 years old. Although the Confederates still held the high ground above Israeli armed forces push into Egypt toward the Suez Canal, initiating the Suez Crisis.

They would soon be joined by French and British forces, creating a serious Cold War problem in the Middle East. The catalyst for the joint Israeli-British-French attack on Egypt was the nationalization of the Suez Canal On this day in , Dominick Dunne, a best-selling author, journalist and TV personality who often covered high-profile murder cases, is born in Hartford, Connecticut.

Dunne, whose father was a heart surgeon, was the second of six children. He served in the Army during World War II, and received a Bronze Killer smog continues to hover over Donora, Pennsylvania, on this day in Over a five-day period, the smog killed about 20 people and made thousands more seriously ill. Donora was a town of 14, people on the Monongahela River in a valley surrounded by hills.

The town was home to Sir Walter Raleigh, English adventurer, writer, and favorite courtier of Queen Elizabeth I, is beheaded in London, under a sentence brought against him 15 years earlier for conspiracy against King James I.

On this day in , the actor Richard Dreyfuss, who will rise to fame in Hollywood in the s with starring roles in such movies as American Graffiti, Jaws, Close Encounters of the Third Kind and The Goodbye Girl, is born in Brooklyn, New York. Dreyfuss, who registered as a conscientious James Boswell is born on this day in Edinburgh to an ancient Scottish family. His father was a judge, the Lord of Auchinleck, and Boswell was heir to the title and a large fortune.

He studied at the University of Edinburgh but ran away to London and was brought back To this day, no one can say with absolute certainty who the leader of? Question Mark and the Mysterians really is. Is he—as literalists would have us believe—the former Rudy Martinez, a Mexican-born and Michigan-raised earthling who legally changed his name to a punctuation mark?

Or is he truly the On this day in , the first store opens in a small frontier town in Colorado Territory that a month later will take the name of Denver in a shameless ploy to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Gover nor James W. The brainchild of a town promoter and Czolgosz had shot McKinley on September 6, the president succumbed to his wounds eight days later.

McKinley was shaking hands in a long reception line at the On October 29, , featherweight boxers Sandy Saddler and Willie Pep meet for the first time in the ring at Madison Square Garden. Saddler, a strong puncher, knocked out the diminutive Pep in the fourth round. The two fought four times in all—Saddler won three—and the matchups were increasingly bitter Seale and his seven fellow defendants David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, and John Froines had been charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to cause a The total number of U.

This was a result of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the June Midway Conference.

On October 29, , Jane Addams, a leading American social activist, writes to United States President Woodrow Wilson, warning him of the potential dangers of readying the country to enter the First World War. When World War I broke out in the summer of , President Wilson accurately reflected the isolationist On this day in , leading British clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register their outrage over the persecution of Jews by Nazi Germany.

In a message sent to the meeting, Prime Minister Winston Churchill summed up the sentiments of all present: Oct 29 View Calendar. This Day in HIstory: You can opt out at any time.

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Stock Market Crash of October - Social Welfare History Project

Dominick Dunne, chronicler of high-profile crimes, is born. Killer smog claims elderly victims. Sir Walter Raleigh executed. The first store opens in the frontier town of Denver, Colorado. McKinley assassin is executed. Sandy Saddler beats Willie Pep for the first time.

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The True HP of the 10 Most Powerful Classic Era Muscle Cars

No longer rumor, it’s been established that 60s Muscle Car HP was under-rated. We explain how and why and how much horsepower these motors actually produced.

There have been two reasons given for the motivation of the factory to under-report the horsepower of their muscle cars: insurance and NHRA classifications.

Certainly insurers were getting nervous when they started to see cars being introduced, starting with the Pontiac Tempest GTO, with high horsepower in a relatively small car. And as all insurance is based on risk, the insurance companies apportioned higher premiums on these big horsepower cars. To what degree the insurance companies saw through this rouse is unknown. The under-rating rumors were all over the car magazines at the time, and insurance companies aren’t dumb, so in the end it may not have made much difference.

The other reason is much more tangible. The NHRA placed new cars into Stock categories based on weight and stated horsepower. And in the 1960s, drag racing was as important to car sales as NASCAR is today. At that time, Indy was a one-time a year event, ther other events not receiving much coverage, and NASCAR was a regional series in the Southeastern US. Drag racing was where it was at – just a quick survey of music (409, Little Deuce Coupe, Little Old Lady from Pasadena, etc.) and TV shows – Grandpa Munster had a dragster and a drag-style custom car even appeared on Star Trek. As just a wild guess, it was probably 75% NHRA, 25% insurance as motivation for under-rating an engine.

So did the carmakers just lie? Not, probably not. One of the easiest ways to underrate an engine is to specific a maximum RPM below peak horsepower. As you’ll see in the analysis below, several of the most powerful engines had horsepower ratings published at an engine speed below maximum.

The other way to do was was via the testing process itself. If you’re not familiar with the old style of Gross engine power ratings, the engines were measured on a dynamometer in what could be described as full-race trim. Intake air temperature, density, and volume were all controlled to provide maximum power, no restrictive air cleaner was required, carburetor and ignition were adjusted with watchmaker precision, and an open exhaust was used. Not really a good replication of the conditions in which the consumer will drive, which brought about the change to NET ratings in the early 1970s.

So, if you want to have your engine produce less horsepower than its capable of, you need only adjust one or two of the variables mentioned about and there’s an instant drop of horsepower.

That said, we’re relying here on the excellent research of author and automotive historian Roger Huntington who researched these classic muscle engines to determine, scientifically rather than hearsay and rumor, as to whether these monster motors were underrated, and if so by how much. By taking samples from many different areas – dyno tests of exact rebuilds of classic motors, drag race results, 0-60 times, and other test results and developed an algorithm by which he could compare claims to reality. For all his hard work, we thank him (and if you’re interested in this stuff, check out his books).

Scroll down to view the top 10 horsepower makers from the Classic Muscle Car era:

Number Ten: Chevrolet Chevelle SS 396

Huntington’s analysis identified the Chevrolet L-78 big block as installed in the Chevelle 396 SS as being under-reported by 25 hp, 375 hp at 5600 rpm in the sale literature versus 400 hp at 5600 rpm in his evaluations.

Number Nine: Mustang 428 Cobra-Jet

Here’s the most underrated engine in the group. Ford claim 335 hp at 5200 rpm for the 428 Cobra Jet versus Huntington’s analysis which determined output closer to 410 hp at 5600 rpm. Note the difference in engine speed between the two specs. Another clue this engine was underrated was the smaller 390 V8 with a four-barrel carb was also rated at 335 HP.

Number Eight: Dodge & Plymouth 440 Magnum

It appears that Chrysler engineers may have used the trick of underrating this engine by using a lower maximum speed. The result here is that the 440 Magnum was tested only to 4600 rpm, which produced 375 HP. When Huntington’s research found the engine to produce power reliability to 5400 rpm, he revised maximum power to 410 horsepower.

Number Seven: Pontiac Ram Air 400

The big Pontiac Ram Air 400 was also a victim of underrating, advertised at 366 HP at 5100 when in fact maximum power is 410hp @5600.

Number Six: Buick GSX 455 Stage 1

The Buick GSX 455 Stage 1 has recently been recognized as one of the great muscle car engines of the 1960s and early 1970s and is enjoying a revival of sorts. Back in the day, despite strong dragstrip performances, it was overlooked because of its lowish published horsepower of 360 hp at 5000 rpm. In reality the big Buick produced 420 hp at 5400 rpm, according to Huntington, explaining the difference between sales brochure perception and drag strip reality.

Number Five: Ford Mustang Boss 429

The Ford Mustang Boss 429 is considered by many to be the ultimate Muscle Car of the classic era, not just because of its engine output, but also its brakes and handling, was sold to the public as producing 375 hp at 5200 rpm while in fact the 429 produced closer to 420 hp at 5600 rpm.

Number Four: Dodge 440 Six-Pack

The formula was the 440 Six-Pack was simple, take a Chrysler big block, and top it was three two barrel carburetors with a total capacity of 1200 CFM. The beauty for enthusiasts was all this performance was available at a price of about 50% of the Hemi engine. At the time Chrysler told the public the motor was making 390 hp at 4700 rpm while in reality its actual capability was 430 hp at 5600 rpm.

Number Three: Oldsmobile 455 W-30

Who would have figured that out of the three B-O-P (Buick-Olsmobile-Pontiac) group that it would be mostly overlooked Oldsmobile who would have the most powerful engine of the group. While all three brands had 455 engines, there were literally completely different motors – no parts interchange except for some tiny parts and those were most likely by chance). At the time Olds told the public the 455 W-30 produced just 370 hp @ 5300 rpm, in reality the output at 5600 rpm was closer to 440 horsepower.

Number Two: Dodge and Plymouth 426 Hemi

The Elephant Motor that Chrysler created for NASCAR racing that it was forced to sell to the public to remain eligible for competition became a legend on street and the strip. The Hemi engines powered Top Fuel and Funny Car dragsters, and even today, where there are ZERO Chrysler parts in these top-level NHRA motor, the architecture remains that of the 426 Hemi. The Hemi breathed extremely well, so more horsepower was easily gained with increasing engine speed. The spec sheet from Chrysler said 425 hp @ 5000 rpm but in reality the power keeps producing reliable power to 6000 rpm where the output is a whopping 470 horsepower.

Number One: Chevrolet Corvette 427 L-88

You probably saw this one coming. The L88 Corvette was really developed for racing use and even came delivered with a warning sticker on the center console that emphasized only racing fuel was adequate for the large valves and radical timing. The L88 became the ultimate example of the iron big-block: Can-Am spec aluminum heads with massive valves, a hardened crankshaft, 12.5:1 pistons, solid lifters, cold air induction, and an 850 CFM dual feed Holley carburetor (without a choke!).

Chevrolet most definitely wanted to keep the L88 out of the hands of street drivers and on the race track, so power was rated at just 430 hp @ 5200 rpm. Huntington calculated 480 hp at 6400 rpm, however when compared to the equivalent modern version of the ZL1, the Chevy ZZ427 crate motor produces 480 hp with a lower 10.1:1 compression ratio and pump gas. Based on that comparison, I’m going to suggest that Huntington’s numbers for the ZL-1 are too conservative and it actually produced something over 500 horsepower.


Suspected Serial Killer Allegedly Exploited His Senior Caregiver Job To Target Elderly Victims

Ever since Billy Kipkorir Chemirmir was allegedly caught trying to kill a 91-year-old, police have been linking him to deaths previously thought to be related to natural causes.

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A suspected Texan serial killer, who has now officially been charged with the murder of seven elderly women and is expected to be charged with 12, is accused of targeting the victims by posing as a maintenance worker.

Billy Kipkorir Chemirmir was first eyed as a possible attacker last March when he was accused of trying to smother a 91-year-old woman to death, The Star-Telegram in Fort Worth reported. But before police could even arrest him in connection with that alleged incident, “they observed him walk to a dumpster and toss unknown items in the dumpster. [. ] In the dumpster officers found a jewelry box containing jewelry and a name. Officers were able to associate the name found in the jewelry box to an address in the city of Dallas,” according to a press release posted on the Dallas Police Department’s website.

That jewelry box led them to the body of an entirely different woman than the 91-year-old Chemirmir was accused of trying to kill: Lu Thi Harris, 81. She had been murdered, according to police.

Chemirmir was charged with Harris’ murder last year.

After his 2018 arrest, police announced that they would start combing through 750 unattended deaths of elderly women in four North Texas cities to see if Chemirmir can possibly be linked to any of them, according to The Star-Telegram.

Authorities linked him to six more cases. This week Chemirmir was indicted on capital murder charges for the deaths of Norma French, Phoebe Perry, Phyllis Payne, Rosemary Curtis, Mary Brooks and Doris Gleason, KXAS-TV in Fort Worth reports. All the women died in 2016 and 2018 and like Harris, Chemirmir is accused of killing them to take their jewelry or money. He’s accused of killing them through smothering or strangling and gaining access to them by posing as both a maintenance man and by exploiting his former senior aide job.

“Suspect Chemirmir has worked as a healthcare worker and has a history of impersonating maintenance personnel at a retirement community in Dallas,” Plano Chief of Police Gregory Rushin said a press conference held last March. “Chemirmir uses his healthcare experience to his advantage in targeting and exploiting seniors.”

It's not clear where Chemirmir worked as a healthcare worker.

Initially, the victims are believed to have died of natural causes. Investigators allegedly found jewelry, cell phones and other victims’ belongings in Chemirmir’s apartment when it was searched last year, WFAA in Dallas reports.

There may be more victims too. Police reportedly anticipate five additional capital murder charges on top of the other seven, KXAS-TV reports. If charged with the additional anticipated charges, that would up Chemirmir’s alleged body count up to 12.

Chemirmir’s bail is now set at more than $9 million. It’s not clear if he has a lawyer who can speak on his behalf at this time.


3 Aileen Wuornos

Aileen Wuornos gets a fair bit more sympathy than even she believes she deserves. Wuornos, who murdered seven men, is perhaps best known as the subject of the movie Monster, in which Charlize Theron portrayed her as a woman plagued by her own hard life and mental illness.

Wuornos herself, though, insists that she is not insane. &ldquoI&rsquom one who seriously hates human life and would kill again,&rdquo she wrote in a letter to the Florida Supreme Court. She pleaded no contest in the court case, offering no defense for herself except to claim that her first victim had violently raped her. She ended her tirade by turning on the Assistant State Attorney and yelling, &ldquoI hope your wife and children get raped in the ass!&rdquo

Before her execution, she went into a mad, rambling rant that was caught on film. &ldquoI killed those men, robbed them as cold as ice. And I&rsquod do it again, too,&rdquo she said. &ldquoThere&rsquos no chance in keeping me alive or anything, because I&rsquod kill again. I have hate crawling through my system.&rdquo


The untold story of how the Golden State Killer was found: A covert operation and private DNA

The dramatic arrest in 2018 of Joseph James DeAngelo Jr. was all the more astounding because of how detectives said they caught the elusive Golden State Killer — by harnessing genetic technology already in use by millions of consumers to trace their family trees.

But the DNA-matching effort that caught one of America’s most notorious serial killers was more extensive than previously disclosed and involved covert searches of private DNA housed by two for-profit companies despite privacy policies, according to interviews and court discovery records accessed by The Times.

The revelations are likely to heighten debate about genetic privacy and the self-policing models of testing companies, as well as law enforcement access.

The original version of events omitted not only the involvement of private databases but also the access to sensitive information the companies had told users law enforcement could see only if “required” or presented with a “lawful request.”

One prosecutor described the public understanding of DeAngelo’s arrest as a “false impression,” according to a letter the prosecutor wrote to the FBI.

Investigators and prosecutors said the investigation relied on genetic information people voluntarily made public, though with little reason to suspect it might incriminate members of their families in crimes. The actual investigation was broader and more invasive, conducted without a warrant, and appeared to violate the privacy policy of at least one DNA company.

Listen to the latest episode to find out what really happened in the interrogation room.

When DeAngelo was arrested, prosecutors would say only that they had used family tree searches to find relatives of the killer and, from there, identified DeAngelo. Shortly after, a detective confirmed the investigative team had uploaded semen from a rape kit to develop a fresh DNA profile that was then uploaded to GEDmatch, an open-source platform frequently used by members of the public to trace their heritage.

What prosecutors did not disclose is that genetic material from the rape kit was first sent to FamilyTreeDNA, which created a DNA profile and allowed law enforcement to set up a fake account to search for matching customers. When that produced only distant leads, a civilian geneticist working with investigators uploaded the forensic profile to MyHeritage. It was the MyHeritage search that identified the close relative who helped break the case.

Both companies denied involvement at the time.

But in late 2019, FamilyTreeDNA’s chief executive acknowledged giving the FBI access in 2017 without knowing the case being investigated. He said he did not believe it violated the company’s terms of service, which warned that it “may be required” to release personal information in response to a “lawful request by public authorities.”

Those terms were later changed to alert customers that law enforcement had access to the database.

MyHeritage’s privacy policy at the time stated that personal information “would only be released if required by law.” A corporate executive said the policy “did not explicitly” address such unprecedented police access. “It is possible that the civilian geneticist thought she was not violating our terms of service,” said Aaron Godfrey, vice president of marketing.

Nevertheless, the search was not sanctioned, and MyHeritage has since revised its policies to make it clear that “such investigations are prohibited,” Godfrey said.

Not disclosing that private consumer data were used in the investigation “perpetuates a fraudulent impression of all the methods implemented to identify Joseph DeAngelo,” Cheryl Temple, chief assistant district attorney for Ventura County, wrote in a January 2019 letter to the FBI. Even DeAngelo’s defense lawyers stood to be kept in the dark about how he was identified, she wrote.

In an interview last week, Temple said she was confident that the case against DeAngelo — who pleaded guilty to 26 counts of murder and kidnapping and admitted to violent crimes against 61 other people — was handled ethically and properly. The issue she raised with the FBI dealt instead with the need for transparency heading into trial.

“I have no concern whatsoever about the legality of anything that was done in the case,” Temple said. “I don’t think anybody has any question whatsoever about how the case was solved.”

Even before these new revelations, the use of consumer databases to catch this serial killer sparked ethical debates as it unleashed a wave of efforts by other cold-case teams across the U.S. to use similar means to identify violent criminals. As a result, most major consumer genealogical database companies created barriers against law enforcement access, the U.S. Justice Department adopted interim restrictions for the use of such databases, and Maryland considered legislation to limit law enforcement’s use of them.

DeAngelo, 75, pleaded guilty before going to trial. He is serving 26 life sentences in a California prison. And the legality of investigative genealogy, still relatively new, has not faced serious legal challenges. It is perceived in law enforcement circles as a vital tool for solving even current crimes, but regulations and legislation have not yet caught up.

In most DNA-derived cases going to trial, prosecutors contend that the databases police use are like street informants whose identity can remain hidden. Meanwhile, some companies, such as Ancestry.com, say they have successfully fought efforts by law enforcement to obtain court orders to access their databases.

But FamilyTreeDNA says it will work with law enforcement if an investigation involves a violent crime, denying access to data only if a private subscriber to its database has specifically opted out.

Some legal and privacy experts are concerned that the race to use genealogical databases will have serious consequences, including eroding privacy protections and broadening police power. There have also been instances of the wrong people being arrested and taken to jail — including a twin in California. In Texas, police met GEDmatch’s new search guidelines by classifying a case as a sexual assault but filed only burglary charges after an arrest.

The technology has also led to the conviction of other violent criminals, including the NorCal Rapist, who sexually assaulted more than 10 women in the 1990s.

Those involved in the DeAngelo investigation said the use of the databases was invaluable. They argued against the need for oversight, such as a warrant or subpoena.

The use of family genes in the DeAngelo case was begun by an investigator working with DNA fragments left from a subset of his crimes, the rapes in Northern California.

Paul Holes was chief of forensics for the district attorney’s office in Contra Costa County, one of half a dozen Northern California counties where the East Area Rapist struck from 1976 to 1979, assaulting nearly 50 women and girls. In 2017, Holes used DNA from one of the few surviving rape kits to develop a Y-chromosome profile, found a partial match on a free website called Ysearch.org, and with the FBI obtained a federal grand jury subpoena to require Ysearch’s parent company, Gene by Gene, which also owns FamilyTreeDNA, to release information on that account holder.

The search led Holes and agents from Orange County to an elderly man in a nursing home in Oregon, but he turned out to be an exceedingly distant relation — with no shared ancestor for 900 years. After that, Holes said, federal agents in Northern California lost interest, and funding for more DNA ventures dried up. But an FBI lawyer in Los Angeles was “all in.”

“He said, ‘Paul, I believe in the DNA, and that the DNA is going to solve this case,’” Holes said.


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