Uitvinding van die motor

Uitvinding van die motor


Hidrouliese skokbrekers

M. Houdaille van Frankryk kry krediet vir die ontwerp van die eerste werkbare hidrouliese skokbreker in 1908. Hidrouliese skokke klam veer ossillasies deur vloeistof deur klein gange te dwing. In die gewilde buisvormige skok word 'n suier met klein openinge aan die onderstel vasgemaak en 'n silindriese oliereservoir aan die ophanging of as vasgemaak. Terwyl die vering op en af ​​beweeg, word die suier deur die olie gedwing, wat die werking van die veer weerstaan.

Met eenrigtingkleppe kan verskillende openinge gebruik word om die op- en terugslag van die ophanging te beheer. Dit word 'n dubbelwerkende skok genoem. Die nuutste rimpel is om 'n kamer van saamdrukbare gas aan die een kant van die vloeistofreservoir by te voeg om die dempingswerking te demp.

Monroe het die eerste oorspronklike toerusting hidrouliese skokke vir Hudson in 1933 gebou. Teen die laat dertigerjare het die dubbelwerkende buisvormige skokbreker algemeen voorgekom op motors wat in die Verenigde State vervaardig is. In Europa heers hidrouliese skokke in die 60's. Hulle het soos die wrywingsskok van Hartford gelyk, maar gebruik hidroliese vloeistof in plaas van 'n wrywingskussing.


Motorgeskiedenis - Top 10 interessante feite

Motors bestaan ​​al sedert 1769, toe die eerste motors met stoom -enjins vervaardig is. In 1807 het Francois Isaac de Rivaz die eerste motor ontwerp wat aangedryf is deur 'n binnebrandenjin wat op brandstofgas werk. Die reis van moderne motors het in 1886 begin toe die Duitse uitvinder Karl Benz 'n motor geskep het met draadwiele met 'n vierslag-enjin tussen die agterwiele. Dit was die eerste motor wat sy eie krag genereer het, 'Benz Patent Motorwagen' genoem, en dit is die rede waarom Karl Benz sy patent gekry het en die uitvinder van moderne motors genoem word.

Ons het dus tien dinge op die kortlys geplaas wat u waarskynlik nie van die geskiedenis van motors geweet het nie.

1. Adolf Hitler het Ferdinand Porsche beveel om 'n Volkswagen te vervaardig, wat letterlik 'People's Car' in Duits beteken. Hierdie motor het die Volkswagen Beetle geword.

Wat ook interessant is om te weet, is dat 'n oorlewende skets uit die dertigerjare - wat na bewering deur Hitler self vasgemaak is - soortgelyk lyk aan die produksieweergawe van die eerste Kewer. Daar word gesê dat die tekening aan Daimler-Benz gegee is voordat dit aan Porsche in Neurenberg gegee is.

2. In 1971 stel die kabinet van premier Indira Gandhi voor om 'n 'People's Car' vir Indië te vervaardig, waarvan die kontrak aan Sanjay Gandhi gegee is. Voordat hy met Suzuki kontak gemaak het, het Sanjay Gandhi samesprekings met Volkswagen AG gevoer vir 'n moontlike gesamentlike onderneming, insluitend die oordrag van tegnologie en gesamentlike produksie van die Indiese weergawe van die 'People's car', wat ook 'n weerspieëling van Volkswagen se wêreldwye sukses met die Kewer sou wees.

Dit was egter Suzuki wat die finale kontrak gewen het, aangesien dit vinniger was om 'n uitvoerbare ontwerp te bied. Die motor wat hieruit voortvloei, was gebaseer op Suzuki se model 796 en het die motorgeskiedenis in Indië herskryf as die Maruti 800.

3. Rolls-Royce Ltd. was in wese 'n motor- en vliegtuigmotoronderneming wat in 1906 gestig is deur Charles Stewart Rolls en Frederick Henry Royce.

Dieselfde jaar het Rolls-Royce sy eerste motor, die Silver Ghost, bekendgestel. In 1907 het die motor tydens die Skotse betroubaarheidsproewe 'n rekord opgestel van 24 000 kilometer.

4. Die duurste motor wat nog ooit op 'n openbare veiling verkoop is, was 'n 1954-Mercedes-Benz W196R Formule 1-renmotor, wat in Julie 2013 'n ongelooflike $ 30 miljoen op Bonhams beloop het. Kalifornië op 'n veiling vir $ 16,4 miljoen.

5. As 'n jong man het Henry Ford horlosies vir sy vriende en familie herstel met gereedskap wat hy self gemaak het. Hy gebruik 'n korsetstang as 'n pincet en 'n gordelroosspyker as 'n skroewedraaier.

6. In die jaar 1916 was 55 persent van die motors ter wêreld Model T Ford, wat steeds 'n ononderbroke rekord is.

7. Volkswagen het verskeie van sy motors na wind genoem. Passat - 'n Duitse woord vir passaatwinde Golf - Golfstroom Polo - poolwinde Jetta - straalstroom.

8. Die Britse luukse motormerk Aston Martin se naam kom van een van die stigters Lionel Martin wat vroeër op Aston Hill naby Aston Clinton gejaag het.

Die maatskappy was van 1994 tot 2007 in besit van Ford Motor Company. Ford besit egter steeds aandele in die maatskappy.

9. Die eerste padwaardige motors het 'n hefboom in plaas van 'n stuurwiel gebruik om te stuur. Dit het 'n ontwerp en funksionering soos 'n vreugde -stok.

10. Die Jamaikaanse reggae-sanger-liedjieskrywer en kitaarspeler, Bob Marley het 'n BMW besit, nie vir aansien nie, maar as gevolg van die toeval van voorletters vir Bob Marley en die Wailers.


Werke aangehaal

  • Elliot, Sam. Die brullende 1920's: die uitwerking van die motor op die Amerikaanse lewe. ” verwante inhoud. 6 Desember 2006 1-2. 11 Maart 2008. & lthttp: //www.associatedcontent.com/article/94668/the_roaring_1920s_the_effects_of_the.html>.
  • Hess, Kenneth. 𠇍ie groei van motorvervoer. ” 9 Junie 1996. 11 Maart 2008 & lthttp: //www.klhess.com/car_essy.html>.
  • Kruger, Anna. “Transport, Communications, and Industry. ” Visual Encyclopedia.1 st ed. 1995.
  • "Politiek en samelewing." Die motorbedryf. Lente 2007. BMW. 3 Apr 2008 & lthttp: //www.duke.edu/web/soc142/team1/political_social.html>.
  • Sinha, Rajiv. "Motorbesoedeling in Indië en die menslike impak daarvan." SpringerLink. 31 Julie 2003. 3 Apr 2008
  • 𠇊 Anonieme onderhoud 1. ” Motoronderhoude (2008).
  • "Anonieme onderhoud 2." Motoronderhoude (2008).
  • 𠇊 Anonieme onderhoud 3. ” Motoronderhoude (2008).
  • "Die feite om Amerika op te knap." Die Amerikaanse departement van vervoer. Maart 2003. Amerikaanse departement van vervoer. 3 April 2008
  • Jong, William. Die 1930's. 1ste, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

    Motors is 'n noodsaaklike euwel, hoewel dit die lewe makliker en makliker gemaak het, maar dit het ook die mens se lewe ingewikkelder en kwesbaarder gemaak vir giftige uitstoot en 'n groter risiko.

Hierdie inhoud is volgens die beste kennis van die outeur akkuraat en getrou en is nie bedoel om formele en geïndividualiseerde advies van 'n gekwalifiseerde professionele persoon te vervang nie.


Uitvinding van die motor - GESKIEDENIS

Model A Ford omstreeks 1930

Gottlieb Daimler
In 1885 het Gottlieb Daimler 'n gasmotor uitgevind wat 'n omwenteling in motorontwerp moontlik gemaak het.

Karl Benz (Carl Benz)
Karl Benz was die Duitse meganiese ingenieur wat die eerste praktiese motor ter wêreld ontwerp en in 1885 gebou het wat deur 'n binnebrandenjin aangedryf word.

John Lambert
Amerika se eerste motor op petrol was die 1891-Lambert-motor wat deur John W. Lambert uitgevind is.

Duryea Broers
Hulle stig Amerika se eerste onderneming wat voertuie met petrol aangedryf vervaardig en verkoop.

Henry Ford
Henry Ford het die monteerbaan vir motorvervaardiging (Model-T) verbeter, 'n transmissiemeganisme uitgevind en die motor met gas aangedryf.

Rudolf Diesel
Rudolf Diesel het die diesel-aangedrewe binnebrandenjin uitgevind.

Charles Franklin Kettering
Charles Franklin Kettering het die eerste elektriese ontstekingstelsel vir motors en die eerste praktiese enjin-aangedrewe kragopwekker uitgevind.


Hedy Lamarr | Bluetooth

U herken miskien Hedy Lamarr uit die film van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Die samesweerders, maar Lamarr was meer as 'n aktrise - sy was die uitvinder wat die tegnologie in die motor se Bluetooth -funksies geskep het.

Foto van Woensdag se vroue

In die veertigerjare het Lamarr 'n toestel uitgevind wat vyandelike skepe verhinder het om torpedo -leidingseine te onderbreek. Die toestel sou die torpedo -seine neem en dit van frekwensie na frekwensie laat spring, wat dit vir 'n vyand byna onmoontlik maak om die boodskap op te spoor.

Dit is hierdie 'frekwensiespring'-tegnologie wat ons vind in die Bluetooth-funksies in ons motor, sodat ons handvry oor die telefoon kan praat of ons gunsteling musiek kan stroom.

Haar tegnologie kan ook gevind word in selfone, Wi-Fi en GPS.


46a. Die ouderdom van die motor


Om in motors soos die Duesenberg op die foto hierbo te vaar, was gewild in Amerika, maar die tipiese Sondagmiddag -gesin het die afgelope tyd grootliks gestaak tydens die depressie.

Miskien het geen uitvinding die Amerikaanse alledaagse lewe in die 20ste eeu meer as die motor beïnvloed nie.

Alhoewel die tegnologie vir die motor in die 19de eeu bestaan, het Henry Ford dit nodig gehad om die nuttige apparaat vir die Amerikaanse publiek toeganklik te maak. Ford gebruik die idee van die monteerbaan vir motorvervaardiging. Hy betaal sy werkers 'n ongekende $ 5 per dag toe die meeste arbeiders twee huis toe bring, in die hoop dat dit hul produktiwiteit sou verhoog. Verder kan hulle hul hoër verdienste gebruik om 'n nuwe motor te koop.

Ford het die opsies verminder, selfs deur te sê dat die publiek die motor kon kies wat hulle wou, en mdash solank dit swart was. Die Model T het in 1914 vir $ 490 verkoop, ongeveer 'n kwart van die koste van die vorige dekade. Teen 1920 was daar meer as 8 miljoen registrasies. In die 1920's het die eienaarskap van motors geweldig gegroei, met die aantal geregistreerde bestuurders wat teen die einde van die dekade amper verdriedubbel het tot 23 miljoen.

Ekonomiese uitvloeisels

Die groei van die motorbedryf het 'n ekonomiese revolusie in die Verenigde State veroorsaak. Tientalle afwentelbedrywe het geblom. Die vraag na gevulkaniseerde rubber het natuurlik die hoogte ingeskiet. Padaanlegte het duisende nuwe werkgeleenthede geskep, aangesien staats- en plaaslike regerings begin het met die finansiering van snelwegontwerp.

Selfs die federale regering het betrokke geraak by die Federal Highway Act van 1921. Vulstasies het die land begin raak, en werktuigkundiges het geld verdien om die onvermydelike probleme op te los. Olie en staal was twee gevestigde nywerhede wat 'n ernstige hupstoot gekry het deur die vraag na motors. Reisigers op die pad het skuiling nodig gehad op lang reise, so motelle het die belangrikste langafstandroetes begin volg.

Selfs die kombuis is deur die motor verander. Die tipiese Amerikaanse kosse en mdash -hamburgers, patat, melkskommels en appeltertjies en mdash was kenmerke van die nuwe eetplek langs die pad. Bestuurders wou goedkoop, relatief kitskos hê, sodat hulle haastig kon wees. Ongelukkig het ou ondernemings, terwyl nuwe besighede floreer, verval. Toe Amerika vir die motor kies, het die spore van die land begin afgeskeep word. Terwyl die Europese nasies die massavervoerstelsels versterk het, het individualistiese Amerikaners in die motorinfrastruktuur belê.

Die effek van die motor

Die sosiale gevolge van die motor was net so groot. Keusevryheid het baie gesinsvakansies aangemoedig na plekke wat voorheen onmoontlik was. Stedelike inwoners het die geleentheid gekry om ongerepte landskappe te herontdek, net soos plattelandse inwoners in dorpe en stede kon inkopies doen. Tieners het meer en meer onafhanklikheid verkry met bestuursvryheid. Dating paartjies het 'n draagbare plek gevind om alleen te wees, aangesien die motor ontspanne seksuele houdings vergemaklik het.

Amerikaners het vir die eerste keer verkeersknope ondervind, asook verkeersongelukke en sterftes. Binnekort word eise gestel vir lisensie- en veiligheidsregulering op staatsvlak. Ondanks die nadele, was Amerikaners mal oor hul motors. Namate meer en meer aangekoop is, het bestuurders hul wêrelde baie groter geword.


Evolusie van die motor

Uitvinding era

Dit is die tydperk wat begin met die motor wat deur Karl Benz in 1885 vervaardig is. Daar was vroeër uitvindings wat hoofsaaklik stoomkrag gebruik het om die voertuie te beweeg, maar die Benz-motor was die eerste wat 'n petrolaangedrewe verbrandingsmotor gebruik het in wat 'n motor. Die tydperk strek tot die begin van die produksie van Henry Ford se Model T.

Vervaardiging era

Hierdie tydperk dateer van 1908 tot 1914 en die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Alhoewel vroeëre ontwerpe meer sierlik was, is voertuie uit hierdie tydperk eenvoudiger en meer bekostigbaar. Dit is die tyd toe honderde kleiner motorvervaardigers probeer om om aandag en verkope mee te ding. 'N Aantal verbeterings is gedurende hierdie tydperk ontwikkel. Dit sluit in die elektriese ontstekingstelsel, vierwielremme en die onafhanklike vering. Transmissies is aangeneem. Saam met gasknoppies het die voertuie toegelaat om op 'n aantal snelhede te ry, afhangende van die omstandighede.

Koetswerk era

Van ongeveer 1920 tot 1930 begin motorvervaardigers 'n geslote bak op die voertuig. Dit het die bestuurder en passasiers teen die weer beskerm. Voertuie het geboë glas begin gebruik en die nuwe omhulde liggame gee 'n gevoel van privaatheid. Verwarmers is bygevoeg vir gemak. Baie van die kenmerke van moderne motors kom uit hierdie tydperk. Dit sluit in vierwielaangedrewe, voorwielaangedrewe en hibriede elektriese voertuie. Veiligheidsglas beskerm diegene in die motor teen skerp glas in gevalle van 'n ongeluk. Teen die einde van die twintigerjare het motors vinniger geword en 'n mate van styl en skoonheid vertoon.

Klassieke era

Die klassieke era begin ongeveer 1930 tydens die Groot Depressie en eindig net voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die Groot Depressie was 'n tyd toe baie in die Verenigde State net probeer oorleef het. Maar dit is ook die era van enkele van die belangrikste verbeterings aan die motor. Motors het baie styl en gesofistikeerdheid aangeneem. Hulle het in baie gevalle kunswerke geword.

Baie nuwe funksies is gedurende hierdie era bekendgestel, waaronder die outomatiese ratkas, die V-8, die V-12 en die V-16 enjins. Die rathefboom het na die stuurkolom beweeg, hidrouliese remme is ingebring om vinniger te stop en motors het kattebak gekry om bagasie en vrag te vervoer.

Die motorbedryf het gedurende die dertigerjare verander. Dit het die opkoms van die Groot Drie motorvervaardigers gesien. Dit was General Motors, Ford Motor Company en Chrysler. Hulle kon motors tydens die Groot Depressie suksesvol ontwerp en verkoop toe minder mense 'n nuwe motor kon bekostig.

Integrasie tydperk

In 1949 het die motorbedryf uiteindelik weer op die been gekom na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Dieselfde jaar het General Motors, Cadillac en Oldsmobile die geïntegreerde motoronderdeel uit een stuk bekendgestel. Die proses het al die verskillende liggaamsdele in een liggaamsdop verbind. Motors wat gedurende hierdie tydperk vervaardig is, het op veiligheid gekonsentreer. Motors was groot gedurende hierdie tyd. Maar in die laat 1960's het motorvervaardigers probeer om baie kleiner motors te bemark. Die pogings van General Motors, Chrysler en Ford was almal mislukkings in die bemarking. Wat eerder verkoop is, was die prestasiemotor. Motors soos die Ford Mustang en die Plymouth Barracuda was baie suksesvol. Gedurende die laat vyftigerjare het baie kleiner lande motors begin vervaardig. Beide Indië en Iran vervaardig motors vanaf ongeveer 1959. Die eerste Indiese motorontwerp uit 1950 was baie soortgelyk aan die Opel Kapitän. Die eerste Iraanse motors was baie soortgelyk aan verskeie Amerikaanse motors. Albei is in die Verenigde Koninkryk ontwerp.

Moderne era

Hierdie tydperk het ongeveer 1968 begin en duur tot vandag toe. Liggaamstyle het dramaties verander. Die drie gewildste is die luikrug, die minibus en die sportnutsvoertuig (SUV). Vanaf die integrasieperiode het motorvervaardigers begin om motors vir mans te ontwerp, terwyl ander ontwerp is om vroue te lok. Die liggaamsvorms, kleure en ander leidrade is ontwerp om 'n spesifieke geslag aan te spreek.

Tans verkies vroue meer crossovers as mans. Voorbeelde hiervan is die Kia Sportage en die Honda CR-V. Mans verkies blykbaar kragtige motors soos die Chevrolet Camaro en die GMC Sierra -bakkie. In motorkleure lyk dit asof mans helderder kleure verkies, terwyl meer vroue tradisionele neutrale kleure verkies.

Elektriese motors word al hoe gewilder, veral Tesla -motors.


Uitvinding van die motor - GESKIEDENIS

Dink aan hoe ons land sou wees as ons sou voortgaan om te ontwikkel as die primêre stelsel massavervoer. Die verhoging van die aantal ruiters behels spoed en frekwensie van diens. Massavervoer bied goedkoper, skoner, veiliger maniere om mense te beweeg. Die geld wat gebruik word, kan gebruik word om universele mediese dekking en 'n eersteklas onderwysstelsel te bied en die federale skuld uit te skakel. In 'n paar Amerikaanse stede, soos New York, is dit die primêre metode van pendel. Dit sou nog beter wees as die aantal gebruikers vergroot is en die besparing deur die vermindering van die motorvloot in massavervoer geplaas is-jk.

Van International Journal of Socialist Renewal by http://links.org.au/node/423

'N Kort sosialistiese geskiedenis van die motor deur Rob Rooke, 17/08/04


Henry Ford

Geen enkele kommersiële produk in die geskiedenis van kapitalisme het 'n groter uitwerking op die ekonomie en die politiek gehad as die motor nie. Geen ander produk was so 'n hefboom om die verbruik te verhoog en markte in die ontwikkelde wêreld te verhoog nie. Daar kan beweer word dat die motor, meer as enige ander produk, die kern van die ekonomiese uitbreiding van die 20ste eeu was. In die Amerikaanse samelewing staan ​​die motor al meer as 'n eeu lank op 'n kulturele voetstuk wat individualiteit aanbid en 'n groot onderneming se visie op vryheid definieer. Die motor het die groot verspreiding van voorstede versnel en op sigself Amerikaanse stadsbeplanning gevorm soos geen ander produk nie. Vandag, in die Verenigde State, speel openbare vervoer 'n verre tweede viool in die motor met nege uit tien werkers wat hul motors gebruik om werk toe te gaan. In die alledaagse lewe van mense is die motor nou hul tweede grootste huishoudelike uitgawe, naas behuising. Die motor het sy hoogtepunt bereik.

Hierdie kort sosialistiese geskiedenis van die motor sal poog om 'n agtergrond en konteks te gee aan die wêreldoorheersende wêreld van vandag. Dit sal probeer om te verduidelik hoe die motor en die mal jaagtog na winste die wêreld gevorm het, en dit het weer gehelp om die mensdom na sy huidige vurk te lei, waar een pad onteenseglik tot wêreldvernietiging sal lei.

Hierdie geskiedenis is gebaseer op die marxistiese materialisme, wat die idee veronderstel dat alle sosiale en kulturele verskynsels onder kapitalisme gevorm word deur die voortdurende sleep tussen die base en die werkersklas. Alhoewel dit nie 'n geskiedenis van motorwerkers is nie, probeer dit tog die rol van werkende mense se stryd wat voortdurend in die agtergrond was van die geboorte en opkoms van die motor.

Een kant van die motorbedryf wat nie sy eie advertensies deurdring nie, is die bloedige pad wat dit hierheen gebring het. Die bedryf self het honderdduisende werkers doodgemaak en vermink terwyl dit opstaan ​​en sy voete gevind het. Hierdie lyding is op sy beurt oortref deur 'n eeu lange stryd om hulpbronne om die motor van sy motor, sy rubber, sy staal en glas te voer. Baie miljoene is doodgemaak in honderde oorloë en invalle deur imperialisme, sommige meer direk gekoppel aan die motor as ander. Die plek van petroleum in die huidige oorlog in Irak is vanselfsprekend. Maar dit is nie die eerste of laaste oorlog om hulpbronne vir die motor nie. Meer as honderd jaar gelede het die Amerikaanse imperialisme Sentraal-Amerika binnegeval om sy eie rubberplantasies te vestig vir die groeiende motorbedryf, en sy brutaliteit het aanleiding gegee tot Augusto Sandino, die grootvader van die anti-imperialistiese verset van Nicaragua. Hierdie artikel is opgedra aan die duisende werkers wat gesterf het om te veg vir motorvakbonde en die miljoene wat die motor-industriële kompleks verset het en in die nasleep daarvan verpletter is.

'N Kort sosialistiese geskiedenis van die motor

In 1799 registreer Philippe Lebon sy uitvinding van 'n "gasaangedrewe enjin met binnebrand ’ ’ by die nuwe revolusionêre regering van Frankryk. Die nuwe enjin sou lig, onafhanklik en kragtig wees. Dit sou honderd jaar duur voordat die stoomenjin homself uitgeput het en die gasmotor dit sou vervang. Saam met die ontdekking van nuwe bronne van olie en die ontploffing van die industrie, veral in die VSA, was al die onderdele in plek vir die uitvinding van die perdelose wa.

Gedurende die 1890's is die gemotoriseerde fiets en die elektriese motor uiteindelik opsy gesit vir die meer bruikbare en winsgewender motor. Die motor het sy lewe begin as 'n speelding vir die rykes en 'n voorwerp wat die klasse gepolariseer het. Dit was algemeen bekend dat Cornelius Vanderbilt, die spoorwegbaron, 'n motorhuis van 100 motors gehad het. In 1906 het Woodrow Wilson, destydse president van die Princeton -universiteit, aangevoer dat "niks meer 'n sosialistiese gevoel in hierdie land versprei het as die gebruik van motors nie 'n beeld is van die arrogansie van rykdom". Die tydskrif The Horseless Age in 1904 het wydverspreide klipgooiery in werkersklasbuurte van New York beskryf.

Die eerste motors was onbekostigbaar vir werkende mense. Die gemiddelde jaarlikse inkomste van 'n werker in 1900 was $ 450 en die gemiddelde prys van 'n motor was $ 2000. Saam met die prys was die algemene idee dat perdelose waens minder aangenaam en minder betroubaar was as die perd. Slegs 4192 motors is in 1900 verkoop. Maar binne 27 jaar beloop die aantal motors wat in die VSA geregistreer is tot meer as 20 miljoen. Meer as die helfte van alle Amerikaanse gesinne het óf 'n nuwe óf 'n gebruikte motor.

Opkoms van die werkersklas en die industriële impasse van die VSA

Teen die einde van die 19de eeu het die Amerikaanse kapitalisme 'n massabeweging vir vakbond en sosialisme beveg. Die Amerikaanse kapitalisme het die burgeroorlog gewen en die slawe-eienaarsklas verslaan, wat saam met die uitwissing van die inheemse Amerikaanse volke kapitalisme in staat gestel het om sy heerskappy van kus tot kus te voltooi. Die base het miljoene immigrante gedeeltelik aangemoedig om die stygende lone te ondermyn, maar dit het nie verhinder dat die werkersklas opstaan ​​en geskoolde vakbonde in baie van die Amerikaanse nywerhede instel nie.

Amerikaanse vervaardigers het 'n ernstige afname in sy winskoers begin sien. Werkgewers het probeer om lone te verlaag en produksie te bespoedig, maar dit het net meer stakings veroorsaak en meer werkers het by die nuwe vakbonde aangesluit. Werkgewers het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hulle die produksie -organisasie moes verander om die mag van die vakbonde te verbreek.

Aan die begin van die eeu het 'n massiewe golf van samesmeltings die banke en finansiers meer beheer oor groter ondernemings gegee. Die oorheersing van die banke het hulle in staat gestel om veranderinge in die produktiewe proses van vervaardiging te verander. Frederick Taylor se wetenskaplike bestuurmetodes word toenemend in die hele industrie aangeneem. Gesentraliseerde beplanning, gedetailleerde tydstudie, verdeling van arbeid en aansporingsvergoeding is geïmplementeer in pogings om die afname in die kapitalisme se winskoers om te keer en terselfdertyd die mag van vakbonde te verbreek.

Die motor spring in die eerste twee dekades van die 20ste eeu van die kantlyn af na die middelpunt van die kapitalistiese lewe. Toenemende tegnologiese verbeterings kon die verbrandingsmotor gebruik in 'n vervaardiger van energie in teenstelling met enige vorige uitvinding. Een liter petrol, wat deur hierdie enjin getransformeer word, kan die ekwivalente energie van een maand se menslike arbeid lewer. Die oliebedryf, wat gegroei het deur die wydverspreide gebruik van die olielamp, was reeds ontwikkel en het voortdurend gesoek na nuwe bronne wêreldwyd. Anders as die Britse, Duitse en Franse imperialisme, het die Amerikaanse imperialisme die voordeel van sy eie binnelandse oliebedryf.

Fordisme: industriële redder

Die opkomende motorbedryf het gegroei uit die groot vervaardigers van perdewaens en klein motorwinkels. Henry Ford het die nuutste vervaardigingstegnologieë benut en met groot investering van die groot banke die speelgoed van die rykes in 'n massaverbruiksproduk verander. Ford se massiewe belegging in masjinerie het hoëspoedproduksie tot gevolg gehad wat daarop gemik was om die arbeid wat by produksie en montering betrokke was, af te skaal. Fordisme het ten doel gehad om die invloed van die vakbonde te vernietig: die produktiewe proses tot die laagste noemer af te breek: tot die eenvoudigste, mees herhalende take. Om die lynsnelheid te verhoog, het die bedryf produksiegebaseerde betaalaansporings ingestel.

Die massale belegging in motor het ongelooflike resultate gelewer. In 1910, terwyl 'n motor in Europa 3000 werksdae geneem het om te vervaardig, word 'n Ford-motor binne 70 dae in die VSA vervaardig. In 1911 vervaardig die Overland -vervoeronderneming 20 000 motors. Hulle verfafdeling het 200 vakmanne in diens geneem en dit het twee weke geneem om elke voertuig te verf. In 1915, met die bekendstelling van spuitverf- en droogoonde, is dit verminder tot drie dae per voertuig. Die Ford Motor Company het ook die produksie verhoog en die koste verlaag deur na 'n enkele model te stroomlyn. In 1914 word ook alle kleure behalwe swart gestaak. Die bekendstelling van die lopende band in 1913 het die montering van die Model T verminder van 12,5 uur per voertuig tot 1,5 uur, en teen 1915 het die aantal geskoolde werkers in die Amerikaanse motorbedryf van 60% van die arbeidsmag tot 15% gedaal.

'N Verdere voordeel vir die Amerikaanse imperialisme was dat dit die wêreld se grootste onverdeelde potensiële mark vir enige nuwe produk het. Daarteenoor was Europa gedeel deur tientalle nasionale tariefmure. Meer as 100 miljoen mense het in hierdie tyd in die VSA gewoon, en Ford River River -aanleg alleen het meer as 100,000 werknemers in diens gehad. Ford het die mark vir die motor ontwikkel en laat groei deur 'n kombinasie van die verhoging van die lone van motorwerkers en die verlaging van motorpryse.

In 1913 stel Ford die $ 5-per-dag-loon bekend, toe die gemiddelde daaglikse salaris in die VSA minder as $ 2 was. Op hierdie manier het die Ford -arbeidsmag deel geword van die eerste massamark vir motors. Ford verminder ook die werksweek in 1926 tot vyf dae in sy fabrieke, wat help om sy werkers se produktiwiteit te verhoog.

Teen 1908 is die Ford Model T bekendgestel. Dit verkoop vir $ 825, die goedkoopste motor van sy tyd. Ford het die koste verlaag deur sy reeks tot een basiese bekostigbare model te verminder. Teen 1925 het gereelde prysverlagings uiteindelik die prys van die Model T tot $ 260 per motor laat sak, wat gehelp het om 'n motor buite die huis van elke tweede Amerikaanse gesin te plaas.

Die motor is meer as twee dekades lank omskep van 'n eksperimentele speelgoed van die rykes tot 'n alledaagse produk. Die motor het nie meer die stigma om elitisties te wees nie. Een van Ford se volgelinge was die opkomende ster van die Duitse kapitalisme, Adolf Hitler. Hitler het aangevoer dat 'die motor in plaas van 'n klasverdelende element die instrument kan wees om verskillende klasse te verenig, net soos dit in Amerika gedoen is, danksy die genie van Ford ’ ’. Alhoewel die loon van $ 5 per dag nie in die Volkswagen-fabrieke van Hitler gekopieer is nie, was die meeste van Ford se outoritêre bestuursmetodes die meeste. Ford se Amerikaanse fabrieke was bekend vir hul streng dissipline en onmiddellike afvuur. Niemand mag op die produksielyn praat nie: werkers noem dit die "Ford Silence ’ ’. Ford se fascistiese styl op die werkplek is slegs verbreek deur die oorwinning van die United Auto Workers in die organisering van Ford-aanlegte in 1941.

Die bloeiende 821620's en die stryd om grondstowwe

Die ekonomiese oplewing van die twintigerjare is gelei deur die twee nuutste en grootste verbruikersvoorwerpe van die Amerikaanse kapitalisme van die 20ste eeu: die enkelhuis en die motor. Die bioskoop, wat die salon vervang het, het die hoof advertensie -agent vir die motor geword. Radioadvertensies het ook die nuwe vryheid van die pad bevorder. Die eentonigheid en vervreemding van die lewe op die werkplek bly verborge in alles behalwe die sosialistiese literatuur. Kapitalisme bied toenemend betekenislose werksgeleenthede en 'n illusie van betekenis buite die klok: met die geïndividualiseerde motor en hek.

Die motor en die vliegtuig het afstande verkort, net soos die telefoon en die radio. Die lewenssnelheid buite werk het toegeneem, wat die verhoogde spoed by die werk weerspieël. Verkoopsbevordering en -bemarking is gebore en gegroei, terwyl kapitalisme woes gedruk het om markte te vergroot en sy verslawing aan winste te voed.

In Frankryk het die Citroen Corporation 5000 reisverkopers om die behoefte aan sy motor in elke dorp en gehucht te bevorder. Citroen het betaal dat 150 000 padtekens regoor Frankryk opgerig word, waar dit voorheen nie bestaan ​​het nie. Die maatskappy verkoop ook 400 000 speelgoedmotors om toekomstige kopers te lok en begin met die lang assosiasie tussen seuns en motors. Teen 1927 vervaardig die Franse motorvervaardiger 1000 motors per dag in sy Franse fabrieke.

Met die opkoms van die motor moes nuwe bronne van grondstowwe ontdek en geskep word. Kapitalisme kan nooit stilstaan ​​nie. Soos Karl Marx in Capital geskryf het, "Versamel! Versamel! Versamel! Dit is die Moses en die profete! ' Dit is alles wat tussen homself staan ​​en 'n ekonomiese insinking van oorproduksie.

Relatief slaperig was Brasilië aan die einde van die 19de eeu die eksklusiewe vervaardiger van rubber. Rubberbome het wild gegroei, maar die produksie was duur weens die afsondering van die Amazone en die skaarste aan arbeid. Waterdigte produkte, die kapitalisme se aanvanklike gebruik vir rubber, is gou oortref deur die waarde van rubber as motorbande. Elke motor het 20,4 kg rubber nodig, wat op internasionale markte vir tot 900 per ton verkoop is. Brasilië het sy rubbermonopolie nougeset bewaak totdat die Britse imperialisme by die bedryf ingebreek het deur 'n besending rubberboomsaad te beroof. Brittanje het daarna saailinge in sy kolonie Ceylon [Sri Lanka] grootgemaak en uiteindelik met massaproduksie van rubber in Maleisië begin. Teen die 1910's vervaardig die Nederlandse en Britse kolonies honderde ton rubber. In 1913 het die Maleisiese en Indonesiese produksie die eerste keer die Brasiliaanse produksie oortref. Twee jaar later het die Britse imperialisme se aanplantings die Brasiliaanse rubberproduksie verdubbel en teen 1919 het hulle 10 keer meer rubber vervaardig as Brasilië. Die VSA het die probleem erken om afhanklik te wees van Britse kolonies vir die bandebedryf en het Sentraal -Amerika binnegedring om sy eie rubberbedryf te ontwikkel. Die VSA weerspieël die wrede metodes van die rubberplantasies in Asië, waar dit nie ongewoon was dat die helfte van alle werkers aan die einde van die rubberseisoen dood was nie. Amerikaanse rubberplantasie -metodes, wat slawerny nader, het een van die eerste massa -opstande teen die Amerikaanse imperialisme veroorsaak, aangesien dit begin het met die rol om die planeet na hulpbronne te bekamp.

In die middel van die twintigerjare het die bekendstelling van die opblaasband die gemiddelde bandafstand van 8000 myl tot 15.000 myl verhoog. Die prys van rubber val toe gou in duie. Rubber, wat in 1910 'n hoogtepunt van 900900 per ton bereik het, het teen die dertigerjare tot 20 per ton gedaal.

In 1928 het die eienaars van die wêreld se drie grootste oliemaatskappye, Anglo-Persian Oil (later British Petroleum), Royal Dutch Shell en Standard Oil, gaan sit en 'n ooreenkoms gesluit om die wêreld se rykdom tussen die wêreld te deel. hulle. Die Rooilyn-ooreenkoms wat 'n jaar later onderteken is, sal die lyding van 'n nuwe wêreldoorlog help om oliebronne te verdeel. Nietemin het die werkersklasse en armes van die olieproduserende lande steeds in armoede gesterf, saam met miljarde vate swart goud.

'Ons groot taak is om veroudering te bespoedig, en#8217

Die motor het die hoof van die ongekende oplewing van die 1920's gehelp. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die motormark versadig geraak, en saam met die groeiende verkoop van gebruikte motors, het die wins vir die bedryf gedaal. 'N Verandering in die bedryf was nodig en General Motors (GM) het die enkelmodelproduksie van Ford begin uitdaag.

Reeds in 1923 begin GM motors verkoop met 'n soortgelyke basiese raam, maar met verskillende bakke. In the boom of the 1920s GM designers argued that car sales had crossed a new threshold moving from the need for ``better quality to better looking’’. Here begins the divergence of the car from its simple utilitarian role into the realm of being an expression of social mobility and wealth. Here begins the massive diversification of models and the road that eventually leads to annual model changes. Capitalism loves all things new and seeks to see all things old thrown away. This moment is the beginning of the massive diversity of models of US cars and all that went with it.

With every model change comes the need for auto plants to produce new dies and reset presses. By the early 1940s GM alone was spending up to $35 million a year on model changes. While costly, routine model changes were beneficial to the narrow interests of the biggest automakers. GM, Ford and Chrysler drove out the remaining small producers who could not keep up with the massive investment required to change models frequently. This emergence of style or appearance as a competitive factor may have been initially stumbled upon, but it soon became a fundamental requirement in the industry. General Motors’ top designer during this period, Harley Earl, argued that ``our big job is to hasten obsolescence’’. He further argued that given the average new car ownership span in 1935 was five years and in 1955 it was reduced to two years, that ``when it is one year we will have the perfect score’’.

The Great Depression saw all auto companies radically cut back on spending and production. From a high of 5.6 million cars sold in 1929 auto sales collapsed by 75% to 1.4 million vehicles in 1932. Luxury vehicle sales fared worse: peaking in 1929 at 150,000 sold, sales then continued to fall through the 1930s. The rich understood the shift in consciousness of the period and that ostentatious displays of wealth could cost them their lives. By 1937 annual sales of luxury cars had slumped to 10,000.

In 1928 the Ford Motor Company had 128,000 workers on its payroll, by August 1931 only 37,000 workers still had jobs and most of them worked only three days per week. Ford’s $5-a-day wage had risen in the 1920s to $8 and $9 a day. The depression buried the high wage policy. In 1931 wages were cut by 20%. Some male employees were reduced to 10c an-hour and some women labourers’ wages were cut to 4 cents an hour in Ford plants.

In 1942 private auto production stopped altogether as the auto industry turned production into building war machines for US government contracts. War has always been good for business and especially for the ``auto-industrial complex’’. As far back as the outset of the US civil war oil was selling for 49c per barrel, but by the end of the World War II a barrel of oil was fetching $8. At the start of the Iraq war oil was $30 a barrel and has now risen to $110 a barrel. Similarly in World War I GM shares rocketed from 78c to $7.50. After World War II, as victor on the Western Front and in the Pacific, the US emerged as the dominant force for global capitalism. Its prestige and power was a crown shared with big auto, which set about building cars for the returning troops.

Post-war public spending for the car

The post-war revolutionary wave that swept the world was also seen in the US . The war’s hardships led to pent up anger and hope that exploded in the US workplace. The strike wave of 1946 was the widest industrial conflict in US history. More than 116 million person-days were lost in strike actions, more than four times the previous record of 1937. The strike issues were primarily for a shorter work-week, higher pay and to resist the loss of relative control over workplaces that were granted during wartime. The bosses conceded on the first two demands, adding also concessions for private insurance to undermine the global movement for nationalised healthcare. As for aspects of workplace control, once again, capitalism offered instead the myth of power and freedom of consumerism. Americans were offered the open road and a full tank of gas.

The US government, together with its close partners at the top of all the major industries began to take steps in shaping post-war USA more tightly in the interests of profit. Major support was given to promote private family home ownership in part through mortgage guarantees for returning troops. The federal government also subsidised the massive development of the suburbs. Between 1945 and 1960 some 30 million Americans moved to the suburbs, the growth of which was a huge boon to the auto industry.

Where the railroads were built through private investment, the automobile roads were built for free though federal, state and local governments. Public and not auto industry money paid for the massive network of highways that were built and the roads were widened. Further billions in public money came in 1956 with the Interstate Highway Act providing a mass of freeways for automobiles across all states. The bill passed under the outrageous pretext that the US needed a freeway network in case of a possible invasion from the USSR .

No other industry in US history was so enormously subsidised as the auto industry. US governments, federal and local, essentially built the superstructure for the expansion of the car. The car became inseparable from almost every function of US life as a direct consequence of its partnership with the US political elite.

The `Auto-industrial complex’ conspiracy to destroy public transport

The booming post-war period saw the massive rise and peak of what US Marxist economist Paul Sweezy called the ``automobile-industrial complex’’ –- the car, oil, steel, glass, rubber, highway construction, trucking and real estate industries connected to urban sprawl. One consequence of this vested interest in cars was the systematic smashing of public transport operations. General Motors, Standard Oil of California (Chevron), Phillips Petroleum and Firestone Tires formed National City Lines, as a part of an organised campaign to buy up and destroy electric rail systems operating in US towns and cities. After buses replaced trams and trains, then the bus systems too were often wound down.

A National City Lines trolley bus

By the early 1950s the auto industry faced a crisis of falling unit demand, as most families now owned a car. At the same time working people’s discretionary spending was rising. Given these factors, the Big Three (GM, Ford and Crysler) moved to increase each car’s size and array of new gadgets, and at the same time increase the frequency of the introduction of new models.

Between 1946 and 1959 the cheapest Chevrolet sedan grew 13 inches [33 cms] in length, 7 inches [17.8 cms] in width and was over 400 lbs [181 kgs] heavier. The Ford Edsel, launched in 1957, was an incredible 18 feet [5.5 metres] long. Horsepower for the average model in 1946 was around 110, by 1956 it was grown to 180. Exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency and vehicle safety were placed a distant second to the need to continuously increase profits.

By 1950 the Big Three offered their customers 243 different new car models. During this period new model changes were brought forward from three years per model to two years. With a major body change costing upwards of $200 million, by 1955 the Big Three controlled 94% of the entire US market. They were no longer under any pressure to reduce prices and in the decade of the 1950s prices rose an unprecedented 36% to an average car price of $1822.

trolley bus (electric bus)

Patriotism has always been utilised by business for selling its products. With the Cold War in full swing the US auto industry and its representatives in government increasingly identified consumer choice with capitalism (so-called ``democracy’’) and the lack of consumer choice with communism. In 1955 Chevrolet advertised its cars as ``empowerment and escape’’ feeding on previous associations of the car and a very narrow concept of freedom.

The Cold War, the retreat from militancy of the labour leaders and the monopoly of big business’ two political parties, gave a green light to the bosses to gouge their customers, the working class. While average manufacturing profits between 1946 and 1967 rose a dramatic 9% per year, GM’s return on its investments were a stunning average of 21% per year over the same period.

The 1964 Senate hearings on auto safety marked the beginning of the end of the blank cheque for big auto. A GM spokesperson admitted that the company only spent $1.25 million on safety research and safety changes for its cars in 1963. When GM executives were then asked about their profit levels, they admitted they had hit $1.7 billion in the same year.

There was also a small backlash within the trend to super-sized cars. In 1955 only 60,000 European cars, which tended to be significantly smaller than their US counterparts, were sold in the US . By 1960 imports rose to 700,000 cars, slightly more than 10% of the market. The arrogance of the auto bosses towards the compact car and towards public pressure was best expressed by Henry Ford III who opposed making smaller models with his position that ``mini-cars make mini-profits’’. Comments such as these increasingly irritated working people, leading the Wall Street Journal in the early 1970s to comment on ``the growing rebellion against cars’’. The rebellion was as much against the car business as the product itself.

As pressure on the wages of working people increased, more women were returning to the work place. Given the deliberately weak public transportation sector, more families were forced to buy more than one car. In 1950 only 7% of households owned more than one car, by 1970 29% of all US families owned more than one car.

Beginning of the decline of the car

The massive proliferation of models exploded in the sixties. By 1970 the Big Three offered 370 different models each year a 55% increase in the number of models over 1960. Their obsession with perpetuating the myth of choice was beginning to undermine their own profits. In the early days of auto production, from 1919 through 1930, worker productivity increased on average 8.6% per year. Productivity gains collapsed in the 1960s to an average of 3% per year. The fall in productivity was in large part because of the vast multitude of models each of the three big automakers were producing and the massive investment this demanded.

The profit and productivity impasse of the early 1970s increased class tensions within the auto plants. As the corporations sought to further automate and increase line speed they faced the resistance of the rank and file. The bosses responded with harsh disciplinary measures and penalties against individuals. It was this offensive that created a rebellion among young UAW rank and file such as at Lordstown , Ohio . At Lordstown autoworkers were producing one car every 36 seconds. It was the fastest assembly line in the world. In 1972 Lordstown GM workers walked out over the barrage of disciplinary actions by management. After the 22-day strike a vast majority of workers were reinstated and charges against most workers dropped. However, the fear of the rank and file and increasingly aggressive bosses helped push the UAW bureaucracy in the direction of its current class collaborationist policy of team work. Through the Team Concept the bosses were able to win increased cooperation from their workforce, which in turn increased job speed and alienation on the job.

The long lines outside gas stations during the 1973 oil crisis shifted working-class opinion further against the auto industry. This in turn led to increased regulations on cars, particularly for fuel efficiency. The phrase, ``gas guzzler`` was born. As the auto corporations were increasingly perceived as socially irresponsible, they were forced to decrease the size of their monster cars. Detroit was forced to make a large foray into the compact car market. The industry then waited in the wings for the environmentalism and oil fears of the 1970s to die down.

The economic boom of the 1980s, politically expressed through the election and re-election of US President Ronald Reagan, took the heat off corporations and the demand for government regulation. The Vietnam era was to be buried and an escapism not seen since the 1920s ensued. This was the background to the emergence of the world’s all time most wasteful and unsafe version of the motor car: the sports utility vehicle (SUV). Once an obscure model, the SUV with its passenger car body and truck frame came into the mainstream, albeit the high end of the mainstream. The SUV became the savior for the Big Three. The vast majority of US auto profits in the 1990s were from their light truck and SUV models. Sports utility vehicles have increasingly come to symbolise all that is wrong and wasteful about the current economy. Like the boom of the 1950s the auto-industrial complex exploited the rise in disposable incomes that the housing equity boom created to sell more cars to each person. An average sedan in the last 10 years would typically weigh about 3000lbs [1360 kg]. The average SUV often weighs over 6000lbs [2700 kg]. The ``green`` capitalists at Toyota sell hundreds of thousands of their Sequoia SUV, which weighs in at 6500lbs [2948 kgs].

The home equity crash has essentially ended the heyday of SUV sales. It is no coincidence that capitalism’s two most important consumer commodities: the privately owned house and the private car are going into a crisis at the same time. Both products represent a way of life that is individualised and wasteful and a social construct that cannot be sustained by the planet Earth.

When the Model T was launched 100 years ago, it could travel 20-22 miles per gallon [approx 9.3 km/litre]. Over a century of auto making later, the most popular car models were less fuel efficient. Hummers and Escalades of recent years have city gas mileage of around 10 miles per gallon [4.25 km/litre]. The waste of fuel energy and the pumping of polluting and global-warming emissions into the air would have been negligible at the turn of the last century when there were 8000 registered cars in the US . Today there are 231 million registered cars in the US . China has now surpassed Japan as the number two consumer of automobiles and there may be 100 million cars on China ’s roads before the decade is out. Thirty-eight million cars were sold globally in 1995. Last year that increased to 49 million cars.

US automobiles are second only in carbon dioxide production to coal-burning power plants. US cars currently account for 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions a year. No carbon-offsetting can remove this level of pollution. The US would have to plant 55 billion trees every year to undo this level of emissions. And with China attempting to mirror the road of US capitalism, tomorrow’s world resources will be stretched to unmanageable levels.

At the turn of the previous century the electric car was essentially abandoned because of its 50-mile [80-kilometre] limit on one charge, today it is making a small comeback. The rise in sales of electric cars and the more popular petrol-electric hybrids will certainly slow down the rate of damage to the planet. These sales still represent a negligible percentage of the car market. Any car, petrol or electric is still essentially about 3000lbs [1360 kgs] of automobile being moved around for often only one human being.

The hoopla around hybrid cars is a part of a wider increase in products of green capitalism. They are linked with the notion that individuals can opt out of a huge mass polluting system and that the huge consumption of the past can continue in an environmentally sustainable way. In this world, big capitalism continues to makes its profits, markets continue to expand and people feel better about the environment. Yet the pace of global warming is unimpeded.

In the last analysis, any mass-produced ``green’’ car still stands in opposition to public transport and the fundamental social changes necessary to save the planet.

The car’s nemesis: public transportation

Aside from the social and environmental factors, there have been few products that have in themselves been more lethal than the automobile. While studies have proven that bus travel is 170 times safer than car travel, some 120 people a day in the US continue to die from traffic accidents involving private cars. The auto industry has continued to try and sell more safety to wealthier car buyers, but human error with 231 million individual drivers is impossible to remove.

The rise of the automobile was accompanied by the collapse of public transport. Public transport did not shrink because of its inability to economically compete with the car. There was a campaign by the auto-industrial complex to defeat and bury public transportation.

With the growth of industry and jobs, public transport in the United States increased alongside the increase in cars. Public transport peaked with an average of 166 passenger rides per year per head of population. By 1956, with compliant support of capitalist politicians, the number of riders was halved. Neighbourhoods were developed that had no public transport access, forcing more people to buy cars. By 1973 US public transport ridership hit its post-war low of 31 rides per year per person. Today that figure has only slightly recovered to about 35 rides per person per year.

At the beginning of the 1920s, 90% of travel was by rail, chiefly electric rail. Only one in 10 Americans owned a car. Virtually every city and town in the US with more than 2500 people had its own electric rail system. General Motors used its massive profits over a 30-year period to kill these light rail systems. GM bought up rail companies and ran them into the ground. They also introduced bus lines that would follow the same route as trains and trams, offering lower fares. The extensive light rail systems of New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , Philadelphia , Baltimore , Washington DC , St Louis , Salt Lake City , Sacramento , San Diego and Oakland were all smashed by GM money.

Los Angeles , as the youngest of the US mega cities, may have fared the worst of all. The Los Angeles Railway operated the majority of the city’s 1500 streetcars. In May 1945, GM’s front organisation, American City Lines, bought 59% of LA Railway’s stock. In the same month LA Railway announced its plan to scrap most of its streetcar lines. The destruction of public transport, particularly electric rail systems, was not only a massive waste of resources, but perhaps the biggest single contribution to increasing pollution and climate change in global history. General Motors, as the world’s biggest corporation, made the decision for this process, privately, on its board of directors. There was no popular vote for this policy. It was capitalist ``democracy’’ in action. The reverberations from the destruction of public transport are many sided. The shrinking of public transport also contributed to the racially segregated poverty of urban areas. Professor Evelyn Blumenburg’s UCLA study of jobs and public transit in Los Angeles in the last decade shows that residents of Watts who have access to a private car are 59 times more likely to get a job than those dependent on public transport.

Capitalism and its blind gallop for profits has brought the planet to where it is today. The private automobile was one of its greatest vehicles for profit. The current and future inhabitants have to deal with the world as it has been inherited. The past will continue on if it is not contested. Democrat and Republican politicians pay lip service to the environment, but being bought and paid for by big business they only offer small measures that will not save the planet.

The world is currently run by the wolves in the coop. The General Motors, the Chevrons, the Citibanks still continue to make the real decisions about world’s future. These companies will not put humanity or the planet ahead of the race for profits. To remove this obstacle to a sustainable future a social and political revolution is necessary. Working-class people need to take the wheel and re-organise society in the interests of the great majority.

A future of massive light rail expansion is one alternative. Every city, every region and nationally, travel by light electric rail would dramatically curb auto emissions. However, if this led to bigger and bigger coal-fired electricity power stations, then the gains for the environment could all be lost.

Some argue that nuclear power may need to be re-examined. In France , 75% of its electricity comes from nuclear power. This raises two issues: operational safety and waste storage. The Cherynobl nuclear disaster released an equivalent toxicity into the air of 200 Hiroshima bombs. And there still appears to be no long-term solutions to storing nuclear waste.

The big auto-industrial corporations along with the big banks need to be brought under public ownership. The industrial resources and productive capacity of big auto should be converted into socially useful production as a part of a democratic plan that working-class people should generate.

In the 13th century Roger Bacon, the social philosopher, predicted that ``Man will we able to build a carriage that moves at miraculous speed without horses or other draft animals’’. Human society has moved past that stage now and should move forward toward its only possible future: a collective one, with a collective-oriented transport system.

[Rob Rooke, former recording secretary, Carpenters Local 713, Oakland , California . Written on March 29, 2008 . Rooke is a member of Labor’s Militant Voice ( http://www.laborsmilitantvoice.com /).]

Ilya Ehrenburg, The Life of the Automobile (1929)

David Gartman, Auto Opium: A Social History of American Automobile Design

Roger Keeran, The Communist Party and the Auto Workers’ Unions

Historical Statistics of the United States , US Department of Commerce

Bradford Snell, How General Motors Deliberately Destroyed Public Transit

Labor’s Militant Voice Environmental Platform

A planned socialist economy based on immediate human needs rather than the senseless drive for profits, would solve many of today’s key environmental problems according to the following platform.

1. Mass integrated transit systems . A mass integrated public transit system linking urban, suburban and rural areas together through energy efficient and affordable transportation. [With such] an integrated transportation system, controlled by working people today, market pressures would be eliminated in order to provide safe and efficient travel for the inhabitants of the region. In times of natural disaster and emergency, such a transit system would respond more effectively and responsively to human needs, as during a major earthquake or tsunami.

2. Energy . A program to develop and further investigate renewable and alternative energy sources. Research into technologies which promote hydrogen, solar, wind and hyrdo-electric power sources. A rational plan of energy use and production would call for an overall decrease in the use of stored energy of any kind to meet the general needs of society. The generation of energy for public consumption by industrial plants under private ownership, which today contribute greatly to carbon emissions, as well as airborne, water and soil toxicity, would be eliminated and replaced with power generation facilities under community control. In order to further reduce public energy consumption and waste, a program of socialised domestic food production, and sanitation could be implemented through organisations of community control.

3. Agriculture and food production . Growing food crops and cattle raising without the use of induced pesticides, artificial hormones or genetically modified organisms foreign to a particular environment. The natural fertility of the soil and ground water could be sustained through methods of crop rotation and stepped irrigation, as practiced in agricultural societies for thousands of years. Modern-day methods of geological survey and research, now largely in the service of private corporations, could be used to more efficiently and rationally plan usage of natural resources. The necessity of chemical preservatives to keep food fresh for transport and storage, would be eliminated by having food produced locally and according to the immediate needs of the population.

4. Housing and urban development . Population centres which are appropriate to the needs and resources of the human inhabitants could be democratically planned along with transportation, energy and food production. Development of new housing would be according to the immediate circumstances of society, and not on market speculation. The necessity of long-distance travel, and traffic between home and work, would be eliminated through the conversion of available materials and building construction into a program of affordable housing for all workers and their families.


Automobile History – The Invention of the Automobile

The automobile is, without a doubt, a revolutionary invention that has changed our world. Since the invention of the wheel, people have attempted to create different means of transportation. The first wheeled vehicles were pulled by oxen or horses, and it was not until the late18th century that a self-propelled vehicle was large enough so it could carry cargo and people. Today, it is a common sight to see a car dealership in any major city. Sometimes, these dealerships which sell used cars will provide you with some of the best chances in the world to spot and buy a piece of automobile history, many of these providers having truly unique and rare models for sale.

The automobile history starts with the concept invented by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1400, the carriage without a horse. His mechanism was not pulled by animals, instead it was controlled by a wheel maneuvered by a person inside of it. The device ran on petroleum and was illustrated in Da Vinci’s drawings, but because he focused more the artistic side, some believe that the original idea was developed by someone else. So when you’re reading today’s best car reviews, Da Vinci would just be the guy who came up with the car’s exterior design, no matter how impressive it is. Nevertheless, to think how far we’ve gone since then and how advanced the automobile industry is, it seems weird to think it all began in the atelier of a Renaissance man. So the next time you’re reading the best car reviews available, try to put things into perspective and appreciate what technology has truly done for us.

In 1672, Ferdinand Verbiest built a small steam-powered device as a toy for the Emperor of China. Although it was not large enough to carry a person, the toy is probably the first vehicle powered by steam. The automobile history considers the Fardier as a precursor of the modern car. In 1771, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot created his fardier à vapeur, or steam dray, a steam-powered artillery tractor. Because the invention was harder to operate and slower than a carriage, it was never put into production.

In 1784, William Murdoch built a functional steam carriage and by 1801 Richard Trevithick’s vehicle was running on Camborne roads. Over the next decades, technologies such as steering, multi-speed transmissions, hand brakes were improved and put into production. The Locomotive Act emitted in 1856 stated that all self-propelled vehicles circulating on UK roads must be accompanied by a man on foot blowing a horn and waving a red flag. This act shut down the auto development for the remaining of the century.

In 1867, Henry Seth Taylor revealed hid steam buggy with a two-cylinder steam engine at a fair in Stanstead. Nikolaus Otto is considered created the first four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine in the automobile history. Rudolf Diesel developed a similar four-stroke diesel engine. Automobiles powered by steam continued to be developed until the 20th century, but because of the preference for petrol engines in the late 19th century, they soon became a rarity.

The 1901 Curved Dash Oldsmobile was the first to be produced in larger quantities in the United States. Henry Ford was the first to start modern automobile mass production. The Ford factory manufactured the Model T in 1908. Over 18 million models were sold until 1927, when it was discontinued. Many 21st century engineers are reconsidering the possibility of steam engines once again, because of the global need for energy independence and sustainability.


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