Wanneer is drinkwater as van kardinale belang in marathon hardloop beskou?

Wanneer is drinkwater as van kardinale belang in marathon hardloop beskou?

Die wenner, John Hayes, van die eerste moderne marathon in 1908, het gesê dat hy gedink het dat drinkwater tydens 'n marathon 'n ernstige fout was, en gesê: "Ek het my gesig net gebad met florida -water en my keel met brandewyn gegorrel". Die aanhaling kan hier gevind word en is ook in "Die 1908 Olimpiese Spele: uitslae vir alle deelnemers in alle byeenkomste, met kommentaar" deur Bill Mallon en Ian Buchanan.

Huidige navorsing toon dat manlike elite -hardlopers vandag gemiddeld 'n halwe liter water drink tydens 'n wedloop. Wedrenne -organiseerders sal ook hulpstasies regdeur die wedloop oprig vir deelnemers om water te kry. Wanneer het drinkwater tydens 'n marathon algemene gebruik geword?


Voor 1970

Tot ongeveer 1970 is dit gedink dat dit skadelik is om water te drink terwyl u 'n marathon hardloop, en 'n marathonbaan het moontlik geen hulpstasies of slegs een nie. Marathon hardlopers is aktief ontmoedig om drinkwater te drink. Vir 'n beskrywing van hierdie tydperk, sien hierdie onderhoud.

1970-80

In 1969 het 'n artikel deur Wyndham en Strydom ("Die gevaar van 'n onvoldoende waterinname tydens marathon -hardloop", S Afr Med J. 19; 43 (29): 893) aangevoer dat marathonlopers toegelaat moet word om vloeistowwe te drink ten einde hitte beroerte voorkom. Van ongeveer 1972 tot 1981 het 'n Suid -Afrikaanse navorser en hardloper met die naam Tim Noakes 'n veldtog begin deur middel van publikasies soos Runner's World om mense tydens 'n marathon aandag te gee aan die Wyndham -koerant en om vloeistowwe te drink. Die American College of Sports Medicine het riglyne geskryf wat sê dat mense gereeld moet drink terwyl hulle hardloop.

Dit was ook die tydperk toe sogenaamde sportdrankies gewild geword het. In 1969 begin Gatorade in die VSA bemark word, en dit word die amptelike sportdrank van die NFL genoem. Gesteun deur hierdie kommersiële belange, het die wetenskaplik ongegronde idee begin versprei dat drink voor dors nodig is om hitte beroerte te voorkom. Studies is uitgevoer met sokkerspelers waarin beweer word dat die drink van vroeë weergawes van Gatorade tot verhoogde prestasie gelei het, maar die metodologie kon nie onderskei of dit 'n placebo -effek was nie.

'N Fisioloog met die naam David Costill het afstandlopers op 'n trapmeul laat hardloop sonder om water te drink en daarna in afsonderlike proewe 1,2 liter per uur te drink (wat 'n groot hoeveelheid water is). Hy het gevind dat liggaamstemperature laer is as hulle water drink. Die karige bewyse uit studies soos Costill se is te veel geïnterpreteer, en in baie gevalle het ywerige mense eenvoudig begin om wetenskaplik nie -ondersteunde riglyne vir hidrasie uit te vind. Die Amerikaanse weermag het riglyne aangeneem waarin soldate versoek word om 64 gram water per uur te drink.

Gedurende dieselfde tydperk het 'n kulturele idee in die VSA van 'terug na die land' gelei tot 'n hunkering in die wildernisrugsak, en dit het 'n verdere angs vir water veroorsaak. Dit sluit 'n skrik in oor die opdoen van giardiasis uit waterbronne in die Verenigde State, wat ongegrond blyk te wees (Zell, "Epidemiologie van diarree wat deur die wildernis verkry is: implikasies vir voorkoming en behandeling," Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 3 (1992) 241) .

1980-

Gedurende hierdie tydperk het wetenskaplikes meer volledige en noukeurige studies begin doen, wat getoon het dat die drink van groot hoeveelhede water sleg is. Dit verminder prestasie, en kan lei tot 'n gevaarlike toestand wat hiponatremie genoem word. Studies met groter monsters in werklike toestande het getoon dat liggaamstemperatuur na die wedloop nie verminder is deur meer water te drink nie (Noakes et al., "Die gevaar van onvoldoende waterinname tydens langdurige oefening," European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 57 (1988) 210).

Ondanks die wetenskaplike konsensus wat teen die einde van die eeu ontstaan ​​het, het die irrasionele en uiterste vrees vir dehidrasie in die gewilde bewussyn begin toeneem, wat selfs sedentêre mense laat glo het dat hulle in gevaar is. Byvoorbeeld, daar was 'n volksoortuiging dat 'n mens ten minste agt glase water van 8 gram per dag ("8x8") moet drink (Valtin, "Drink ten minste agt glase water per dag." Regtig? Is daar wetenskaplike bewyse vir '8x8' ?, "Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R993-R1004, 2002).


Die konstante beskikbaarheid van water aan marathonlopers het waarskynlik in die sewentigerjare ontwikkel.

Volgens 'n artikel in Buite tydskrif, drink alkohol tydens kompeterende wedrenne was redelik algemeen aan die einde van die negentiende en vroeë twintigste eeu:

Brandstof beteken gewoonlik 'n skeut whisky, brandewyn of ander alkohol. Spyridon Louis, wenner van die marathon tydens die Olimpiese Spele in 1896, het 'n sluk aan konjak gehad met minder as ses myl oor. Die Parysmarathon van 1924 het 'n vloeistofstasie aangebied wat wyn vir hardlopers aanbied.

Verwys na die boek Waterdig, wat skepties is oor moderne hidreringspraktyke, die Buite artikel beweer dat beduidende veranderinge in hierdie praktyke eers na die uitvinding van Gatorade in 1965. "En selfs dan, eers in die middel van die sewentigerjare, het deurdagte hidrasie algemene praktyk geword."

Basies hiermee in ooreenstemming, 'n artikel in die Ensiklopedie van internasionale sportstudies beskryf 'n "belangrike wetenskaplike studie" wat in 1969 gepubliseer is. Die skrywers "het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat marathonlopers moet streef om elke 15 minute 250 ml vloeistof te drink tydens oefening".

Wyndham, C.H., Strydom, N.B. "Die gevaar van 'n onvoldoende waterinname tydens marathon hardloop." South African Medical Journal (1969) 43: 893-896


Kom ons kyk verder as die marathon-aspek in sy oorspesifisiteit. Die vraag vra vir wanneer was dit herken sou dit raadsaam wees om water te drink terwyl u baie oefen?

Dit beteken dat die wetenskaplike kant ondersoek moet word en nie noodwendig die praktiese toepassing of selfs die kommersiële beskikbaarheid van gespesialiseerde produkte, in Brawndo-styl nie.

Hierdie fokus op water vir prestasie het gedurende die dertigerjare in Swede begin, vreemd genoeg as 'n byproduk van die ontleding van koolhidraatmetabolisme.

Die ontwikkeling van voedingsdrankies wat spesifiek gerig was op die verbetering van atletiese prestasie, het begin met studies oor koolhidraat- en vetmetabolisme wat in die dertigerjare in Swede gedoen is en tot in die laat 1960's voortgesit is. Die span wetenskaplikes onder leiding van Bjorn Ahlborg en Jonas Bergström het die verband tussen spierglikogeenopslag, -gebruik en hersintese bestudeer tydens langdurige oefening tot uitputting in 'n groep vrywilligers. Die navorsing deur die Sweedse span het 'n prestasieverbeterende rol vir koolhidrate tydens uithouvermoë getoon en het getoon dat die glikogeeninhoud en die langdurige oefenvermoë gevarieer kan word deur verskillende diëte na die uitputting van glikogeen in te stel.

Gustavo A. Galaz: "'n Oorsig oor die geskiedenis van sportvoedingsdrankies", voeding en verbeterde sportprestasie, tweede uitgawe, p231, Elsevier, 2019.

Die "oefening tot uitputting" is natuurlik slegs 'n relatiewe maatstaf wat afhang van die getoetste individu en sy fiksheidsvlak.

Hierdie werk het voortgegaan

'N Geringe natriumtekort kan die atletiese prestasie benadeel voordat kliniese tekens van natriumtekort sigbaar is. Daarom moet tydens warm weer voldoende hoeveelhede sout en water gegee word om die verlies van hierdie stowwe deur die vel te vervang.
Theodore B. Van Itallie: "Nutrition and Athletic Performance", JAMA, 17 November 1956. (p 1126)

Sleutelvraestelle:

Molnar, GW, Towbin, EJ, Gosselin, RE, Brown, AH & Adolph, EF: "'n Vergelykende studie van water-, sout- en hitte-uitruilings van mans in tropiese en woestynomgewings", American Journal of Hygiene 44, 411-433, 1946.

Adolph, A. & Associates: "Fisiologie van die mens in die woestyn". Wiley, New York, 1947.

Bass, D.E., Kleeman, C.R., Quinn, M., Henschel, A. & Hegnauer, A.H .: "Mechanisms of acclimatization to heat in man", Medicine 34, 323-380, 1955.

Buskirk, E.R., Iampietro, P.F. & Bass, D.E .: "Werkverrigting na dehidrasie: gevolge van fisiese kondisionering en hitte-akklimatisering", Journal of Applied Physiology 12, 189-194, 1958.

Grande, F., Monagle, J.E., Buskirk, E.R. & Taylor, H.L .: "liggaamstemperatuurreaksies op oefening by die mens op beperkte voedsel- en waterinname", Journal of Applied Physiology 14, 194-198, 1959

Senay, L.C. & Christensen, M.L .: "Kardiovaskulêre en sweetreaksies op waterinname tydens dehidrasie", Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 975-979, 1965.

Moroff, S.V. & Bass, DE: "Effekte van oorhidrasie op die mens se fisiologiese reaksies op werk in die hitte", Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 267-270, 1965.

Strydom, N.B. & Holdsworth, D.L .: "Die gevolge van verskillende vlakke van watertekort op fisiologiese reaksies tydens hittestres", Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie 26, 95-102, 1968.

Cage, G., Wolfe, S., Thompson, R. & Gordon, R .: "Effekte van waterinname op die samestelling van termiese sweet by normale menslike vrywilligers", Journal of Applied Physiology 29, 687-690, 1970.

American College of Sports Medicine: "Standpuntverklaring oor die voorkoming van hittebeserings tydens hardloop op afstand", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 7, vii-ix, American College of Sports Medicine, 1975.

Dit blyk duidelik dat dit lankal in die mediese literatuur bekend is dat dit nie regtig 'water is wat noodsaaklik is vir marathons' nie, maar dat voldoende hidrasie is eintlik net 'n klein hoekie om 'n gebalanseerde skaal te sien.

Gee my dus 'n klein skakel na 'n artikel wat die huidige toestand van die deurlopende wetenskap beskryf, met 'n hoogtepunt oor oefeningverwante hiponatriëmie:

James M Winger et al .: "Oortuigings oor hidrasie en fisiologie dryf drinkgedrag by hardlopers", Br J Sports Med 2011; 45: 646-649. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.075275

En die oortuigingshoek is inderdaad van kardinale belang om te verstaan ​​waarom voor die sewentigerjare en veral in die vroeë jare van die vorige eeu die advies wat aan hardlopers gegee word, vandag vir ons baie vreemd lyk.

Fundamentele wetenskap was ver gevorder in sy begrip, vergeleke met wat toegepaste en empiriese sportwetenskap daaroor te sê gehad het.

Die vroeë advies was gebaseer op empirisme, maar 'n suiwer waarnemingsadvies wat deur houdings besmet was:

Voor 1970's

In teenstelling met die algemene teorieë en opvattings, is afstandslopers voor 1970 aangemoedig om so min as moontlik te drink. Vroeë studies van elite -afstandsatlete het getoon dat die meer suksesvolle atlete diegene wat die meeste vloeistowwe in die wedloop verloor het. Hierdie data het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n hardloper nie die vloeistof wat tydens 'n wedloop verloor is, moet aanvul nie. Om nog beter resultate te behaal, word voorgestel dat daar geen vloeistofinname is nie. In Tim Noakes se boek, Waterlogged, praat hy oor die hardloop van 'n marathon in 1969 wat net 'n stop op 20 kilometer het.

1970's-1980's

Gesondheidsrisiko's van dehidrasie het na 1970 duideliker geword in navorsing, en wetenskaplikes het daartoe gelei dat afstandsatlete tydens oefening moet drink. Gereelde drink is aangemoedig en bevorder, aangesien die gevare van dehidrasie nog duideliker word namate mense deur beserings gely het en selfs tydens wedrenne doodgegaan het. Sportdrankondernemings, soos Gatorade, is gedurende hierdie tydperk gestig en begin met advertensies waarin professionele atlete hul produk onderskryf en praat oor hoe hidrasie en sportdrankies tot verhoogde prestasie sou lei. (src)


Geen drink nie ....
As ons terugkeer na die vroeë dae van marathon hardloop, is daar gedink dat die verbruik van die meeste vloeistowwe tydens lang wedrenne soos 'n marathon nie nodig was nie en selfs nie nadelig was nie. Hoekom? Omdat hardlopers bestudeer is en daar gevind is dat aan die einde van die wedloop die wenners of top -afrigters die meeste liggaamsgewig verloor het. Die logika was dat die beste hardlopers die meeste watergewig verloor het, daarom moes vloeistowwe verloor word om die prestasie te maksimeer en hidrasie moet nie voorkom nie. Die beste deelnemers was die meeste ontwater, dus dehidrasie is goed! Hierdie denkrigting word gereeld gebruik, selfs tot vandag toe (dws die Keniane doen X, dus moet X gedoen word ...). Dit moet 'n waarskuwing wees om iets te doen net omdat die vinnigste ouens dit doen. So vroeg in die geskiedenis van hidrasie het ons 'n beleid om nie te drink nie. Wat gebeur volgende?

'N Oorreaksie
Met die toename in massadeelname, 'n groter bewustheid van siektes wat verband hou met dehidrasie en die vermoë om die hidrasie -status baie maklik en vinnig te meet, het ons oorreageer. Die norm het gegaan van niks drink tydens oefening na om al u vloeistofverlies tydens oefening te vervang deur drinkwater of sportdrankies. Die algemene advies om jouself te meet voor en na oefening om hidrasiebehoeftes te bereken, het mantra -status bereik met afrigters, voedingkundiges, afrigters en die algemene oefenaar.

Volgens 'n goeie opsomming van Mundel (BJSM-2011), was een van die redes vir hierdie oorreaksie die ontwerp van studies wat die effek van drank op toetse met vaste intensiteite gemeet het, wat in wese vasgestel het hoe lank jy kon gaan, en nie hoe vinnig jy kon gaan nie. oor 'n vaste afstand, wat ons in die werklike wêreld doen. Soos hierbo genoem, is die ander rede dat hitte -uitputting en soortgelyke siektes meer voorkom met die toename in massadeelname. Die denke was eenvoudig; uiterste dehidrasie het probleme veroorsaak en het bygedra tot hitte -uitputting, dus as ons dehidrasie uitskakel, word hitte -uitputting en soortgelyke siektes uitgeskakel. Die probleem met hierdie denke is soortgelyk aan die logika "sonder drink". Net omdat baie dehidrasie sleg is, beteken dit nie dat ons dit alles moet uitskakel nie. Dit is net sleg as dit buite die norme op 'n gevaarlike punt kom. Tot dit op die punt is, wat moeilik is om te doen, tensy u uself dwing om geen vloeistowwe te verbruik nie (dit is wat in die vorige tydperk plaasgevind het), is dit goed. U sien hierdie 'alles of geen' denke op 'n magdom verskillende plekke. 'N Paar duidelike voorbeelde deur die geskiedenis is: vrye radikale, koolhidrate, vet, laktaat, ens. Net omdat baie sleg is, beteken dit nie dat 'n bietjie is nie.

Die geskiedenis van hidrasie: 'n les in die wetenskaplike metode en die Hype -siklus.

Dit resoneer goed met bogenoemde Toby Mündel; "Om te drink of nie te drink nie? Verduideliking van" teenstrydige bevindings "in vloeistofvervanging en oefenprestasie: bewyse van 'n meer geldige model vir werklike kompetisie", British Journal of Sports Medicine, Med 2011; 45: 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.058594

Carl Heneghan: "Veertig jaar navorsing oor sportprestasie en min insig verkry", BMJ 2012; 345 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e4797 Noem dit as: BMJ 2012; 345: e4797


Waarom is 'n marathon 26,2 myl?

Die marathon het moontlik antieke wortels, maar die voetren se amptelike lengte van 26,2 myl is eers in die 20ste eeu vasgestel. Die eerste georganiseerde marathon is tydens die Olimpiese Spele in 1896 in Athene gehou, die begin van die Spele ’ moderne era. Die antieke spele, wat in ongeveer 776 v.C. in Griekeland plaasgevind het tot 393 nC, het nog nooit sulke langafstandwedrenne ingesluit nie. Die idee vir die moderne marathon is geïnspireer deur die legende van 'n ou Griekse boodskapper wat van die plek van Marathon na Athene gejaag het, 'n afstand van ongeveer 40 kilometer, of byna 25 myl, met die nuus van 'n belangrike Griekse oorwinning oor 'n indringende leër van Perse in 490 vC Nadat hy sy aankondiging gemaak het, het die uitgeputte boodskapper ineengestort en gesterf. Om sy dramatiese hardloop te herdenk, was die afstand van die Olimpiese marathon van 1896 op 40 kilometer bepaal.

Vir die volgende paar Olimpiese Spele het die lengte van die marathon naby 25 myl gebly, maar tydens die Spele van 1908 in Londen is die baan verleng, na bewering om die Britse koninklike familie te huisves. Soos die verhaal gaan, het koningin Alexandra versoek dat die wedloop op die grasperk van Windsor Castle begin (sodat die kleinste koninklikes volgens die berigte by die venster van hul kwekery kon kyk) en voor die koninklike boks in die Olimpiese stadion kon eindig. x2014a afstand wat toevallig 26,2 myl (26 myl en 385 meter) was. Die toevallige styging in kilometers het uiteindelik vasgesteek, en in 1921 is die lengte vir 'n marathon formeel gestandaardiseer op 42,195 kilometer.

Vandag vind marathonwedrenne oral plaas, van die Noordpool tot by die Groot Muur van China. Net in Amerika is daar nou meer as 1 100 marathons per jaar. Vir dekades was marathons slegs oop vir manlike atlete. Die Boston -marathon, wat in 1897 afgeskop het en die oudste jaarlikse marathon ter wêreld is, het vroulike deelnemers in 1972 begin toelaat, terwyl die eerste Olimpiese marathon vir vroue tot 1984 nie gehou is nie. die Verenigde State teen 2013, het die geraamde aantal deelnemers wat 'n baan van 26,2 myl voltooi het tot 541,000 gestyg.


Menseregte tot water en sanitasie

Mense is regtehouers en state dra pligte vir die verskaffing van water- en sanitasiedienste. Regtehouers kan hul regte opeis en pligdraers moet die regte op water en sanitasie gelyk en sonder diskriminasie waarborg.

Uitdagings en geleenthede

Die 'menseregte-gebaseerde benadering' beklemtoon die ooreenstemming tussen regte en verpligtinge en bied 'n raamwerk vir lidstaten en ander organisasies wat daarop gemik is om te verseker dat respek vir menseregte op alle vlakke in ontwikkelingsplanne geïntegreer word.

'N Kind van die Za'atari -vlugtelingkamp in Jordanië het 'n vlag gehys om doel 6, veilige water en sanitasie voor te stel. Foto: UNICEF Jordan/badran

Vroue wat intern verplaas is deur die voortslepende droogte in Somaliland, ontvang water by 'n UNICEF-ondersteunde waterverspreidingspunt in die Laaca-dorp naby Gabiley, Somaliland. VN -foto/ Omar Abdisalan

Wat is die regte en wat beteken dit?

  • Die reg op water gee almal die reg om toegang te verkry tot voldoende, veilige, aanvaarbare, fisies toeganklike en bekostigbare water vir persoonlike en huishoudelike gebruik.
  • Die reg op sanitasie gee almal die reg tot fisiese en bekostigbare toegang tot sanitasie, op alle lewensterreine, wat veilig, higiënies, veilig en sosiaal en kultureel aanvaarbaar is en wat privaatheid bied en waardigheid verseker.

Definisies

  • "Genoeg": Die watertoevoer vir elke persoon moet voldoende en deurlopend wees vir persoonlike en huishoudelike gebruik. Hierdie gebruike sluit gewoonlik drank, persoonlike sanitasie, was van klere, voedselvoorbereiding, persoonlike en huishoudelike higiëne in.
  • "Veilig": Die water wat benodig word vir elke persoonlike of huishoudelike gebruik, moet veilig wees, dus vry van mikroörganismes, chemiese stowwe en radiologiese gevare wat 'n bedreiging vir die gesondheid van 'n persoon inhou. Maatreëls vir drinkwaterveiligheid word gewoonlik bepaal deur nasionale en/of plaaslike standaarde vir die kwaliteit van drinkwater.
  • "Aanvaarbaar": Water moet 'n aanvaarbare kleur, reuk en smaak hê vir elke persoonlike of huishoudelike gebruik. Alle waterfasiliteite en -dienste moet kultureel geskik en sensitief wees vir geslags-, lewensiklus- en privaatheidsvereistes.
  • "Fisies toeganklik": Almal het die reg op 'n water- en sanitasiediens wat fisies toeganklik is binne of in die onmiddellike omgewing van die huishouding, opvoedkundige instelling, werkplek of gesondheidsinstelling.
  • “Bekostigbaar”: Water en watergeriewe en -dienste moet vir almal bekostigbaar wees.

Irakse skoolkinders vier Wêreldwaterdag in Badawa, Erbil Governorate, in die Koerdistan -streek in Irak. Die skool, wat een tot nege huisves, is een van die opvoedkundige instellings in die provinsie waar die VN -kinderfonds (UNICEF) projekte onderneem om infrastruktuur en akademiese standaarde te verbeter. VN -foto/Bikem Ekberzade


'N Kort geskiedenis van hardloop as 'n sport

Hardloop is amptelik gebore as 'n sport in 776 v.G.J, in antieke Griekeland, in die stad Olympia. Die eerste byeenkoms tydens die eerste Olimpiese Spele wat ooit gehou is, was 'n wedloop. Van die begin tot 724 v.G.J. was die stadionren eintlik die enigste kompetisie wat tydens die Olimpiese Spele aangebied is.

Voordat dit hardloop, is dit hoofsaaklik gebruik as 'n goeie doel, en 'n instrument wat mense besit wat hulle in staat stel om kos te vind en gevare te vermy.

Maar dit het baie, baie eeue geneem om sy moderne vorme te laat funksioneer.

Vinnig vorentoe na 490 v.G.J.

Miskien ken u reeds die legende van Pheiddepedes en hoe hy self die marathon begin het. En as u nie bekommerd is nie, dan hoef u nie bekommerd te wees nie, en ons vat sy verhaal kortliks in ons artikel oor ultramarathons af:

& ldquo Hier & rsquos wat gebeur het: in 490 v.G.J., het 'n Griekse soldaat genaamd Pheiddipedes die opdrag gekry om haastig die stad te verlaat en na Athene te gaan. Hy was veronderstel om nuus van die oorwinning oor Persië te lewer. Die stad waarna hy vertrek het, is Marathon genoem, en Athene was ongeveer 25 kilometer daarvandaan. Volgens die legende het hy in een skoot die hele ent daarheen gehardloop, sy boodskap afgelewer en dadelik op die plek doodgeloop. & Rdquo

En dit was dit. Die marathon is gebore.

U dink miskien dat dit nie regtig 'n ware verhaal is nie, maar dat dit 'n baie mitiese gevoel het.

Maar daar is eintlik 'n mate van waarheid vermeng. Die legende van Pheiddipedes is die eerste keer genoem in die werke van Plutarch, 'n prominente Griekse essayis en biograaf. Hy het 'n historiese verslag van die voormelde Slag van Marathon geskryf. Natuurlik skryf hy in die eerste eeu G.J., en daar is genoeg ruimte vir twyfel.

Die koms van die moderne Olimpiese Spele. Dit is deur die Grieke bedink in 'n poging om die glorie van die oudheid aan te roep. Wat die ontwerp van die moderne marathon betref, dit was te danke aan 'n man met die naam Michel Breal, 'n Franse filoloog, wat vasbeslote was dat dit by die Olimpiese Spele ingesluit sou word. Dit was destyds slegs 'n geleentheid vir mans.

En die eerste wenner van die eerste marathon was 'n Griekse waterdraer met die naam Spyridon Louis. Twee uur, agt en vyftig minute en vyftig sekondes was die eerste rekord wat geslaan is.

Dit stel hom onder die oorspronklike kampioen.

Die Boston Marathon word gebore. Tot vandag toe word die Boston Marathon beskou as een van die mees gesogte hardloopbyeenkomste. Dit is eintlik geïnspireer deur die sukses van die eerste moderne Olimpiese Spele wat net 'n jaar daarvoor gehou is.

Hierdie jaar was die begin van wat & rsquos bekend staan ​​as & ldquomarathon manie. & Rdquo Die eerste vyf marathons wat in New York gehou is, is op die volgende spesiale dae gehou: Thanksgiving Day, Lincoln & rsquos Birthday, New Year & rsquos Day, Washington & rsquos Birthday en die dag na Kersfees.

Frank Shorter, 'n Amerikaner, wen die Olimpiese Somerspele en sy oorwinning het aangevuur wat in die volksmond bekend staan ​​as die & ldquoHardloopboom van die 70's. & rdquo Ongeveer vyf-en-twintig miljoen mense het as 'n stokperdjie of as 'n sport begin hardloop tydens die oplewing, waaronder die destydse president Jimmy Carter.

Die Olimpiese Spele bied uiteindelik die eerste amptelike vroue- en rsquos -marathon aan. Joan Benoit van die VSA het die een in twee uur, vier en twintig minute en twee en vyftig sekondes gewen.

Maar sy was nie die eerste vrou wat deelgeneem het of selfs 'n marathon gewen het nie. Baie vroue kom voor haar uit: Stamata Revithi in 1896 (sy het nie amptelik gehardloop tydens die eerste moderne Olimpiese Spele nie), Marie-Louise Ledru (gekrediteer as die eerste vroulike wenner van 'n marathon) in 1918 en Violet Piercy (die eerste vrou wat ooit amptelik was) in 1926), om maar net 'n paar van die meer prominente figure wat uit hierdie lys bestaan, te noem.

Daar is 715 marathons regoor die VSA in 2019. Dit is duidelik dat die gewildheid van die sport nie afgeneem het nie.


Wanneer is drinkwater as van kardinale belang in marathon hardloop beskou? - Geskiedenis

Agt kort feite oor die mensereg op water en sanitasie
[ - 388 KB]

Op 28 Julie 2010, deur Resolusie 64/292, het die Algemene Vergadering van die Verenigde Nasies uitdruklik die mensereg op water en sanitasie erken en erken dat skoon drinkwater en sanitasie noodsaaklik is vir die verwesenliking van alle menseregte. Die resolusie doen 'n beroep op state en internasionale organisasies om finansiële hulpbronne te voorsien, kapasiteitsbou en tegnologie-oordrag te help om lande, veral ontwikkelende lande, te help om veilig, skoon, toeganklik en bekostigbare drinkwater en sanitasie vir almal te voorsien.

In November 2002 aanvaar die Komitee vir Ekonomiese, Sosiale en Kulturele Regte Algemene Opmerking nr. 15 oor die reg op water. Artikel I.1 lui dat "die mensereg op water onontbeerlik is om 'n menswaardige lewe te lei. Dit is 'n voorvereiste vir die verwesenliking van ander menseregte". Opmerking nr. 15 definieer ook die reg op water as die reg van almal op voldoende, veilige, aanvaarbare en fisies toeganklike en bekostigbare water vir persoonlike en huishoudelike gebruik.

  • Besluit A/RES/64/292. Verenigde Nasies se Algemene Vergadering, Julie 2010
  • Algemene opmerking nr. 15. Die reg op water. VN -komitee vir ekonomiese, sosiale en kulturele regte, November 2002

Die mensereg op water en die MDG's

Die erkenning van water as 'n mensereg en die bereidheid om inhoud aan hierdie reg te gee, kan 'n manier wees om die internasionale gemeenskap en regerings aan te moedig om hul pogings om basiese menslike behoeftes te bevredig en om die millenniumdoelwitte te bereik, te versterk.

Bron: Water as mensereg? IUCN, UNDP, 2004

Wat is.

  • Genoeg. Die watertoevoer vir elke persoon moet voldoende en deurlopend wees vir persoonlike en huishoudelike gebruik. Hierdie gebruike sluit gewoonlik drank, persoonlike sanitasie, was van klere, voedselvoorbereiding, persoonlike en huishoudelike higiëne in. Volgens die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO), tussen 50 en 100 liter water per persoon per dag nodig om te verseker dat aan die meeste basiese behoeftes voldoen word en min gesondheidsprobleme ontstaan.
  • Veilig. Die water wat benodig word vir elke persoonlike of huishoudelike gebruik, moet veilig wees, dus vry van mikroörganismes, chemiese stowwe en radiologiese gevare wat 'n bedreiging vir 'n persoon se gesondheid inhou. Maatreëls vir drinkwaterveiligheid word gewoonlik bepaal deur nasionale en/of plaaslike standaarde vir die kwaliteit van drinkwater. Die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO) Riglyne vir drinkwatergehalte 'n basis bied vir die ontwikkeling van nasionale standaarde wat, indien dit behoorlik geïmplementeer word, die veiligheid van drinkwater sal verseker.
  • Aanvaarbaar. Water moet 'n aanvaarbare kleur, reuk en smaak hê vir elke persoonlike of huishoudelike gebruik. [. ] Alle waterfasiliteite en -dienste moet wees kultureel gepas en sensitief vir geslag, lewensiklus en privaatheid vereistes.
  • Fisies toeganklik. Almal het die reg op 'n water- en sanitasiediens wat fisies toeganklik is binne of in die onmiddellike omgewing van die huishouding, opvoedkundige instelling, werkplek of gesondheidsinstelling. Volgens die WGO moet die waterbron binne wees 1 000 meter van die huis en afhaaltyd mag nie oorskry nie 30 minute.
  • Bekostigbaar. Water en watergeriewe en -dienste moet vir almal bekostigbaar wees. Die Verenigde Nasies se ontwikkelingsprogram (UNDP) stel voor dat waterkoste nie moet oorskry nie 3 persent van huishoudelike inkomste.

Het jy geweet?

  • In die landelike Afrika suid van die Sahara deel miljoene mense hul huishoudelike waterbronne met diere of maak staat op onbeskermde putte wat broeiplek vir patogene is.
  • Die gemiddelde afstand wat vroue in Afrika en Asië loop om water op te vang, is 6 kilometer.
  • Gemiddelde watergebruik wissel van 200-300 liter 'n persoon per dag in die meeste lande in Europa tot minder as 10 liter in lande soos Mosambiek. Mense wat nie toegang tot verbeterde water in ontwikkelende lande het nie, verbruik baie minder, deels omdat hulle dit oor lang afstande moet dra en water swaar is. Vir die ongeveer 884 miljoen mense in die wêreld wat meer as 1 kilometer van 'n waterbron woon, is die watergebruik dikwels minder as 5 liter 'n dag onveilige water.
  • Die basiese vereiste vir lakterende vroue wat selfs matige fisieke aktiwiteit doen, is 7,5 liter n dag.
  • Byna die helfte van alle mense in ontwikkelende lande ly te alle tye aan gesondheidsprobleme wat veroorsaak word deur swak water en sanitasie. Saam is onrein water en swak sanitasie die wêreld tweede grootste moordenaar van kinders. Daar is bereken dat 443 miljoen skooldae jaarliks ​​weens waterverwante siektes verlore gaan.
  • Byna in Tadzjikistan n derde van die bevolking neem water uit kanale en besproeiingslote, met die risiko dat hulle blootgestel word aan besoedelde landbou-afloop.
  • 'N Opname onder 5000 skole in Senegal het getoon dat meer as die helfte geen watertoevoer het nie en byna die helfte geen sanitasiegeriewe het nie. Van die skole met sanitasie het slegs die helfte afsonderlike geriewe vir seuns en dogters gehad. Die gevolg was dat meisies verkies het om nie van hierdie fasiliteite gebruik te maak nie, hetsy omdat hulle nie die risiko wou sien om die toilet te gebruik nie, of omdat hulle gewaarsku is dat hierdie fasiliteite nie privaat of skoon genoeg is nie. Meisies vermy ook drinkwater by die skool om urinering te vermy, waardeur hulle dehidreer en nie kan konsentreer nie
  • Mense wat in die krotbuurte van Jakarta, Manila en Nairobi woon, betaal 5 tot 10 keer meer vir water as dié wat in dieselfde inkomste-gebiede woon en meer as verbruikers in Londen of New York. In Manila verteenwoordig die koste van verbinding met die nut ongeveer drie maande se inkomste vir die armste 20% van die huishoudings, wat tot ses maande in stedelike Kenia styg.
  • Menslike Ontwikkelingsverslag 2006. Buiten skaarste: mag, armoede en die wêreldwye waterkrisis. UNDP, 2006
  • (The) Right to Water, Fact Sheet No. 35. Verenigde Nasies, OHCHR, UN-HABITAT, WHO, 2010

VN -inisiatiewe wat help om die probleem op te los.


    Op 28 September 2011 het die VN se Menseregteraad 'n nuwe resolusie aanvaar wat die mensereg tot veilig drinkwater en sanitasie 'n stap verder neem. Die Raad verwelkom die voorlegging van die samestelling van goeie praktyke oor die reg op veilig drinkwater en sanitasie, waarin die spesiale rapporteur veral klem lê op praktiese oplossings ten opsigte van die implementering van die mensereg op veilig drinkwater en sanitasie. In die resolusie word state versoek om genoeg finansiering te verseker vir volhoubare lewering van water en sanitasiedienste. [ - 24 KB]
    In Mei 2011 het die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO), by resolusie 64/24, 'n beroep op die lidstate gedoen "om te verseker dat nasionale gesondheidstrategieë bydra tot die verwesenliking van water- en sanitasieverwante Millenniumontwikkelingsdoelwitte die geleidelike verwesenliking van die mensereg op water en sanitasie "en aan die WGO se direkteur-generaal om" die WGO se samewerking met alle relevante VN-Water lede en vennote te versterk, asook ander relevante organisasies wat toegang tot veilige drinkwater, sanitasie en higiëne bevorder dienste, om 'n voorbeeld te stel van effektiewe intersektorale optrede in die konteks van die WGO se betrokkenheid by die United Nations Delivering as One -inisiatief, en die WGO se samewerking met die Spesiale Rapporteur van die Verenigde Nasies oor die mensereg tot veilig drinkwater en sanitasie ten einde verbetering van die verwesenliking van die mensereg op water en sanitasie ". [ - 32 KB]
    In Maart 2008, deur resolusie 7/22, het die Raad vir Menseregte besluit "Om vir 'n tydperk van drie jaar 'n onafhanklike deskundige oor die kwessie van menseregteverpligtinge met betrekking tot toegang tot veilig drinkwater en sanitasie aan te stel". In April 2011, through resolution 16/2, the Human Rights Council decided to extend the mandate for a period of three years. The Independent Expert monitors and reports on States' implementation of the right to water as well as related violations.

To know more

The Equitable Access Score-card: Supporting policy processes to achieve the human right to water and sanitation
Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). November 2013
This publication provides an analytical tool designed to help Governments and other stakeholders to establish a baseline measure of the equity of access to water and sanitation, identify related priorities, discuss further actions to be taken and evaluate progress through a process of self-assessment. The publication contains recommendations on how to plan for the self-assessment and provides concrete examples of the benefits of using the score-card in different settings. Parties to the Protocol on Water and Health and other stakeholders can use the Equitable Access Score-card to support the definition of targets to bridge the existing gaps in access to water and sanitation and thus to achieve the human right to water and sanitation.

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque. Sustainability and non-retrogression in the realisation of the rights to water and sanitation
UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. July 2013
Focusing on sustainability in the realization the human rights to water and sanitation, the Special Rapporteur examines in this report how the rights to water and sanitation can and must be met for present and future generations. She highlights challenges to sustainability and particularly aggravated risks in times of economic and financial crisis. After addressing the relevance of sustainability to the core human rights concepts of “progressive realization” and “non-retrogression”, the Special Rapporteur explains how the normative content and principles of the human rights to water and sanitation contribute to ensuring sustainability. Using the human rights framework, the Special Rapporteur analyses States’ common approaches to water and sanitation, particularly in adopting measures both during times of normalcy and during economic and financial crises, and shows how those approaches often fail to incorporate sustainability. She then demonstrates that the human rights framework can and should facilitate improvement in such policies.

On the right track. Good practices in realising the rights to water and sanitation
UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. February 2012
This compendium of good practices on the human right to water and sanitation provides discussion and analysis of existing practices, with the aim of inspiring policy and decision-makers, practitioners, activists and civil society in general to engage with the rights to water and sanitation and to assist in the difficult but crucial process of ensuring that everyone has access to safe drinking water and sanitation services for all daily personal and domestic purposes. Practices have been organised into four main types, and the chapters are named accordingly.

Reader on the Human Right to Water and Sanitation
[ - 175 KB]
UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC). 2011
This reader is intended for all those interested in getting familiar with issues related to the human right to water. The reader provides basic references for easy reading and some of the latest and most relevant United Nations publications on this issue. Link is provided when the publication is available online.

(The) Right to Water. Fact sheet No. 35 [ - 333 KB]
United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), World Health Organization (WHO). 2010
This publication explains what the right to water is, illustrates what it means for specific individuals and groups, and then elaborates upon State obligations with respect to the right. It concludes with an overview of national, regional and international accountability and monitoring mechanisms.

Outcome of the International Experts' Meeting on the Right to Water. Paris, 7 and 8 July 2009 [ - 566 KB]
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UNESCO Etxea - UNESCO Centre Basque Country. 2009
This publication analyzes the human right to water, its content, evolution, legal basis and implementation summarizes UNESCO's position on the issue examines some innovative policies that seek to realize the right to water, including examples from Brazil, South Africa, Belgium and the Philippines and makes a number of suggestions to assist decision-makers in their efforts to implement the right to water and access to adequate sanitation.

Sanitation: A human rights imperative
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE), WaterAid. 2008
This publication analyzes the human right to water, its content, evolution, legal basis and implementation summarizes UNESCO's position on the issue examines some innovative policies that seek to realize the right to water, including examples from Brazil, South Africa, Belgium and the Philippines and makes a number of suggestions to assist decision-makers in their efforts to implement the right to water and access to adequate sanitation.

Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Centre on Housing rights and Evictions (COHRE), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). 2007
This manual is designed to assist policy makers and practitioners in implementing the right to water and sanitation. This publication, written in non-legal language, addresses the vital need to clarify how human rights can be practically realised in the water and sanitation sector. The Manual recognizes that implementing the right to water and sanitation is not limited to legal recognition or allocation of funds. Rather, it provides the basis for practical reforms in many areas of water supply and sanitation and in water resource management that can help make the water and sanitation sector operate in a manner that is more pro-poor, accountable and inclusive.

Human Development Report 2006. Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Chapter 1
[ - 1.26 MB]
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2006
Chapter 1 of the Human Development Report 2006 'Ending the crisis in water and sanitation' focuses on the world's water and sanitation crisis, the human development costs of the crisis and the role recognizing the human right to water and sanitation can play in making progress a reality.

Water as a Human Right? [ - 388 KB]
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2004
Why do we need a right to water? What would be the benefits and contents of such a right? What mechanisms would be required for its effective implementation? Should the duty to provide basic water sanitation for all be placed on governments alone, or should the responsibility in this regard be borne also by private actors, both individual and corporate, national as well as international? These paper addresses these critical questions in detail and provides the material and analysis necessary to tackle them.

(The) Human Right to Water. Legal and Policy Dimensions [ - 694KB]
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), World Bank. 2004
This Study analyzes the resolutions and declarations of the various conferences and forums that have been held since the early 1970s, and the ways in which they have confronted the issue of the right to water. The Study then discusses the evolution of the international legal regime for the protection and promotion of human rights, and pays particular attention to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The role of each of the committees established to oversee the implementation of the two Covenants is considered. The last two parts of the Study are devoted to General Comment No. 15, which recognizes the human right to water. These parts analyze the extent to which the Comment recognizes a legal right to water, and highlights some policy aspects that are related to, and may affect, this right.

(The) Right to Water [ - 593.4 KB]
World Health Organization (WHO), Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE), Water Aid, Centre on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 2003
This publication outlines the scope and content of the legal definition of the human right to water and its relationship to other civil, cultural, economic, political, and social rights discusses the right to water as a human right, and examines its implications on the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders examines the various communities affecting and being affected by the right to water considers the contribution the right to water can and should make towards making drinking-water a reality for all and explores a human rights-based approach to water.

"The children who have no clean water to drink, the women who fear for their safety, the young people who have no chance to receive a decent education have a right to better, and we have a responsibility to do better. All people have the right to safe drinking water, sanitation, shelter and basic services."
Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General

This document presents the UN historical background and evolution of recognition of the human right to water and sanitation.
>> UN Milestones
[ - 112 KB]

This document presents the current situation and some examples illustrating how the human right to water and sanitation is being implemented in practice.
>> Media brief [ - 187 KB]

Video on the UN-Water Interview Session at Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum (Bonn, Germany), 20 June 2011. This session was organized by the United Nations Office to Support the International Decade for Action "Water for Life" 2005-2015/UN-Water Decade Program on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC), in collaboration with UN-Habitat, the UN-Water Decade Program on Capacity Building (UNW-DPC) and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). During the session, the panel and the audience discussed about the UN resolution, the aspect of sanitation, the country example of South Africa and experiences and opinions from the audience.

Interactive Dialogue with the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations related to safe drinking water and sanitation at the 8th Plenary Meeting of the 18th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, 15 September 2011.

Rector of UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education talks about the breakthrough of UN's legal recognition of water and sanitation as a human right, and the process it took to get there.

Catarina de Albuquerque United Nations Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the Human Right to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation

As Special Rapporteur, Ms. de Albuquerque monitors the right to water and sanitation worldwide, offering advice to Governments, UN agencies and civil society, among other stakeholders. She prepares thematic research on issues of concern to her mandate and she undertakes country missions. She reports annually to the UN Human Rights Council on the work she has accomplished under her mandate. She has been working on this mandate since November 2008.
To request an interview, please send an email to Pilar González


3 Answers 3

Up until about 1970, it was thought to be harmful to drink water while running a marathon, and a marathon course might have no aid stations or only one. Marathon runners were actively discouraged from drinking water. For a description of this period, see this interview.

In 1969, a paper by Wyndham and Strydom ("The danger of an inadequate water intake during marathon running," S Afr Med J. 1943(29):893) argued that marathon runners should be allowed to drink fluids in order to prevent heat stroke. From about 1972 to 1981, a South African researcher and runner named Tim Noakes started a campaign through publications such as Runner's World to get people to pay attention to the Wyndham paper and drink fluids during a marathon. The American College of Sports Medicine wrote guidelines saying that people should drink regularly while running.

This was also the period when so-called sports drinks were becoming popular. In 1969, Gatorade started to be marketed in the US, and it was designated the official sports drink of the NFL. Aided by these commercial interests, the scientifically unfounded idea began to be propagated that drinking before thirst was necessary in order to prevent heat stroke. Studies were carried out with football players in which it was claimed that drinking early versions of Gatorade led to increased performance, but the methodology was not capable of discerning whether this was a placebo effect.

A physiologist named David Costill had distance runners run on a treadmill without water, and then in separate trials drinking 1.2 liters per hour (which is a huge amount of water). He found that body temperatures were lower if they drank water. The meager evidence from studies like Costill's was overinterpreted, and in many case overzealous people began to simply invent scientifically unsupported guidelines for hydration. The US military adopted guidelines calling for soldiers to drink 64 ounces of water per hour.

During this same period, a cultural idea in the US of "getting back to the land" led to a craze for wilderness backpacking, and with this came further anxiety about water. This included a scare about contracting giardiasis from backcontry water sources in the US, which turns out to have been unfounded (Zell, "Epidemiology of wilderness-acquired diarrhea: implications for prevention and treatment," Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 3 (1992) 241).

During this period, scientists began to do more complete and careful studies, which showed that drinking large amounts of water was bad. It decreases performance, and can lead to a dangerous condition called hyponatremia. Studies with larger samples in real-world conditions showed that post-race body temperatures were not reduced by drinking more water (Noakes et al., "The danger of an inadequate water intake during prolonged exercise," European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 57 (1988) 210).

Despite the scientific consensus that emerged by the end of the century, the irrational and extreme fear of dehydration began to grow in the popular consciousness, leading even sedentary people to believe that they were in danger. For example, there was a folk belief that one should drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day ("8x8") (Valtin, "'Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.' Really? Is there scientific evidence for '8x8'?," Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R993-R1004, 2002).

Drinking large amounts of water may be bad, but what about smaller amounts?

@JAB: As far as I can tell, the present scientific consensus is that it's reasonable to listen to your body, and drink when you feel thirsty. But it's at most an issue of comfort and performance, not safety this article emsworld.com/article/10324701/… says, "there is not a single case report or clinical trial that unambiguously links exercise-induced dehydration with specific life-threatening, exercise-related disorders," citing Noakes TD. Hyponatremia in distance athletes. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 28(9):71󈞸, Sept. 2000.

– Ben Crowell
Mar 4 at 19:15

"There was a folk belief that one should drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day." In my experience this folk belief persists until the present day.

– WaterMolecule
Mar 5 at 14:37

Part of the problem with the idea that you should drink vast amounts of water is that we also live with non-scientific recommendations to limit salt intake to the bare minimum needed to live. Hyponatremia is a result of upsetting your salinity i.e. your fluids are not saline enough.

Long before dehydration becomes a problem for your biochemistry, it will become and exceedingly annoying sensation in your mind. This is called feeling thirsty. You will stop worrying about anything other than getting a drink. On the other hand, sweating during a race removes water and salt from your body. You can easily replace the water, but the salt is harder to come by. As has been noted, this can lead to hyponatremia. This is largely symptomless until it becomes critical. The first thing you might notice is cardiac arrythmia, followed quickly by arrest.

The constant availability of water to marathon runners probably developed in the 1970s.

According to an article in Outside magazine, drinking alcohol during competitive races was rather common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries:


Fueling typically meant a shot of whiskey, brandy, or other alcohol. Spyridon Louis, winner of the marathon at the 1896 Olympics, sipped cognac with fewer than six miles remaining. The 1924 Paris Marathon featured a fluid station offering pours of wine to runners.


Citing the book Waterlogged, which is skeptical towards modern hydration practices, the Outside article claims that significant changes in these practices came only after the invention of Gatorade in 1965. "And even then, it wasn’t until the mid-1970s that thoughtful hydration became common practice."

Basically consistent with this, an article in the Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies describes a "landmark scientific study" which was published in 1969. The authors "concluded that marathon runners should aim to drink 250 ml of fluid every 15 min during exercise".

Wyndham, C.H., Strydom, N.B. "The danger of an inadequate water intake during marathon running." South African Medical Journal (1969) 43: 893-896

Is the answer to the question the last paragraph? The rest is just context?

Please don't reply in comments

Note that drinking alcohol was really much more common in pre-modern times and holdouts of the custom are everywhere. In the middle ages, water was simply not clean enough to be safe to drink in most places, and (lightly) alcoholic drinks were preferable as the alcohol killed most of the microbes.

Let's look beyond the marathon aspect in its over-specificity. The question asks for when was it recognised to drink water while exercising heavily would be advisable?

That means the scientific side has to be examined and not necessarily the practical application or even the commercial availability of specialised products, Brawndo-style.

This focus on water for performance began in Sweden during the 1930s, curiously as a by-product of analysing carbohydrate metabolism.


The development of nutritional beverages specifically geared towards improving athletic performance started with studies on carbohydrate and fat metabolism conducted in Sweden in the 1930s and continued into the late 1960s. The team of scientists led by Bjorn Ahlborg and Jonas Bergström studied the relationship among muscle glycogen storage, use, and resynthesis during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in a group of volunteers. The research by the Swedish team demonstrated a performance-enhancing role for carbohydrates during endurance exercise and showed that glycogen content and the long-term exercise capacity could be varied by instituting different diets after glycogen depletion.

Gustavo A. Galaz: "An Overview on the History of Sports Nutrition Beverages", Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance, Second Edition, p231, Elsevier, 2019.


The "exercise to exhaustion" is of course just a relative measure depnding on the tested individual and its fitness level.


A slight sodium deficiency can impair athletic performance before any clinical signs of sodium lack are discernible. Therefore, during hot weather, adequate amounts of salt and water should be given to replace losses of these substances through the skin.
Theodore B. Van Itallie: "Nutrition and Athletic Performance", JAMA, November 17, 1956. (p 1126)


Molnar, G.W., Towbin, E.J., Gosselin, R.E., Brown, A.H. & Adolph, E.F.: "A comparative study of water, salt and heat exchanges of men in tropical and desert environments", American Journal of Hygiene 44, 411�, 1946.

Adolph, A. & Associates: "Physiology of Man in the Desert". Wiley, New York, 1947.

Bass, D.E., Kleeman, C.R., Quinn, M., Henschel, A. & Hegnauer, A.H.: "Mechanisms of acclimatization to heat in man", Medicine 34, 323�, 1955.

Buskirk, E.R., Iampietro, P.F. & Bass, D.E.: "Work performance after dehydration: effects of physical conditioning and heat acclimatization", Journal of Applied Physiology 12, 189�, 1958.

Grande, F., Monagle, J.E., Buskirk, E.R. & Taylor, H.L.: "Body temperature responses to exercise in man on restricted food and water intake", Journal of Applied Physiology 14, 194�, 1959

Senay, L.C. & Christensen, M.L.: "Cardiovascular and sweating responses to water ingestion during dehydration", Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 975– 979, 1965.

Moroff, S.V. & Bass, D.E.: "Effects of overhydration on man’s physiological responses to work in the heat", Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 267�, 1965.

Strydom, N.B. & Holdsworth, D.L.: "The effects of different levels of water deficit on physiological responses during heat stress", Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physiologie 26, 95�, 1968.

Cage, G., Wolfe, S., Thompson, R. & Gordon, R.: "Effects of water intake on composition of thermal sweat in normal human volunteers", Journal of Applied Physiology 29, 687�, 1970.

American College of Sports Medicine: "Position statement on prevention of heat injuries during distance running", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 7, vii–ix, American College of Sports Medicine, 1975.

It seems quite clear that it's been known for long in the medical literature that it's not really "water is essential for marathons", but that adequate hydration is really just one small angle to view a balanced scale.

Therefore, allow me a small link to an article that describes the current stae of trickle-down science, with a highlight on Exercise-associated hyponatraemia:

James M Winger et al.: "Beliefs about hydration and physiology drive drinking behaviours in runners", Br J Sports Med 2011 45: 646�. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.075275

And the belief angle is indeed crucial to understand why pre 1970s and especially in the very early years of the last cebtury the advice given out to runners looks very strange today to us.

Fundamental science was way advanced in its understandings compared to what applied and empirical sports science had to say about it.

The early advice was based on empiricism, but a purely observational one that was tainted by attitudes:

Contrary to popular theories and beliefs, distance runners predating 1970 were encouraged to drink as little as possible. Early studies of elite distance athletes showed the more successful athletes were the ones losing the most fluids of anyone in the race. These data concluded that a runner should not replenish the fluid lost during a race. To achieve even better results, it was suggested to have no fluid intake at all. In Tim Noakes book, Waterlogged, he talks about running a marathon in 1969 that had only water stop, at mile 20. As running became more popular, scientists conducted further research and came to some different conclusions.

Health risks of dehydration became more apparent in research after 1970, leading scientists to recommend that distance athletes drink during exercise. Frequent drinking was encouraged and promoted as the dangers of dehydration became even more evident as people suffered through injuries and even succumbed to death during races. Sports drink companies, such as Gatorade, were founded during this time period and began running advertisements in which professional athletes endorsed their product and talked about how hydration and sports drinks would lead to increased performance. (src)

Going back to the early days of marathon running, it was thought that the consumption of most fluids during long races like a marathon was not needed and even detrimental. Hoekom? Because runners were studied and it was found that at the end of the race, the winners or top finishers lost the most body weight. The logic was that the best runners lost the most water weight, therefore losing fluids was necessary to maximize performance and hydration should not occur. The top runners were the most dehydrated, so dehydration is good! This line of thinking is used often, even to this day (i.e. The Kenyans do X, so X should be done…). This should be a cautionary tale to doing something just because the fastest guys do it.
So early in the history of hydration we have a policy of no drinking. What happens next?

With the rise of mass participation running, an increased awareness of illnesses associated with dehydration and the ability to measure hydration status very easily and quickly, we overreacted. The norm went from drinking nothing during exercise to trying to replace all of your fluid loss during exercise by drinking water or sports drinks. The common advice of measuring yourself before and after exercise to calculate hydration needs reached mantra status with coaches, nutritionist, trainers, and the common exerciser.

According to a nice summary by Mundel (BJSM-2011), one reason for this overreaction was the design of studies which measured the effect of drinking on tests at fixed intensities which essentially found how long you could go, and not how fast you can go over a fixed distance, which is what we do in the real world.
As mentioned above, the other reason is that heat exhaustion and similar illness became more prevalent with the rise of mass participation. The thinking was simple, extreme dehydration caused some problems and helped contribute to heat exhaustions, therefore if we eliminate dehydration heat exhaustion and similar illnesses would be eliminated. The problem with this thinking is similar to the “no drinking” logic. Just because a lot of dehydration is bad, doesn’t mean we need to eliminate all of it. It’s only bad if it gets to a dangerous point outside of the norms. Until it gets to that point, which is hard to do unless you force yourself not to consume any fluids (which is what was occurring in the previous period), you are fine.
You see this “all or none” thinking in a myriad of different places. Some obvious examples through history are: free radicals, carbohydrates, fat, lactate, etc. Just because a lot is bad, doesn’t mean a little is.

The history of Hydration : A lesson in the scientific method and the Hype cycle.



  1. Start every run well hydrated. This requires you to know your ‘normal’ needs and be intentional about getting enough water on a regular basis.
  2. During your run – use hydration gear when needed. If you’re running long or in extreme temperatures – use a hydration belt or vest to have water available during your run. Shorter runs, easy runs and mild temps may mean you can wait.
  3. Post-Run – Rehydrate after your run according to thirst. (Don’t overdo it – it’s dangerous to drink too much.)
  4. Use your urine color as an indicator of your hydration levels (along with how you feel, the weather, sweat rate, etc).
  5. Create your hydration plan. Log all relevant information and use that to create your personalized hydration plan.

Keep Going with these…

Follow @RunEatRepeat on Instagram for daily updates, tips and fun!

*Always consult your doctor before trying any diet or exercise. If you have any history of illness or feel like you may have a health issue – see your doctor asap. This isn’t intended as medical or health advice and is not a substitute for getting personalized medical help or a diagnosis.


Importance of Water Quality and Testing

The United States has one of the safest water supplies in the world. Over 90 percent of Americans get their tap water from community water systems, which are subject to safe drinking water standards.

Drinking water quality varies from place to place, depending on the condition of the source water from which it is drawn and the treatment it receives, but it must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Community water systems follow the rules set forth by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). external icon Many states enforce their own drinking water standards that are at least as protective as EPA&rsquos national standards. The SDWA rules include guidelines for drinking water quality, water testing schedules, and water testing methods.

Even though U.S. tap water supplies are considered to be among the safest in the world, water contamination can still occur. There are many possible sources of contamination, including:

  • Sewage releases
  • Naturally occurring chemicals and minerals (for example, arsenic, radon, uranium)
  • Local land use practices (for example, fertilizers, pesticides, livestock, concentrated feeding operations)
  • Manufacturing processes (for example, heavy metals, cyanide)
  • Malfunctioning on-site wastewater treatment systems (for example, septic systems)

In addition, drinking water that is not properly treated or that travels through an improperly maintained distribution system (pipes) may also create conditions that increase risk of contamination.

Private wells, which are not regulated by the EPA, supply drinking water to over 15 million homes. Well owners are responsible for keeping their water clean and safe. Visit CDC&rsquos Private Wells page for more information on water quality of private ground water wells.

When water system officials find an issue with the drinking water supply (for example, that it has become contaminated), a water advisory may be issued to help protect the public&rsquos health.

The presence of certain contaminants in our water can lead to health issues, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems may be especially at risk for illness.


Marathon training and nutrition

Wondering what to eat before, during and after your run or confused about carb-loading and hydration strategies? Our experts have the answers to all your questions in our marathon hub.

Paula Radcliffe: How to run your best marathon

Paula Radcliffe: How to run your best marathon
Michel Roux Jr: How to run a marathon

Marathon meal plan – the week before

Vegetarian marathon meal plan

Meal plans for runners

Meal plans for runners
Nutrition for runners – an infographic guide

Sports nutrition: What’s worth trying?

What to eat for a triathlon

What to eat for a triathlon
The best sources of protein


30 Weird Rules Marathon Runners Have to Follow

Running a marathon seems pretty straight forward, right? Turns out, it's not as simple as lacing up your shoes and hitting the pavement. These 30 weird rules that some marathon runners have to follow&mdashdepending on the course, and the organizer&mdashcome from the edicts behind some of the biggest races in the world, and they prove that every sport has some surprises.

According to the rules for the Boston Marathon, foul language is not to be used at the race.

A seasoned marathon runner is likely not going to have a shot while competing, but it's still among the rules.

Protect your bib at all costs. There's no cutting, folding, or bending of it allowed.

Not all races ban headphones, but the Boston Marathon does require that any racer competing for a cash prize forgo music while running.

While yes, there are costume-themed races, marathons like those sponsored by Abbott World Marathon Majors, don't want to see you in your t-rex costume.

For those who love running with their kids, you'll need to seek out a special marathon. Strollers aren't allowed at many major races like the Boston and New York marathons.

This probably isn't surprising, but don't bring fireworks to a race for cheering or celebratory purposes.

While this rule may be harder to enforce for spectators, alcohol isn't allowed for anyone at New York City Marathon race venues.

According to rules for the New York City Marathon, clothes should be form fitting and not bulky.

Unfortunately, your favorite social media tool, the selfie stick, is a no-go while you're running.

Look, a marathon lasts a long time, but rules and rules. There's no public urination allowed.

Yes, this is a rule. You're allowed to spit or snot while running, but the New York City Marathon says you have to watch out for your fellow runners while doing it.

While certain tools are allowed&mdashlike hydration belts&mdashother races, like Atlanta's Peachtree Road Race, say no to devices like Camelbaks.

While some races will allow service animals, running with your pet is typically a no-go.

It's a simple rule, but one that's important. Be on time to the start of your race, or you're out.

Under no circumstances can someone else wear your number. It'll get you disqualified and potentially banned from future races.

Races have professional photographers and videographers snapping photos and videos throughout a race. Most runners are asked to allow their images to be taken and used in order to compete.

If you're running the Chicago Marathon, don't bring your drone. Aerial devices are against the rules.

Intentionally blocking someone from passing you is a faux pas, and you can be disqualified for it.

According to the rules of the Chicago Marathon, a runner must maintain an approximate 15-minute mile in order to finish the course in time.

At the Chicago Marathon, if you leave the course, you're out of the race and can't re-enter.

Okay, fine, it's not the weirdest rule, but just like other sports, performance enhancing drugs aren't allowed.

Yes, this is mentioned in the rules. If you win prize money, you're required to pay taxes on it.

Surprise! You can inline skate at the Berlin Marathon.

You can't run a marathon for an unlimited amount of time. Many cap their race times around the six or seven hour mark.

When races offer energy gels or other food and drink, there's usually a strict no littering policy.