Cardo Maximus van Italica, Spanje

Cardo Maximus van Italica, Spanje


Augusta Emerita

Augusta Emerita, ook genoem Emerita Augusta, [1] was 'n Romeinse Colonia wat in 25 vC in die huidige Mérida, Spanje, gestig is. Die stad is gestig deur die Romeinse keiser Augustus om Emeriti -soldate te hervestig uit die veteraanlegioene van die Cantabrische oorloë, dit is Legio V Alaudae, Legio X Gemina en moontlik Legio XX Valeria Victrix. [ aanhaling nodig ] Die stad was die hoofstad van die Romeinse provinsie Lusitania, en was een van die grootste in Hispania met 'n oppervlakte van meer as 20 000 vierkante kilometer. Dit het drie akwadukte en twee fora gehad. [2]

Die stad was geleë op die kruising van verskeie belangrike roetes. Dit het naby 'n kruising van die Guadiana -rivier gesit. Romeinse paaie verbind die stad wes met Felicitas Julia Olisippo (Lissabon), suid na Hispalis (Sevilla), noordwes met die goudmyngebied en met Corduba (Córdoba) en Toletum (Toledo). [2]

Vandag is die Argeologiese ensemble van Mérida is een van die grootste en mees uitgebreide argeologiese terreine in Spanje en 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied sedert 1993. [3]


Itálica, 'n Romeinse stad, 10 minute van Sevilla af

Het u geweet dat u 'n entjie van Sevilla af 'n Romeinse stad moet ontdek? Itálica was nie net 'n stad in die Ryk nie. Italica was 'n belangrike stad waar Trajanus en Adriano, die twee Sevilliaanse keisers van Antieke Rome, gebore is.

Itálica was die eerste stad wat die Romeinse Ryk buite die Italiaanse grondgebied gestig het 206 vC. En die naam kom juis van die oorsprong van die eerste inwoners.

Onder die belangrikste besienswaardighede daarvan val die mosaïek wat die vloere van die luukse huise versier het, uit. Sommige van hulle het ons dae bereik in 'n wonderlike toestand van bewaring en het 'n indrukwekkende artistieke kwaliteit. U kan Itálica nie verlaat sonder om die Mosaïek van die voëls, Die Neptunus Mosaïek, en die Planetêre Mosaïek. Laasgenoemde toon die sewe planetêre goddelikhede, wat saamval met die Romeinse dae van die week.

Ander moet-sien is die Traianeum, die House of the Exedra, die warmwaterbronne, en sonder twyfel, die Amfiteater.

Van sy oorsprong is Itálica gekonsolideer as een van die eerste kerne van die aristokratiese bevolking in Hispania. Die stedelike uitleg en die belangrikheid van sy geboue is 'n uitstekende voorbeeld hiervan pragtige Sevilliaanse wagtoring.

Die cardo maximus is die belangrikste manier van Italica. Oorweeg dit van die bokant van die amfiteater af!

Die Itálica Amfiteater was die vierde in kapasiteit van die Ryk en is gebou in die tyd van keiser Hadrianus. Daar word beraam dat die staanplekke tussen 25 000 en 30 000 mense kan huisves.

In die amfiteater was daar hoofsaaklik gladiatorbotsings en dieregevegte.

Onlangs was The Itálica Amphitheater een van die Sevilliaanse stadiums van die Game of Thrones -reeks.

In die reeks Game of Thrones het die Italica Amphitheater die "Dragonpit" in die uitkoms van die sewende seeso


PORTEFEULJE

Die Cardo Maximus. Hierdie reghoekige peristylium van die House of the Exedra. Die groot pilare ondersteun 'n tweede verdieping. Die domus beslaan 'n oppervlakte van 3 000 vierkante meter en is geheel en al van beton met baksteen gebou. Die warm termiese baddens in die Huis van die Neptunus.

Die Huis van Neptunus met geometriese en figuurlike mosaïek. Die domus is vernoem na 'n mosaïek wat Neptunus en waterdiere uitbeeld. Die Neptunus -mosaïek in die huis van Neptunus. Neptunus, die god van die see met sy drietand. Die mosaïek word omring deur 'n breë rand wat versier is met Nilotiese tonele met krokodille, 'n seekoei, 'n palmboom en verskeie dwerge wat teen ibise veg. Die Labirintmosaïek in die huis van Neptunus.

The House of the Birds is 'n groot woning met 'n goeie hoeveelheid mosaïek van hoë gehalte. Een van hulle, die Bird Mosaic, het sy naam aan die huis gegee. Die Bird Mosaic bestaan ​​uit 'n sentrale paneel omring deur 35 klein vierkante wat verskillende voëlsoorte verteenwoordig. Detail van die voëlmosaïek wat bestaan ​​uit 'n sentrale paneel omring deur 35 klein vierkante wat verskillende voëlsoorte verteenwoordig. Detail van die voëlmosaïek wat bestaan ​​uit 'n sentrale paneel omring deur 35 klein vierkante wat verskillende voëlsoorte verteenwoordig. Die Huis van die Voëls. Oop patio met 'n fontein in die House of the Birds. Mosaïese detail met kop van Medusa in die House of the Birds. Die Huis van Hylas. Die middelste paneel (emblema) van die mosaïek beeld Hercules en sy metgesel en minnaar Hylas uit wat in die Argeologiese Museum van Sevilla te sien is. Die House of the Planetarium, so genoem as gevolg van die mosaïek wat een van sy kamers geplavei het. Mosaïese vloere in die House of the Planetarium. Mosaïek met borste van die planeetgode wat hul name aan die dae van die week in die House of the Planetarium gegee het. In die middel is Venus (Vrydag). Antikloksgewys vanaf die onderste middel is Jupiter (Donderdag), Saturnus (Saterdag), Helios of Sol (Sondag), Luna of Selene (Maandag), Mars (Dinsdag) en Mercurius (Woensdag). Die fondamente van die Tempel van Trajanus (Traianeum). Die tempelgebied bestaan ​​uit 'n quadriporticus rondom 'n octastyle Korintiese podiumtempel en altaar. Die fondamente van die Tempel van Trajanus (Traianeum).

Die Hadrianic Baths in die midwestelike deel van die Nova Urbs. Die Hadrianic Baths vertoon konstruksietegnieke uit die tyd van Hadrianus en loodpype met seëls waarop Hadrian vermeld word. Die amfiteater was een van die grootste in die Ryk, 160 by 137 m. Dit is gebou uit groot blokke gekapte klip en baksteen met marmer en het plek vir ongeveer 25 000 toeskouers. Baie van die cavea van die amfiteater word bewaar met sy gange en vomitoria nog steeds bruikbaar, en die ondergrondse diensgange van die arena is in 'n perfekte toestand. Die goed bewaarde gange van die amfiteater. Stempelplaat met gegraveerde voetspore by die ingang van die Romeinse amfiteater. Die teater is gebou op die ou Romeinse stad, die Vetus Urbs. Konstruksie het gedurende die tyd van Augustus begin. Dit is later gewysig tussen 60 en 80 nC. Hadrianus het dit met marmerbeelde verryk.


Wat jy vandag kan sien

Gelukkig het die amfiteater van 25 000 sitplekke, wat een van die grootstes in die Romeinse Ryk was, gedeeltelik oorleef (twee verdiepings uit drie). Die sentrale put is gebruik vir dierehokke (bere en wilde varke) tydens gladiatorgevegte. In 2016 is dit gebruik as opnameplek vir Game of Thrones (sien hieronder).

Daarbenewens, op en rondom die breë hooflaan of Cardus Maximus, is ongeveer vyf groot huise van welvarende gesinne opgegrawe, sommige met goed bewaarde, kleurvolle mosaïek, insluitend vloere met 'n uitstekende ontwerp van voëls, Neptunus en die planete. Hierdie herehuise was tot 15 000 m2 groot.

U kan ook die oorblyfsels van die Traianeum, die tempel van die keiser Trajanus, Termas Menores en Mayores (baddens) sien, en die gesofistikeerde rioolstelsel wat gewoonlik in groter stede voorkom.

Ook die besoek werd is Cotidiana Vitae, 'n besoekersentrum met 'n Romeinse tema in Santiponce, met 'n rekonstruksie van 'n 2de-eeuse nC-huis, volledig met slaapkamers en kombuis, 'n plan van hoe Italica sou gelyk het, en 'n oudio-visuele voorstelling wat die bou van die Romeinse stad. Plaza de la Constitucion 11, Santiponce.


KUNS VAN DIE ROMEINSE PROVINSIES

Fragment van die Tabula Peutingeriana, met die stad Rome in die middel (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Wene).

Teen die middel van die tweede eeu nC het die Romeinse keiserlike regering die Ryk bedek met 'n perfekte netwerk van paaie wat met veelhoekige klippe gebou is. 'N Redelik getroue Middeleeuse kopie van 'n kaart van die Romeinse Ryk word bewaar. Hierdie kaart bevat baie van die groot stede en selfs die ligging van sommige padkoshuise. Hierdie kaart staan ​​bekend as die “Peutinger Table ” of “Tabula Peutingeriana“.

Die groot maritieme sentrums van die Ryk, net soos die hawe van Ostia, het 'n goed ontwikkelde straatstelsel plus graansakke of pakhuise om graan, olie en wyn op te berg. Hierdie hawestede het ook tempels gehad vir alle godsdienste wat in die Ryk beoefen is, asook plekke vir die vermaak van handelaars wat daar gewoon het, en vir buitelanders wat uit ander provinsies kom handel dryf. Ostia was die belangrikste hawe in Rome en 'n belangrike handelsentrum, veral met Africa Puteoli, aan die Golf van Napels, was verantwoordelik vir die handel met Alexandria Brindisi, in die suide van Italië, was eerder 'n militêre en skeepshawe vir die handel met Griekeland en die ooste.

Die groot Romeinse paaie het na die Germania en Gallië gelei deur die Alpe oor te steek, en van daar af na Brittanje en Spanje gelei. In Spanje en Gallië volg baie bestaande moderne paaie dieselfde uitleg van die Romeinse paaie wat oor die algemeen reguit lyne gevolg is, ongeag die rowwe hange, moerasagtige gebiede -wat geweldige ingenieurswese vereis het -riviere -waarvoor hulle groot brûe gebou het -en selfs tonnels.

Die Alcántara-brug, by die Taagrivier (Alcántara, Spanje), 104-106 nC. Die Pont Julien (of Julian-brug), aan die Calavon, suidoos van Frankryk, 3 vC.

Baie brûe vanaf die Iberiese skiereiland is van Romeinse oorsprong en het 'n afgeronde/sirkelvormige uitleg na die riviermonding en 'n ingewikkelde uitleg na die stroomopkant. Die Alcantara -brug het by sy ingang 'n klein tempel toegewy aan die vergoddelikte brug. Hierdie reusagtige brug toon elegansie van lyne en is perfek horisontaal in teenstelling met die meeste Romeinse brûe met 'n geboë profiel (van die middel af het hulle na elke rivieroewer gegaan).

Die Pont du Gard (of Gard-brug), aan die Gardonrivier, Vers-Pont-du-Gard naby Remoulins, Suid-Frankryk, ca. 40-60 nC. Die akwadukt van Segovia, (Spanje), ca. 1ste eeu nC.

Die Romeinse akwadukte was kolossale ingenieurswerke soortgelyk aan brûe. Een van hulle, die Pont-du-Gard-akwaduk in Provence, is soos 'n brug met drie boogvlakke met die water wat op die hoër kanaal loop. In Spanje is die akwaduk van Segovia op drie vlakke bykans ongeskonde en daar is nog steeds kolossale oorblyfsels van wat die grootste van alle Romeinse akwadukte moes gewees het: die Merida -akwaduk uit die vyfde eeu nC. As voorbeeld van 'n tweevlak -Romeinse akwaduk is die akwaduk van Tarragona. Romeinse akwadukte kan ook in die provinsies van Afrika gevind word.

Die akwaduk van Merida of Acueducto de los Milagros (akwaduk van die wonderwerke), Mérida, Spanje, ca. 1ste eeu nC. Die Zaghouan-akwaduk of akwaduk van Hadrianus, in Tunisië (Afrika), 100-199 nC.

In Rome sowel as in sy provinsies was die stadspoorte omring deur twee verdedigingstorings. Hierdie hekke word ook as halfheilige geboue beskou, en die ligging daarvan is presies aangedui in die sogenaamde pomerium of muurgebied. In sommige strategiese stede het die deure van hierdie mure kolossale dimensies, die beroemde Porta Nigra in Trier (Duitsland) het drie vlakke van portieke. In Spanje het baie stede nog hul Romeinse poorte en mure, hoewel hulle gedurende die Middeleeue aangepas en versier is. Die mure is soms onderbreek deur vierkantige of ronde torings soos in Lugo. Daar is ook groot oorblyfsels van hierdie Romeinse mure in Tarragona, Leon, Avila, Toledo, Cordoba en Merida.

Die Porta Nigra (of Black Gate), in Trier, Duitsland, 186-200 nC. Antieke Romeinse pad “Cardo ” in Petra, Jordanië.

Die binnekant van 'n Romeinse stad is oor die algemeen verstedelik volgens die ou kursiewe patroon wat twee hoofpaaie opgelê het: die kardo*('n noord-suid-georiënteerde straat) en die decumanus* ('n oos-westelike straat) wat reghoekig moet kruis. By die kruising van hierdie twee hoofstrate is die Forum of die hoofplein gebou, dikwels met arcades. Die Forum het die basiliek, die hooftempel en winkels omring. Die bekendste voorbeeld van 'n Forum uit 'n klein Romeinse stad is die van Pompeii. Gewoonlik was aan elke kant van die Forum 'n triomfboog wat as ingangsdeur na die groot monumentale plein gedien het. Timgad, 'n Afrika -stad wat deur Trajanus gestig is, het die beste bewaarde oorblyfsels van 'n Romeinse stad na Pompeii. Behalwe die tempel van die Forum, het 'n Romeinse stad vroeër ander tempels gehad wat aan klein goddelikhede gewy was: Pompeii het tempels gehad vir Apollo, Isis, Mercurius en Aesculapius.

Vliegtuig van die antieke Romeinse stad Lucca, met die belangrikste paaie van Cardus en Decumanus. Forum van Pompeii. Triomfboog van Trajanus in die ruïnes van die Romeinse stad Timgad.

Sekondêre strate was parallel met albei via cardo en via decumanus gee dus die uitleg van die stad 'n geruite voorkoms. Hierdie rooster was ook tipies in die militêre kampe wat baie stede soos León, in Spanje en Engelse stede veroorsaak het, waarvan die name eindig in –cester 'n korrupsie vir die Latyn castra* dit beteken geboue of stukke grond wat gereserveer is vir of gebou is om as militêre verdedigingsposisie gebruik te word.

Vliegtuig van die Romeinse militêre kamp of kastra van Inchtuthil in Skotland.

'N Onmisbare element van 'n Romeinse provinsiale stad was die amfiteater. Sommige amfiteateroorblyfsels in die Afrikaanse provinsies is kolossaal. Daar is ook ruïnes van Romeinse amfiteaters in Nimes en Arles (Provence), Padua en Verona (Italië), Pola (Dalmatië), El-Djem (Afrika) en#8230

Die Arena van Nîmes, ca. 70 nC. (Suid -Frankryk).

Van alle Romeinse amfiteaters wat tot vandag toe bewaar is, is die een in Pompeii ongetwyfeld die oudste vele inskripsies wat na hom verwys, toon dat dit bekend was met die naam espectaculo (vermaak). Die vertonings wat in 'n Romeinse amfiteater gespeel is, lyk baie soos ons gewilde feeste van vandag, maar dit is reusagtig vergroot en beklemtoon die brutale aard daarvan. Antieke Romeine het bloedvergieting toegejuig. Die felheid van die gladiatorgevegte, wat deur die skare geesdriftig gevier word, het hul oorsprong in die begrafniswedstryde van die Etruskers.

Die amfiteater van Pompeii, die oudste oorlewende Romeinse amfiteater, ca. 80 vC. Binne -in die amfiteater van Pompeii.

Benewens die amfiteater het die meeste van die Romeinse stede 'n teater gehad. As voorbeeld van die beste bewaarde Romeinse teater is die van Oranje, in Gallië. Daar is ook die teater van Aspendos, in Klein -Asië, dié van Bosra, in Sirië, die van Timgad en Thugga in Afrika, en die teaters van Mérida, Ronda en Sagunto in Spanje.

The Theatre of Orange, in Orange, Suid -Frankryk, vroeg in die 1ste eeu nC.

'N Ander belangrike element van 'n Romeinse stad was die openbare baddens, soos die wat in Pompeii en Timgad gevind is, of die baddens van Bath in Engeland wat nog ruïnes van die antieke Romeinse baddens toon.

Die Forum Baths in Pompeii. The Roman Baths, in Bath, Somerset, Suidwes -Engeland, ca. 60 nC. Die gebou bo die vlak van die kolombasisse is 'n latere konstruksie en was nie deel van die Romeinse gebou nie. Heropbou van die Trajanstrofee in Adamclisi, (Roemenië), ca. 109 nC.

'N Baie kenmerkende tipe van 'n Romeinse stad, ietwat anders as die provinsies, was die versterkte kampe vir die Romeinse legioene, wat ook volgens 'n redelik gereelde plan verstedelik is. Hierdie dorpe was min of meer vierkantig, met put en mure, en hul strate het slaapplek vir soldate, met die groter kamers wat vir die senior amptenare van die Praetorium. Die legioene het ook hul eksklusiewe kunstenaars en het 'n voorliefde vir gedenkgeboue getoon. Die artistiek belangrikste werk van die argitekte en beeldhouers wat vir die Romeinse weermag gewerk het, is die groot monument naby Adam-Kilise in Bessarabia (nou in Roemenië). Dit was 'n stewige ronde toring met 'n fries pilasters afwisselend met metope en bo -op 'n kegelvormige dak en 'n agtkantige konstruksie met 'n panoplye gevorm met wapens en wapens. Hierdie metope bevat komposisies met plat reliëfs en baie karakters wat later die versieringsmotiewe wat gedurende die laat Middeleeue gebruik is, sou inspireer. Die toring van Adam-Kilise onderhou die kenmerkende Romeinse simbool van die trofee*(trofeo). Die trofee is van 'n baie afgeleë Latynse oorsprong, wat al in die tydperk van die Republiek gebruik is en tradisioneel tot in die dae van die Ryk gebruik is. Oorspronklik was die trofee 'n boom of paal wat geplant is op die plek waar die weermag 'n veldtog of veldslag gewen het, en was versier met 'n groot aantal wapens wat uit die verowerde geneem is. Dit was 'n offer aan die genie loci van die plek in dankbaarheid vir die oorwinning behaal. Aanvanklik was die trofeë bome versier met wapens waaraan twee van die vyand se hoofde vasgemaak moes word, maar gou wou die Romeine dat die getuienis van militêre sukses meer permanent was, en daarom is dit gebou met monumentale basisse om die ware trofee te onderhou in klip gekap. 'N Ander voorbeeld van trofeë is Pompeius se trofeë by die ingang van Spanje in die Summum van die Pireneë en Augustus ’ trofeë by die ingang van die Galliërs in Nice.

'N Metope (# 14) van die Trajanstrofee wat 'n Romeinse legioenêr met 'n pos wys manika* en spies met 'n Dacian valxman* (Adamclisi -museum). Die oorspronklike oorblyfsels van die Trajan -trofee (Adamclisi -museum).

Handelaars en boere wat in die provinsies woon, het natuurlik slegs die kuns van die legioene ontvang, en dit het weer 'n spesiale kuns gekweek wat effens beïnvloed is deur hul kontak met die verskillende rasse wat in die grense van die Ryk woon. 'N Tipiese voorbeeld van hierdie kuns uit die provinsies wat deur militêre kuns beïnvloed word, is die reliëf van die sogenaamde Igelsaule, of Igel -rubriek, wat niks anders is as die graf van 'n handelsgesin nie. Dit is 'n vierkantige toring met verskeie vlakke van reliëfs en 'n piramidale top, wat sedert die vroegste jare van die Ryk baie gereeld in Romeinse grafkelders voorkom.

Die Igel -kolom, (Igel, Trier, Duitsland), ca. 250 nC.

Die begrafnisreliëfs wat in die Romeinse provinsies gevind is, bevat dikwels daaglikse lewenstonele wat 'n paar baie interessante foto's bied oor die Romeinse gebruike van die laaste dae van die Ryk. Uit een van hierdie grafte, naby Neumagen, kom daar nou reliëfs in die Museum van Trier wat ons met 'n heerlike kennis van die mees intieme dinge inlig, soos 'n les wat die voorganger van 'n huis gegee het, of die haarstyl van 'n edele dame , of die handeling van die oorhandiging van 'n geskenk, of die betaling van 'n skuld.

Reliëf wat 'n skooltoneel uitbeeld, uit die “ Neumagen ” reliëfs, 2de eeu nC. (Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier, Duitsland). Romeinse begrafnisstele met paartjies, (Argeologiese museum, Beiroet, Libanon).

Die begrafnismonumente uit die provinsies is dikwels gereduseer tot 'n eenvoudige stele, 'n verval van die Griekse begrafnissteles, en het portrette in 'n klein nis of 'n medalje. Soms versamel verskeie portrette van individue uit een gesin in dieselfde gedenkgraf. In Spanje is 'n spesiale soort stele gevind met min reliëfs en die hoefysterboog* gekombineer met meetkundige rose. Die hoefystervorm is gebruik deur die Visigoth -bevolkings van die Iberiese skiereiland en later deur die Arabiere wat dit moontlik by die Visigote geleer het. Daar word egter nie geglo dat hierdie vorm van die hoefboog oorspronklik van Spanje afkomstig is nie, aangesien dit nie in ander Iberiese monumente verskyn het nie, maar eerder baie gereeld in Sirië en Klein -Asië voorkom. Aangesien die meeste stele versier met die hoefboog afkomstig was van León, waar die Romeinse garnisoen van Spanje geleë was, kan aanvaar word dat hierdie vorm van die hoefboog, wat later 'n groot aanvaarding in Spanje gehad het, oorspronklik van Sirië was en later deur die Romeinse legioene na Spanje gebring.

Die Romeinse militêre kuns het sekere eenvormigheid gehad en dit is moontlik dat die Romaanse kunsstyl wat later in die provinsies verskyn het, meer afhang van die militêre kuns wat deur die legioene gebring is as van die amptelike kuns wat uit Rome kom.

Slegs een van hierdie Romeinse provinsies het 'n sterk, kragtige kuns ontwikkel, miskien meer monumentaal as dié van Rome self: die Oos -Romeinse provinsie. Die Romeinse stede aan die woestyngrense was wonderlik; dit is met groot klippe gebou en het die ou koninklike kastele van die Sassanidiese Perse in rykdom en omvang uitgedaag.

Romeinse ruïnes by Palmyra in Sentraal -Sirië.

Byna alle stede in Sirië is in die Romeinse tyd herbou. Om die Romeinse heerskappy aan die oostelike grense te verseker, beveel die keisers om twee stede in die middel van die woestyn te bou: Baalbek en Palmyra, met so 'n grootheid dat die Asiërs self verras het. Hierdie stede was geleë op plekke waar daar Semitiese heiligdomme was Baäls*. Dit blyk ten minste te wees deur die kultus wat daar beoefen word en die vorm van hulle tempels hipetraal* of met hulle cella oopgemaak soos 'n binnehof, plus ander besonderhede van hul reusagtige konstruksie wat heeltemal van Oos -oorsprong was.

Tempel van Jupiter in Baalbeck (Libanon). Die binnekant van die tempel van Bacchus by Baalbek.

Die uitleg van Baalbek, 'n stad tussen Damaskus en Beiroet, sal 'n idee gee van die algemene inrigting van die heiligdom. Die ingang was 'n portiek met tien kolomme wat na 'n eerste seskantige patio lei. Daaragter was 'n groot patio met die altaar in die middel en twee waterbakke. Verder, op 'n podium, was die groot tempel van Jupiter Heliopolitanus omring deur 'n portiek met Korintiese kolomme en die binnekant van die cella lyk soos 'n binnehof met mure wat weelderig versier is met pilasters en nisse. Hierdie gebou, met die hoogste kolomme ter wêreld (20 meter), is gebou in die tyd van Antoninus Pius.

[Hieronder twee reliëfs van die tempel van Jupiter by Baalbek]

Benewens die groot godsdienstige sentrums van Baalbek en Palmyra, het ander stede aan die grens met Sirië welvaart beleef en ryk geword omdat dit belangrike handels- en winkelsentrums tussen Asiatiese stede en die reeds geromaniseerde provinsies was. Goeie voorbeelde is Bosra en Petra in Jordanië. In Petra is die fasades van grafte en huise in die rots gesny. Die meeste het dieselfde semi-klassieke styl: kolomme wat aan mure geheg is en argitekte met 'n vreemde bokant van verspringende kantele. Een van hierdie monumente wat deur die Arabiere genoem is die skat van Salomo blyk 'n tempel te gewees het soos die sogenaamde El Deir of klooster.

Facade of Al Khazneh (“The Treasury ” also known as the “Treasure of Solomon ”) in Petra, Jordanië, 1ste eeu nC. Ad Deir (of “The Monastery ”) in Petra, Jordanië, 1ste eeu nC.

In die Ooste, tot in die derde eeu, het die eienaardighede van die Romeinse kuns die probleem gehad om te besluit of 'n bepaalde provinsie 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die artistieke evolusie van die ou Romeinse kunsvorme of die evolusie van vroeë Christelike kuns beïnvloed het. Aangesien ons aangeneem het dat die militêre kuns van die Wes -Romeinse provinsies gehelp het om die Middeleeuse Romaanse versiering te skep, het ons op dieselfde manier ook aangeneem dat die gekombineerde Romeinse en Oosterse kuns uit Sirië die Christelike Bisantynse kuns baie moes beïnvloed het.

Mithraeum in die ruïnes van Ostia Antica, Italië.

Buitelandse godsdienstige kultusse was 'n middel tot die bekendstelling van artistieke style in Rome, selfs sedert die laaste dae van die Republiek. Uit Egipte het Rome die kultusse van Isis en Serapis ingevoer, gebring deur veterane uit die burgeroorloë. Serapis, die plaaslike god van Alexandrië, is later geïdentifiseer met Aesculapius. In die provinsies het die legioenen die kultus van die songod Mithra van Iraanse oorsprong bekendgestel. Daar was Mithraeums*of tempels vir die aanbidding van Mithra in Engeland, die Ryn, Afrika, Frankryk en Spanje. Die toewyding aan Mithra het gekom in alle grenslande waar die Romeinse legioene gestasioneer was. Die groep Mithras wat op die bul kniel en gereed is om dit te slag (Tauroctony*) is soms met groot skoonheid voorgestel. Alhoewel daar klein variasies was, was die basiese kenmerke van die sentrale tauroktonietoneel hoogs eenvormig. Hierdie standbeeld is oor die algemeen op die ondergrondse altaar van die Mithraeum geplaas waar die godsdienstige seremonies gehou is, dit was 'n manier waarop hierdie ou Persiese godsdiens aangepas is by die Hellenistiese en Romeinse mentaliteit van daardie dae. Mithraïsme was baie gewild onder die Romeinse troepe en bereik sy hoogtepunt rondom die 2de of 3de eeu nC., Hoewel dit 'n mededingende godsdiens was vir die ontluikende Christendom. Mithraïsme is teengewerk weens die vermeende diaboliese navolging van Christelike rituele, en dit is ook in die 4de eeu onderdruk.

Tauroctony of Mithras wat die bul doodmaak, ca. 2de eeu nC., Marmer (British Museum).

Baäl: 'N Titel en eerbetoon “lord ” in die Noordwes -Semitiese tale tydens die oudheid. Sedert dit onder mense gebruik is, het dit op gode toegepas. Die naam Baʿal word veral geassosieer met die storm- en vrugbaarheidsgod Hadad en sy plaaslike manifestasies. Die Hebreeuse Bybel bevat 'n algemene gebruik van die term met verwysing na verskillende Levantynse gode, wat uiteindelik as valse gode verklaar is. Hierdie gebruik is oorgeneem in die Christendom en Islam, soms onder die vorm van Beëlsebul in demonologie.

Cardo: Die Latynse naam word gegee aan 'n noord-suid-straat in antieke Romeinse stede en militêre kampe as 'n integrale komponent van stadsbeplanning. Die cardo maximus was die hoof- of sentrale noord-suid-georiënteerde straat.

Castrum: (pl. Castra). In die Romeinse Republiek en die Romeinse Ryk was die Latynse woord castrum 'n gebou, of stuk grond, wat as 'n versterkte militêre kamp gebruik is. Castrum was die term wat gebruik word vir verskillende groottes kampe, insluitend 'n groot legionêre vesting, kleiner hulp forte, tydelike kampe, en “mars ” forte. Die verkleiningsvorm castellum is gebruik vir fortlets.

Decumanus: In die Romeinse stadsbeplanning was 'n decumanus 'n oos-wes-georiënteerde pad in 'n Romeinse stad, castrum (militêre kamp), of kolonie. Die belangrikste decumanus was die Decumanus Maximus, wat normaalweg die Porta Praetoria (in 'n militêre kamp, ​​die naaste aan die vyand) aan die Porta Decumana (weg van die vyand). In die middel, of groma, die Decumanus Maximus kruis die loodregte Cardo Maximus, die primêre noord-suid-pad wat die gewone hoofstraat was. Die Forum was normaalweg naby hierdie kruising van die Decumanus Maximus en die Cardo Maximus.

Valk: 'N Wapen met 'n geboë lem wat skerp was aan die binnekant van die Thraciërs en Daciërs - en later 'n beleghaak wat deur die Romeine gebruik is.

Hoefskoog: Die hoefboog (Spaans: arco de herradura), ook die Moorse boog en die sleutelgatboog genoem, is die emblematiese boog van die Islamitiese argitektuur. Hoefboë kan afgeronde, puntige of gelobde vorm aanneem. Hoefboë is bekend uit die pre-Islamitiese Sirië, waar die vorm tot in die vierde eeu nC gebruik is. Dit was egter in Spanje en Noord -Afrika (waarvandaan dit uit Spanje gegaan het) dat die hoefboë hul kenmerkende vorm ontwikkel het. Voor die Moslem -inval in Spanje het die Visigote dit as een van hul belangrikste argitektoniese kenmerke gebruik. Die Mozarabs het ook hierdie boogstyl in hul argitektuur en verligte manuskripte aangeneem.

Hypaethral: (Uit die Latyn hypaethrus, uit antieke Grieks hupaithros, hupo- “onder ” en aither “sky, air ”). 'N Ou tempel sonder dak.

Manica: (Latyn: manika , “sleeve ”). 'N Soort yster- of bronsarmwag, met geboë en oorvleuelende metale segmente of plate, vasgemaak aan leerbande, gedra deur Romeinse gladiators crupellarii, en later deur soldate.

Mithraeum: (uit die Latyn, pl. Mithraea). 'N Groot of klein Mithraïese tempel, wat in die klassieke oudheid deur die aanbidders van Mithras opgerig is. Die meeste Mithraea kan tussen 100 vC en 300 nC gedateer word, meestal in die Romeinse Ryk. Die Mithraeum was óf 'n aangepaste natuurlike grot of grot, of 'n gebou wat 'n grot naboots. Waar moontlik, is die Mithraeum binne of onder 'n bestaande gebou gebou. Terwyl 'n meerderheid van Mithraea ondergronds is, het sommige oop gate in die plafon om lig in te laat, miskien met betrekking tot die verbinding van die heelal en die verloop van tyd. Die terrein van 'n Mithraeum kan ook geïdentifiseer word deur die unieke ingang of voorportaal, wat teenoor 'n apsisvormige muur staan, waarin 'n voetalaltaar aan die agterkant staan, dikwels in 'n uitsparing. Sy “ -grot ” het banke langs die symure verhoog vir die rituele maaltyd.

Tauroctony: 'N Moderne naam gegee aan die sentrale kultusreliëfs van die Romeinse Mithraïese Geheimenisse. Die beelde beeld Mithras uit wat 'n bul doodmaak, vandaar die naam tauroctony na die Griekse woord tauroktonos (ταυροκτόνος, “bul doodmaak ”). Dit verskil van die kultiese slag van 'n bul in antieke Rome en staan ​​bekend as 'n Taurobolium, wat 'n werklike stiermoordkultus was wat uitgevoer is deur ingewydes van die Mysteries of Magna Mater of Cybele.

Trofee: 'N Tropaion (Grieks: τρόπαιον, Latyn: tropaeum), vanwaar die Engelse “trofie ” afgelei is, is 'n antieke Griekse en later Romeinse monument wat opgerig is ter herdenking van 'n oorwinning oor 'n mens se vyande. Gewoonlik neem dit die vorm aan van 'n boom, soms met 'n paar armagtige takke (of later in 'n paar stokke wat dwars opgestel is) waarop die wapenrusting van 'n verslane en dooie vyand gehang word. Die tropaion word dan opgedra aan 'n god in danksegging vir die oorwinning.


Cardo Maximus van Italica, Spanje - Geskiedenis

Die vyfde grootste Romeinse amfiteater word in die provinsie Sevilla, Spanje, aangetref. Die afmetings van die gebou is 156,5 × 134 meter en die arena -afmetings is 71. 2 × 46,2 meter. Die Italica-amfiteater, gebou in die bewind van die Adrian ’s-ryk, 117-138 nC, kan tot 25 000 mense huisves en staan ​​vandag nog steeds. Die Italica Amfiteater is gebou in die noorde van die eerste Romeinse stad in Hispania, Itálica, geleë in die huidige gemeente Santiponce (provinsie Sevilla), in Andalusië (Spanje), wat in 206 vC gestig is. C.

Romeinse amfiteaters is amfiteaters-groot, sirkelvormige of ovaal opeluglokale met verhoogde sitplekke-gebou deur die ou Romeine. Dit is gebruik vir geleenthede soos gladiatorgevegte, venationes (dieremoorde) en teregstellings. Ongeveer 230 Romeinse amfiteaters is regoor die gebied van die Romeinse Ryk gevind. Vroeë amfiteaters dateer uit die republikeinse tydperk, hoewel dit meer monumentaal geword het tydens die keiserlike era.

Geskiedenis
Italica noord van die hedendaagse Santiponce, 9 km noordwes van Sevilla in die suide van Spanje, was 'n kursiewe nedersetting wat gestig is deur die Romeinse generaal Scipio in die provinsie Hispania Baetica. Dit was die geboorteplek van die Romeinse keisers Trajanus, Hadrianus (waarskynlik) en Theodosius (moontlik). Dit floreer onder die bewind van Hadrianus, word 'n uitgebreide stedelike sentrum en kry die hoogste status van die Romeinse stad. Die moderne stad Santiponce lê oor die voor-Romeinse Iberiese nedersetting en 'n deel van die goed bewaarde Romeinse stad.

Dit is gebou in die tyd van keiser Hadrianus, ongeveer tussen die jare 117-138 en was een van die grootste in die hele Romeinse Ryk.

Vroeë amfiteaters
Dit is onseker wanneer en waar die eerste amfiteaters gebou is. Daar is rekords wat getuig van tydelike hout -amfiteaters wat in die Forum Romanum gebou is vir gladiator -speletjies vanaf die tweede eeu v.C., en dit is moontlik die oorsprong van die argitektoniese vorm wat later in klip uitgedruk is. In sy Historia Naturalis beweer Plinius die Ouer dat die amfiteater uitgevind is tydens die bril van Gaius Scribonius Curio in 53 vC, waar twee halfsirkelvormige teaters na mekaar gedraai is om 'n sirkelvormige amfiteater te vorm, terwyl toeskouers nog in die twee helftes sit . Alhoewel dit die oorsprong van die argitektoniese term amphitheatrum kan wees, kan dit nie die oorsprong van die argitektoniese konsep wees nie, aangesien vroeëre klipamfiteaters, bekend as spectacula of amphitheatre, gevind is.

Volgens Jean-Claude Golvin word die vroegste klip-amfiteaters gevind in Campania, by Capua, Cumae en Liternum, waar sulke plekke teen die einde van die tweede eeu vC gebou is. Die na-oudste amfiteater wat bekend is, sowel as een van die best nagevorsde, is die amfiteater van Pompeii, wat veilig gedateer is om kort na 70 vC gebou te word. Daar is relatief min ander vroeë amfiteaters bekend: dié in Abella, Teanum en Cales dateer uit die Sullan -era (tot 78 v.C.), dié in Puteoli en Telesia vanaf die Augustan (27 vC - 14 nC). Die amfiteaters in Sutrium, Carmo en Ucubi is omstreeks 40–30 vC gebou, dié in Antiochië en Phaestum (fase I) in die middel van die eerste eeu vC.

Keiserlike era
In die keiserlike era het amfiteaters 'n integrale deel van die Romeinse stedelike landskap geword. Namate stede mekaar in die burgerlike geboue oorheers het, het amfiteaters steeds meer monumentaal geword in omvang en versiering. Keiserlike amfiteaters het gemaklik 40 000–60 000 toeskouers gehuisves, of tot 100 000 in die grootste plekke, en is slegs deur die hippodrome in sitplekvermoë oortref. Hulle het gevels met meerdere verdiepings en boogvorme en is uitgebrei versier met marmer- en pleisterwerk, beelde en reliëfs, of selfs gedeeltelik van marmer.

Namate die Ryk gegroei het, het die meeste van die amfiteaters in die Latynssprekende westelike helfte gekonsentreer, terwyl in die Ooste meestal op ander plekke soos teaters of stadions opgevoer is. In die Weste is amfiteaters gebou as deel van Romaniseringspogings deur 'n fokus te gee op die keiserlike kultus, deur privaat weldoeners of deur die plaaslike regering van kolonies of provinsiale hoofstede as 'n kenmerk van die Romeinse munisipale status. 'N Groot aantal beskeie arena's is in Romeinse Noord -Afrika gebou, waar die meeste argitektoniese kundigheid deur die Romeinse weermag verskaf is.

Die laat Ryk en die agteruitgang van die amfiteater -tradisie
Verskeie faktore het veroorsaak dat die tradisie van die bou van 'n amfiteater uiteindelik uitsterf. Gladiatorial munera began to disappear from public life during the 3rd century, due to economic pressure, philosophical disapproval and opposition by the increasingly predominant new religion of Christianity, whose adherents considered such games an abomination and a waste of money. Spectacles involving animals, venationes, survived until the sixth century, but became costlier and rarer. The spread of Christianity also changed the patterns of public beneficence: where a pagan Roman would often have seen himself as a homo civicus, who gave benefits to the public in exchange for status and honor, a Christian would more often be a new type of citizen, a homo interior, who sought to attain a divine reward in heaven and directed his beneficence to alms and charity rather than public works and games.

These changes meant that there were ever fewer uses for amphitheatres, and ever fewer funds to build and maintain them. The last construction of an amphitheatre is recorded in 523 in Pavia under Theoderic. After the end of venationes, the only remaining purpose of amphitheatres was to be the place of public executions and punishments. After even this purpose dwindled away, many amphitheatres fell into disrepair and were gradually dismantled for building material, razed to make way for newer buildings, or vandalized. Others were transformed into fortifications or fortified settlements, such as at Leptis Magna, Sabratha, Arles and Pola, and in the 12th century the Frangipani fortified even the Colosseum to help them in Roman power struggles. Yet others were repurposed as Christian churches, including the arenas at Arles, Nîmes, Tarragona and Salona the Colosseum became a Christian shrine in the 18th century.

Of the surviving amphitheatres, many are now protected as historic monuments several are tourist attractions.

Architecture of the amphitheater
Met 'n kapasiteit van 25 000 toeskouers, was dit een van die grootste amfiteaters van die ryk met drie standvlakke. Onder die vlak van die ou houtvloer van die amfiteater is daar 'n diensput vir die verskillende bril van gladiators en wilde diere.

Die tribune, cavea is verdeel in drie afdelings, die ima, media en summa cavea, geskei deur ringvormige gange wat praecinctiones genoem word. Die eerste, die ima cavea, het 6 vlakke, met 8 toegangsdeure, en was gereserveer vir 'n regerende klas. Die tweede, die halwe cavea, was bedoel vir die nederigste bevolking, het 12 vlakke en 14 toegangsdeure. Die summa cavea, bedek met 'n afdak, was slegs bedoel vir kinders en vroue.

Die amfiteater het ook verskeie kamers wat toegewy is aan die kultus van Nemesis en Dea Caelestis.

General plan
Amphitheatres are distinguished from circuses, hippodromes, which were usually rectangular and built mainly for racing events and stadia, built for athletics. But several of these terms have at times been used for one and the same venue. The word amphitheatrum means “theatre all around”. Thus an amphitheatre is distinguished from the traditional semicircular Roman theatres by being circular or oval in shape.

Komponente
The Roman amphitheatre consists of three main parts the cavea, the arena, and the vomitorium. The seating area is called the cavea (enclosure). The cavea is formed of concentric rows of stands which are either supported by arches built into the framework of the building, or simply dug out of the hillside or built up using excavated material extracted during the excavation of the fighting area (the arena).

The cavea is traditionally organised in three horizontal sections, corresponding to the social class of the spectators:

The ima cavea is the lowest part of the cavea and the one directly surrounding the arena. It was usually reserved for the upper echelons of society.
The media cavea directly follows the ima cavea and was open to the general public, though mostly reserved for men.
The summa cavea is the highest section and was usually open to women and children.

Similarly the front row was called the prima cavea and the last row was called the cavea ultima. The cavea was further divided vertically into cunei. A cuneus (Latin for wedge plural, cunei) was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways.

The arched entrances both at the arena level and within the cavea are called the vomitoria (Latin “to spew forth” singular, vomitorium) and were designed to allow rapid dispersal of large crowds.

The ellipse as a general rule
Jean-Claude Golvin, in 2008, explains that in reality a certain number of Roman amphitheatres do not describe a perfect ellipse, but a pseudo-ellipsoidal form composed of a succession of connected arcs of circles. This provision is guided by the need for a cavea same width regardless of the point of the amphitheater considered that the stands are all of similar size. The observed dimensional or returned from several arenas of the Roman Empire, including that of Capua, seem to confirm this theory, modeled by Gerard Parysz.

Rare amphitheatres do not follow the overall plan of an ellipsoidal building, like that of Leptis Magna. This building, entirely dug in an old quarry and inaugurated in 56, gives the impression of being composed of two adjoining theaters and its arena like its cavea have the form of two semicircles connected by very short segments of right. This configuration would have allowed him to host shows of a new genre wanted by Nero, combining fighting, equestrian demonstrations and musical competitions.

Massive Amphitheater and Amphitheater with Radiant Walls
A first type of amphitheater is qualified as solid or massive as in Samarobriva (Amiens, France), Octodurus (Martigny, Switzerland), Emerita Augusta (Merida, Spain) or Syracusae (Syracuse, Italy) in these constructions, the cavea is not carried by radiant walls and vaults, but by an embankment which descends from the outside of the amphitheater towards the arena this embankment may be partly made up of arena excavation lands inside a small hill at the top of which the amphitheater is built this is the case in Tours (Caesarodunum).

Spectators must then sit directly on the grassy slope, but the embankment can also accommodate wooden stands whose discovery of the remains, if they ever existed, would be exceptional. The masonry is reduced to a minimum: the outer wall, the arena wall, access galleries orvomitoires, also included in the embankment, some radiating retaining walls delimiting caissons to receive embankments, as well as the cages stair. External staircases pressed against the facade of the amphitheater, as in Pompeii, provide access to the upper part of the cavea.

The second type of amphitheater, which represents most of those identified in the Roman world, is the amphitheater with walls and radiant vaults. The cavea is then supported by a set of masonry opus caementicium which draw a set of fairly light seats on which the stands rest. An annular circulation gallery – there are two at the Colosseum and the Capua amphitheater – allows spectators to win the vomitories and stairs accessing the arena. The oldest of these monuments seems to be the amphitheater of Statilius Taurus in Rome, inaugurated in 29 AD and destroyed in great fire of Rome in 64, under Nero. The precise details of its architecture – as well as its exact size and location – remain unknown, but it is clear that this is a hollow structure building and that the upper part of the cavea has wooden steps.. Theaters had used earlier this hollow architecture, such as the theater Teanum Sidicinum from the end of ii th century BC. or the Pompey Theater in Rome, completed in 55 AD.

Finally, in several cases, the construction of the amphitheater combines the two types of architecture it is most often to reduce the masonry parts by taking advantage of the support of the monument on the side of a natural relief the part of the cavea which rests there is massive, the vaults and the radiating walls reserved for the bet built “in the free air”. This is the case of the amphitheater of Saintes whose long sides of the cavea are supported on both flanks in valley arena being established at the bottom of the valley, closed on both sides by radiant walls and arcades.

The nature, full or hollow, amphitheaters, can not be an absolute criterion of dating. If the Pompeii amphitheater, partially massive is built between 80 and 70 BC AD, that of Taurus, hollow, towards 30 AD, Lecture halls found in Gaul totally or partially massive built much later, as those of Holy (over about 50) or towers, in the second half of the i st century, the latter being even is expanded according to the same principle hundred years later. It seems that, region by region and as the geographical spread of these monuments, architects seek, as a first step and as much as possible, to take advantage of the natural relief to lean against the amphitheatres they propose to to build. In a second step, and when the technique of construction of the radiating walls and the arcades is locally well controlled, they build hollow amphitheatres, of which it is possible to choose the location by freeing the constraints of the relief.

Choice of site and development of surroundings
When the site does not meet specific topographical requirements, such as the use of a natural relief to back the cavea, amphitheatres are often built on the outskirts of urbanized areas. Several explanations can be advanced. Amphitheatres are often built in cities already built for several decades or more to build them in the middle of the city would impose important works of demolition of the existing building. Amphitheatres are monuments with a capacity often exceeding 10 000 people, whether it is the population of the city stricto sensuor inhabitants of a wider geographical area Before and after the shows, crowds of this size require a large clearance around the building to smooth the flow. The amphitheater is a symbol of Roman power, the power of the city where it is built or Roman acculturation in conquered territories this monumental effect is more easily obtained by clearing the amphitheater of the existing building. Once dissociated from the ritual character they originally had, the fights that take place in the amphitheatres become pagan spectacles incompatible with the sacredness of the urban pomerium the amphitheaters can not be built at the.

There are, however, situations where the amphitheater was built in the heart of the city. The Colosseum is the most demonstrative example. This is also the case in Amiens where the amphitheater is built against the forum and its temple, built before him, so as to compose a large monumental ensemble for this purpose, a whole residential area is razed to make room for the amphitheater.

Sometimes there is a district specifically devoted to the monuments of the spectacle such as Augustodunum – Autun -, Merida or Pozzuoli (amphitheater and theater), Lugdunum – Lyon – (Theater and Odeon) or Leptis Magna (amphitheater and circus).

Access to the amphitheater is generally studied to allow the good movement of people. In Capua, a path directly connects the main axis of the amphitheater to Via Appia in Tours, it is the small axis which is in the prolongation of the decumanus maximus. In this same city, a circulation space whose use is attested is located on the outskirts of the amphitheater. A painting representing the amphitheater of Pompeii in59 av. AD shows barques of food merchants established around the amphitheater – the shows for more than a day, it is necessary for the spectators to be able to restore themselves.

Facade
The facade of the amphitheater, the only part immediately visible from the monument to the eyes of the public outside, is the subject of special care it must be, even more than the monument as a whole, a showcase of the wealth of the sponsor or sponsors of the construction of the know-how of its architects and workers and a symbol of the power of the city. This is why an architectural technique different from that used for the structural work of the amphitheater is applied to it.

Traditionally – although there are exceptions to this pattern – the facade is composed of one or more series of superimposed arcades, of gradually decreasing height, surmounted by a row of penthouses. It is built in blocks of large apparatus that use the most noble stones available locally, unless it is, as in Capua, only a veneer on a superstructure (masonry bricks in this case). The keystones of the arcades can be carved, the arcades can compose niches garnished with statues.

If the facade is composed of a more common apparatus, only the doors are decorated in a special way, according to the techniques and materials available locally. The Colosseum even offers numbered doors by engraving in their keystone, facilitating spectator access.

The last level of the facade often has holes for embedding the masts that support the velum, large sail stretched over the amphitheater and to shad all or part.

Cavea
The functional limits of human sight fix the maximum dimensions of amphitheatres: beyond 60 m, accomodation is less rapid, causing eyestrain. This maximum distance separating the spectator from the show is approached but respected at the Colosseum, which, according to this criterion, would be the largest amphitheater that it was possible to build.

Examination of the remains of the cavea of the amphitheater of El Jem shows that the angle of the stands with the horizontal is 34 ° 12 ‘ for the rows closest to the arena, but 36 ° for the bleachers located at the top of the cavea. This difference aims to clear the view of the arena for the spectators who are thus less bothered by the heads of those placed just below them. In the particular case of some massive amphitheatres whose slope of the cavea constitutes itself the seat of the spectators, it is not possible to reach the same angles under pain of collapse of the embankment.

Auguste sets up a very precise and immutable code governing the placement of the spectators in all the monuments of spectacle: the soldiers do not rub shoulders with the civilians, the people dressed in dark are gathered in the middle part of the cavea, the married men are separated from the single, but their wives are relegated to the highest tiers, as are the modest people, and so on.. These dispositions are accompanied by a physical partition of the cavea the terraces are divided horizontally by precedences defining maeniana and vertically by radiating stairs limiting cunei. Near the arena take place the box of honor and the podium reserved for notables. It is also in this same part of the cavea that is the sacellum, small temple probably for the use of gladiators.

While the construction of the facade of the amphitheater is the object of all the attention of the architects, the realization of the cavea implements more common materials and of local origin this is the case in Verona where the masonry is composed of a concrete of pebbles of the Adige linked to the mortar of sand and lime in Pula, only wood forms part of the internal structures of the amphitheater.

Arena
The elliptical or pseudo-elliptical arena is the place where the shows take place. It is usually covered with sand avoiding gladiators to slide during the fighting this sand also helps to absorb any spilled blood.

The layout of the arena varies according to the shows it hosts. In the first amphitheatres, only battles between gladiators take place there the presence of these professionals poses no risk to the public and the wall separating the arena from the cavea is of reduced height. After the introduction of venationes with animals sometimes wild, it is important to ensure the protection of the spectators, by means of a podium wall of a height often higher than 1.50 m. This wall is often pierced with doors or grilles giving access to boxes housing animals. Some amphitheatres have an arena dug out of a basin (Merida) to present aquatic shows, but only the Colosseum of Rome has an arena specially designed for naumachies to take place there.

Basements
If the amphitheater built in Rome under Caesar is the first to have a basement, this device will expand to many monuments built later. The increasing prestige of the performances given in the arenas, their increasing complexity with successive sets of sets, the use of more and more numerous gladiators and animals require such facilities. The basement of the arena is therefore dug galleries that are connected cages for animals, carceresfor gladiators, while a system of hatches and hoists raises all actors in the arena and the scenery elements to the arena level. These converted basements can be in direct communication with nearby gladiator schools, such as the Coliseum. They can also house an elaborate system of gutters and gutters to collect runoff from the cavea before they are stored in a cistern, as in Capua.

These converted basements are attested in many amphitheatres in Italy, but also in the Roman provinces such as Arles or Nimes (France), Merida (Spain), Leptis Magna (Libya) or El Jem (Tunisia) and perhaps Pula (Croatia).

Financing of the amphitheater
The dedications for the inauguration of Roman monuments very often mention the names of local notables who participated in the financing of their construction. This évergétisme can simply mark the power and the wealth of the donor. It can also have a more direct meaning: the Arles amphitheater was built with funds of Caius Junius Priscus, former candidate for duumvir juridicundo in fulfillment of a promise made in an election. The status of the evergreen is sometimes quoted: Caius Julius Rufus, who participated in the financing of the amphitheater of the Three Gauls in Lyon is a priest of Rome and Augustus at the Federal Shrine of the Three Gauls.

This évergétisme can manifest itself as a contribution to the overall financing of the building (Périgueux) or by a participation, partial or total, in the construction of one of its elements (podium in Lyon, podium, doors and statues in silver with Arles).

This practice is also part of a context of prestige rivalry between city halls. It results in the desire to build very large at lower cost, which is an explanation for the use, sometimes massive, wood for the stands and other structures of the amphitheater. This also provides quick access to a resource and local know-how and ensure a pace of construction and commissioning period compatible with the holding of election promises.

Use
The amphitheater is primarily intended to host gladiator fights. The day before the fighting was organized the cena libera, a large banquet free that could be shared with spectators who wanted to see the value of the fighters. Gladiator combat is a highly codified show. Gladiators represent well-defined types of fighters easily recognizable to the public by their armament, their clothing, but also by the postures adopted during the fight. The fights, which are attended by referees, are most often duels between a slightly armed but very mobile (retiair, scissor) gladiator to another, less swift but powerfully armed and battleship (mirmillon, secutor). The death of one of the protagonists at the end of the fight is not a rule and the fight can end when the opponents are injured or exhausted: a professional gladiator is an “investment” for his laniste. It seems that at certain periods, under Auguste for example, the killings in the arena were prohibited.

Naval battles (naumachiae) can be organized inside certain buildings, but their existence is actually attested only for the Colosseum the size of the arena must be sufficient and the height of the water filling it must be important for ships, even those with a shallow draft, to be able to evolve there. Of aqueducts are sometimes specially built to bring water needed to fill the arena. These naval battles are of course very popular with the public because they are rare. In addition, they often become technically impossible after the development of basements in arenas of some amphitheatres (Colosseum, Merida, Pula).

As for the hunts (venationes), they consisted of fighting animals against animals, or men against animals. This show did not take place in a bare arena, but through the trap doors of the basement, a real landscape of vegetation and rocks was installed in the arena.

Also in the amphitheater were death executions (” noxii ” in Latin), called ” meridiani ” (those of noon), because this type of show took place during midday breaks. Particularly under Nero, Christians were burned alive. The death of the condemned was staged, sometimes in the form of mythological tales: still under Nero, according to Suetonius, we reconstructed for example the myth of Icarus, who crashed on the floor of the arena and covered the emperor of blood. Clement I reported meanwhile that Christian had suffered the fate Dirce. It could also be of historical episodes like the one where Mucius Scaevola is burning hand.

Diffusion territory
According to Jean-Claude Golvin, the first stone amphitheaters are known in Campania in Capua, to Cuma and Liternum where such places were built at the end of the ii th century BC. J.-C.. One of the oldest and most studied amphitheatres is the Pompeii Amphitheater, which is dated 70 BC. J.-C. The first few amphitheatres are known: those of Abella, Teanum and Cales dating from the time of Sylla, and those of Pozzuoliand Telese Terme for the Augustan era. The amphitheatres of Sutri, Carmona and Ucubi were built around 40 – 30 BC. AD, and those of Antioch and Paestum (phase I) in the middle of 1 century BC. J.-C..

In the imperial period, the amphitheatres became part of the Roman cityscape. While cities compete for the prominence of constructions in the field of civic buildings, the construction of amphitheatres is increasingly monumental in the occupied space and in ornamentation. The imperial amphitheaters could comfortably accommodate between 40,000 and 60,000 spectators, or up to 100,000 for larger buildings. For the number of seats, they were exceeded only by racetracks. They are built on several floors, with arches, are usually richly decorated with marble and covered with stucco, and have many statues.

With the expansion of the empire, most of the amphitheatres remain concentrated in the western part, that is to say that of Latin language, while in the eastern part, the shows are often staged in other venues such as theaters or stages. In the west of the empire, amphitheatres are built as part of Romanization and to provide a center for imperial worship. The funds for construction come from private benefactors, the local government of the colony or provincial capital. A significant number of small arenas were built in the province of Africa, with the support of the Roman army and its expertise in architecture.

One of the later built amphitheatres seems to be that of Bordeaux at the end of the ii th century or early iii th century. The dating of the El Jem, sometimes considered very late, is controversial in the absence of decisive evidence. The second amphitheater Metz, building a mixed character, appears to date back to the end of the iii th century or the beginning of the iv th century.

Architectural evolutions
The monuments of the show, including the amphitheatres, are not buildings built once and for all without any modification, sometimes substantial, being made to the structure, while they are still used.

Thus, the cavea of the amphitheater of Toulouse, initially built out of wood, profits in a second time of bearing structures masonry. The facade of the Pula amphitheater, which has stood the test of time, perhaps reflects the complete resumption and enlargement of an old Augustinian building. The expansion of the amphitheater in Avenches, in the second half of the ii th century is attested, like that of the amphitheater of Tours about the same time, the estimated capacity from 14 000 to 34 000 spectators. The amphitheater of the Three Gauls of Lyon, originally intended to accommodate delegates from the three Roman provinces of Gaul, is enlarged so that the population of Lyon too can attendshows.

The redevelopment sometimes only affects part of the monument, as in Mérida and perhaps Pula, where the arena is dug to allow the installation of a basement with cages, corridors and accessory stores.

Decline
Several factors lead to the completion of amphitheater construction. The first is the gradual end of gladiator fights, which begin disappearing from public life during the iii th century, because of the economic crisis, philosophical disapproval and opposition of the new religion increasingly dominant what is Christianity, whose followers consider these games as an abomination and a waste of money. The shows involving animals (venationes) survived until the vi th centurybut they become more expensive and rarer. The spread of Christianity has also changed the habits of public beneficence: previously a pagan Roman is considered a homo civicus who finances public performances in exchange for obtaining a status and obtaining honor, a Christian him considers himself a homo interior who seeks a divine reward in heaven and directs his efforts to charity and charity rather than to public spectacles andgames.

These changes show that amphitheatres are less and less used and that a lack of funds does not allow to build new ones, nor to maintain those already built. The last construction of an amphitheater took place in 523 in Pavia under Theodoric. After the end of the venationes, the remaining amphitheatres are only used for public executions and punishments. After this short re-use, many amphitheatres have fallen into disrepair and are being progressively dismantled for building materials, or razed to make room for newer buildings, or vandalized. Others are transformed into fortifications or fortified villages, like Leptis Magna, Sabratha, Arles and Pola, and the xii th century, the family Frangipani even strengthens the Colosseum to help them in their struggle to gain control of Rome. Other amphitheatres are reoriented as Christian churches, including the arenas of Arles, Nîmes, Tarragona and Salone. The Coliseum is a Christian church in the xviii th century.


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Cardo Maximus of Italica, Spain - History

Decumanus (Latin for 'tenth') may refer to:

In Roman Gadara, present-day Umm Qais in Jordan, the Decumanus runs east-west for approximately one kilometre with its ancient flagstones extant.

Within the city of Split in present-day Croatia is the UNESCO Roman monument, Diocletian's Palace. This city, built by the Emperor Diocletian, exhibits the characteristic Roman orthogonal street system with the Decumanus Maximus connecting the west Iron Gate to the east Silver Gate.

In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia. The main decumanus was die Decumanus Maximus, which normally connected the Porta Praetoria (in a military camp, closest to the enemy) to the Porta Decumana (away from the enemy).

In the ancient Roman city of Barcino (present day Barcelona, Spain), the Decumanus Maximus started at the late-Roman gate (which still stands) in front of the current Plaça Nova square.

The Cardo and Decumanus Maximus were the main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus.

In the middle, or groma, the Decumanus Maximus crosses the perpendicular Cardo Maximus, the primary north-south road that was the usual main street. The Forum is normally located close to this intersection of the Decumanus Maximus and the Cardo Maximus.

In Florence, the Decumanus is preserved as the streets Via Strozzi, Via Speziali, and Via del Corso in the city's old centre. Although these streets have different names they form a continuous line with a split between the Via Strozzi and Via Speziali by the Palazzo Strozzi. Roman times, these three streets formed the Decumanus of Florentina, the name of the Roman colonia. The Via Roma and the Via Calimala are formed from the ancient Cardo, and what was once the Forum in ancient Florence is now the Piazza della Repubblica.

Cardo Decumanus Crossing was in the heart of Roman Berytus (actual Beirut, Lebanon).

Today five re-erected columns mark the crossing of the Cardo and Decumanus Maximus, the two main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus. The Cardo Maximus connected the Roman Forum to a large complex, that was the center of the old Roman city. Die Decumanus Maximus ran parallel to Emir Bashir Street, following the line of the earlier Romano-Hellenistic city wall.

Today, five erected columns mark the crossing of the Cardo and the Decumanus Maximus, the two main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus. The Cardo Maximus connected the Roman Forum to a large complex, extending from the al-Azariyeh building to Riad Al Solh Square. Die Decumanus Maximus ran parallel to Emir Bashir Street. Salvaged material from these colonnaded streets was used since the Umayyad period to build a new city wall and a water reservoir near the Roman crossing.

The Roman urban plan was based on a layout of streets forming a symmetrical grid, with those that ran northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest intersecting the two main axes of the city, the Cardo Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus. The streets were paved with large irregular slabs of slate, with the sewers flowing beneath them.

The upper Decumanus started at the Moron Gate and followed a path still not well defined as of 2012, crossing the current Plaza de Arriba to the northwest gate near the Postigo.

The forum has rectangular shape, close to the shape of a square, with dimensions: 143 m in north-southern direction and 136 m in east-western direction. A complex of public buildings was built to the North, dominating over the rest of the buildings at the square. Three entrances, situated along the axes of the eastern, southern and western edge, provide access to the streets, located at the sides of the Forum. The main streets cardo maximus and decumanus maximus intersect outside the eastern entrance of the complex.

The theatre was enlarged in the period AD 311-13. This involved building above the Decumanus Maximus which was taken through a tunnel 5 m wide and 55 m long. An inscription which was at the entrance to the tunnel dates this enlargement. The original architecture can be dated back to the founding of the colony or may go back to the Hellenistic age. Further excavation is needed.

The street dates back to Roman times, when it was the city's Decumanus Maximus. During the Middle Ages it was home to many artists who painted heraldic coats of arms, whence the street's name (Schilder means signs or escutcheons). Among today's landmarks on Schildergasse are the Atoniterkirche, the oldest Protestant church in Cologne, and Peek & Cloppenburg's Weltstadthaus, designed by Renzo Piano.

First mentioned in AD 966, the church was built atop the stylobate of a Roman temple, from which a pietra serena pillar was incorporated into the church's north wall. There is also a Roman decumanus running north–south that flanks the church. Moreover, findings of nearby Lombard sepulchres indicates that the church was once an early Christian site. The church occupies a prominent position in Piazza Mino, near the Fiesole Cathedral. Due to an image inside of the Virgin Mary it appears that the church is the site of the oldest instance of veneration of the Madonna in the Diocese of Fiesole, which would form the basis for "Primerana" in the church's name.

The city ruins cover 114,000 square meters and are surrounded by large, fortified stone walls over two meters thick and seven meters high. The rectangular city design of 370 m by 310 m is based on Roman city planning and architecture with stonework borrowed from the Byzantines. Two large avenues, the Cardo maximum, running north to south, and the Decumanus Maximus, running east to west, divide the city into four quadrants. The two main avenues, decorated with colonnades and flanked by about 600 shops, intersect under a tetrapylon. The plinths, shafts and capitals of the tetrapylon are spolia reused in the Umayyad period. Smaller streets subdivide the western half of the city in quarters of different size.

To accommodate the growth of Ferrara, in 1492 the Duke Ercole I d'Este demolished the medieval walls of the city on the north, and had the court architect, Biagio Rossetti, design an urban expansion known as the Addizione Erculea. Rosetti was commissioned by Sigismondo d'Este, brother of the Duke Ercole I, to build this palace at the prestigious intersection of what was to be the Decumanus Maximus (now encompassing Corsi Porta Po, Biagio Rossetti, and Porta Mare) and Cardo Maximus (Corso Ercole I d'Este) of the "urban addition". It was built between 1493 and 1503. Used as a residential home by the Este family and, starting in 1641, by the Villa marquis, in 1832 the palace was acquired by the municipality of Ferrara to house the National Gallery of Art and the Civic University.

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theatre are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.


Baelo Claudia Municipality

Baelo Claudia, as with most towns, developed over a period of time. Archaeologists have determined that the first buildings were those used for fish salting just behind the beach. They were built between 100 BC and 50 – 30 BC. The workforce probably lived at Silla del Papa. The salting bays were demolished around 30 BC and larger bays were built in their place. At the same time a few houses were built in the vicinity of the factory, spreading back towards the hills. This phase lasted until the start of the reign of Claudius in 41 AD. The town then grew rapidly and between 41 AD and the middle of the 2nd Century the main public buildings were built. The forum, market, shops, basilica and the temple were constructed during the Flavian dynasty, between 69 and 96 AD. During this period the town was given the status of municipium which conferred the rights of Roman citizens on the occupants.


Kyk die video: Cardo wishes Lola Floras safety. FPJs Ang Probinsyano