Ballinchalla deksel vaas

Ballinchalla deksel vaas


Japannese erdewerk en porselein

Aardewerk en porselein (陶磁 器, tōjiki, ook 焼 き も の yakimono, of 陶 芸 tōgei), is een van die oudste Japannese kunsvlyt en kunsvorme wat uit die Neolitiese tydperk dateer. Oonde vervaardig erdewerk, erdewerk, steengoed, geglasuurde erdewerk, geglasuurde steengoed, porselein en blou-en-wit ware. Japan het 'n buitengewoon lang en suksesvolle geskiedenis van keramiekproduksie. Erdware is reeds in die Jōmon -tydperk (10 500–300 v.C.) geskep, wat Japan een van die oudste keramiektradisies ter wêreld gegee het. Japan word verder onderskei deur die ongewone agting wat keramiek in sy artistieke tradisie geniet, as gevolg van die blywende gewildheid van die teeseremonie.

Japannese keramiekgeskiedenisrekords het baie pottebakkername onderskei, en sommige was kunstenaars-pottebakkers, bv. Hon'ami Kōetsu, Ogata Kenzan en Aoki Mokubei. [1] Japannese anagama -oonde het ook deur die eeue gefloreer, en die invloed daarvan weeg die invloed van die pottebakkers. 'N Ander kenmerkende Japannese aspek van die kuns is die volgehoue ​​gewildheid van ongeglasuurde vuurvaste steengoed selfs nadat porselein gewild geword het. [1] Sedert die 4de eeu is Japannese keramiek dikwels beïnvloed deur Chinese en Koreaanse aardewerk. Japan het die Chinese en Koreaanse prototipes omskep en vertaal in 'n unieke Japannese skepping, en die resultaat was duidelik Japannees. Sedert die middel van die 17de eeu toe Japan begin industrialiseer het, het [2] standaardware van hoë gehalte wat in fabrieke vervaardig is, 'n gewilde uitvoer na Europa geword. In die 20ste eeu het 'n moderne keramiekbedryf (bv. Noritake en Toto Ltd.) grootgeword.

Japannese erdewerk word onderskei deur twee gepolariseerde estetiese tradisies. Aan die een kant is daar 'n tradisie van baie eenvoudige en grof afgewerkte erdewerk, meestal in erdewerk en met 'n gedempte palet aardkleure. Dit hou verband met die Zen -Boeddhisme en baie van die grootste meesters was priesters, veral in die vroeë periodes. Baie stukke hou ook verband met die Japannese teeseremonie en bevat die estetiese beginsels van wabi-sabi ("soberheidsroes/patina"). Die meeste raku ware, waar die finale versiering gedeeltelik willekeurig is, is in hierdie tradisie. [3] Die ander tradisie is van hoogs afgewerkte en helderkleurige fabrieksware, meestal in porselein, met 'n komplekse en gebalanseerde versiering, wat die Chinese porseleinstyle op 'n duidelike manier ontwikkel. [4] 'n Derde tradisie, van eenvoudige, maar perfek gevormde en geglasuurde klipware, hou ook meer verband met beide Chinese en Koreaanse tradisies. In die 16de eeu het 'n aantal style van tradisionele utilitaristiese, rustieke ware wat destyds in produksie was, bewonder vir hul eenvoud, en hul vorms word gereeld tot op hede in produksie gehou vir 'n versamelaarsmark. [5]


Inhoud

Blou glansers is eers deur antieke Mesopotamiërs ontwikkel om lapis lazuli, wat 'n baie gewaardeerde klip was, na te boots. Later het 'n kobaltblou glans gewild geword in Islamitiese erdewerk tydens die Abbasid -kalifaat, waartydens die kobalt naby Kashan, Oman en Noord -Hejaz ontgin is. [4] [5]

Tang en Song blou-en-wit Edit

Die eerste Chinese blou -en -wit ware is reeds in die sewende eeu in die Henan -provinsie, China tydens die Tang -dinastie vervaardig, hoewel slegs skerwe ontdek is. [6] Tang-periode blou-en-wit is meer skaars as Song-blou-en-wit en was onbekend voor 1985. [7] Die Tang-stukke is egter nie porselein nie, maar eerder erdeware met groenwit strokie, met kobaltblou pigmente. [7] Die enigste drie stukke volledige "Tangblou en wit" ter wêreld is in 1998 van die Indonesiese Belitung -skeepswrak verhaal en later aan Singapoer verkoop. [8] Dit blyk dat die tegniek al eeue lank vergete was. [4]

In die vroeë 20ste eeu is die ontwikkeling van die klassieke blou-wit porselein uit Jingdezhen uit die vroeë Ming-tydperk gedateer, maar konsensus stem nou saam dat hierdie ware omstreeks 1300-1320 begin word en teen die middel van die eeu ten volle ontwikkel is , soos aangetoon deur die David Vases uit 1351, wat hoekstene vir hierdie chronologie is. [9] Daar is steeds diegene wat beweer dat vroeë stukke verkeerd gedateer is en in werklikheid teruggaan na die Southern Song, maar die meeste geleerdes verwerp steeds hierdie siening. [10]

14de-eeuse ontwikkeling Redigeer

In die vroeë 14de eeu begin massaproduksie van fyn, deurskynend, blou en wit porselein by Jingdezhen, soms die porselein kapitaal van China. Hierdie ontwikkeling was te danke aan die kombinasie van Chinese tegnieke en Islamitiese handel. [11] Die nuwe ware is moontlik gemaak deur die uitvoer van kobalt uit Persië (genoem Huihui qing, 回回 青, "Islamitiese blou"), gekombineer met die deurskynende wit kwaliteit van Chinese porselein, afgelei van kaolien. [11] Kobaltblou word beskou as 'n kosbare goed met 'n waarde van ongeveer twee keer die waarde van goud. [11] Motiewe put ook inspirasie uit Islamitiese versierings. [11] 'n Groot deel van hierdie blou-en-wit ware is daarna na die Suidwes-Asiatiese markte gestuur deur die Moslem-handelaars in Guangzhou. [11]

Chinese blou en wit porselein was een keer afgedank: nadat die porseleinliggaam gedroog is, versier is met verfynde kobaltblou pigment wat met water gemeng is en met 'n kwas aangebring is, is dit bedek met 'n helder glasuur en op hoë temperatuur afgevuur. Vanaf die 16de eeu het plaaslike bronne van kobaltblou begin ontwikkel, hoewel Persiese kobalt die duurste gebly het. [11] Die vervaardiging van blou en wit ware het tot vandag toe in Jingdezhen voortgegaan. Blou -wit porselein wat in Jingdezhen gemaak is, het waarskynlik die hoogtepunt bereik van sy tegniese uitnemendheid tydens die bewind van die Kangxi -keiser van die Qing -dinastie (r. 1661–1722).

14de eeu Edit

Die ware ontwikkeling van blou en wit ware in China het begin in die eerste helfte van die 14de eeu, toe dit geleidelik die eeue lange tradisie van (gewoonlik) ongeverfde blou-wit suidelike Chinese porselein vervang het, of Qingbai, sowel as Ding ware uit die noorde. Die beste en vinnig die belangrikste produksie was in Jingdezhen -porselein uit die Jiangxi -provinsie. Daar was reeds 'n aansienlike tradisie van geverfde Chinese keramiek, wat destyds hoofsaaklik deur die gewilde Cizhou -ware van steengoed verteenwoordig is, maar die hof het dit nie gebruik nie. Vir die eerste keer in eeue het die nuwe blou en wit 'n beroep op die smaak van die Mongoolse heersers van China gehad.

Blou en wit ware het ook sy verskyning begin maak in Japan, waar dit bekend gestaan ​​het sometsuke. Verskeie vorms en versierings is sterk beïnvloed deur China, maar het later sy eie vorms en style ontwikkel.


Inhoud

Die liggaam van Longquan celadon, soos gesien in fragmente onder glasuur, wissel van "'n swaar, kompakte grys steengoed tot 'n byna wit porselein", maar as dit op die oppervlak afgevuur word, word dit 'n tipiese terracotta rooibruin, gesien aan die ongeglasuurde voet van baie stukke, en as reliëfversiering ongeglasuurd gelaat word (sien hieronder en illustrasie). Dit onderskei Longquan van Noordelike Celadons. Dit mag egter nie die geval wees in stukke gemaak van die mees witterige, porseleinagtige materiaal nie, waar die afgevuurde liggaam ook "deurskynend kan wees as dit dun genoeg is". [8] In Westerse bronne word individuele stukke normaalweg as steengoed geklassifiseer, maar sommige kan porselein genoem word [9] materiaal wat uit die Chinees vertaal is, sal dit waarskynlik as "porselein" beskryf. [10]

Die lyk is normaalweg op die pottebakker se wiel gegooi, met groot vase wat dikwels in dele geslinger is en saamgespuit is. Daar is sjablone gebruik, en soms vorms, insluitend vorms in twee dele, en vorms met versiering. Ongeglasuurde beskuitjie -afdelings is verkry óf deur die reliëf oor 'n geglasuurde oppervlakte te spuit, waar die oppervlak plat in die oond sou wees, óf deur 'n weerlaag van was of vet by te voeg voordat dit geglasuur word, wanneer die kante van 'n vaas versier is. [11]

Die glaskleure wissel oor 'n wye spektrum van grys tot blouerige setperke, ook 'n paar geelbruin. [12] Die kleur kom van ysteroksied wat in 'n verminderende atmosfeer afgevuur word, en die kleur wissel met die temperatuur en die sterkte en tydsberekening van die reduksie. Longquan celadon is afgevuur in lang draakovens, baksteen tonnels wat teen 'n helling opstaan, met 'n reeks kamers, en die beste resultate het die potte in die boonste stadiums gekry, wat stadiger en egaliger verhit het. Saggars is altyd gebruik, en die langer oonde, met tot twaalf kamers, kon moontlik 25 000 stukke op 'n slag afvuur. Die vuurtemperatuur was waarskynlik tussen 1,180 ° C en 1,280 ° C, met 'n reikafstand van meer as 1,250 ° C wat die beste groen of blou kleure gee. [13] In sommige gevalle blyk daar ten minste lae glasuur te gewees het en ook verskeie afvure om 'n dieper glans -effek te verkry. [14]

Die glans word ondeursigtig deur die teenwoordigheid van plantas en klein gasborrels, wat 'n glansende effek gee. Met die witter lyfklei kan stukke deurskynend wees. [15] Die uitgesproke rooierige kleur van ongeglazuurde gebiede kom van die einde van die vuur, aangesien die verhitte klei in aanraking kom met vars lug wat in die oond kom, en die yster wat teenwoordig word, in ysteroksied verander. [16] Baie stukke het gekraak of gekraak in die glasuur, maar baie minder as in die nou verwante Guan -ware. 'N Tegniek wat soms voor ongeveer 1400 gevind is, was om kolle of spatsels by te voeg van 'n mengsel ryk aan ysteroksied met 'n willekeurige voorkoms wat donkerbruin was. [17]

Sowel die Chinese as die Japannese tradisie het 'n reeks terme ontwikkel om die kleure en kwaliteite van die glans te beskryf, en sommige van die Japannese het die voordeel dat dit aan spesifieke stukke in Japan geanker is. Die term kinuta (砧 青瓷) wat "hamer" beteken, waarskynlik na 'n spesifieke hamervaas, verteenwoordig die mees bewonderde blougroen kleur uit die Song-periode, en word dikwels in Engels gebruik, terwyl tenryūji het '' 'n flou geelgroen toon ', en is afkomstig van die Yuan en Ming. Die shickikan tipe kom uit die middelste Ming, nadat die glans meer deursigtig geword het. [18] Soos met ander celadons, was die ooreenkoms van die kleur met jade, altyd die mees gesogte materiaal in Chinese kuns, 'n belangrike faktor in die aantrekkingskrag van die Chinese, en iets wat die pottebakkers probeer toeneem het. [19]

Die meeste vorms is eenvoudig, maar baie elegant. Die grootte en versiering van groter fyn stukke neem vanaf die Yuan toe, en in die 14de eeu word 'n paar baie groot vase en wyndeksels gemaak. Die "hamer" vaas was 'n spesiale gunsteling by Longquan, dikwels met handvatsels wat as diere of jakkalse gevorm is. [20] Begrafnisvase, wat in pare gemaak word, bevat ook baie bekoorlik gestileerde diere, gewoonlik tiere en jakkalse, wat om die skouers van die vaartuig gekrul is. Dit is gebruik in die suidelike Chinese begrafnisgebruik om voorraad vir die hiernamaals op te slaan. [21] 'n Ander duidelike Longquan-styl was 'n skottel met twee of meer visse wat in die middel swem, in koekies of geglasuur, en soms is daar gate geboor vir metaalhandvatsels, soos genoem in 'n bron uit die laat 14de eeu. [22]

Oor die algemeen neig Longquan -versiering uit die liggaam, en die gevolge wat Noordelike Celadon kry as 'n glasuur oor 'n vlak kerf in die liggaam kom, kom minder gereeld voor. Vroeëre stukke is tevrede met subtiele glans -effekte, wat dikwels beklemtoon word deur die glans wat oor klein rante of ribbes verdun [23], terwyl latere stukke meer uitgebreide blommebolle of diere in reliëf het. [24] Godsdienstige beeldjies en heiligdomme was skaars voor die Yuan, en nooit 'n groot deel van die produksie soos in Qingbai nie, dit meng soms koekies, vir die vlees of figuur, met 'n geglasuurde agtergrond. [25]


Lundbergstudios

Die volgende patrone is patrone wat tans nie in produksie is nie. Ons het moontlik 'n ou voorraad van sommige van die patrone beskikbaar. Dit word meestal slegs vir inligtingsdoeleindes hier vertoon.

Sterre nag

522SN - Flare vaas - $ 297,00 - 10 "H
413 - Wêreldgeurfles - $ 294,00 - 3,5 "H*
545SN- Hartvaas - $ 294,00 - 7 "H
574SN - Trompetvaas - $ 399,00 - 13 "H
472M - Orb Perfume w/ Moon Stopper - $ 231,00 - 3,5 "H x 3,5" D*

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Ariana

522ARA-Flare vaas-10 "H- $ 294
510ARA - Trompet met metaal (brons) basis - 17 "H - $ 693
509ARA - Petite Corset - 10 "H - $ 305
521ARA - Klassieke knop - 12 "H - $ 336
578ARA - Juweliersware skottel - 2,5 "x3,5" D - $ 158

Piesangblaar
542BNL & ndash Klein vaas - $ 252,00 & ndash 8 & rdquoH
554BNL & ndash Tall French Vase - $ 336,00 & ndash 12 & rdquoH
518BNL & ndash Small Bowl - $ 221,00 & ndash 4 & rdquoHx5 & rdquoD

Blue Luster I

545B - Hartvaas - $ 284,00 - 7 "H
486B - Groot skottelparfuum - $ 231,00 - 3,5 "Hx4" D*
516B - Geruite trompet - $ 389,00 - 12 "H
520B - Enkele knopvaas in metaalbasis - $ 242,00 - 11 "H
523B - Tiffany Style soutgereg - $ 147,00 - 1,5 "Hx3" D
607BD - 7 "Blue Diamond Optic lamp - $ 578,00 - 14" H
485B - Amphora Parfuum - $ 242,00 - 8,5 "H
517B - Budvaas in metaalbasis - $ 231,00 - 11 "H
504PB - Petite Stemmed Trompetvaas - $ 368,00 - 12 "H

Blue Luster II

509B - Korsetvaas - $ 389,00 - 13 "H
487BR - Parfuum met klein geriffelde piering - $ 221,00 - 3 "Hx3,5" D
473BR - Parfum met geribde bol - $ 221,00 - 3,5 "Hx3,5" D*
556BC - met groot geriffelde vaas - $ 347,00 - 11 "H
542B- Klein vaas - $ 242,00 - 8 "H

547B -geribde blomme vaas - $ 284,00 - 9 "H

Goudglans

509G - Korsetvaas - $ 389,00 - 13 "H
485H - Heart & amp Vine Amphora Parfum - $ 242,00 - 8.5 "D*
519H - Heart & amp Vine Tall Bud Vase - $ 325,00 - 13 "H
529PH - Heart & amp Vine Petite Classic - $ 231,00 - 8 "H
527G - Petite Jack in the Preekstoel- $ 315,00 - 9-10 "H
487H - Heart & amp Vine Small Parfum - $ 221,00 - 3 "H x 3,5" D*
516G - Geruite trompet - $ 389,00 - 12 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Goud Van Gogh

563GVG - Tall Flare Vase - $ 368,00 - 12 "H
529PGVG - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 231 - 8 "H
519GVG - Tall Bud Vase - $ 325,00 - 13 "H
476GVG - Groot parfuum - $ 231,00 - 4 "H x 3,5" D*
559GVG - Bell Vase - $ 325,00 - 11 "H
595GVG - Geassorteerde mini -vaas - $ 179,00 - 3-4 "H
556GVG - Groot vaas - $ 347,00 - 11 "H
574GVG - Trompetvaas - $ 389,00 - 13 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Keiserlik

Let wel: hierdie patroon is gemaak met 'n kleur wat ons nie gereeld gebruik nie. Daar kan 'n lang wagtyd wees vir items wat nie in voorraad is nie.

545MVJA - Mini hartvaas - $ 200,00 - 5 "H
554VJA - Lang Franse vaas - $ 315,00 - 12 "H
518VJA - Klein bak - $ 210,00 - 4 "H x 5" D
542VJA - Klein vaas - $ 242,00 - 8 "H
511VJA - Flesvaas - $ 200,00 - 7 "H
557VJA - Figuurvaas - $ 305,00 - 11 "H
486VJA - Groot skottelparfuum - $ 231,00 - 3,5 "H x4" D*
529PVJA - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 231,00 - 8 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Isabella

554ISB - Lang Franse vaas - $ 347,00 - 11 "H
545ISB - Hartvaas - $ 284,00 - 7 "H
574ISB - Trompetvaas - $ 389,00 - 13 "H
511ISB - Flesvaas - $ 200,00 - 7 "H
578ISB - Juweliersware - $ 147,00 - 2,5 "H x 3,5" D.
562ISB - Petite Flare vaas - $ 242,00 - 8 "H
487ISB - Klein skottelparfuum - $ 221,00 - 3 "H x 3,5" D*
565ISB - Deco vaas - $ 347,00 - 10 "H
585ISB - Amphora vaas - $ 231,00 - 7 "H

Kantharte

545LH - Hartvaas - $ 314,00 - 7 "H
595LH ​​- Geassorteerde mini -vaas - $ 209,00 - 4-6 "H
559PLH - Petite Bell vaas - $ 324,00 - 9 "H
487LH - Klein piering - $ 251,00 - 3 "H x 3,5" D*
521LH - Classic Bud Vase - $ 345,00 - 12 "H
404 - Tempest Moon Paperweight - $ 221,00 - 3,5 "D
585LH - Amphora Vaas - $ 231,00 - 7 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Oceana

580W - Regal Vase - $ 546,00 - 13 "H
529PW - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 231,00 - 8 "H
582W - Franse tapse vaas - $ 284,00 - 11 "H
545W - Hartvaas- $ 284,00 - 7 "H
561W - Groot flare vaas - $ 430,00 - 11 "H

Rooi Moire

519E - Tall Bud Vase - $ 325,00 - 13 "H
545E - Hartvaas - $ 284,00 - 7 "H
556E - Groot vaas - $ 347,00 - 11 "H
529E - Klassieke vaas - $ 315,00 - 12 "H
529PE - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 231,00 - 8 "H
510E - Trompet in metaalbasis - $ 662,00 - 18 "H
476E - Groot parfuum van groot orde - $ 231,00 - 4 "H x 3,5" D*
583E - Tumbler Vase - $ 315,00 - 12 "H
565E - Deco vaas - $ 347,00 - 10 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Valentine

529PVT - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 261,00 - 8 "H
529VT- Klassieke vaas - $ 345,00 - 12 "H
511VT - Flesvaas - $ 230,00 - 7 "H
487VT - Klein skottelparfuum - $ 251,00 - 3 "H x 3,5" D*
562VT - Petite Flare - $ 272,00 - 8 "H
545MVT - Mini hartvaas - $ 230,00 - 5 "H
545VT - Hartvaas - $ 314,00 - 7 "H
485VT - Amphora Parfuum - $ 272,00 - 8,5 "H

*Die stophoogte voeg 3-4 "by die afmetings

Violet Iris

Let wel: hierdie patroon is gemaak met 'n kleur wat ons nie gereeld gebruik nie. Daar kan 'n lang wagtyd wees vir items wat nie in voorraad is nie.

545MVI - Mini hartvaas - $ 200,00 - 5 "H
529PVI - Petite Classic Vaas - $ 231,00 - 8 "H
595VI - Geassorteerde mini -vaas - $ 179,00 - 4-6 "H
557VI - Figuurvaas - $ 305,00 - 11 "H
511VI - Flesvaas - $ 200,00 - 7 "H
538VI - Kalebasvaas - $ 242,00 - 8 "H
588VI - Skottelvaas - $ 242,00 - 5,5 "H x 6" D.
487VI - Klein skottelparfuum - $ 221,00 - 3 "H x 3,5" D*


Hierdie prent kan gratis afgelaai word onder die Getty's Open Content -program.

Pot-pourri-vaas met deksel (vaas of pot-pourri vaisseau à mât, deuxième grandeur)

Charles -Nicolas Dodin (Frans, 1734 - 1803) Jacques -Philippe Le Bas (Frans, 1707 - 1783) David Teniers die Jongere (Vlaams, 1610 - 1690) Sèvres Manufactory (Frans, gestig 1756) 37,5 × 34,8 × 17,3 cm (14 3/4 × 13 11/16 × 6 13/16 in.) 75.DE.11

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Tans nie te sien nie

Alternatiewe aansigte

Einde profiel

Fabrieksmerk

Voorwerpbesonderhede

Titel:

Pot-pourri-vaas met deksel (vaas of pot-pourri vaisseau à mât, deuxième grandeur)

Kunstenaars/vervaardigers:

Skildery op voorpaneel toegeskryf aan Charles -Nicolas Dodin (Frans, 1734 - 1803)

Reserwe tonele na gravures deur Jacques -Philippe Le Bas (Frans, 1707 - 1783)

Na skilderye deur David Teniers die Jongere (Vlaams, 1610 - 1690)

Kultuur:
Plek:

Sèvres, Frankryk (plek geskep)

Medium:

Sagtepasta porselein pienk en groen gemaalde kleure poligroom emalje versiering en verguld

Voorwerpnommer:
Afmetings:

37,5 × 34,8 × 17,3 cm (14 3/4 × 13 11/16 × 6 13/16 in.)

Handtekening (s):

Onder geverf met die blou gekruiste "L "'s (gedeeltelik afgeskuur) van die Sèvres -fabriek

Departement:

Beeldhouwerk en dekoratiewe kunste

Klassifikasie:
Soort voorwerp:
Voorwerpbeskrywing

Hierdie bootvormige vaas is een van die bekendste modelle wat deur die Sèvres-porseleinvervaardiging bekendgestel is, soos veeleisende beskermhere soos Madame de Pompadour en haar broer, die markies de Marigny, versamel vase van hierdie vorm. Onder die grootste vaartuie wat deur die fabriek vervaardig is, was dit baie moeilik om hierdie vase af te vuur, omdat die veelvuldige pierings in die liggaam die algehele struktuur verswak het, en dit was geneig om in die oond in te stort. Gevolglik is slegs ongeveer twaalf ooit vervaardig, waarvan tien vandag oorleef.

Die vorm kom van die nef, 'n tafelversiering in die vorm van 'n skip, wat gewoonlik van edelmetale was en sedert die Middeleeue gebruik is. Hierdie vaas sou potpourri bevat wat gebruik word om 'n kamer te parfuum. Houers vir potpourri verskyn die eerste keer in die 1700's in Frankryk, gemaak van edelmetale, porselein, lak of harde stene, en resepte vir die soet ruikende inhoud daarvan kom gereeld voor. Vase bekend as vaisseau à mat (mastskepe) is gemaak om saam met ander vase van verskillende vorme verkoop te word om 'n versiering te vorm. Charles-Nicolas Dodin het die rustieke toneel aan die voorkant geskilder en 'n gravure na 'n skildery van die Vlaamse kunstenaar David Teniers die Jongere gekopieer.

Uitstallings
Uitstallings
Exposición de obras maestras: Colección Paula de Koenigsberg (Oktober 1945)
El Arte de vivir en Francia del Siglo XVIII (24 September tot 4 November 1968)
Getty Museum -lening aan die Detroit Institute of Arts (2 Julie 1973 tot 22 Oktober 1976)
Bibliografie
Bibliografie

El Arte de Vivir en Francia del Siglo XVIII en las colecciones argentinas, eks. kat. (Buenos Aires: Museo Nacional de Arte Decorativo, 1968), nr. 428, ill., Omslag ill.

Redford, George. Kunsverkope: 'n geskiedenis van die verkoop van prente en ander kunswerke met kennisgewings van die versamelings wat verkoop is, name van eienaars, titels van prente, pryse en kopers. 2 vols. (Londen: Bradbury, Agnew, & amp., 1888), vol. 1, pp. 400, 438.

Roberts, William. Memorials of Christie's: A Record of Art Sales van 1766 tot 1896. 2 vols. (Londen: George Bell and Sons, 1897), vol. 1, siek. teenoor bl. 226.

Chavagnac, Xavier de. Catalogue por porcelaines françaises van M. J. Pierpont Morgan (Parys: Imprimerie nationale, 1910), nr. 109, pl. 33.

Litchfield, Frederick. "Imitasies en reproduksies: deel I-Sèvres-porselein." Kenner 49, nee. 193 (September 1917), bl. 6.

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. Exposición de obras maestras, colección Paula de Koenigsberg auspiciada por la asociación para la lucha contra la parálisis infantil, eks. kat. (Buenos Aires: Peuser S. A., 1945), p. 33, nee. 205, pl. 109.

Reitlinger, Gerald. Die ekonomie van smaak. Vol. 2, Die styging en daling van Objets d'Art -pryse sedert 1750 (New York: Barrie en Rockliff, 1963), pp. 582-585.

Dauterman, Carl Christian, James Parker en Edith Appleton Standen. Dekoratiewe kuns uit die Samuel H. Kress -versameling by die Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Tapestry Room van Croome Court, meubels, tekstiele, Sèvres -porselein en ander voorwerpe (Londen: Phaidon Press vir die Samuel H. Kress Foundation, 1964), p. 195.

Frel, Jiri, Burton Fredericksen en Gillian Wilson. Die gids van J. Paul Getty Museum. Eerwaarde red. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976), p. 91.

Wilson, Gillian. Dekoratiewe kunste in die J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1977), pp. 59, 66-67, nr. 87.

Wilson, Gillian. "Sèvres Porselein by die J. Paul Getty Museum." Die J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 4 (1977), pp. 5-24, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel en Gillian Wilson. Gids: Die J. Paul Getty Museum. 4de uitg. Sandra Morgan, red. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), pp. 100, 117-18, ill.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel en Gillian Wilson. Die gids van J. Paul Getty Museum. 5de uitg. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1980), pp. 115-16, ill.

Ennès, Pierre. Nouvelles acquisitions du départment des objets d'art, 1980-1984 (Parys: Musée du Louvre, 1985), p. 135.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 1ste uitgawe (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986), p. 167.

Sassoon, Adrian en Gillian Wilson. Decorative Arts: A Handbook of the Collections of the J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1986), p. 77, nee. 167.

Loodgieter, John. "Die intriges van Sèvres." Huis en tuin 158, nr. 1 (Januarie 1986), pp. 44-54.

Roth, Linda Horvitz, red. J. Pierpont Morgan, versamelaar: Europese dekoratiewe kunste uit die Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford: Wadsworh Atheneum, 1987), pp. 34, 162, 203, no. 8.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 2de uitg. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988), p. 167.

Savill, Rosalind. Die Wallace -versameling: katalogus van die Sèvres -porselein. 3 vols. (Londen: Trustees of the Wallace Collection, 1988), pp. 55n44, onder nr. C212-13 117n25, onder nrs. C232-33 192, 196n3h, 197n23, onder nr. C256.

Shifman, Barry. "Sèvres-porselein uit die agtiende eeu in Amerika." In Madame de Pompadour et la floraison des arts, Jean Bastien, Catherine Arminjon, reds. (Montreal: Musée David M. Stewart, 1988), pp. 118-23.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 3de uitg. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1991), p. 183.

Munger, Jeffrey H. et al. Die Forsyth Wickes -versameling in die Museum of Fine Arts Boston (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1992), p. 75.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 4de uitg. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), p. 214, siek.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Collections. 6de uitg. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2001), pp. 214-15, ill.

Coutts, Howard. Die kuns van keramiek: Europese keramiekontwerp 1500-1830 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 114, fig. 139.

Savill, Rosalind. "Die sesde graaf van Coventry se aankope van Sèvres -porselein in Parys en Londen in die 1760's." Die French Porcelain Society Journal 5 (2015), pp. 151-53, fig. 18.

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Lesplanne om keramiekvate te ondersoek. Studente bespreek funksie, historiese konteks en skep hul eie kleivate.

Lesplanne om keramiekvate te ondersoek. Studente bespreek funksie, historiese konteks en skep hul eie kleivate.

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Gemengde boodskappe in die Griekse teater: 'n Ondersoek na vase en geskrewe geskiedenis

Niemand verstaan ​​die aard van die antieke Griekse teater ten volle nie. Die struikelblokke tussen die geleerdes van die twintigste eeu en die waarheid van die teaterpraktyke van die 5de en 4de eeu v.C. Athene is: 2500 jaar uiteenlopende kulture, onvolledige versamelings toneelstukke, vase, beeldjies en teaterruimtes, en 'n gebrek aan die regte gereedskap waarmee die bewyse ondersoek kan word. Tog kan hipoteses geformuleer word, gevolgtrekkings gemaak word en begrip versterk word deur 'n deeglike en noukeurige ontleding van al die beskikbare data te doen. 'N Beperkte begrip van die Griekse teater is die uiteindelike belofte van hierdie voortgesette navorsing. Om hierdie beperkte perspektief te soek, is egter duidelik die enigste keuse vir diegene wat die uitlokkende oorblyfsels van 'n groot verlore teater ontdek het.

Om te besluit wat uit ou vase geleer kan word, is 'n moeilike probleem vir kundiges sowel as beginners. Vrae oor teater kompliseer sake verder met die bykomende voorwaarde dat die vaas 'n toneel van teatrale aard moet uitbeeld. Green beweer dat die ou kunstenaars nie aan die werk was om visuele hulpmiddels vir handboeke en lesings te bied nie. Ons kan dit met sorg op hierdie manier gebruik as hulpmiddels vir 'n moderne verbeelding & quot (Green 1995, p.13). Green se verklaring bring die belangrikheid van versigtige navorsing na hierdie gebied van die geskiedenis aan die lig, veral met inagneming van die konteks waarin die vase gemaak en gebruik is. Daar bestaan ​​beslis vase wat, soos Green dit verduidelik, & quotinescapably & quot gekoppel is aan die teater. 'N Voorbeeld van hierdie goed verstaande vase word hieronder ondersoek.

Geskiedkundiges stem dikwels saam oor die onderwerp van sekere Griekse vase as gevolg van een of meer onderskeidende eienskappe, soos die teenwoordigheid van maskers, opvoering, inskripsies van die name van karakters en uitgebreide kostuums. 'N Nek-amfora van die Ixion Painter (ongeveer 350 v.C., Kiel, privaat versameling) & quot verteenwoordig 'n akteur met die satyrmasker wat hy gedra het, bo-op sy kop getrek (Trendall 1989, p. 161). 'N Apuliese klokkekrater deur die Tarporley Painter (400-380 v.C., Sydney 47.05) beeld drie koorlede uit vir 'n satiriese toneelstuk (Trendall 1971 bl. 29). Twee van die mans hou hul maskers vas terwyl die derde naby 'n tamboeryn begin dans, en die instrument ondersteun die teatrale aard van die vaas verder. Alle aangehaalde skrywers stem saam dat die teenwoordigheid van maskers teatraal is.

Bewerings word maklik gemaak in die teenwoordigheid van verhoog, inskripsies en uitgebreide kostuums. Een Apuliese klokkekrater (380-370 v.C., Londen BM 151) beeld 'n phlyax-toneelstuk uit en verteenwoordig 'n houtverhoog en maskers van komiese akteurs. 'N Inskripsie beskryf die hoofkarakter as & quotCheiron. & Quot; Die vierde vaas wat oorweeg moet word, is ewe onbetwis in sy teatrale aard. 'N Klokkekrater uit Paestan, geteken deur Python, (ongeveer 425 v.C., Londen F. 149) illustreer Euripides se Alkmene met die konvensies van uitgebreide kleredrag en voetdrag en die name van elke hoofkarakter bo sy kop ingeskryf. Selfs die mees versigtige historikus glo dat hierdie vaas teater is. Alhoewel die betroubaarheid van die meeste Griekse vase as bronne van teatergeskiedenis betwisbaar is, net soos die betroubaarheid van die historici wat oor die vase berig.

Agt vase wat in die Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ondersoek is, word hier bespreek met betrekking tot wat uit die primêre bron en die gepaardgaande kommentare verstaan ​​kan word. As u na die werklike vase kyk, bied dit 'n baie meer lewendige perspektief as wat enige foto van hoë gehalte kan maak. Die detail van die ryk kostuums gaan dikwels verlore, bewyse van soms bedrieglike herstelwerk word duidelik gemaak, en die waarnemers gee aandag aan die elemente wat met kleur beklemtoon word. Die vase self is immers die ware bronne van alle daaropvolgende besprekings.

Volgens Trendall 1971 p.62 is 'n rooi-figuurde klokklater deur Lykaon Painter (440 v.C., Boston 00.346) 'n toneel in Aeschylus 'Toxotides. Daarop word Actaion deur honde aangeval. Die teenwoordigheid van Zeus en Lyssa is 'n bewys dat die vaas met die toneelstuk verband hou. Die ander gegewens wat vir hierdie koppeling gebruik is, is die tragiese kostuum, die spesiale horingmasker van Aktaion, en die inskripsies oor die akteurs, insluitend een wat die hooffiguur identifiseer as Euaion, die seun van Aeschylus. Die agterkant toon twee vroue en 'n jeug wat gesels, maar nie die Museum of Fine Arts, Boston of Trendall spreek hierdie helfte van die vaas aan nie. Visueel minder dramaties, kan die agterkant nog steeds 'n belangrike dialoog in die toneelstuk uitbeeld, of miskien kan gehoorlede op die opvoering reageer. Trendall beweer veral dat hierdie vaas 'n voorstelling is van 'n toneel in uitvoering, nie slegs 'n voorstelling van die verhaal nie.

Trendall beweer dat 'n Faliscan kalyx-krater van die Nazzano Painter (ongeveer 375 v.C., Boston 1970.487) waarskynlik afkomstig is van 'n verhoogproduksie van Euripides 'Telephos (Trendall 1971, p.104). Die vaas het nie inskripsies nie, maar die versierde kostuum, insluitend versierde stewels en gordyne dui op tragiese konvensies. Maar weer word deur die museum of Trendall geen melding gemaak van die inhoud van die agterkant nie, wat in hierdie geval 'n toneel is met satire en Dionysus. Die teenwoordigheid van satiere en die god kan dui op 'n toneel of bloot die besoek van Dionysus. Die moontlikheid word nooit deur Trendall ondersoek nie. Die museum beklemtoon ook die & quotside A & quot met 'n spesiale kollig, wat die agterkant in die duisternis stuur en die volledige verhaal ongeskonde laat.

'N Nog meer abstrakte eksemplaar word gerieflik deur Trendall gekategoriseer as 'n teatrale aard (Trendall 1971, p.66). Die solderrooi pyxis-deksel van Aison (450-425 v.C., Boston 04.18) is 'n klein deksel wat moontlik wys hoe Odysseus uit 'n bos kom. Een van die vyf vroue in die stuk dra 'n sierlike kostuum, en Trendall verklaar dat sy die leier van die koor moet wees, maar behalwe die kostuum van hierdie individu, suggereer klein 'n teater toneel. The reliance on the costume evidence is put into question because the lower half of all the figures was lost and restored by a contemporary scholar. Here, Trendall's argument is weakly supported. Another vase with vague theatrical elements is pinned to something more concrete by Trendall (Trendall 1971 p.63). The Attic red-figured pelike (450-440 B.C., Boston 63.2663) shows an ornately costumed individual being tied to a pole by a black servant. Trendall points out that the vase may "well represent memories of the same production" of Sophocles' Andromeda. Not appreciably clear is the manner in which Trendall reaches this conclusion. To be sure, the figure is likely to be Andromeda, but there is no way of suggesting that the image was inspired by an actual production.

Boardman describes a scene with three satyrs as perhaps being theatrical. The neck-amphora by the Charmides Painter (c.470 B.C., Boston 76.46) shows the satyrs in a small procession in what "might be a skit" (Boardman 1975, p.195). The possibility that the satyrs may be a part of the activities of Dionysus is not considered, and the back of the vase is also ignored by Boardman. Fairly consistently Boardman describes both sides of the vases in his Athenian Red Figure Vases: the Archaic Period, but here, with the unusual depiction of a fourth satyr with his back to the viewer, only half of the vase is discussed. Also lost in Boardman's photograph is the radiance of the old satyr's white hair. The museum briefly describes the reverse side, but only "side A" is open to the public.

Interestingly, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston takes a more liberal position than that of Trendall on an Attic black-figured skyphos of the Heron Group (500-490 B.C., Boston 20.18). The museum claims that the men riding dolphins and ostriches are members of a chorus, while the only evidence of a theatrical scene is the flute player on both sides of the vase. Trendall, who freely assigns theatrical importance to many vague vases, sees that pinning the vase to theatre is only a possibility (Trendall 1971, p.22). He does mention the chance that the image is one of a chorus and an early comic actor, however. The black-figured vase is the most unusual in this analysis and is understandably difficult to link to the Greek theatre.

Again in this instance, Boardman ignores the reverse side of a cup by the Telephos Painter (470-460 B.C., Boston 95.30) and asserts that the satyrs and the maenads of the first side may be theatrical, but he gives no definitive response. Here, a look at the reverse side of the vase would reveal Dionysus, and yet the only evidence Boardman uses to imply a theatrical subject matter is the "flying drapery" of the maenads (Boardman 1975, p.196). He ignores also the presence of a flute player, a detail Trendall would not have missed.

The last vase of this discussion is a kalyx-krater by the Dokimasia Painter (460 B.C., Boston 63.1246). The vase depicts the deaths of Agamemnon and of Aegisthus with Clytemnestra present in both. Upon an examination of this piece the observer notices that the costumes are not quite as elaborate as some other depictions of Greek tragedy, and the characters lack the decorated boots that are often worn by tragic actors. Nevertheless, these observations are put aside because the subject matter of this particular vase is made quite clear. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston neatly describes the large specimen as being "scenes from the Orestea." A dilemma presents itself with this description.

The Agamemnon was first performed several years after the creation of the kalyx-krater, so the play did not exist when the vase was painted. Clearly, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston has made a serious error. John Boardman confirms this discovery:

The Agamemnon, with the king enveloped in a cloth, recalls Aeschylus' treatment of the story, but on conventional dating the vase is earlier than the production of the Agamemnon (456 B.C.), and we should therefore suppose this version of the story to be the invention of an earlier poet (Boardman 1975, p.137).

The realization that even the most credible authorities must be scrutinized is potentially unsettling for any historian. Even the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston reports faulty information. In this case, the correct information was published over twenty years ago by at least one author, and still the facts have yet to surface at the museum. Perhaps this gross error is the only one of its kind in the Greek vase exhibit in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Considering the small sample size of this research, that possibility is highly unlikely.

What is likely is that all sources that deal with Greek vases, especially in the context of theatre history, contain misleading data and should be handled with some discretion. Unfortunately, false and misleading information will always be present in some form in the body of research, and the job of the conscientious researcher becomes more significant in the light of this fact. Ultimately, the reward for questioning the validity of all data is the historical description that is closest to the truth.

Finding the truth of the nature of Greek theatre by examining the vases is probably impossible, but a better history can certainly be developed. In the spirit of this pursuit a researcher must make several important considerations specific to the area of Greek vases. The vases, first of all, were objects of commercial value and the scenes painted on them were made attractive to buyers. Many of the vases dealing with theatrical subjects were unearthed in Southern Italy, Sicily and other Mediterranean lands because the Greeks exported the images that had lost some popularity in Greece itself but were just beginning to be popular in other areas. So much of the extant vases that can be used for research into ancient Greek theatre are not actually from Greece, and the many revivals of the Greek plays may have been represented by foreign artists. And there is no evidence that any painter actually saw a play before painting on a vase. This information should compel cautious searching.

Further problems arise with investigations into the tragedies. Unlike the vases depicting comedies, there is no evidence of tragic actors acting on a vase, rather they are always in realities of the play. This makes linking comedy scenes rather easy and tragic ones more difficult. Of course, not even half of all the Greek plays are illustrated in any manner on pottery. Even by the most generous estimates the "illustrations cover only 40 of the 82 plays of Aeschylus, 37 of the 123 plays of Sophocles, and 48 of the 87 plays of Euripides" (Trendall 1971, p.1).

Another problem associated with this particular body of research lies in the dating of the vases. Until the 5th c. V.C. dating is based upon stylistic changes in the artwork, and the vases and other works are loosely attached to an absolute calendar date. As Cook points out, "absolute dating is precarious" (Cook 1972, p.268). The dating through the 4th c. V.C. and beyond becomes much more accurate with the more complete accounts of the potters and painters of the time. As explained earlier with the vase concerning the death of Agamemnon, the difference of just four years in the dating may lead to completely different sets of data. For a good chronology see Cook 1972, pp. 266-7.

The observations and problems associated with this particular research project will be helpful to future researchers. The scope of this project was limited chiefly by time and by the inexperience of the undergraduate researchers in the field of Greek vases. The first and most resilient obstacle was the seemingly subjective nature of the analyses made by various experts. At many times, the position of the authors could not be disputed for lack of background in the subject area. Seeing the vases personally was the most beneficial aspect of this research. The first problem in this area is finding the vases of interest, and without any assistance from the museum other than the accession number this task becomes one of trial and error. Once the piece is found, of course, the efforts are worthwhile. Evidence of restorations, forgeries, inscriptions, and the fading line details were all available to the viewer, and the value of examining the primary work cannot be under estimated. The colors of these vases are really quite impressive and may serve to highlight important figures in the theatrical scenes. This distinction is lost in the photographs.

As with any body of research there are some important problems to consider, but these issues can be resolved. When they are a newer, more complete body of information is made available to the public, and a fuller understanding of the nature of the Greek theatre is made possible. As Green suggests, perhaps the vases are most valuable to the 20th century as an aid to "modern imagination." Certainly, as long as the authority of the experts is kept in check with new approaches and questions, then the vitality of research into the history of the Greek theatre will continue.


The J. Paul Getty Museum

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Pair of Lidded Vases

Unknown 34.3 × 32.4 × 33 cm (13 1/2 × 12 3/4 × 13 in.) 75.DI.5

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Currently on view at: Getty Center, Museum South Pavilion, Gallery S105

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Main View, pair

Main View, one of pair (.1)

Main View, one of pair (.2)

Object Details

Titel:
Artist/Maker:
Culture:

Chinese (Kangxi) and French

porcelain about 1650–1680 mounts about 1715–1720

Medium:

Hard-paste porcelain gilt bronze mounts

Object Number:
Dimensions:

34.3 × 32.4 × 33 cm (13 1/2 × 12 3/4 × 13 in.)

Department:

Sculpture & Decorative Arts

Klassifikasie:
Object Type:
Object Description

The marchands-merciers of eighteenth-century Paris devised ingenious ways to adapt rare and exotic materials to tempt their clients. The dealers purchased lacquer , porcelain , and hardstone vessels or panels and sent them to craftsmen with explicit orders to create interesting and decorative designs by combining the objects with new elements.

Combining porcelain with gilt bronze was one of the dealer's main activities. Here Chinese vases were cut down to create smaller lidded vessels used for decoration. The central area of the porcelain was cut and removed, and the shoulders of the vases were joined to their lids with gilt bronze in order to make larger covers.

Provenance
Provenance

Bouvier Collection (France), sold to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, 1938.

1938 - by 1940

Jacques Seligmann et Fils (Paris, France), sold to Jula Atterbury Thorne before their closure in 1940.
Source: Seligman, Germain. Merchants of Art: 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1961), p. 45-46.

By 1940 -

Julia Atterbury Thorne, American, 1891 - 1974 (New York, New York)

Matthew Schutz, Ltd. (New York, New York), sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1975.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
Getty Museum loan to the Detroit Institute of Arts (July 2, 1973 to October 22, 1976)
Chinese Porcelains in European Mounts (October 22, 1980 to January 25, 1981)
Bibliografie
Bibliografie

Wilson, Gillian. Decorative Arts in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1977), p. 14, nee. 14 (only .1 ill.).

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel, and Gillian Wilson. Guidebook: The J. Paul Getty Museum. 4th ed. Sandra Morgan, ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), p. 97.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel, and Gillian Wilson. The J. Paul Getty Museum Guidebook. 5th ed. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1980), p. 90.

Lunsingh Scheurleer, D.F. Chinesisches und japanisches Porzellan in europäischen Fassungen (Braunschweig: Verlag Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1980), pp. 59, 250, no. 151.

Watson, Francis. Chinese Porcelains in European Mounts, exh. cat. (New York: China House Gallery, China Institute in America, 1980), p. 27, nee. 3.

Wilson, Gillian, et al. French Furniture and Gilt Bronzes: Baroque and Régence: Catalogue of the J. Paul Getty Museum Collection (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2008), p. 371, fig. 12.

This information is published from the Museum's collection database. Updates and additions stemming from research and imaging activities are ongoing, with new content added each week. Help us improve our records by sharing your corrections or suggestions.

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Visits and Travels

Only a few yards from this spot at the river banks of the Chang River , flowing through the city of Jingdezhen, the Chinese Imperial kiln was built during the Yuan dynasty. During 700 years this factory produced the best porcelain in the world and became the porcelain factory of the entire world well into the 18th century.

During the centuries all kinds of Chinese porcelain shards and kiln debris has been dumped and discarded as the city grew. So much in fact that the city of Jingdezhen are now said to rest on a thick layer of porcelan shards, 30 feet deep or more in places, we were told.

In 1992 I was invited invited to take part in a study expedition to visit the excavations of the former Imperial Porcelain Kiln, together with Professor Bo Gyllensvärd and two friends. Here is my diary and some of the results and photos from the visit.

Click here to visit my report from Visit to Jingdezhen 1992
Text & Photo © Jan-Erik Nilsson.

A Visit to the old Nanfeng kiln in Shiwan, Fushan city near Guangzhou (Canton), 2006

During 2006 I had the pleasure to, together with the Gotheborg III Ship project friends and co-founders Anders and Berit Wästfelt, visit Guangzhou and also take the opportunity to visit the not much visited but very important city of Fushan and the Nanfeng kilns in Shiwan. The staple town for tea and porcelain enamels during the 18th century.

This is the origin of the old Kwangtung wares and the heavily glazed tiles, pots and masterly sculpted figures. Well known from late Ming, popular during Qing and very much alive until today.

Welcome to visit Shiwan with me.

The 17th of July 2006 the rebuilt replica of the first 'East Indiaman Götheborg' arrived at Boca Tigris in the Pearl River delta outside Canton, to later move up to the old anchorage at ' Whampoa ', to come to rest opposite the White Swan Hotel in the center of today's Guangzhou (Canton).

During the last part of the trip HRH the King and Queen of Sweden joined the crew on-board.

The entire project of recreating an 18th century Swedish East Indiaman and sending her to China again and back was all started as a private project by a small group of enthusiastic professionals, based on the excavation of the original East Indiaman Gotheborg .

Since I was one of them, here is my story on the [ PROJECT ] and the [ ARRIVAL IN GUANGZHOU ].
Jan-Erik Nilsson

In July 2006 the rebuilt Swedish East Indiaman 'Gotheborg' Ship finally arrived in Guangzhou, China, or Canton as it was known as during the time of the Swedish East India trade.

Since I had been involved in the starting of the project to build and sail a full scale replica of the East Indiaman Götheborg to China, I also really wanted to explore the City of Canton to see what was left from the early days of the China trade, when we eventually arrived. To my help to use as a map, I had a rare Chinese export porcelain dish - with its main motif, a painting of the old City of Canton .

The dish in itself is from the end of the 18th century but portrays the inner part of the city, behind the European factories located at the river side.

The exact source for this painting still remain to be found, but in the collection of the China Castle in Stockholm, Sweden, dating to the 1740s there is an album leaf which shows a high degree of similarities. [ more ]

In May 2002 I mentioned to some friends in Singapore, that I was planning to visit Southeast Asia again to among other things visit the very important historic trade city of Malacca on the west coast of Malaysia,

The pace of life in Singapore is fast and one hour later I got a call back. Everything was arranged. They would take the day off and if I could sleep for four hours after arrival in Singapore we would leave for Malacca by car at 4 am in the morning, so we would lose the morning traffic and have better driving temperature and that it would only take some three hours of driving anyway .

So, I arrived after some 20 hours of air flight from Sweden via Amsterdam. A few hours later I was whisked off to Malaysia - still fast asleep - to wake up to breakfast and Kopi-O (black coffee without milk) just a few hundred meters from where a beautiful Ming princess and her tourage was set ashore to marry the Sultan of Malacca some 500 years earlier. Which was one of the reasons why I wanted to see this place .

Visit to old Terracotta Pottery Kiln in Bali, 2012

A while ago I visited Bali in an attempt to look for traces of the old Majapahit Kingdom.

While the historic center of the Majapahit Kingdom had been located at the eastern end of the just nearby Java Island, Bali was to me of equal interest. Somewhat I also hoped that more of the old culture would had remained through the Buddhist and Hindu traditions, still predominant in Bali since much of the actual downfall of the Majapahit had been contemporary with Islam becoming the dominating belief on Java.

What I found was a beautiful Island, fairly modern and very friendly, and a local Terracotta Pottery and Kiln, still very much functioning, putting out large terracotta Jardinières for flowers and garden decorations. In was interesting to see how these large pots were made from the mud up to finished lead glazed pots, taller than men.

During March 3-12, 2001 I had the pleasure of visiting Singapore and Hong Kong. The purpose of the visit was to deepen my understanding of the Straits Chinese Porcelain and the related culture.

I also wanted to study 19th and 20th century Chinese porcelain, products of less known "provincial" trade porcelain kilns in Southern China, and to get a first hand impression on the trade in antique Chinese porcelain fakes, to visit several important scholars and collectors in the area, to learn and to take part of their specific knowledge.

Here is a short travel report to summarize some of my thoughts.

Click here to read the report from my Visit to Singapore and Hong Kong, March 2001
Text & Photo © Jan-Erik Nilsson.

In September 2001 I got an invitation to visit the base camp of Sten Sjöstrand's marine archaeological and salvage expedition in Malaysia. I did and I am back. After a much needed shower and some rest I put together the following report.

I got to see piles of Si-Satchanalai (Sawankhalok district, Sukhothai) pieces, still in storage from the excavation of the Royal Nanhai 16th century cargo of Celadon ceramics - plus the very reason of my visit - a surface sample collection from the recently discovered 19th century and possibly "Straits Chinese" cargo. Now that can't be said to have been the case, but it was interesting anyway.

Click here to read my letter to the friends on the Gotheborg Discussion Board after my Visit to Sten Sjöstrand off Tioman Island, Malaysia, Sept. 2001
Text & Photo © Jan-Erik Nilsson.


Art Pottery

American ceramics history includes a long tradition of creating collectible art pottery. This pottery type is characterized as being primarily decorative and inspired by nature. Ephraim Pottery has carried on this tradition of making collectible art pottery since 1996. We create vases, lanterns, and lidded vessels. A master potter hand-throws these pieces on a wheel. They are also individually hand-sculpted. Our creations are then finished with our studio-designed microcrystalline matte glazes .

Our thoughtful collection of art pottery includes pieces in a range of colors, sizes, shapes, and price ranges. In fact, our collection has pieces to suit every home and budget. The foot of each piece is stamped with our studio mark, the year the piece was created, and the stamp of the artist who made the piece. For more information, read about how we mark our pottery. In addition, learn a little bit more about each of our artists and see their stamps by visiting our Artist page . For each design we create, the number of pieces is tracked. This information can be found in our Historical Listings Document.

We hope that our art pottery – vases, tiles, and tableware– are all pieces that will be treasured, displayed, and collected for many years to come.