Hugh Kilpatrick

Hugh Kilpatrick

Hugh Kilpatrick is gebore in New Jersey in 1836. By die uitbreek van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het hy by die Unie -weermag aangesluit en as kaptein van die 5de New York -regiment aangestel. Hy is gewond te Big Bethel (10 Junie 1861), maar het herstel om in September 1861 bevorder te word tot kolonel van die 2de New York Kavalerie.

Kilpatrick het deelgeneem aan die verdediging van Washington voordat hy tydens die tweede geveg van Bull Run (Augustus 1862) geveg het. Hy sluit aan by generaal George Stoneman se poging om Richmond (Junie 1863) te verower. Kilpatrick het 'n reputasie ontwikkel vir 'roekeloosheid van waagduiwels wat sy teenstanders ontstel en sy eie waagmoed aan sy manne verleen'.

Hy het ook by Gettysburg (Julie 1863) geveg voordat hy by William T. Sherman aangesluit het wat beweer het: "Ek weet dat Kilpatrick 'n helse dom is, maar ek wil hê dat net so 'n man my kavallerie moet beveel." Hy het tydens die Atlanta -veldtog die kavalleriekorps van die Army of the Cumberland gelei. Kilpatrick, wat bevorder is tot generaal -majoor, bedank in Desember 1865.

Kilpatrick, 'n lid van die Republikeinse Party, was minister van Chili (1866-1868), maar het met die party gebreek toe hy Horace Greeley in 1868 vir die presidentskap ondersteun het. Hugh Kilpatrick is heraangestel in Chili en sterf in 1881 in Santiago.


Vakbond -generaal Judson Kilpatrick

Vakbond -generaal Judson Kilpatrick was flambojant, roekeloos, onstuimig en selfs losbandig. In sommige opsigte het hy ander gemaak beaux sabreurs soos mede-kavaleriste lyk George Custer en J. E. B. Stuart saai. Omdat hy 'n passievolle man was, het Kilpatrick baie bewonderaars gewen en baie vyande gemaak tydens sy loopbaan in die burgeroorlog, en nie al sy vyande het grys gedra nie. Diegene wat hom geken het, het gewoonlik een van twee menings. Hy was óf 'n heldhaftige en edele soldaat, óf (soos 'n federale offisier geskryf het) ‘ 'n skuimige spog sonder brein.

Die menings was uiteenlopend omdat Kilpatrick kompleks was. Hy was meestal 'n hel-vir-leer-vegter, maar het dikwels net so gretig gestaan ​​om hom aan 'n geveg te onttrek as om dit te betree. Hy was lief daarvoor om toesprake te hou vir sy troepe en het hard gewerk om openbare kennis te kry, maar het sy manne en perde so rof gery, skynbaar sonder inagneming van hul welstand, dat hy die bynaam Kilcavalry gekry het. En in 'n leër vol dobbelaars en drinkers, raak Kilpatrick nie aan speelkaarte of bottels nie, maar hy het 'n gebrek aan integriteit en koester sekere ander ondeugde.

Fisies lyk hy alles behalwe die romantiese konsep van die ruiters. Hy was bantam-groot, met 'n lanternkaak, bleek oë en kroesrooi sywortels. Maar omdat hy tevergeefs was, het hy 'n sekere styl aangetrek. Hy het sorgvuldig pasgemaakte uniforms, wonderlike stewels en 'n swart vilthoed gedraai wat skuins kantel. 'N Personeelbeampte het eenkeer opgemerk dat dit moeilik was om na hom te kyk sonder om te lag. Maar Kilpatrick het ander beïndruk met sy rustelose energie, want dit lyk asof hy altyd haastig was om 'n groot daad te verrig.

Hy is gebore as Hugh Judson Kilpatrick naby Deckertown, New Jersey, op 14 Januarie 1836. Sy pa was 'n boer, maar in sy tienerjare het die jong Kilpatrick besluit om landbou as sy eie beroep te beoefen. Die politiek trek hom 'n belangstelling wat deur die jare by hom gebly het, en voor hy 20 was, het hy die landelike New Jersey gestamp namens 'n plaaslike kongreslid wat hernoeming wou soek. Die kongreslid het sy jong ondersteuner gewen en beloon deur hom 'n afspraak by die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie aan te bied.

By West Point het Kilpatrick (klas van 1861) sy voornaam laat val, bevredigende grade behaal, opgetree in dramas van die Dialectic Society en sy talent vir openbare spraak ontwikkel. Toe die afstigtingskrisis die Akademie oorval, het hy kadette uit die Suide geteister met sy sentiment van die Unie. As gevolg hiervan was hy betrokke by verskeie vuisgevegte, maar ondanks sy grootte het hy meer as een keer sy oorwinning behaal.

Hy was so vasgevang in die geskreeu om die Unie te verdedig dat hy 'n petisie met klasmaats en handtekeninge opgestuur het en dit na die oorlogsdepartement gestuur het. Die versoekskrif het spesiale toestemming gevra dat die Class of 󈨁 'n paar maande vroeër as gewoonlik gradueer, sodat sy lede die land so vinnig as moontlik in hierdie krisistyd kan dien. Die versoek is toegestaan.

Op die April -dag waarop hy afgestudeer het (hy was die klas valedictorian), trou Kilpatrick met Alice Nailer, van New York, in die West Point -kapel. Hy het oorlog toe gegaan met 'n silwer vaandel wat haar naam gedra het.

Alhoewel hy 'n luitenant in die 1ste Amerikaanse artillerie geword het na sy afstuderen, het Kilpatrick geen begeerte gehad om die oorlog te beveg nie, hetsy in die gewone leër of as 'n artillerie. Hy wend hom tot die vrywilligersdiens in 'n soeke na hoë rang en glorie, en word binnekort aangestel as kaptein in Duryée ’s Zouaves (5de New York Infanterie). Hy haas hom dadelik suidwaarts om by die regiment in Fort Monroe, Virginia, aan te sluit, waar hy hard werk om sy kompanie tot 'n effektiewe gevegseenheid te vorm. Maar hy was menslik sowel as streng en kon sy soldate vertroue en toegeneentheid wen.

Sy eerste opdragte in die veld – klein verkennings- en voer -ekspedisies – het nie sy drang na stryd bevredig nie. Hy moes tot 10 Junie wag vir sy eerste glorie. Op daardie dag word hy die eerste offisier van die gewone weermag wat tydens die oorlog gewond is, deur 'n druiwe -skoot in die bobeen geslaan word terwyl hy sy manne tydens die Slag van Groot -Bethel gelei het. Alhoewel hierdie eerste groot landgeveg van die oorlog 'n Konfederale oorwinning was, het Kilpatrick groot lof van die Noordelike pers gekry vir sy koelte en doeltreffendheid. As gevolg hiervan, terwyl hy met verlof was om van sy wond te herstel, het hy homself as 'n luitenant -kolonel bevind in die Harris Light Cavalry en daarna die 2d New York aangewys. Hy aanvaar sy opdrag op 25 September, net soos verskeie ander offisiere van Duryée ’s Zouaves.

Hy het tot laat in Januarie 1862 saam met die nuut georganiseerde eenheid in die verdediging van die hoofstad van die land gedien. Toe hy moeg was vir die vervelige roetine van die garnisoenlewe, aanvaar hy die pos van artilleriehoof in die milisie, generaal -majoor James H. Lane &# 8217 -ekspedisie na Texas. Maar hy het skaars begin vir Kansas, die ontmoetingspunt vir die optog, toe hy verneem dat die ekspedisie geskrap is. Meer onrustig as ooit vir aktiwiteit, keer Kilpatrick terug na sy regiment in Arlington, Virginia.

Toe generaal -majoor George B. McClellan se Army of the Potomac langs die kus seil na die Virginia -skiereiland, het Kilpatrick agtergebly met die 2de New York en 'n paar klein aanvalle deur Noord -Virginia uitgevoer. Tydens een hiervan, 'n nagverkenning naby Falmouth Heights, toon hy 'n talent vir listigheid en vermetelheid. Hy het slegs een regiment in sy bevel gehad, maar toe hy die Konfederale paaltjies konfronteer, skree hy bevele tot nie -bestaande versterkings. Honderde rebelle het hom gehoor en geglo dat daar ten minste 'n brigade kavalerie om die heuwels was, die Rappahannockrivier oorgesteek en die brug verbrand sodat Kilpatrick hulle nie kon volg en vasvang nie.

In Julie en Augustus 1862 het Kilpatrick uitgevoer. Hy het by Stonewall Jackson se kommunikasielyne in die Shenandoah -vallei geslaan, spoorwegdepots verbrand en spore, bande en telegraaflyne vernietig. Laat in Augustus neem hy deel aan sy eerste verlowing by Brandy Station, Virginia, waar hy en die res van brigadier -generaal George D. Bayard ’ se kavalleriebrigade deur J.E.B. Stuart se legioene.

Op 6 Desember 1862 word Kilpatrick die kolonel van die 2de New York. Sy roem het voortgegaan. groei, en in Februarie 1863 kry hy op 27 -jarige ouderdom die bevel oor die brigade.

Hy het sy brigade op Stoneman's Raid gelei tydens die Chancellorsville -veldtog. Alhoewel die operasie in die geheel 'n mislukking was, het sommige van Stoneman se beamptes, onder wie Kilpatrick, hulself goed vrygespreek. Met 'n losstaande mag verower Kilcavalry dorpe in 'n vyandelike land, vernietig weer spoorwegapparate en dring sestig myl per dag binne twee myl van Richmond deur. Sy waagmoed het die Konfederale Hoofstad in 'n ligte paniek geraak, maar uiteindelik moes hy op die Skiereiland terugtrek na die Unie -lyne buite Fort Monroe, om te verhoed dat hy gevange geneem word.

Na die aanval op Stoneman, het die roem van Kilpatrick sy roem gekry. Hy het op die kruin gery toe hy op 9 Junie Fleetwood Hill naby Brandy -stasie oplaai tydens die grootste kavaleriegeveg in Noord -Amerika. Bo-op die heuwel was sy troepe besig met sabel-tot-sabelgevegte teen Stuart se ruiters en probeer om die rebelle van die kruin af te stoot. Kilpatrick se brigade het in drie golwe gelaai, maar die eerste twee het onder vyandelike artillerie en flankvuur weggesmelt. Elders op die veld wankel ander federale brigades rampspoedig, en Kilpatrick besef hoe belangrik dit is om die heuwel vas te hou. Met sy derde regiment kon hy die rebelle inbreek en hulle verstrooi en vir 'n kort tydjie het dit geblyk dat sy sukses die stryd in die guns van die Federale sou gooi. Maar Stuart het sy troepe bymekaargemaak en uiteindelik Kilpatrick en sy kamerade uit Fleetwood gedwing. Die stryd het in die geskiedenisboeke gegaan as nog 'n rebelle -oorwinning. Maar die ruiters van die Unie het vasberadenheid en vasberadenheid getoon en niemand onder hulle nie, net soos die klein haan uit New Jersey. Vier dae later het Kilpatrick die ster van 'n brigadier -generaal gedra.

Tydens die operasies wat die slag van Gettysburg voorafgegaan het, het hy gehelp om te keer dat Stuart sy ruiters deur Maryland, via Edwards ’ Ferry en Boonsborough, kon marsjeer om by die grootste deel van die leër van generaal Robert E. Lee aan te sluit. Alhoewel hy eers op 17 Junie grof hanteer is deur brigadier -generaal Fitzhugh Lee in Aldie, Viriginia, het 'n teenaanval hom in staat gestel om die vyand uit die veld te jaag. Vier dae later was hy besig met 'n hewige sabelgeveg teen Brigadegeneraal Wade Hampton se kavallerie, wat uitloop op 'n aanklag wat die Rebelle uit Upperville, Virginia, en uiteindelik deur Ashby ’s Gap op hul eie infanteriekolomme in die Shenandoah -vallei verdryf het. .

Op 28 Junie 1863 is die Army of the Potomac herorganiseer. Toe generaal-majoor George G. Meade oorhoofse bevel oorgeneem het, het Kilpatrick 'n afdeling in die Cavalry Corps gekry. Die eenheid het bestaan ​​uit twee brigades onder nuut aangestelde generaals, George Custer en Elon J. Farnsworth. Kilpatrick het sy nuwe bevel gelei in sy taak om die sentrum van die weermag te dek, terwyl die Federale Robert E. Lee na Pennsylvania gevolg het.

Op die laaste dag van Junie het Kilpatrick die kavalleriedivisie van Stuart in Hanover, Pennsylvania, teëgekom. Die Federals is opgestel in die strate van die stad, terwyl hulle rus, toe die voorste brigade van Stuart die bevel van Farnsworth geslaan en byna geruiteer het. Farnsworth en Kilpatrick het gejaag om hul lyn te hervorm en te bestendig, en hulle het 'n kragtige teenaanval geloods wat die Grey-ruiters versprei het en amper gelei het tot die vang van Stuart self.

Nadat die Konfederate weggery het, het Kilpatrick Farnsworth se brigade na Gettysburg geneem. Na 'n skerp skermutseling op 2 Julie teen Hampton, bereik die kavallerie die agterkant van die Army of the Potomac. Op die oggend van 3 Julie het die bevel van Kilpatrick ’s aan die linkerkant van die Union -lyn, oorkant die Emmitsburgweg, posisioneer.

3 Julie 1863 was die begin van die afname van Kilpatrick as soldaat. Tot op daardie datum was sy loopbaan belowend en was daar groot dinge van hom verwag. Maar op 3 Julie het hy 'n onverstandige besluit geneem wat gelei het tot die verpletterende deel van Farnsworth se brigade en die dood van sy jong bevelvoerder.

Na die aanklag van Pickett, het Kilpatrick Farnsworth beveel om die uiterste regterkant van die Rebel -lyn aan te val. Dit is oënskynlik beveel om sodanige druk op die noodsaaklike verdedigingspunt uit te oefen dat die Konfederate teruggegooi sou word en hul lyn oop sou wees vir 'n verpletterende aanval deur afdelings van die infanterie van die Unie. Maar dit is ook duidelik dat Kilpatrick die klag beveel het in frustrasie omdat hy die grootste deel van die dag uitgehou is. Hy het besef dat slegs 'n energieke offisier wat sy troepe tot die geveg verbind het, heerlikheid op hierdie veld sou wen.

Maar hy het die onmoontlike van Farnsworth gevra. Die brigade-bevelvoerder moes sterk posisionele infanterie aanval op rowwe, met rotsblokke besaai, ondanks die feit dat hy in die minderheid was. In werklikheid het Farnsworth dit net 'n kort rukkie tevore probeer en het dit misluk. Uiteraard was hy verstom oor die bevel. Generaal, bedoel u dit? vra hy. Sal ek my handjievol mans oor ruwe grond, deur hout, teen 'n brigade infanterie gooi? Die eerste Vermont is reeds half geveg om te sien dat dit te goeie manne is om dood te maak!

Kilpatrick was woedend dat Farnsworth sy bevel sou bevraagteken. Weier u om my bevele te gehoorsaam? As u bang is om hierdie aanklag te lei, sal ek dit lei.

'N Getuie van die konfrontasie onthou later dat die generaal Farnsworth in sy stokbeugels opgestaan ​​het, en hy het pragtig gelyk in sy passie en gehuil:' Neem dit terug! ' Daar was 'n paar sekondes stilte tussen hulle, totdat Farnsworth stilweg sê: Generaal, as u die aanklag beveel, sal ek dit lei, maar u moet die verantwoordelikheid neem.

Sy troepe het die klag ingedien, was net so suksesvol soos die Ligte Brigade in Balaklava, en die verantwoordelikheid rus inderdaad op die skouers van Kilpatrick. In sy amptelike verslag van die geveg het hy egter probeer om sy fout te bedek met bombastiese woorde oor die versuim van die infanterie om die verwarring waarin Farnsworth die rebel reggekry het, uit te buit.

In dieselfde verslag prys Kilpatrick die jong generaal wie se moed hy kort tevore openlik bevraagteken het: … hy het sy ster in bloed gedoop, en … vir die eer van sy jong brigade en die heerlikheid van sy korps, het hy sy edelman prysgegee lewe.

Kilcavalry het daardie dag werklik sy sobriquet verdien, maar hy het probeer om reg te maak deur Lee kragtig na Maryland te jaag. In die dae onmiddellik na die geveg het hy 'n paar Lee ’ -waens gevang, en op plekke soos Hagerstown, Falling Waters, Williamsport en Boonsborough het hy verskillende mate van sukses behaal in die stryd teen die Konfederale infanterie en kavalerie. By die rapportering van hierdie verbintenisse het Kilpatrick egter 'n meerjarige swakheid toegedien omdat hy die aantal gevangenes wat geneem is en die aantal ongevalle wat die vyand toegedien is, oordryf het.

Toe die oorlog verder suid beweeg, keer Kilpatrick terug na Virginia en spandeer die res van die somer en die herfs val weg by J.E.B. Ruiters van Stuart. Hy het 'n kort ruskans geneem van hierdie uitmergelende werk toe hy sy artillerie gebruik het om twee Konfederale bemande geweerbote in die Rappahannock te bombardeer. Daarna het die strydwedstryde hervat, en hy het 'n reeks gevegte by en naby Brandy Station gevoer. In een hiervan het hy 'n beskeie prestasie behaal deur te ontsnap uit 'n omsingeling wat deur Stuart se manne gestel is. Dit is egter later in effens groter terme deur een regimenthistorikus beskryf: Kilpatrick het dus ernstige beserings vrygespring, sy agtervolgers verslaan en een van die grootste besienswaardighede in die Nuwe Wêreld aan die aanskouers voorgehou.

Gedurende die winter van 186364 sit Kilpatrick in die winterkwartiere en dink daaroor na. Hy het sy loopbaan heroorweeg en sy doelwitte herwaardeer. Uiteindelik besluit hy dat sy toekoms in terme van elektiewe amp moet wees: eers word hy goewerneur van sy geboortestaat, en dan die president van die Verenigde State. En hy was vasbeslote om die oorlog te vervolg op 'n manier wat die bereiking van hierdie doelwitte sou verseker. Hy het geweet dat sy huisdier, en dus sy toekoms, in gevaar gestel is op Gettysburg en in die daaropvolgende veldtogte. Dit is duidelik dat hy 'n plan nodig gehad het wat hom nuwe bekendheid sou verleen en sy naam weer in die koerante van die Noorde sou laat spat.

Na baie beraadslaging het hy so 'n plan bedink. Hy sou Richmond met sy kavalerie binnegaan, die Unie -gevangenes daar vrylaat en miskien selfs Konfederale amptenare vang. Hoe meer hy daaroor gedink het, hoe gretiger het hy geword om die skema te toets. hy roem vir ander op sy glans, en dit duur nie lank nie of sy roemery deur die weermag en noordwaarts. President Lincoln het uiteindelik daarvan gehoor en begin wonder. In hierdie derde jaar van vyandighede was die president byna desperaat op soek na 'n bloudruk vir vrede. Ondanks Kilpatrick se ongelyke optredes in die verlede, het Lincoln die ruiters na die Withuis gebel en gevra vir besonderhede. Kilpatrick was meer as bly om te verplig. Toe hy verneem dat Lincoln gretig was om deur Virginia afskrifte van sy amnestie -afkondiging te versprei vir afskeidingslede wat in die Unie wou terugkeer, het hy die president verseker dat sy ekspedisie die ideale middel daarvoor sou wees. Lincoln het uiteindelik sy goedkeuring vir die aanval gegee, en 'n vreugdevolle Kilpatrick keer terug suid om dit op die proef te stel.

Die oggend van 28 Februarie 1864 begin hy sy kavallerie na Richmond vanaf Stevensburg, Virginia. Sy 4 000 troepe het in twee kolomme gery. Onder sy persoonlike bevel sou 3 500 van hulle die stad uit die noorde van 500 tref in 'n afdeling onder leiding van 'n seuntjie, onbeenste kolonel met die naam Ulric Dahlgren, die hoofstad uit die suide sou aanval. Dahlgren is in die planne van Kilpatrick opgeneem omdat hy gretig was om die hel te ruik, en toevallig omdat hy onberispelike sosiale geloofsbriewe gehad het (sy pa was 'n prominente federale admiraal).

Die aanval het glad genoeg begin. Die kolomme het suidwaarts geloop deur wyd uiteenlopende roetes en beplan om 'n gesamentlike aanval op Richmond te maak, wat vermoedelik slegs hierdie winter op 1 Maart bewaak sou word. Beide Kilpatrick en Dahlgren het min teenstand gehad in die vernietiging van spoorlyne en privaat eiendom, en honderde eksemplare van die president se proklamasie versprei.

Maar die koms van die Yankees ’ was deur die Konfederate verwag. Net buite Richmond Kilpatrick is getref deur eenhede van Rebel infanterie, artillerie en kavallerie. Hy wankel en trek terug en slaan terug in die stad toe die sukses byna in sy hande was. Dahlgren is intussen deur 'n onbegaanbare rivier gestrem en het die stad te laat bereik om 'n aanval met Kilpatrick te koördineer. Die kolonel en sy manne is deur 'n winterstorm op 'n wanordelike toevlug gestuur en is uiteindelik omring deur rebelse huisbewaarders. In 'n hinderlaaggeveg is die losbandjie in stukke gesny en het Dahlgren op 21 'n tragiese dood teëgekom.

Sy hoop kreupel, Kilpatrick trek terug na Fort Monroe. Daar het hy bekommerd geraak dat die aanval, in plaas van sy reputasie te versterk, onherstelbaar was. Sy angs het toegeneem toe 'n nasionale omstredenheid ontstaan ​​het oor papiere wat op Dahlgren se lyk gevind is, waarin verklaar word dat die plunderaars beplan het om Richmond te verbrand en president Jefferson Davis en sy kabinet dood te maak.

Voordat die polemiek vertroebel en uiteindelik verdwyn het, het Kilpatrick in werklikheid sy naam prominent in die koerante gesien, veral die Suidelike koerante, wat hom 'n barbaar genoem het, en nog erger.

Kilpatrick het net rede tot kommer. Sy mislukking het daartoe gelei dat hy van Virginia na die Westerse teater oorgeplaas is, waar hy onder 'n kavalleriebevel onder generaal -majoor William T. Sherman aangestel is. Dit was 'n soort demografie, en Kilpatrick kon homself nie bedrieg om anders te glo nie.

Toe hy weswaarts was, was Kilpatrick nie meer die kranige, selfversekerde brandmerk wat hy die vorige jaar was nie. Hy het neerlaag en sensuur geproe, en dit was inderdaad bitter pille. Nietemin het hy sy bes gedoen om gemaklik in Sherman se bevel te pas. Kort nadat hy by sy nuwe afdeling aangesluit het, het hy dit gebruik om die federale rit deur Tennessee en in Georgië te lei, oor Taylor ’s Ridge na Buzzard Roost en deur Snake Creek Gap na Resaca, Georgia.

In die geveg buite Resaca, in Mei, het hy sy eerste groot dosis aksie in die Weste gehad. Daar is hy so erg gewond dat hy gedwing is om die veld te verlaat en noordwaarts terug te keer vir herstel.

Maar deur drie jaar se oorlog het hy nie geleer hoe om van die veldtog ontslae te raak nie. Hy keer terug in diens, in teenstelling met sy dokters se opdragte, toe hy hoor dat Sherman die Chattahoochee -rivier oorgesteek het en op Atlanta beweeg het.

Teen die tyd dat hy terugkeer na die veld, was sy bevelvoerder in die stad, nadat generaal John Bell Hood se konfederale weermag van Tennessee dit in 'n terugtog verlaat het. Omdat sy wond hom verhinder het om te perdry, beveel Kilpatrick 'n wa aan en ry langs sy troepe en skree bevele uit die voorste sitplek. Vanuit die wa het hy selfs 'n klopjag uitgevoer teen die Confederateheld Atlanta-Macon Railroad.

Op 18 Augustus het Kilpatrick, wat nou weer kon ry, 'n ander aanval op Rebel -kommunikasie suid van Atlanta gelei. Hy marsjeer sy afdeling en 'n paar hulpeenhede na die spoorlyn tussen Jonesborough en Griffin, vernietig 'n paar kilometer spoor en word dan uitgedaag deur vyandelike kavallerie, wat sy mag na Lovejoy ’s Station gedruk het. Op 20 Augustus daar aangekom, vind hy Rebel -infanterie oor sy pad. Kilpatrick het byna omring 'n deel van die gees bymekaargemaak wat hom vroeër in die oorlog 'n sterk reputasie besorg het. Hy het sy troepe in die gesig gestaar, aangekla en, volgens die woorde van een historikus, eenvoudig oor die Konfederale kavallerie gery na veiligheid.

Sherman was egter nie tevrede met die skraal prestasies van die aanval nie. Alhoewel hy Kilpatrick nie persoonlik veroordeel het nie, vertrou hy sterker as ooit tevore op sy infanterie om Hood te vang en te oorweldig. Sherman was eers van plan om Hood te verslaan deur hom te skei van sy kommunikasie en aanbod. Toe besluit hy om sy rug op die Konfederale bevelvoerder te draai en met 'n deel van sy leër oos oor Georgië na Savannah en die kus te stoot en die staat uit te brand. Hy stuur generaal-majoor George H. Thomas ’ Army of the Cumberland terug na Tennessee, waar hy te doen kry met Hood se leër na die weste. Toe maak Sherman gereed om na die see te marsjeer.

Hy het Kilpatrick gekies om sy kavallerie te lei, hoewel luitenant -generaal Ulysses Grant voorheen generaal -majoor James H. Wilson aangestel het om al die ruiters in die Sherman -teater te beveel. Sherman het sy besluit in nuuskierige terme aan Wilson verduidelik: ek weet dat Kilpatrick 'n helse dom is, maar ek wil hê dat die soort man my kavallerie op hierdie ekspedisie moet beveel. Daarna het hy Wilson beveel om by generaal Thomas in Tennessee aan te sluit.

Tydens die opmars na die see het Kilpatrick nogal naam gemaak. Sy naam het inderdaad berug geraak vir Georgiërs, wat gekyk het hoe sy kavalleriste oor hul eiendom hardloop. Hulle het geleer dat Kilpatrick voorvalle van plundering en diefstal deur sy mans oor die hoof gesien het omdat hy dit regtig geniet het om afskeidingslede te verwoes.

Sommige van die algemene gunstelinge het ook tydens die veldtog onder die aandag van die publiek gekom. Georgiese koerante berig dat hy saam met vroulike metgeselle gereis het, waaronder twee negermeisies wat vir hom gekook het en met wie hy die bekendste en onbetaamlikste gesprek gevoer het. En 'n Konfederale gevangene onthou later dat hy op sleeptou langs die koets van Kilpatrick marsjeer en die generaal gemaklik op die sitplek uitgestrek sien met sy kop in 'n skoot van 'n vrou.

Die manne van Kilpatrick het die staat vrolik verwoes, en toe die kavallerie die hoofstad, Milledgeville, beset het, het Kilpatrick hul plesier meegemaak. Hy en sy offisiere het by die Georgia House of Representatives ingebreek en 'n skynbare wetgewende sitting gehou. Alhoewel Kilpatrick 'n teetoteller was, het hy na bewering die spreker se standpunt ingeneem en die vergadering herhaal met verhale oor die kavallerie se ywerige veldtogte teen vyandige wynkelders en whisky -winkelkamers. Na 'n ronde toespraak het die kongreslede 'n reeks besluite opgestel, waaronder een wat die Georgia Ordination of Secession tot 'n verdomde klug verklaar.

Tydens die optog voer Kilpatrick 'n lopende oorlog teen generaal -majoor Joseph Wheeler se kavallerie, wat voortdurend aan die rand van die leër van Sherman sweef. Wheeler het Kilpatrick gereeld in skermutselings en verbintenisse beledig, maar selfs Fightin kon Joe nie die onverbiddelike optog deur Sherman beperk nie.

Aan die ander kant het Kilpatrick af en toe die botoon van Wheeler gekry, soos in November toe hy onder bevele van Sherman sy kavallerie noordwaarts na Augusta en dan suidwaarts na Millen swaai. Dit was 'n fyn beweging en Wheeler, wat die aas neem, konsentreer sy kavalerie by Millen, en dink dat die federale ruiters Sherman se vooruitgang aankondig. Eintlik marsjeer Sherman ongemaklik in 'n ander rigting saam met sy vier infanteriekorps.

Omdat hy wanhoop op sy misleiding, het Wheeler probeer om gelyk te word. By een geleentheid het hy Kilpatrick van 'n nagbivak af gery. Op 'n ander dag stoot hy hom weg van 'n paar strategiese doelwitte wat hy beplan het om te vernietig. En toe Kilpatrick se kavallerie Aiken, Suid -Carolina, bereik het, het Wheeler se manne hulle so wreed geslaan dat die Federals soos hoenders uit die stad verdryf is.

Oor die algemeen het Kilpatrick egter 'n doeltreffende taak verrig om die flanke van Sherman ’s te bewaak. Toe die weermag Savannah bereik, net voor Kersfees 1864, het Sherman hom geskryf: Die feit dat ons u in groot mate die opmars van vier sterk infanteriekolomme, met swaar treine en waens, meer as 300 myl deur 'n vyandelike land skuld , sonder die verlies van 'n enkele wa, en sonder die ergernis van kavaleries op ons flanke, is eer genoeg vir enige kavalleriebevelvoerder.

Toe Sherman sy opmars, van Savannah deur die Carolinas, hervat, het Kilpatrick sy pogings om die Konfederasie te laat ly, verdubbel. Volgens die algemene gerugte het hy aan die begin van die veldtog groot hoeveelhede vuurhoutjies aan sy troepe uitgereik. Hy het geen twyfel gelaat oor sy voornemens toe hy aan sommige van sy offisiere gesê het: In jare nadat reisigers deur Suid -Carolina deur 'n skoorsteenstapel sonder huise sal kyk, en die land verlate gaan, en sal vra wie het dit gedoen? ’ sommige Yankee sal antwoord, en#8216Kilpatrick se kavallerie. ’ En hy het nog duideliker met 'n groep voetsoldate gepraat: Daar sal vir julle infanteriste min verdoem word om te vernietig nadat ek deur die hel van afskeiding gegaan het.

Hy het hard probeer om sy woord te hou. As 'n voorbeeld, kyk na sy kort, maar onaangename verblyf in Barnwell, Suid -Carolina, waar sy troepe sorgeloos met hul vuurhoutjies was. Terwyl vlamme 'n deel van die stad verteer het, het Kilpatrick 'n galabal by sy hoofkwartier gehou en selfs 'n paar van die plaaslike dames gedwing om saam met sy offisiere te dans. Daarna het sy soldate die plek, gepas, Burnwell herdoop.

Deur Suid -Carolina het Kilpatrick sy oorlog voortgesit teen Wheeler en luitenant -generaal Wade Hampton, wie se kavallerie die terugtog van die Army of Tennessee bewaak het, weer eens onder generaal Joseph E. Johnston. Benewens die gemagtigde oorlogvoering, was Kilpatrick in 'n bitter persoonlike stryd met Hampton betrokke, wat voortspruit uit berigte dat Hampton -mans die gevangene van die federale troepe laat lynch het. Hoewel Hampton die aanklagte ontken het, het Kilpatrick heftig verklaar dat hy in natura sal vergeld. Dit is moeilik om te bepaal waar die skuldlas hierin moet rus, want ongemagtigde moorde het ongetwyfeld aan beide kante plaasgevind, maar beslis het die kwessie die bittere gevoelens aangevuur wat reeds tussen Kilpatrick en sy teenstanders bestaan ​​het. Sedert die manne van Kilpatrick teruggekeer het deur privaat eiendom te skend, het die mense van Suid -Carolina op die lange duur die meeste daaronder gely.

Kort nadat die Sherman -leër Noord -Carolina binnegekom het, het Kilpatrick miskien die verleentste uur in sy loopbaan verduur. Dit het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van sy ou liefde vir vroulike geselskap.

Ondanks sy wasbeeragtige gesig en sy geringe voorkoms, het Kilpatrick homself nog altyd as 'n damesman beskou. Toe sy vrou Alice in 1863 sterf, het sy passievolle geaardheid blykbaar in losbandigheid verander. Terwyl hy in Virginia was, was hy intiem met 'n mooi kampvolger wat ook 'n goeie vriend van sy ondergeskikte, Custer, was. En in Noord-Carolina reis hy saam met 'n ander metgesel, 'n lang, aantreklike, goed geklede dame.

Vermoedelik was dit sy wat, net in 'n nagrok geklee, van die hoofkwartier van Kilpatrick naby Fayetteville, Noord -Carolina, weggevoer is toe Hampton ’s se kavallerie dit een aand in Maart 1865 aangeval het, self Kilcavalry, met 'n hemp en stewels, vasgevang is toe 'n Die Konfederasie val op hom neer en eis om te weet waar generaal Kilpatrick is. Toe hy besef dat hy in sy slaapklere vir 'n gewone soldaat geneem is, het Kilpatrick na 'n verbygaande ruiter gewys en gesê: Daar gaan hy! Die Rebel het sy berg aangepor en is weg, en Kilpatrick het geen tyd gemors om 'n eie perd te vind en na veiligheid te ry nie. Sy vriendin moes intussen in 'n sloot skuil totdat die geveg verby was. Toe die Konfederate hierdie feite te wete kom, lag hulle hartlik vir Kilpatrick se koste.

Maar die Rebels se vreugde kon nie duur nie. In die daaropvolgende weke het Sherman Johnston in sy laaste hoek teruggehou, en die manne van Kilpatrick het 'n klomp gevangenes ingepalm en#8211 Konfederate wat die nutteloosheid van 'n gedoemde veldtog aangevoel het. Op 26 April is Johnston gedwing om sy leër oor te gee aan Sherman naby Durham Station, Noord -Carolina, en die oorlog was verby. Nadat die Rebel -leër ontbind is, is Kilpatrick bevorder as generaal -majoor van vrywilligers en het hy 'n groot generaalskap in die gewone leër gewen.

Kilpatrick se naoorlogse lewe was gevarieerd en kleurvol as dit uiteindelik tragies was. Nadat hy sy kommissie bedank het, is hy deur president Andrew Johnson aangestel as minister van Chili. In Suid -Amerika, aan die einde van sy vryheid, trou hy met die niggie van die Rooms -Katolieke aartsbiskop van Santiago en vestig hom gemaklik in die huislike lewe toe hy in 1868 na die Verenigde State teruggeroep word.

Kilpatrick word later 'n direkteur van die Union Pacific Railroad, probeer toneelskryf en probeer met talle veterane en#8217 verenigings. Hy verander sy politiek om in 1872 vir die demokraat Horace Greeley te stem, maar keer later terug na die Republikeinse kudde en word in 1880 weer aangestel as minister van Chili. Hy dien daar tot sy dood die volgende jaar as gevolg van 'n niersiekte.

Hy het nooit sy mees gekoesterde doelwitte bereik nie. Alhoewel hy hom in Februarie 1864 as 'n toekomstige goewerneur en president voorgestel het, het hy in 1880 slegs een bod op 'n elektiewe amp gemaak, maar 'n redelik beskeie kandidaat as 'n kongreskandidaat uit New Jersey. Maar hy is verslaan.

Alhoewel dit 'n geringe nederlaag kan lyk, het Kilpatrick dit nooit heeltemal reggekry nie; hy het altyd gesmag na die aanhanger van die kiesers. Vir 'n man wat gedurende sy leeftyd gesien het hoe baie hoop vernietig is, was dit miskien die wreedste teleurstelling van almal.

Hierdie artikel is geskryf deur Edward G. Longacre en oorspronklik gepubliseer in die April 1971 -uitgawe van Burgeroorlogstye geïllustreer Tydskrif.

Maak seker dat u inteken op meer wonderlike artikels Burgeroorlogstye tydskrif vandag!


Sussex County Lost, 9 April: Kilpatrick's Encampment

Not long after the signing of the surrender of the Confederate forces to the Army of the Potomac, many former combatants took up the pen to refight the Civil War in newspapers and books.

Not long after the signing of the surrender of the Confederate forces to the Army of the Potomac, many former combatants took up the pen to refight the Civil War in newspapers and books.

Union Maj. Gen. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick was considered one of the more colorful figures to emerge from the war. The general longed for a more physical and emotional reminder of things past. In 1878, on the rolling hills and fields of his Sussex County farm in Wantage Township, "Little Kil," as he was referred to by his West Point classmates, sought to re-create scenes familiar to the veterans of four years of warfare.

Kilpatrick planned to stage the first re-enactment of a Civil War battle.

Kilpatrick was derisively known to some as "Kill-Cavalry" for his supposed abuse of men and horseflesh during the war. However, not every cavalryman agreed with this infamous nickname. "That he has done some rash things all must acknowledge," wrote one trooper in the 2nd New York Cavalry (the Harris Light Cavalry that Kilpatrick was in command of), "but that he has done much to give a name to the Cavalry of the Union Army must also be acknowledged."

After graduation from West Point in the class of May 1861, the future general fought as a captain at Big Bethel and recruited a portion of the Harris Light Cavalry as its lieutenant colonel at the Sussex Inn. He led a brigade and division of cavalry in the Gettysburg campaign and initiated a failed 1864 raid on Richmond to free Union prisoners from the infamous Libby Prison.

He completed his Civil War career as commander of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's cavalry in the famous March to the Sea and Carolina campaigns. Despite several battlefield embarrassments and three combat wounds, Kilpatrick managed to attain the rank of major general by age 27.

From his early days at West Point, Kilpatrick nourished a keen interest in politics. It is believed that his meteoric rise in rank was integrally tied to political connections he had cultivated over time. However, by 1878 Kilpatrick's political prospects were less than dismal.

Despite repeated attempts, he failed to garner the nomination for New Jersey governor or the U.S. House of Representatives, and had changed political parties twice. As a backer of Rutherford B. Hayes' 1876 presidential bid, Kilpatrick had mismanaged his campaign responsibilities. He lost Hayes' confidence, which cost him a coveted job in the new administration.

But the former cavalry commander would not be thwarted in his attempt to gain additional notoriety or prestige. Now a gentleman farmer in Wantage, he conceived the idea of an immense encampment for Grand Army of the Republic veterans. The three-day event would include military parades, appearances by famous generals and politicians, speeches, a play authored by Kilpatrick himself, even a re-enactment between the veterans and members of the New Jersey National Guard.

At first, preparations went along somewhat smoothly, with Gov. George B. McClellan -- the former Union general -- agreeing to provide troops, tents, arms and equipment. A New York City caterer was engaged to serve special guests at the general's farmhouse. The famous showman P.T. Barnum provided a giant tent to accommodate 5,000 people. A grandstand, fresh-water aqueduct and guardhouse were constructed. In order to recoup funds that he was laying out, Kilpatrick would pay for the free event by charging vendors for booth space.

In order to draw more veterans and the general public to the event, Kilpatrick announced that several well-known and revered generals from the war would be attending. These dignitaries included President Rutherford B. Hayes, New Jersey Gov. George McClellan, and Generals William T. Sherman and Phil Sheridan. However, their attendance was never confirmed prior to the event, and so many of those attending the three-day event were sorely disappointed. Maj. Gen. Dan Sickles, another very colorful member of the general staff of the Union Army, did come to the event to show his support for Kilpatrick.

To quell any fears of anyone who was concerned about crime, Kilpatrick promised that sheriff's deputies and detectives would patrol the camp to ensure pickpockets and "base women" would be discouraged from plying their respective trades.

The event was scheduled to run from Aug. 25-27, 1878. The first day five trains arrived in Deckertown (now Sussex Borough) with each carrying about 400 passengers. Many more came by foot, horseback or carriage. An estimated 4,000 attendees were veterans the remaining 36,000 visitors were composed of family members, curiosity seekers and, despite Kilpatrick's assertions, a criminal element.

The first day's scene was reminiscent of the war itself, as scarred, empty-sleeved veterans arrived at the crowded railroad station accompanied by state militia units in full dress uniforms.

More than 10,000 people made their way 21/2 miles from the train depot to the farm. After they trudged up the dusty roads, the throng quickly became aware of shortages in food and tents. "We didn't have a thing to eat," claimed a member of the New Jersey National Guard, "until my company formed, and each man putting in thirty cents, we bought our supper."

Beer, however, was not in short supply. Apparently the much-touted aqueduct system failed, so participants took advantage of the 10,000 kegs of brew that had been brought to the farm to quench their thirst. "Camp Kilpatrick," likened by the press to "one vast beer garden," had its share of gamblers, pickpockets, roulette wheels, sword swallowers and other raucous performers. Adding innuendo to Kilpatrick's reputation, just a mile from the general's farmhouse was a large tent staffed by "shameless women," who apparently were doing a brisk trade.

Day two included a dress parade, political speeches by one-legged Gen. Dan Sickles and a performance of Kilpatrick's new play, "Allatoona." When actors forgot their lines, the general, hidden off stage, was ready with his prompter's book. The evening concluded with a serenade dedicated to Mrs. Kilpatrick and a grand fireworks display.

The last day of the celebrated August encampment dawned slightly cool and cloudless. By noon, about 30,000 spectators had crammed onto Kilpatrick's pastures for the much-heralded re-enactment battle.

The discharge from a single cannon signaled the opening of a 1,500-man battle. The veterans, acting the part of Confederates, were posted on a hill. The New Jersey state militia attacked from its position on the field below, capturing the battery. The veterans organized and carried out a well-coordinated counterattack with flags flying, musketry rattling and artillery blazing. Hand-to-hand combat in retaking the field pieces left many re-enactors bleeding from small wounds.

Suddenly, Kilpatrick emerged on his horse, dashing into the melee with a flag of truce. Recognizing a supreme dramatic moment, Kilpatrick, standing up in his stirrups, declared for all to hear that his long-standing wish had been fulfilled: He had re-created the past days of glory. The crowd responded with uproarious cheers.

The re-enactment thus concluded, the men marched back to camp. In typical theatrical style, Kilpatrick stood on his porch, his arm in a sling, feigning a wound as the troops filed by him.

For one season at least, the general's farm was destroyed: his grain and hay supply consumed, the cornfield trampled, the orchard ruined, fences pulled down and used for bonfires (much like during the war). Cynics who speculated that he hosted the re-enactment for profit were grossly mistaken. A New York paper sarcastically commented: "This little entertainment will cost him $5,000 when all the bills are in. But what are filthy dollars to a man of sentiment?"

Kilpatrick, however, remained unmoved by the criticism. In this respect, his re-enactment was a perfect reflection of its creator: great fanfare, unfulfilled expectations, political hyperbole, a generous dose of theater, some success and an undercurrent of depravity. If nothing else, this event laid the groundwork for future military re-enactments that in recent decades have helped to educate the general public about early life in the army and specific campaigns and battles that shaped the future history of our country.


Bull Runnings

Some of the more intriguing threads I like to pull are the ones that link well known figures by blood or marriage – family ties. I’ve explored this before in the case of Peyton Manning (establishing that such a link probably doesn’t exist, see hier, hier en hier), and you probably know the story of how a descendant’s relationship to First Bull Run Medal of Honor recipient Adelbert Ames led him to a memorable and often repeated encounter with the 35th President of the United States (if not don’t fret, I’ll talk about it later). Today let’s take a look at one of Ames’s classmates who had not one, but two descendants who are household names in the US today.

In May, 1861 Hugh Judson Kilpatrick graduated from the US Military Academy 17th out of his class of 45. Commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st US Artillery on May 6, 1861, three days later he accepted a captaincy in the 5th New York Infantry, Duryee’s Zouaves. He was with that regiment in the expedition to Big Bethel in June, and in the battle there on June 10th he was severely wounded but did not retire from the field until too weak from loss of blood. Later he organized the 2nd NY Cavalry and by Dec. 1862 had risen to the colonelcy of that regiment. In June of 1863 he became a brigadier general of volunteers in command of a division of cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. He was hand-picked by Sherman to lead his cavalry in Georgia and the Carolinas, and ended the war a Major General USV and Brevet Maj. Gen. USA. After the war he twice served as US envoy to Chile, and he died in that country in 1881, of Bright’s disease at the age of 46.

Today, he serves mainly as a punch-line for Civil War authors working backwards from their conclusions and assumptions regarding his character.

Kilpatrick and his Chilean wife Luisa had a daughter, Laura Delphine, who married an American diplomat named Harry Morgan (no, not that Harry Morgan, though a like-named son would become an actor). Laura and Harry had a daughter named Gloria Laura Mercedes Morgan, who married Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt, an heir to the Vanderbilt fortune. The fruit of that union was Gloria Laura Vanderbilt, the poor little rich girl who became the centerpiece of a bitter custody battle between her widowed mother and the powerful Vanderbilt clan. Eventually, her name graced the butts of hundreds of thousands of women in the 1970’s and ‘80’s. Little Gloria Vanderbilt is the great-granddaughter of Hugh Judson Kilpatrick.

Little Gloria’s fourth marriage, to Wyatt Emory Cooper, produced two sons. Older brother Carter committed suicide in 1988, jumping from the window of the family’s 14th floor apartment before his mother’s eyes. Kilpatrick’s other great-great-grandson, Anderson, pursued a career in journalism, and today has his own news program on CNN. See the resemblance?

By the way, another CNN talking head is named Campbell Brown. S he gets her first name from her mother’s side and her last from her father’s. So it seems s he’s not related to the stepson of Richard S. Ewell, a Confederate brigade commander at First Bull Run. Daardie Campbell Brown wrote a Century Magazine article on his step-dad at Bull Run that can be found in Volume I of Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, and also published The First Manassas: Correspondence between Generals R. S. Ewell and G. T. Beauregard in further defense of Ewell in the face of Beauregard’s unfairly critical recollections. This book is a collection of his Civil War related writings.


Marietta's Rich History

Before there was an Atlanta or a Chattanooga there was Marietta, Ga. A small cluster of homes near the Cherokee town of Kennesaw were reported as early as 1824. An early road in what would become Cobb County crossed the "Shallow Ford" of the Chattahoochee and ran just south of these settlers.

In 1832 the state of Georgia formed 10 counties from what had been Cherokee land. Cobb County was named for Thomas Willis Cobb, U.S. representative, US senator and Supreme Court judge. In 1837 the Georgia Gazetteer reported that the city of Marietta was named for Cobb's wife. The Georgia legislature legally recognized the town on Dec. 19, 1834, but by that time a sizable community already existed. The first plat for the city, since destroyed, was laid out by James Anderson in 1833, who had worked extensively in north Georgia. Like most towns, Marietta had a square in the center with a modest courthouse.

Three years later the state assembly approved a bill creating the Western and Atlantic Railroad. Colonel Stephen Long, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, was chosen to head the project, and he selected Marietta as home base. The impact of locating near Marietta Square was significant. Business began to boom. Three taverns sprang up around the center of town to accompany the early stores of Thomas Johnston and George Winters, John Lemon, Watson W. Simpson, and James Waller. A tanyard was nearby.

By 1838 roadbed and trestles had been built north of the city. Construction continued until 1840 when Long quit, having been criticized by politicians for being too slow. He felt the criticism unfounded, and he was probably correct. For two years work came to a standstill until another engineer was found. On Feb. 7, 1842 Charles Fenton Mercer Garnett took over, using the area that would become Atlanta as his base.

As crews began to clear and grade north of the town a new pastime became popular. The roadbed was perfect for horse racing, and the sport grew quite popular, taking place in the approximate area of the present-day Marietta Welcome Center and Visitors Bureau. The Western and Atlantic began to operate from Atlanta to Adairsville in 1845 and through to Chattanooga in 1850. Tanyards became a thriving business and, coupled with railroad-related revenue, made up a major portion of the city's business income.

Enter John Glover. Arriving in 1848, Glover quickly became a successful businessman and popular politician. So popular that when the town incorporated in 1852, Glover was elected its first mayor. Although the Glovers would be successful at many endeavors through the years, among the earliest successes were a tanyard and warehouse. Also moving to the city were Dix Fletcher, who managed the Howard House, which served as a stagecoach stop, and Henry Greene Cole who ran Cole's, a "bed and breakfast" of the day. In the Howard house register one of their guest was Zachary Taylor of Washington City. Cole ran a hotel called the Marietta Hotel on the south side of the square. It was known as the finest in Marietta.

To the west of the city, near the base of Kennesaw Mountain, a "Dr. Cox" offered treatment with his "water cure." Although visitors described it as "invigorating," most probably just came to get away from the bug-infested coast and to enjoy the good food however, by 1861 Cox began what would develop into a substantial tourist industry. "Dr. Cox" was a real medical doctor, named Dr. Carey Cox, and practiced what is known as homeopathic medicine today. The Cobb Medical Society recognizes him as the first physician.

The Georgia Military Institute was built in 1851 about a mile from the square on Powder Springs Road. Classes began in July with just seven students. By the end of the first year, 28 men were in attendance. During the 1850s fire destroyed much of the city on three occasions. The first, in 1854, destroyed the Howard House and threw Dix Fletcher out of work. He took Mayor Glover's warehouse, which had been spared, and turned it into the Fletcher House, another bed and breakfast to serve the visitors of the growing town. John Denmead, a contractor who helped build the railroad, stayed on and opened the first bank in the city in 1855.

By the time the Civil War began in 1861, Marietta had recovered from the fires and was booming. The Raiders spent the night of April 11 and stole the train on April 12. Twenty-one of the men stayed in the Fletcher House and two stayed in Cole's Marietta Hotel. On the night of April 12, 1862, a group of 23 men spent the night split between Cole's and the Fletcher House. Early the next morning they met in James Andrews' room and proceeded to Marietta Station. Boarding a train, they commandeered it a few minutes later in Big Shanty. The next 50 miles of the ride has been dramatically recreated for generations and is now generally referred to as "The Great Locomotive Chase."

During the summer of 1864, forces under the command of William Tecumseh Sherman moved in and occupied the town. For the next five months, federal troops would pillage by day and ravage by night. In November 1864, men under the command of Union General Hugh Kilpatrick, Sherman's "merchant of terror," set the town on fire. "Uncle Billy's" boys were leaving for the heart of Georgia on "The March to the Sea."

In 30 years as a town Marietta had seen more history than most towns see in a century. Witness the history of the city at the exciting Marietta History Museum on the second floor of the Kennesaw House. See the room where Andrew's Raiders finalized their plans for the Great Train Robbery. Visit the Cherokee section and learn about "removal" on the Trail of Tears.


Researching Civil War Photo: Gloria Vanderbilt’s Great Grandfather

Inleiding: In this article, Melissa Davenport Berry writes about researching a Civil War photo of one of Gloria Vanderbilt’s ancestors. Melissa is a genealogist who has a blog, AnceStory Archives, and a Facebook group, New England Family Genealogy and History.

Heritage Collectors’ Society asked me to research a few photographs recently. Among the collection was this photo of Union General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (1836-1881).

Photo: Hugh Judson Kilpatrick. Credit: Heritage Collectors’ Society.

From this and other articles, I learned that Hugh Kilpatrick was a Union cavalry officer during the Civil War, earned the nickname “Kill-Cavalry,” and achieved the rank of brevet brigadier general. He was born in Deckertown, New Jersey, and graduated from West Point (1861). He served in the Gettysburg campaign and on Sherman’s march to the sea.

In 1864 Kilpatrick led a calvary expedition of 5,000 men around Robert E. Lee’s army near Richmond, Virginia, attempting to relieve union prisoners at Libby prison. The expedition failed in its main objective, but “inflicted considerable loss on the Confederates by destroying their railroads and bridges and cutting up several of their regiments.”

Continuing my research, I found this article in the Augusta Chronicle which referenced General Kilpatrick’s sister. Her name was Adeline “Phebe” Kilpatrick, who married Abiah Wilson in Deckertown, New Jersey.

Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), 15 February 1904, page 6

The couple purchased (about 1870) a plantation called “Innisfail” in Morgan County, Georgia, once the summer residence of Robert Taylor, a Confederate general in the Georgia State Militia. Kilpatrick’s nephews Dr. A. O. Wilson and Walter Wilson stayed on the property when their father returned to New Jersey.

Walter told reporters a war tidbit about his uncle:

“General Kilpatrick was a self-made man, and graduated at West Point when Gen. Pierce M. B. Young was a cadet. …during a certain battle [Battle of Big Bethel, 10 June 1861] in the Civil War, a Confederate officer who had been in his class at West Point recognized the general across the lines and pointed him out to a sharpshooter, who sent a bullet though his knee wounding him for life.”

The House of the Ferret antique shop in South Deerfield, Massachusetts, has a sampler made by Adeline “Phebe” when she was 14 years old. The sampler contains the verse:

And must this body die
This mortal frame decay
And must these active limbs of mine
Lie moldering in the clay

After the Civil War, Hugh Kilpatrick served as U.S. Minister to Chile and married a wealthy Chilean woman, Luisa Fernandez de Valdivieso.

Photo: Luisa and Hugh Kilpatrick. Credit: Ohio History Collection, Sherman Family Papers, P 42 Box 1, Folder 1, Page 6, Image Number 22.

They had two daughters: Julia Mercedes Kilpatrick (who married U.S. Army Brigadier General William Carroll Rafferty) and Laura Isabel Delphine Kilpatrick (who married Harry Hays Morgan).

Laura and Harry Morgan had twin daughters: Thelma (who married Marmaduke Furness and became Viscountess Furness) and Gloria (who married Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt).

Photo: twin daughters of Laura and Harry Morgan: Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt (left) with her identical twin, Thelma Morgan, Viscountess Furness, in 1955. Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Gloria and Reginald Vanderbilt had a daughter, Gloria Vanderbilt, who became a famous artist and socialite.

When Kilpatrick’s great granddaughter Gloria Vanderbilt made her debut as a fashion designer, she told the Dallas Morning News, “I wanted to make something of myself… Maybe the drive is in my genes,” which derived from both sides of her potent pedigree. Gloria’s four marriages are catalogued in this article, which she claims no fame to, but her “workhorse” ethic is in her blood.

Well, Gloria is a tight fit to her forbearer great grandfather Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, who distinguished himself as a battle lord and a Chilean minister. Perhaps she inherited her fondness of home fashion and needlecraft from her great Aunt Phebe.

Gloria, dubbed “the Renaissance Woman” in the creative field, proved to supersede all her ancestor’s fame with her Murjani fashion enterprise. No one can accuse Gloria of riding anyone’s coattails as she asserted: “My track record stands for itself.”

Other famous kin in Gloria’s line include Anderson Cooper, Julia Ward Howe, Robert Trent Paine, and J. P. Morgan.


Hugh Kirkpatrick from Lurgan

Note: The Birth Dates of many people in this Patrick Line are incorrect, dates made up to fit a narrative told by Dr. Lee Wellington Patrick, but dates that do not match with the source material. Burke's Landed Gentry contains the dates many in this line inherited their property, meaning after the death of the parent, but most contain no actual birth or death dates.

From Burke's Landed Gentry, 1834 Edition, Vol 2.Page 471

John Patrick (son of William Patrick, who obtained a grant of the lands of Overmains, near Kilwinning, from the monastery) acquired by charter, in 1605, the estate of Byres, in Ayrshire, and subsequently part of the lands of Dalgarven. He died in 1638, leaving five sons, I. Hew, his heir. II. Robert, infeft in part of Dalgarven. III. James, infeft in another part of Dalgarven in 1638, who married Agnes Finlay, and left six sons, all of whom after his death assumed the surname of Kilpatrick, viz.

  • 1. Thomas, his heir.
  • 2. Hew, minister of Cumnock.
  • 3. John, of Castleton.
  • 4. James, minister of Pennycuick, in Mid Lothian, whose daughter, Christian, married Sir John Clerk, bart. of Pennycuick.
  • 5. Robert, a writer in Edinburgh.
  • 6. William, minister of Antrim, Ireland.

From James Reid's "The History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Vol. 3", Page 42

Rev. Hugh Kirkpatrick, from Scotland, who was minister in Lurgan from about 1686 to the Revolution he then retired to his native country, supplied the parish of Dalry from 1689 to 1691, when he was settled in Old Cumnock and, being transported by the Irish Synod from Lurgan to Ballymoney in 1693, and urged to return, he left Cumnock in 1695, and was installed in Ballymoney,where he died in 1712. His son (James) was educated in Glasgow, and I find he was a fellow student in the divinity class with Simpson, afterwards professor of divinity in the University, and suspended on account of having embraced Arianism. The Rev. James Kirkpatrick succeeded the venerable Anthony Kennedy in Templepatrick, was ordained to that charge in August, 1699, and demitted it September 24, 1706. While in that congregation, he published, anonymously, " A Sermon occasioned by the King's Death and her present Majesty's [Anne] Accession to the Crown. Preached March 29, by a Presbyterian Minister in the North." [Belfast] 1702, 410, pp. 16. It is recommended by Mr. Upton, one of the elders of that congregation. Mr. Kirkpatrick was the author of several other publications, which are subsequently noticed in these pages. [In 1710, Christian, daughter of the Rev. Hugh Kirkpatrick, and sister of the author of " Presbyterian Loyalty," married Surgeon Joseph Boyd, of Armagh, great-grandfather of the Rev. Daniel G. Brown, minister of Newtownhamilton. Mr. Brown has inherited a fine oil portrait of the Rev. Hugh Kirkpatrick, as well as several other interesting memorials.

From Rev. William Dod Killen, D.D., "Congregations of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland and Biographical Notices of Eminent Presbyterian Ministers and Laymen"

Page 44 In April,1692, the people applied to the Synod of Ulster for advice about a minister, David Boyd and Robert Love being their commissioners. In 1693, the Synod transferred Mr. Hugh Kirkpatrick from Lurgan to this congregation but he being in Scotland, where he had fled at the Revolution, did not come over to his new charge till 1695. Mr. Kirkpatrick was Moderator of Synod in 1699. He was father to the Rev. Dr. James Kirkpatrick, afterwards of Belfast, the author of “Presbyterian Loyalty.” Mr. Hugh Kirkpatrick died in April, 1712.

Page 186 LURGAN 1st. THE earliest account we have of this congregation is in 1684, when we find it about to be planted. In 1686 Mr. Hugh Kirkpatrick was minister here. He retired to Scot land at the time of the Revolution, and became minister of a parish there.


Hugh J. Kilpatrick

Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, or Judson Kilpatrick as he was more commonly known, began his military career after graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1861 at the outbreak of the war. On May 9, 1861, he became captain of the 5th New York Infantry after serving shortly as a commissioned second lieutenant. On June 10, 1861, he became the first officer of the Union army to be wounded during the war, while leading men at the Battle of Big Bethel. In September of 1861, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd New York Cavalry, and fought during the Battle of Second Manassas. In December of 1862, he was promoted to Colonel. In February of 1863, Kilpatrick took command of a brigade in the newly formed Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac. He led his brigade throughout the Chancellorsville Campaign, during which he harassed Lee’s army and destroyed Confederate supplies. He took part in most of the major engagements of Union cavalry in the Eastern Theatre, including battles at Beverly Ford and Stoneman’s Raid. During the Gettysburg Campaign, Kilpatrick took part in the largest cavalry battle of the war on June 9, 1863 at the Battle of Brandy Station. On June 14, 1863, Kilpatrick was promoted to Brigadier General. He commanded troops at the Battle of Gettysburg, and clashed with Confederate forces numerous times, including one charge after the failure of Pickett’s Charge that led to great Union casualties amongst his ranks. He continued to attack the Confederates forces throughout their retreat to Virginia.

In February of 1864, Kilpatrick commanded the 3rd Cavalry Division during a very unsuccessful raid on Richmond intended to free Union prisoners of war. This caused Kilpatrick to be transferred to the forces of General William T. Sherman. He was wounded on May 13, 1864, at the Battle of Resaca during the early days of the Atlanta Campaign, but returned in July to continue harassing Confederate forces on Sherman’s “March to the Sea” as well as during the Carolina Campaigns, where he accompanied General Sherman to surrender negotiations with Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston. His reputation during the war for launching foolish cavalry charges and dangerous attacks led many to refer to Kilpatrick as “Kil-Cavalry.”

After the war, Kilpatrick was involved in politics, and served as the United States ambassador to Chile.


Kilpatrick’s “Shirt-Tail Skedaddle”

Aan March 10, 1865, Confederate Gen. Wade Hampton surprised Union Gen. Hugh J. Kilpatrick at Monroe’s Crossroads. Kilpatrick’s 3rd Cavalry Division was protecting the left flank of Gen. William T. Sherman’s army as troops headed north.

On the night of March 9, Kilpatrick’s division camped at Monroe’s Crossroads, in what is now Hoke County. Confederate cavalrymen led by Hampton approached the camp from behind and found the rear of it completely defenseless. They retreated to plan a surprise attack.

The next morning, Kilpatrick woke up early and stepped outside of the house in his nightshirt. At that point, Confederate cavalrymen charged through the camp. Groggy Federal soldiers rose from their bedrolls, clumsily took their weapons and headed for shelter. Still only in his nightshirt, Kilpatrick ran across the yard in his bare feet, mounted a horse and escaped.

In just a few minutes the Confederates had overrun the camp. Union troops regained control when a lieutenant reached the unguarded Confederate artillery pieces and fired them into a mass of Confederates. By 9 a.m., the Confederates had retreated.

Today, the battlefield site is an artillery impact area at Fort Bragg. The gravestones of Union and Confederate soldiers who lost their lives that day are hidden throughout the woods.

  • Images of the Civil War from the State Archives
  • The Civil War on NCpedia from the N.C. Museum of History
  • The North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial Committee

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