6 Buitelandse helde van die Amerikaanse rewolusie

6 Buitelandse helde van die Amerikaanse rewolusie

1. Baron von Steuben

Gedurende die vroeë stadiums van die revolusie het die kontinentale leër 'n reputasie gehad dat hy ongeorganiseerd, ongedissiplineerd en swak geboor was. Dit het vroeg in 1778 begin verander, toe die uitspattige naam Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin, die baron von Steuben, opgedaag het om die patriotte te help. The Baron was 'n voormalige Pruisiese militêre offisier wat vroeër in die personeel van Frederik die Grote gedien het. Alhoewel hy geneig was tot oordrywing - het hy spoggerige uniforms aangehad en was hy 'n luitenant -generaal, alhoewel hy nooit bo die rang van kaptein was nie - het hy ook 'n kragtige militêre verstand gehad. Toe hy by die winterkamp van George Washington by Valley Forge aankom, het hy nuwe sanitasie -maatreëls ingestel en die troepe 'n ongelukskursus gegee in die 18de eeuse militêre taktiek wat bajonetgevegte en meer effektiewe tegnieke vir die afvuur en herlaai van muskiete insluit.

Met die suksesse van die Baron is hy in Mei 1778 aangestel as inspekteur -generaal van die Kontinentale Weermag, en oor die volgende twee jaar het sy oefenmetodes gehelp om die patriotmagte in 'n bekwame vegmag te omskep. Hy het ook die eerste militêre handleiding vir die Amerikaanse weermag geskryf, "Regulasies vir die orde en dissipline van die troepe van die Verenigde State." Hierdie 'Blue Book', soos dit bekend was, het tot die oorlog van 1812 die bybel van die Amerikaanse weermag gebly.

2. Casimir Pulaski

Die in Pools gebore Casimir Pulaski het sy kort lewe as revolusionêr op twee afsonderlike kontinente bestry. Die man wat later die 'Vader van die Amerikaanse Kavalerie' genoem word, het hom eers onderskei as 'n leier van die Bar Confederation, 'n groep adellikes wat teen die buitelandse oorheersing van Pole geveg het. Nadat hy in die vroeë 1770's uit sy geboorteland was verban, het hy na Frankryk gekom en in aanraking gekom met Benjamin Franklin, wat hom vir die saak van Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid gewerf het. Die onstuimige jong offisier bewys onmiddellik sy waarde in sy eerste verlowing tydens die Slag van Brandywine in September 1777, waar hy 'n agterhoede -aksie gelei het wat gehelp het om generaal George Washington se terugtog te dek.

Ondanks die feit dat hy nie 'n bietjie Engels gepraat het nie, is Pulaski later 'n brigadier -generaal in die kontinentale kavallerie. Teen 1778 het hy 'n rol oorgeneem as bevelvoerder van die "Pulaski Legion", 'n onafhanklike kavallerie -eenheid wat uit Amerikaanse en buitelandse rekrute bestaan. In die lente van 1779 is die legioen in die suidelike teater van die oorlog geplaas en het ernstige ongevalle gely ter verdediging van Charleston. Net 'n paar maande later is Pulaski dodelik gewond deur druiweskote terwyl hy 'n kavalerie -aanval gelei het tydens die beleg van Savannah. Die heldhaftige dood van die 34-jarige het hom onder die bekendste buitelandse vrywilligers van die Amerikaanse Revolusie gevestig. Hy word nou vereer met twee vakansiedae, Casimir Pulaski -dag en Algemene Pulaski -gedenkdag.

3. Die markies de Lafayette

In 1777 het die 19-jarige Franse aristokraat Gilbert du Motier, die markies de Lafayette, 'n aansienlike persoonlike fortuin en 'n swanger vrou agtergelaat en op soek na militêre glorie met die kontinentale leër vertrek. 'Toe ek die eerste keer van die twis verneem, was my hart ingewikkeld', het hy later geskryf, 'en ek het net daaraan gedink om my kleure by die van die rewolusionêres te voeg.' Die jong idealis het 'n kommissie as generaal -majoor gekry en is tydens die eerste verlowing tydens die Slag van Brandywine in September 1777 in die been gewond. Hy word gou 'n goeie vertroueling van generaal George Washington, en dien later met lof by die Battles of Gloucester, Barren Hill en Monmouth.

In 1778 het Lafayette na Frankryk gereis om die patriotte te ondersteun. Daarna keer hy terug na die Verenigde State, neem die bevel oor 'n leër in Virginia en speel 'n belangrike rol in die bochten van die Britse bevelvoerder Lord Cornwallis in Yorktown in 1781. Die man, bekend as die 'Hero of Two Worlds', keer later terug na Europa nadat die oorlog geëindig het , maar hy het die res van sy lewe 'n geliefde figuur in die Verenigde State gebly. Toe hy in 1824 'n besoek aan Amerika bring, het byna 80 000 dankbare burgers in die hawe in New York opgedaag om hom te verwelkom.

4. Tadeusz Kościuszko


Die Poolse militêre offisier Tadeusz Kościuszko het in die somer van 1776 in die Verenigde State aangekom nadat hy gedwing is om uit sy vaderland te vlug ná 'n onsuksesvolle poging om met 'n generaal se dogter te ontsnap. Die 30-jarige, wat in opdrag van 'n kolonel deur die Kontinentale Kongres was, het hom gou gevestig as een van die mees briljante gevegsingenieurs van die Kontinentale Weermag. Na die val van Fort Ticonderoga in 1777, het Kościuszko toesig gehou oor die opdam van riviere en die vernietiging van brûe om die Britse opmars te vertraag. Hy was ook 'n belangrike rol in die vestiging van die vestings wat die kontinentale oorwinning in die Slag van Saratoga verseker het. Nadat hy twee jaar lank die verdediging van West Point verskerp het, het Kościuszko in 1780 na die suidelike teater van die oorlog oorgeplaas en dien onder generaal Nathanael Greene, wat hom aangestel het vir die bou van vestings, die ondersoek van gebied en die bou van troepevervoerbote.

Altyd 'n vaste gelowige in die revolusionêre saak - hy het vermoedelik gehuil die eerste keer dat hy die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring gelees het - het Kościuszko later na die oorlog teruggekeer en 'n leidende figuur geword in die konflikte van Pole met Rusland en Pruise. Thomas Jefferson, wat 'n vriendskap met Kościuszko gesluit het, sou hom later 'so 'n suiwer seun van vryheid noem as wat ek ooit geken het'.

5. Bernardo de Gálvez

Alhoewel hy nooit lid van die kontinentale leër was nie, was die Spanjaard Bernardo de Gálvez een van die beste vriende wat die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid ooit gehad het. In sy rol as die goewerneur van die Spaanse provinsie Louisiana, het die jong edelman die kolonialiste gehelp deur toe te laat dat ammunisie, medisyne en ander noodsaaklike voorrade langs die Mississippirivier gestuur kan word. Nadat Spanje die oorlog in 1779 binnegegaan het, het Gálvez 'n gewaagde offensiewe operasie teen die Britse beheerde Wes-Florida geloods. Hy het 'n uiteenlopende leër van Spanjaarde, Kreolen, vryswartes, Indiërs en 'n paar Amerikaners grootgemaak, en verskeie Britse forte langs die Mississippi oorgeneem. Alhoewel hy voortdurend belemmer word deur orkane en 'n gebrek aan voorraad, marsjeer hy daarna in 1781 op Pensacola en verower dit na 'n beleg.

Hoewel hy vandag nog min bekend is, word Gálvez erken dat hy die oorlog verander het deur Britse magte langs die Golfkus te bottel en te verhinder dat hulle druk op die kolonialiste plaas. Hy is saam met die naamgenoot van Galveston, Texas, een van slegs agt mense in die geskiedenis wat Amerikaanse ereburgerskap ontvang het.

6. Johann de Kalb

Terwyl hy nou as 'n held van die Amerikaanse Revolusie beskou word - onder meer die stad DeKalb, Illinois, is na hom vernoem - is baron Johann de Kalb byna die kans geweier om in die kontinentale leër te dien. Die in Beiere gebore veteraan van die Franse weermag het in 1777 saam met die Marquis de Lafayette vir die eerste keer na Noord-Amerika gevaar, en is aanvanklik vir 'n kommissie oorgedra voordat hy uiteindelik 'n majoor-generaal geword het net toe hy hom voorberei het om na Europa terug te keer. De Kalb was die bevelvoerder van 'n afdeling tydens die somber winter in Valley Forge, en werk dikwels nou saam met Lafayette en generaal George Washington.

Die laaste veldtog van De Kalb het in 1780 plaasgevind toe hy die leiding geneem het oor ongeveer 1,200 Maryland- en Delaware -troepe in die suidelike teater van die oorlog. Terwyl hy in Augustus onder generaal Horatio Gates gedien het, neem hy deel aan die Slag van Camden, waar Britse magte onder Lord Cornwallis 'n hewige frontaanval teen die kontinentale linies uitgevoer het. Terwyl Gates onmiddellik uit die veld vlug, het de Kalb en sy manne vasgestaan ​​en selfs die teenaanval deurgegaan voordat hulle uiteindelik oorweldig is. Tydens die geveg is die 59-jarige Baron met 'n sabel gesny, drie keer geskiet en herhaaldelik met 'n bajonet vasgemaak. Deur die Britte gevange geneem, sterf hy drie dae later, vermoedelik nadat hy die woorde gesê het: "Ek sterf die dood waarvoor ek altyd gebid het: die dood van 'n soldaat wat veg vir die regte van die mens."


Plaaslike helde van die Amerikaanse Revolusie

In die vroegste dae van die Amerikaanse rewolusie was die manne uit Middleborough een van die eerstes wat vrywillig by die stryd teen die Britte aangesluit het. Lede van die plaaslike milisie het onmiddellik gereageer op die “Lexington Alarm ” op 19 April 1775 – toe die Britse aanval op koloniale militêre winkels in Lexington en Concord ontbied is by die uitbreek van die oorlog, maar was nie een van die die Minutemen wat die Redcoats op daardie noodlottige dag teruggejaag het Boston toe.

Die plaaslike milisie het uiteindelik by die rebelleër aangesluit wat die stad omsingel het en die Britse weermag vir meer as 'n jaar daar gehou het, maar het in die dae wat gevolg het op die uitbreek van vyandelikhede nooit in Boston gekom nie.

In plaas daarvan, op 19 April, is die Middleborough -milisies onder leiding van kaptein Abial Peirce aangesê om na Marshfield te marsjeer om ander patriotmagte te help om die Loyalistiese milisie -vesting op die plaas van Tory -leier Nathaniel Ray Thomas, waar Britse soldate gestasioneer was, aan te val. maande.

Hier is die verhaal van die mans wat op die eerste dag van die Amerikaanse rewolusie uit Middleborough uitgetrek het, en hul opdrag om die Redcoats te bestry wat in die “Tory town ” van Marshfield, 30 myl suid van Boston … en ander notas oor vername Middleborough -manne wat hul land gedien het gedurende die Amerikaanse oorlog vir onafhanklikheid uit Groot -Brittanje.

Kaptein Peirce was reeds 'n goed beproefde veteraan van die Middleborough-burgermag toe die Amerikaanse Revolusie begin, nadat hy met lof gedien het in die Massachusetts-generaal John Winslow en die ekspedisie van 1755 om Franse Arcadiane uit Nova Scotia te verdryf tydens die laaste van die sogenaamde French & amp Indian Oorloë het in Amerika geveg. Hy was die leier van die Middleborough minuteman company en die patriot -militiese manne wat vrywillig byeen was om op 'n kennisgewing bymekaar te kom om met Redcoats te veg, wanneer hulle slegs 25 tot 30 persent van die plaaslike militia -lede sou dien. aangewys “Minutemen ” in die dae voor die oorlog.

Peirce het by die plaaslike milisie -eenhede gedien om gereelde Britse leërs te help tydens die Engelse aanval op Quebec in 1759, wat in die personeel van generaal James Wolfe gedien het. Plaaslike geskiedenis dui aan dat Peirce aan Wolfe se kant was toe die Britse generaal dood is in die stryd om die stad in besit te neem. Kaptein Benjamin Pratt was bevelvoerder van die Middleboro -geselskap van 80 mans wat aan die veldtog deelgeneem het, en kaptein Samuel Thatcher was in beheer van 'n tweede ȁparty ” -geselskap van plaaslike milisies wat ook saam met die Britse weermag opgeruk het om Kanada aan te val.

In April 1775 dien Peirce as kaptein van die Minutemen -troep in die Middleborough -burgermag se Tweede Kompanjie toe die nuus kom van die Britse aanval op Lexington en Concord. Die vooraf gereëlde opdrag van die eenheid van rebelleleiers was om saam met ander militiese mense na die Thomas-plaas te gaan, waar die Britse generaal Thomas Gage 100 lede van die Queen ’s Guard-regiment gestuur het om die Loyalist-kamp wat daar opgerig is, te beskerm.

Generaal Gage het ook 300 muskiete en 'n voorraad poeier en ammunisie na die Thomas ’ -opstal in Marshfield gestuur om 'n Loyalistiese milisie van 300 man te noem, genaamd die 𠇊ssociated Loyalists ” wat al enkele maande daar geoefen het. Dit was die eerste Loyalistiese milisie-eenheid wat in die maande voor die langverwagte konflik uitgebreek is, gestig, wat daarop gemik was om die toenemende probleme wat die Sons of Liberty ondervind het, teë te werk.

Die plaaslike patriotmilisie -eenheid het reeds een keer bots met die Redcoats wat op die Thomas -plaas gestasioneer was, en 'n sterk koninginwagpatrollie op die paadjie, op die vrede, het die plig vroeg in Februarie op 'n patriot -troep afgekom, nie ver van die plaas af nie, en ontwapen die vrywilligers vir vryheid terwyl hulle geweer het. Die spanning het toegeneem in die dae na 'n gemeentevergadering van 14 Februarie 1775, gedomineer deur burgers en gestem het om die saak van Amerikaanse vryheid entoesiasties te ondersteun, toe 'n Britse offisier op die plaas omring was deur 'n skare in die stad wat sy swaard en dit in stukke gebreek.

Die Middleborough -manne wat op 19 April na Marshfield gestuur is, het oornag daar kamp opgeslaan, en die volgende dag het hulle met 'n mag van 500 rebelle -militante opgetrek om die Rooijasse en Lojaliste op die Thomas -plaas aan te val. Natuurlik het Tory -ondersteuners die Britte gewaarsku dat die plaaslike patriotte bymekaargekom het vir die geveg, en Gage het twee sloepe van die Royal Navy gestuur om die skeiding van die Queen's Guard te red.

Teen die tyd dat die patriot -soldate opdaag, het die aantal Redcoats van die plaas gevlug met 'n vloot klein bote wat uit die twee sloepe gestuur is. Die plaaslike lojaliste het nooit opgedaag nie, en die rebelle het 'n paar arms en poeier gegryp, maar nooit 'n skoot afgevuur nie. Omdat daar niemand was om te veg nie, het die Middleborough -manne aan die einde van die dag teruggekeer huis toe.

Die hele aangeleentheid was 'n virtuele herhaling van 'n soortgelyke aanval op die plaas Assonet van 'n ander Loyalist-leier wat voormalige burgerlike soldate opgelei het om die toenemende aantal patriotiese milisie-maatskappye in die hele staat teen te werk.

Baie koloniste het getrou gebly aan die Kroon in die maande voor die aanvang van die oorlog. Trouens, die Amerikaanse rewolusie het amper twee weke voor die aanval op Lexington en Concord in ons eie hoekie in die suidooste van Massachusetts begin. 'N Artikel van 1 April 1775 in The Providence Gazette berig dat lojaliste in die hoofsaaklik pro-Britse Assonet Village, net 'n entjie van Middleborough, ook wapens opneem om hul opstal te verdedig en die kroon te ondersteun met seën van die Britse weermagowerhede .

Ons hoor 'n aantal vuurwapens, met 'n hoeveelheid ammunisie, is aan boord van 'n Man of War in Newport gestuur, na kolonel Thomas Gilbert, en sy Tory-Adherents, in Freetown, en#x201d die nuusberig gesê. Kol. Gilbert, 'n koloniale offisier wat ook in die Franse en Indiese oorlog gedien het, is gevra om 'n lojalistiese militêre mag op te rig en 'n gewapende kamp op te rig by sy Assonet -plantasie.

Terwyl die Tory -rekrute geboor word, het kolonel Gilbert gerugte gehoor van 'n moontlike aanval deur die plaaslike Sons of Liberty, en het hy na Newport, Rhode Island, gereis om 'n afdeling van Britse weermagbeamptes te smeek om die Tory -voorpos te verdedig. Die troepe het nooit gekom nie, en plaaslike patriot -komitees van veiligheid het oor die bedreiging gedebatteer en 'n beroep op hul bedieners gedoen om die lojaliste te ontwapen.

John Daggett, 'n patriot van patrone in Seattle, was die hooforganiseerder van 'n aanvallende mag, aanvanklik saamgestel uit sy militêre kompanie, wat twee weke voor die aanval op Lexington en Concord opgetrek het. Afsendings wat na ander veiligheidskomitees gestuur is, het tot honderde ander bedienaars gelei, waaronder afdelings van Dartmouth en Middleborough, wat op Freetown marsjeer en by Daggett se troepe aangesluit het vir die aanval.

Tien dae later het die patriot -dagboekskrywer dr. Ezra Stiles van Newport die afsterwe van die plaaslike Loyalist “uprising ” aangeteken in sy dagboekinskrywing van 11 April 1775: Bo duisend mans wat in Freetown bymekaargekom het om kol. Gilbert neer te lê as hulle het gehoor dat hy teen sy land opstaan. Hulle kom uit alle dele tot by Middleboro, Rochester, ens. Hulle het ongeveer 30 van sy manne geneem en hulle ontwapen, maar hulle het die afgelope tyd die King's Arms geneem.

'N Ander verslag dui aan dat kolonel Gilbert self en 'n handjievol van sy manne met 'n klein bootjie ontsnap het, afwaarts geroei het en hul toevlug geneem het by die Britse oorlogskip Rose, wat onlangs die wapens en poeier aan die Loyalist -kamp afgelewer het. Terwyl die kolonel weg was, het die rebelle -burgermanne 35 muskiete, 'n paar groot flesse poeier en 'n mandjie muskietballe beslag gelê. Nege-en-twintig Loyalist-gevangenes wat daardie dag gevange geneem is, is na die gevangenisse van Taunton en Providence gestuur om opgesluit te word, en nog 20 het ontsnap, volgens berigte wat op 15-17 Junie 1775 in The London Chronicle gepubliseer is.

'N Deserteur van die Britse weermag wat help om patriotmilisie in die omgewing op te lei, wat onlangs deur Gilbert se mans gevange geneem is, is ook bevry deur die rebellemagte, sê dr. Stiles in sy dagboekinskrywing van 14 April 1775. Ander nuusberigte van die tyd het aangedui dat kollega Gilbert se broer Samuel tydens die konfrontasie beseer is, en onder diegene wat deur die patriotte in hegtenis geneem is, het kolonel Gilbert 'n paar dae later teruggekeer, na Taunton gery en die rebelle oortuig om sy broer vry te laat , skoonseun en verskeie ander gevangenes. Die Gilberts het uiteindelik na Boston gevlug om beskerming te soek by die Britse magte wat die stad beset het.

DIENS DEUR DIE OORLOG

Militiese in Middleborough het gedurende die agt jaar lange oorlog of as deel van die kontinentale weermag-eenhede wat in Massachusetts opgerig is, steeds plaaslik diens gedoen op kusverdedigingstake in nabygeleë dorpe en op Rhode Island. Diegene wat by graaf- of staatsregimente vir die diens van die kontinentale weermag ingeskryf het, het aan feitlik elke groot geveg en veldtog van die oorlog deelgeneem en reputasie as goeie soldate verdien, waar hulle ook al dien.

Plaaslike mans het in die Noordelike Weermag geveg om die boonste gebied van New York teen die Britse magte te verdedig, asook saam met generaal Benedict Arnold by en om West Point. Manne van Middleborough het ook die boot in Delaware met generaal Washington oorgesteek vir die suksesvolle nederlaag van die Hessiese troepe in Trenton, New Jersey, op Kersaand in 1776 en het gehelp om die eerste groot Amerikaanse oorwinning van die oorlog in Saratoga, New York, in die herfs van 1777. Meer plaaslike mans wat by Massachusetts-regimente diens gedoen het, het die aaklige winter van 1776-77 by Washington in Valley Forge deurgebring.

In November 1776, met generaal George Washington nou in bevel van die nuwe 𠇌ontinental Army ” rondom Boston, het kaptein Peirce gehelp om 'n nuwe streekmilisie -onderneming op te rig om by die patriot -leër aan te sluit. Die Middleborough -troepe en mede -rekrute uit Bridgewater, Wareham en Abington is by kolonel Nicholas Dike se infanterieregiment aangewys en het gedien as deel van die beleëringsleër wat die Britte in Boston gehou het.

Sersant Josiah Harlow en korporaal James Peirce, wat die Middleborough-onderneming as onderoffisiere bedien het. 22 Middleboro-mans is ook aangewys by die Plymouth County-kompanie onder bevel van Peirce, in totaal 69 mans.

Volgens die geskiedenis van Thomas Weston in 1906, het kaptein Nathaniel Wood van Middleborough gehelp om 'n ander provinsie -militiese kompanie op te rig en te beveel om daardie lente by kolonel Simeon Carey in die kontinentale weermag te dien. Die onderneming is in Roxbury aangestel, met 'n lys van 1 April 1776 wat 81 name bevat, waaronder Job Pierce en Joseph Tupperas -luitenante, en Jesse Vaughan as vaandel. Die onderoffisiere was sersante Caleb Bryant, Andrew McCully, Joseph Holmes en William Bennett Benjamin Reed, Josiah Jones, John Sampson en Nathaniel Sampson het as korporaal gedien. Sylvanus Raymond was die tromspeler van die geselskap en Daniel White het as fifer gedien.

Die diens van die militia -veteraan Samuel Eddy Sr van Middleborough gee 'n goeie aanduiding van die uiteenlopende diensvoorwaardes vir plaaslike milisies. Eddy was oorspronklik genoteer as korporaal in Captain Peirce ’s Second Middleborough Company vir die tweedaagse toewysing in Marshfield die volgende lente, in 1776, word hy erkenning gegee aan 84 dae diens met 'n afdeling van Middleborough-mans wat 'n termyn van drie maande dien die geselskap onder bevel van kaptein Joshua Eddy in kolonel Bradford se 12de Massachusetts Regiment in die Kontinentale Weermag.

Muster rolls gee weer 'n lys van sy diens in die kontinentale weermag, wat op 1 Februarie 1777 begin met 'n driejaar-werwing en sy diens tot 25 Mei 1777 by die beleg van Boston aanmeld. In die lente van 1778 word Eddy op 34 -jarige ouderdom in die Muster Master Elisha Paddock ’s se landelike rollys opgeneem as deel van kapt. Nathaniel Wood se geselskap van kolonel Sproat se vierde Plymouth County -regiment en as sersant in die onderneming in salarisrekords waarin die maatskappy se diens in Julie 1778 in White Plains, New York.

Eddy word later ingedeel as sersant -majoor van Captain Zebedee Redding's Company in kolonel Bradford's Regiment in 'n betaalstaatrekord van Desember 1778 en by die Sewende Kompanjie van kolonel Bradford's Regiment van 1 Januarie tot 10 Februarie 1780 in die Noordelike Weermag wat in New York.

Kaptein Amos Washburn was die luitenant van die First Middleborough Company of Infantry wat laat in April 1775 na Boston gestuur is. Ward ’s Regiment is in Mei 1776 bevorder tot kaptein van die Thirteenth Company van die Fourth Plymouth County Regiment, onder diens van kolonel Ebenezer Sproat.

Dele van die vierde Plymouth County Regiment is vroeg in Desember 1776 uitgeroep vir die Britse besetting van Newport, Rhode Island, en het 12 dae gedien om die vasteland te verdedig teen moontlike verdere vyandelike aanvalle, deur die patriotte genoem.

Kaptein Washburn was bevelvoerder oor Middleborough ’s Seventh Company, gebaseer in die huidige Lakeville, toe dit in Junie en Julie 1778 vir 25 dae diens uitgeroep is vir nog 'n bedreiging vir die vasteland van Rhode Island en Wes-Massachusetts.

Washburn het by die Seventh Company in Col. Sproat gebly tot in Augustus 1780, in Weston se geskiedenisnotas dat hy vroeg in September 1778 in bevel was toe die geselskap na New Bedford marsjeer om die Britse aanval op die deel van Ou Dartmouth, destyds bekend as Bedford Village. Hulle was ses dae daar gestasioneer voordat hulle teruggekeer het huis toe. Washburn is in 1780 uit die provinsiale diens ontslaan en keer terug na sy burgerlike lewe as herbergier. Hy sterf in 1794 en word begrawe in die Thompson Hill -begraafplaas in Lakeville.

Die geskiedenis van Weston berig ook dat die First Middleborough Company of Infantry vir diens op die Desember 1776 by die Rode Island Alarm bymekaargekom het. , Francis Thompson, Caleb Bryant, Isaac Thomas en Jacob Thomas was die onderoffisiere, saam met korporaals Ebenezer Pratt, Benjamin Cobb, Ebenezer Vaughan en Nathaniel Wood. Die geselskapmusici was Sylvanus Raymond, tromspeler, en Francis Bent, fifer.

Miskien was dit 'n skaarste aan gereed mannekrag met 'n paar luitenante wat 'n maatskappy beveel het, met slegs 44 aangewese manne op die lys, miskien bevat die lys slegs die bedienaars wat na die dringende oproep om hulp gestuur is om die skielike dreigement van 'n Britse aanval op die vasteland.

Vir die rekord was die persone van die kortstondige First Company-afdeling wat na die alarm in Rhode Island in 1776 gestuur is, Samuel Smith, Ichabod Cushman, Ebenezer Cobb, Robert Cushman, Jacob Thompson, Samuel Torrey, Silas Tinkham, Jonathan Porter, William Thompson, Thomas Foster, John McFarlin, Jesse Vaughan, Isaac Soule, Sylvanus Harlow, Nathan Darling, Thomas Ellis, Jacob Soule, Charles Ellis, Jr., Abiel Leach, Samuel Eddy, Jr., Ebenezer Bennett, Ebenezer Briggs, John Cobb, Joseph Briggs, Zenas Cushman, Daniel Ellis, Luther Redding, Willard Thomas, Nathaniel Billington, Samuel Snow, Samuel Raymond, John Redding, John Raymond, James Tinkham, John Soule, James Soule, Ephraim Thomas, Elkanah Bennett, Jacob Miller, Solomon Thomas, Daniel Thomas , Noah Thomas, Joseph Cushman en Ephraim Wood.

Die dreigement van die aanval van Redcoat op die vasteland van Rhode Island en die suidkus was blykbaar konstant gedurende die oorlog, aangesien diensrekords toon dat die Sewende Kompanjie op 'n alarm op 1 Augustus 1780 weer na Rhode Island geroep is vir verdedigingsdiens. Hulle was nege dae daar gestasioneer voordat hulle ontslaan is. Kolonel Ebenezer White het op daardie stadium die bevel van die regiment aanvaar. Ander eenhede in Middleborough het gedurende die oorlog uiteenlopende plaaslike en kusverdedigingsopdragte gehad, volgens die betaalrekords van plaaslike eenhede.

Telkens as hulle plaaslik of buite Massachusetts tot diens gebring is, het die Middleborough Minutemen en ander lede van die milisie altyd die oproep beantwoord en met lof gedien gedurende die Amerikaanse Revolusie.


Inhoud

Kasteel Chapultepec, wat in die agtiende eeu deur 'n onderkoning gebou is, het eers in die laat negentiende eeu as 'n woning gedien. Na onafhanklikheid het dit gedien as die Militêre Akademie, wat beamptes vir die Mexikaanse leër opgelei het. Ten tyde van die Amerikaanse inval, is dit verdedig deur Mexikaanse troepe onder bevel van Nicolás Bravo en generaal José Mariano Monterde, insluitend kadette van die akademie. Bravo het Santa Anna die opdrag gegee om hierdie strategiese ligging in Mexiko -stad te verdedig. Tweeduisend soldate was nodig, maar Santa Anna kon slegs 832 pleeg, waarvan die meeste van die nasionale garde was en nie die gewone leër nie. [1] Die aantal kadette wat teenwoordig is, word uiteengesit, van 47 [2] tot 'n paar honderd. Die groot getalle verdedigers het generaal Winfield Scott se troepe vir ongeveer twee uur geveg voordat generaal Bravo terugtrek gelas het, maar die ses kadette het geweier om terug te val en het tot die dood geveg. Ondanks die posisie van die kasteel 200 voet bo die grond, was daar nie genoeg mans om dit te verdedig nie. Volgens die legende spring die laaste van die ses, Juan Escutia, uit die Chapultepec -kasteel, toegedraai in die Mexikaanse vlag, om te verhoed dat die vlag deur die vyand geneem word. Volgens die latere verslag van 'n ongeïdentifiseerde Amerikaanse offisier, was "ongeveer honderd" kadette tussen die ouderdomme van 10 en 19 jaar onder die 'menigte' gevangenes wat geneem is nadat die kasteel gevang is. [3]

Juan de la Barrera is in 1828 in Mexico -stad gebore, die seun van Ignacio Mario de la Barrera, 'n weermaggeneraal, en Juana Inzárruaga. Hy het op 12 -jarige ouderdom aangesluit en is op 18 November 1843 by die Akademie opgeneem. Tydens die aanval op Chapultepec was hy 'n luitenant by die militêre ingenieurs (sappers) en het gesterf toe hy 'n geweerbattery by die ingang van die park verdedig het. Hy was 19 jaar oud, die oudste van die ses, en was ook deel van die skoolfakulteit as vrywillige onderwyser in ingenieurswese.

Juan Escutia is tussen 1828 en 1832 gebore in Tepic, nou die hoofstad van die staat Nayarit. Uit rekords blyk dit dat hy op 8 September 1847 - vyf dae voor die noodlottige geveg - as kadet toegelaat is tot die Akademie, maar sy ander vraestelle het tydens die aanval verlore gegaan. Hy word gereeld uitgebeeld as 'n tweede luitenant in 'n artilleriekompanie. Hy is die kadet wat na bewering homself in die Mexikaanse vlag toegedraai en van die dak gespring het om te keer dat dit in vyandelike hande val.

Francisco Márquez is gebore in 1834 in Guadalajara, Jalisco. Na die dood van sy vader, trou sy ma, Micaela Paniagua, weer met Francisco Ortiz, 'n kavalleriekaptein. Hy het op 14 Januarie 1847 by die Akademie aansoek gedoen en het ten tyde van die geveg tot die eerste groep kadette behoort. 'N Nota in sy personeelrekord sê dat sy lyk op die oostelike flank van die heuwel gevind is, langs die van Juan Escutia. Op 13 -jarige ouderdom was hy die jongste van die ses helde.

Agustín Melgar is gebore tussen 1828 en 1832 in Chihuahua, Chihuahua. Hy was die seun van Esteban Melgar, 'n luitenant -kolonel in die weermag, en María de la Luz Sevilla, wat albei gesterf het toe hy nog jonk was, en hy het die afdeling van sy ouer suster agtergelaat. Hy het op 4 November 1846 by die Akademie aansoek gedoen. 'N Nota in sy personeelrekord verduidelik dat hy, nadat hy alleen was, probeer het om die vyand aan die noordekant van die kasteel te stuit. Dit verduidelik ook dat hy een doodgeskiet en agter 'n matras in een van die kamers geskuil het. Hy is ernstig gewond op 'n tafel en op 15 September dood aangetref nadat die kasteel geval het. In 2012 is 'n standbeeld ter ere van hom in Chihuahua opgerig. [4]

Fernando Montes de Oca is gebore tussen 1828 en 1832 in Azcapotzalco, destyds 'n stad noord van Mexikostad en nou een van sy gemeentes. Sy ouers was José María Montes de Oca en Josefa Rodríguez. Hy het op 24 Januarie 1847 by die Akademie aansoek gedoen en was een van die kadette wat in die kasteel gebly het. Sy personeelrekord lui: "Oorlede vir sy land op 13 September 1847."

Vicente Suárez is gebore in 1833 in Puebla, Puebla, die seun van Miguel Suárez, 'n kavalerie -offisier, en María de la Luz Ortega. Hy het op 21 Oktober 1845 aansoek gedoen om toelating tot die Akademie, en was tydens sy verblyf 'n offisierskadet. 'N Aantekening in sy rekord lui: "Hy het op 13 September 1847 sy land verdedig by die verdediging van sy land. Hy het die aanvallers beveel om op te hou, maar hulle het voortgegaan. Hy het een geskiet en 'n ander met sy bajonet in die maag gesteek en is doodgemaak op sy pos in hand-tot-hand-gevegte. Hy is vermoor weens sy dapperheid, omdat sy jeugdigheid die aanvallers laat huiwer het totdat hy hulle aangeval het. "

Daar was 40 kadette wat die aanval oorleef het en gevange geneem is. Die een, Ramón Rodríguez Arangoity, het die senaataf van 1881 ter herdenking van die kadette ontwerp. Twee van hulle, Miguel Miramón en Manuel Ramírez de Arellano, word generaals in die Mexikaanse weermag. Albei werk saam met die Franse intervensie in Mexiko 1862-1867. [5]

Die verhaal van die Niños-helde speel sedert 1847 'n belangrike rol in die vorming van die historiese geheue in Mexiko, 'n bron van trots op die dapperheid van die martelare seuntjie-kadette om die eer van Mexiko te verdedig, maar in die middel van die twintigste eeu was dit ook 'n beteken dat die Mexikaanse en Amerikaanse regerings tot 'n meer harmonieuse verhouding gekom het. [6] Monumente vir die martelaars is egter eers gebou toe Mexiko die Oorlog van die Hervorming (1857–69) geveg het en die Frans-gesteunde Tweede Mexikaanse Ryk (1862–67) verdryf het. 'N Groep voormalige kadette het die Vereniging van die Militêre Akademie gevorm en het in 1881 daarin geslaag om 'n senotaaf van beskeie grootte (op die foto) op te rig aan die voet van die heuwel waarop die Chapultepec -kasteel sit. Hierdie monument, bekend as die Obelisco a los Niños Héroes, was tot in die middel van die twintigste eeu die belangrikste monument vir die martelaars in Mexiko-stad, toe die Monumento a los Niños Héroes in 1952 by die ingang van die Chapultepec-park ingehuldig is. het die name gehad van die gevalle kadette en diegene wat gevange geneem is en 'n herdenkingsplek geword deur die vereniging wat dit opgerig het, sowel as vir Mexikaanse amptenare en gewone burgers.

Op 5 Maart 1947 plaas die Amerikaanse president, Harry S. Truman, 'n krans by die senotaaf en staan ​​vir 'n paar oomblikke van stille eerbied. Op 'n vraag van Amerikaanse verslaggewers waarom hy na die monument gegaan het, het Truman gesê: "Dapper manne behoort nie aan 'n enkele land nie. Ek respekteer dapperheid waar ek dit ook al sien." [7] [8]

As the centennial of the war approached, there were calls to recover the remains of the cadets, so that a memorial that was also a burial site could honor their bravery. The 1881 cenotaph honored them, but did not have the significance of a burial site. The Mexican government acceded to the request of the Mexican Army and the Military Academy to find the remains, but work did not begin until after President Truman's 1947 visit. The concerted search for the bones was no easy task. During the war, the dead were quickly buried for sanitary reasons, near where they fell, so that there were the remains of around 600 in Chapultepec Park. Several sites were excavated. A mass grave was found on the southern hillside of Chapultepec Hill. Six bodies were officially identified as belonging to the six deceased cadets of 1847, but a later investigation "alleged that the sappers found numerous skeletons but removed only the smallest from the soil." [9] Mexico City newspapers proclaimed that the bodies of the cadets had been found, but the Mexican government convened a panel of scientists to confirm the identities of the bones. There was tremendous pressure on them to validate that these were indeed the remains, which was done. The remains were placed in gold and crystal urns, and moved to the Military Academy. [10] A plaque was placed at the site. [11] [12]

On September 27, 1952, after many public ceremonies, a monument was inaugurated in the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo) with an honor guard from the several military academies of the Americas.

The six cadets are honored by an imposing monument made of Carrara marble by architect Enrique Aragón and sculptor Ernesto Tamariz at the entrance to Chapultepec Park (1952). [13]

At the castle itself, in 1967 Gabriel Flores painted a large mural above the stairway depicting Escutia's leap from the roof with the Mexican flag.

The 5000-peso banknote (1987 series) commemorated the battle. The cadets are shown and named on the front of the banknote, and Chapultepec Castle is on the reverse. Starting in 1993, this banknote was retired in favor of the 5 nuevos pesos coin, and there is no analogous banknote in the 1996 series. The cadets appear on a N$50 coin minted from 1993 it is rare compared to the N$50 banknote.

Die naam Niños Héroes, along with the cadets' individual names, are commonly given to streets, squares and schools across Mexico. Metro Niños Héroes is the name of a station on the Mexico City Metro, as well as a station on the Monterrey Metro. Streets in the Condesa neighborhood adjacent to Chapultepec Castle bear the names of each cadet who took part. [14]

Obelisk commemorating the cadets and military school personnel who participated in the Battle of Chapultepec.


Who is the PM of all country?

List of Commonwealth of Nations prime ministers

Nasie Head of Government Name of Head of Government
Kanada Eerste Minister Justin Trudeau
Jamaica Eerste Minister Andrew Holness
Nieu-Seeland Eerste Minister Jacinda Ardern
Australië Eerste Minister Scott Morrison


Inhoud

Haym Salomon was born in 1740 in Leszno, Poland, to a Sephardic Jewish family descended from Spanish and Portuguese Jews who gradually migrated to Poland following Ferdinand and Isabella's expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. Although most Jews in Central and Eastern Europe spoke Yiddish (Judeo-German), some have said that because Salomon left Poland with his family while still young, he could not read and write Yiddish. (Spanish Jews, or Sephardim, spoke Ladino rather than Yiddish, a language based on Hebrew and Spanish.) In his youth, he studied Hebrew. [2]

During his adult travels in Western Europe, Salomon acquired a knowledge of finance and fluency in some of the world languages of the day. [3] He returned to Poland in 1770 but left for England two years later in the wake of the Polish partition. In 1775, he immigrated to New York City, where he established himself as a financial broker for merchants engaged in overseas trade. [4] [5]

Sympathizing with the Patriot cause, Salomon joined the New York branch of the Sons of Liberty. In September 1776, he was arrested as a spy. The British pardoned him, but detained him for 18 months on a British boat as an interpreter for Hessian soldiers, German troops employed by the British. Salomon used his position to help prisoners of war from the Continental Army escape and encouraged the Hessians to desert the war effort. In 1778 Salomon was arrested again, convicted of espionage, and sentenced to death. Again, he escaped, making his way with his family to the revolutionary capital in Philadelphia. [6]

Financing of the American Revolutionary War Edit

Once resettled, Salomon resumed his activities as a broker. He became the agent to the French consul as well as the paymaster for the French forces in North America. In 1781, he began working extensively with Robert Morris, the newly appointed Superintendent for Finance for the Thirteen Colonies. [7]

From the period of 1781–1784, records show Salomon's fundraising and personal lending helped provide over $650,000 (approximately over $9.4 billion in 2017 dollars [8] ) in financing to General George Washington in his war effort. His most meaningful financial contribution, however, came immediately prior to the final battle at Yorktown. [9]

In August 1781, the Continental Army trapped Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis in the Virginia coastal town of Yorktown. George Washington and the main army, and Count de Rochambeau with his French army, decided to march from the Hudson Highlands to Yorktown and deliver the final blow. But Washington's war chest was completely empty, as was that of Congress. Without food, uniforms and supplies, Washington's troops were close to mutiny. [9]

Washington determined that he needed at least $20,000 to finance the campaign. When Morris told him there were no funds and no credit available, Washington said: "Send for Haym Salomon". Salomon raised $20,000, through the sale of bills of exchange. With that contribution, Washington conducted the Yorktown campaign, which proved to be the final battle of the Revolution. [5]

Salomon brokered the sale of a majority of the war aid from France and the Dutch Republic, selling bills of exchange to American merchants. Salomon also personally supported various members of the Continental Congress during their stay in Philadelphia, including James Madison and James Wilson. He requested below-market interest rates, and he never asked for repayment. [10]

Salomon is believed to have granted outright bequests to men that he thought were unsung heroes of the revolution who had become impoverished during the war. One example is Bodo Otto, a senior surgeon in the continental army. Otto joined the army at the age of 65 and served for the entire war. Among other things, he established the hospital at Valley Forge, where he often used his own funds to purchase medical supplies. Due to Salomon's bequest, Otto was able to rebuild his medical practice in Reading, Pennsylvania, at war's end.

The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the Revolutionary War but not the financial problems of the newly established nation. America's war debt to France was never properly repaid, which was part of the cascade of events leading to the French Revolution.

Jewish community Edit

Salomon was involved in Jewish community affairs, being a member of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, and in 1782 made the largest individual donation toward the construction of its main building. In 1783, Salomon was among the prominent Jews involved in the successful effort to have the Pennsylvania Council of Censors remove the religious test oath required for office-holding under the State Constitution. These test laws were originally written to disenfranchise the Quaker majority (Quakers objected to taking oaths at all), but many were caught up in this anti-democratic ploy. It was Salomon's old friend Robert Morris who actually introduced legislation to end the test laws in Pennsylvania. In 1784, Salomon answered anti-Semitic slander in the press by stating: "I am a Jew it is my own nation I do not despair that we shall obtain every other privilege that we aspire to enjoy along with our fellow-citizens."

Freemasonry Edit

Like Washington and many prominent men associated with the American revolution, Salomon was a member of the Masonic fraternity. He received his first two degrees in Philadelphia's Lodge No. 2, Ancient York Rite in 1764. After the war, his Master Mason degree was conferred in 1784 (possibly in Maryland Lodge 27), the year before his death. [11] [12]

The financier died suddenly and in poverty on January 8, 1785, in Philadelphia. Due to the failure of governments and private lenders to repay the debt incurred by the war, his family was left penniless at his death at age 44. [9] The hundreds of thousands of dollars of Continental debt Salomon bought with his own fortune were worth only about 10 cents on the dollar when he died.

His obituary in the Independent Gazetteer read, "Thursday, last, expired, after a lingering illness, Mr. Haym Salomon, an eminent broker of this city, was a native of Poland, and of the Hebrew nation. He was remarkable for his skill and integrity in his profession, and for his generous and humane deportment. His remains were yesterday deposited in the burial ground of the synagogue of this city."

The grave site of Haym Salomon is located in the Mikveh Israel Cemetery in Philadelphia. Though it is unmarked, there are two plaque memorials. The east wall has a marble tablet that was installed by his great-grandson, William Salomon, and a granite memorial is set inside the cemetery gate. In 1980, the Haym Salomon Lodge #663 of the fraternal organization B'rith Sholom sponsored a memorial in the Mikveh Israel Cemetery. A blue ribbon panel and committee, including Robert S. Whitman, Sidney Bruskin and Marvin Abrams, all lodge past presidents and Philadelphia residents, arranged for the renovation of the walls and walkways of the cemetery. They then arranged for and oversaw the installation of a large, engraved memorial marker of Barre Granite just inside the cemetery gates, inscribed "An American Patriot". A memorial bronze marker with an American flag was installed by Robert S. Whitman, marking the dedicated space for the American patriot. [13]

Commemoration Edit

There is a legend that during the design process of the Great Seal, Washington asked what compensation Salomon wanted in return for his financial contributions to the American Revolutionary War. He replied that "he wanted nothing for himself but that he wanted something for his people". While there is no evidence, there is a theory that the 13 stars representing the colonies on the seal were arranged in the shape of the Star of David in commemoration of Solomon's contributions. [14] This appears to have little basis in fact, however, although it is oft-repeated. [15]

  • In 1893, a bill was presented before the 52nd United States Congress ordering a gold medal be struck in recognition of Salomon's contributions to the United States.
  • In 1939, Warner Brothers released Sons of Liberty, a short film starring Claude Rains as Salomon.
  • In 1941, the writer Howard Fast wrote a book Haym Salomon, Son of Liberty. That same year, the Heald Square Monument, a sculpture designed by Lorado Taft was erected at Wacker Drive and Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago. Taft began the work but died in 1936. It was completed by his associate, Leonard Crunelle. The monument depicts George Washington flanked by Salomon and Robert Morris and grasping hands with both men. [16]
  • In 1946, a memorial statue was erected to Salomon at Hollenbeck Park in Los Angeles. The statue was rededicated in 2008 at Pan-Pacific Park in the Fairfax District, where it can be found on the corner of Gardner and Third Street. [17]
  • In 1975, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Haym Salomon for his contributions to the cause of the American Revolution. This stamp, like others in the "Contributors to the Cause" series, was printed on the front and the back. On the glue side of the stamp, the following words were printed in pale green ink: "Financial Hero – Businessman and broker Haym Salomon was responsible for raising most of the money needed to finance the American Revolution and later to save the new nation from collapse".
  • The Congressional Record of March 25, 1975 reads:

When Morris was appointed Superintendent of Finance, he turned to Salomon for help in raising the money needed to carry on the war and later to save the emerging nation from financial collapse. Salomon advanced direct loans to the government and also gave generously of his own resources to pay the salaries of government officials and army officers. With frequent entries of "I sent for Haym Salomon", Morris' diary for the years 1781–84 records some 75 transactions between the two men.


President Trump Said Revolutionary War Troops 'Took Over the Airports' in His Fourth of July Speech

P resident Trump made a bit of a historical blunder during his Fourth of July “Salute to America” speech Thursday when he said that the Continental Army “took over the airports” from the British during the American Revolutionary War in the 1770s.

During his hour-long speech at the grounds of Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., Trump stayed largely off politics.

Trump praised the Americans’ military efforts in the war against Great Britain. &ldquoOur army manned the air, it rammed the ramparts, it took over the airports, it did everything it had to do, and at Fort McHenry, under the rockets&rsquo red glare, it had nothing but victory,&rdquo he said.

Of course, as many viewers noted, airports&ndash&ndashand military airplanes&ndash&ndashare a 20th century invention. The first powered flight of an airplane was officially attributed to the Wright brothers, who accomplished their feat in 1903. Trump also praised the Wright brothers earlier in his Independence Day speech.

Other observant listeners picked up on a second historical error in the speech. Trump’s reference to Fort McHenry and “rockets&rsquo red glare”&ndash&ndashthe Battle of Baltimore at which the words to the “Star-Spangled Banner” were written&ndash&ndashtook place during the War of 1812, not the Revolutionary War.

Trump explained his statements outside the White House on Friday by noting that the teleprompter he was using to deliver his speech had experienced some technical difficulties. “The teleprompter did go out and it was actually hard to look at anyway because there was rain all over it but despite the rain it was just a fantastic evening,” Trump told reporters.

Numerous memes have popped up on the internet poking fun at the President’s airport comment. In one such meme, the famous painting of Washington crossing the Delaware is superimposed over a photo of an airport baggage claim area titled “The Battle of Baggage Claim (1776).” In another, above a sketch of Paul Revere’s ride is written “One if by land/Two if by sea/ Three if arriving at Terminal C.”

Hashtags like #RevolutionaryWarAirports and #RevolutionaryWarAirportStories also have twitter users writing comical parodies in the form of letters written by Revolutionary War soldiers about their airport woes.

The President has made several history-related errors during his time in office. In 2017, he argued that Andrew Jackson could have prevented the Civil War from happening, when Jackson actually died 16 years before the war started. Referring to the War of 1812 during a tense 2018 phone call with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Trump reportedly said “Didn’t you guys burn down the White House?” However, it was British troops that burned down the White House during the War of 1812, not Canadian forces.


African Americans and the American Revolution

James Lafayette, who supported the American cause as a spy, may have been the inspiration for the figure on the right in the 18th-century engraving, in the Jamestown-Yorktown collection, depicting the Marquis de Lafayette at Yorktown.

Only 50 years after the defeat of the British at Yorktown, most Americans had already forgotten the extensive role black people had played on both sides during the War for Independence. At the 1876 Centennial Celebration of the Revolution in Philadelphia, not a single speaker acknowledged the contributions of African Americans in establishing the nation. Yet by 1783, thousands of black Americans had become involved in the war. Many were active participants, some won their freedom and others were victims, but throughout the struggle blacks refused to be mere bystanders and gave their loyalty to the side that seemed to offer the best prospect for freedom.

By 1775 more than a half-million African Americans, most of them enslaved, were living in the 13 colonies. Early in the 18th century a few New England ministers and conscientious Quakers, such as George Keith and John Woolman, had questioned the morality of slavery but they were largely ignored. By the 1760s, however, as the colonists began to speak out against British tyranny, more Americans pointed out the obvious contradiction between advocating liberty and owning slaves. In 1774 Abigail Adams wrote, “it always appeared a most iniquitious scheme to me to fight ourselves for what we are daily robbing and plundering from those who have as good a right to freedom as we have.”

Widespread talk of liberty gave thousands of slaves high expectations, and many were ready to fight for a democratic revolution that might offer them freedom. In 1775 at least 10 to 15 black soldiers, including some slaves, fought against the British at the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill. Two of these men, Salem Poor and Peter Salem, earned special distinction for their bravery. By 1776, however, it had become clear that the revolutionary rhetoric of the founding fathers did not include enslaved blacks. The Declaration of Independence promised liberty for all men but failed to put an end to slavery and although they had proved themselves in battle, the Continental Congress adopted a policy of excluding black soldiers from the army.

In spite of these discouragements, many free and enslaved African Americans in New England were willing to take up arms against the British. As soon states found it increasingly difficult to fill their enlistment quotas, they began to turn to this untapped pool of manpower. Eventually every state above the Potomac River recruited slaves for military service, usually in exchange for their freedom. By the end of the war from 5,000 to 8,000 blacks had served the American cause in some capacity, either on the battlefield, behind the lines in noncombatant roles, or on the seas. By 1777 some states began enacting laws that encouraged white owners to give slaves for the army in return for their enlistment bounty, or allowing masters to use slaves as substitutes when they or their sons were drafted. In the South the idea of arming slaves for military service met with such opposition that only free blacks were normally allowed to enlist in the army.

Most black soldiers were scattered throughout the Continental Army in integrated infantry regiments, where they were often assigned to support roles as wagoners, cooks, waiters or artisans. Several all-black units, commanded by white officers, also were formed and saw action against the British. Rhode Island’s Black Battalion was established in 1778 when that state was unable to meet its quota for the Continental Army. The legislature agreed to set free slaves who volunteered for the duration of the war, and compensated their owners for their value. This regiment performed bravely throughout the war and was present at Yorktown where an observer noted it was “the most neatly dressed, the best under arms, and the most precise in its maneuvers.”

Although the Southern states were reluctant to recruit enslaved African Americans for the army, they had no objections to using free and enslaved blacks as pilots and able-bodied seaman. In Virginia alone, as many as 150 black men, many of them slaves, served in the state navy. After the war, the legislature granted several of these men their freedom as a reward for faithful service. African Americans also served as gunners, sailors on privateers and in the Continental Navy during the Revolution. While the majority of blacks who contributed to the struggle for independence performed routine jobs, a few, such as James Lafayette, gained renown serving as spies or orderlies for well-known military leaders.

Black participation in the Revolution, however, was not limited to supporting the American cause, and either voluntarily or under duress thousands also fought for the British. Enslaved blacks made their own assessment of the conflict and supported the side that offered the best opportunity to escape bondage. Most British officials were reluctant to arm blacks, but as early as 1775, Virginia’s royal governor, Lord Dunmore, established an all-black “Ethiopian Regiment” composed of runaway slaves. By promising them freedom, Dunmore enticed over 800 slaves to escape from “rebel” masters. Whenever they could, enslaved blacks continued to join him until he was defeated and forced to leave Virginia in 1776. Dunmore’s innovative strategy met with disfavor in England, but to many blacks the British army came to represent liberation.


USA: Haym Salomon (& friends) Monument in Chicago

USA: Haym Salomon (& friends) Monument in Chicago
by Samuel D. Gruber

[updated Jan. 9, 2016, April 24, 2020]

all photos by Samuel D. Gruber


(ISJM) Continuing the theme of Jewish Revolutionary War heroes and their monuments and markers, mention must be made of the large sculptural group of George Washington and his two financial advisers and go-getters: Robert Morris and Haym Salomon. Historians differ on the exact role and relationship between the English-born Morris and the Polish-born Salomon (born in or near Lezno in 1740). Did Salomon do Morris's bidding, were they equal partners in securing funds for the new United States, or did Morris follow Salomon's lead? Here, in this monumental grouping in downtown Chicago, along Wacker Drive beside the Chicago River between State & Wabash, they are given equal billing next to their Supreme Commander - George Washington.

Polish-born Salomon has been dubbed “the financier of the Revolution,” and especially elevated by American Jews as a emblem of essential Jewish qualities - brains, loyalty and self-sacrifice. This statue was erected in 1941 - and though it was not commissioned by Jews - its installation provided important validation for Jewish Americans on the eve of World War II. The figures are literally presented as larger than life. The dimensions of the bronze figures are approximately 11 x 12 x 4 ft. base: approx. 6 x 15 x 5 ft. Salomon's virtues were also celebrated in the then-popular (now largely forgotten) historical novel by Howard Fast, Haym Salomon, Son of Liberty, first published in 1941, which animates the figures on the statue.

Again, quoting my (highly unoriginal) notes in my report for the US Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad on foreign born heroes of the American Revolution, "After [Salomon's] escape from a British prison in New York he worked tirelessly to raise money for the army and the Congress. Salomon negotiated many loans for the Colonies from France and Holland, but never took a commission for himself. The Revolutionary leaders' diaries testify "that when money was needed for the Revolutionary War, you went to Haym Salomon." Salomon died in 1785, probably as a result of illness contracted during his imprisonment and the subsequent strain of his work.

Salomon was honored by a U.S. Commemorative stamp in 1975 in the “Contributors to the Cause" series. The stamp is inscribed “Haym Salomon, financial hero.” On the back of the stamp is printed “Financial Hero - Businessman and broker Haym Salomon was responsible for raising most of the money needed to finance the American Revolution and later to save the new nation from collapse.”


According to the Inventory of American Art (where one can read more about the statue), "Chicago lawyer Barnet Hodes commissioned the sculpture in the 1930s to pay tribute to these patriots. He formed The Patriotic Foundation and raised the necessary 50,000 dollars. When Taft died in 1936 after completing only a small study model, his associates at the Midway Studios were given a new contract, and three of them, Nellie Walker, Mary Webster, and Leonard Crunelle, each enlarged one of the figures."

The inscription on the statue reads:

The use of Washington's phrase "gives to bigotry no sanction," ties this monument in with the contemporary efforts to make the Touro Synagogue in Newport a National Shrine to religious tolerance, a project of the Roosevelt administration, and one that takes on new life this summer (2009) with the pending opening of the new visitor's center at Touro that is explicitly devoted to presenting this theme (see my earlier post).

To my knowledge there is no monument or marker to Haym Solomon in Poland. Now that democracy and liberty have taken hold there, perhaps this is the time to remember Solomon's contribution to liberty on his home soil. I think Polish and American national hero General Kosciuszko would agree. It would also foster in Poland the idea of "to bigotry no sanction."

To read more about the contested history of Haym Saloman, especially among American Jews themselves, see chapter 5 of Beth S. Wenger's History Lessons: The Creation of American Jewish Heritage (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2010), "Sculpting an American Jewish Hero: The Myths and Monuments of Haym Salomon,", pp 179-209.


6 Foreign-Born Heroes of the American Revolution - HISTORY

1. Cuauhtemo - (?1502 1525) One of the Aztec emperors (1520-21), who became emperor at 18, when the Aztec capital, was being besieged by the Spanish and devastated by an epidemic of smallpox. He captured while crossing Lake Texcoco in disguise. The Spaniards had him tortured to reveal where Aztec treasure was hidden. However, according to Cuauhtemo, there was no treasure left .In 1525, Cort s took Cuauht moc and several other indigenous nobles on his expedition to Honduras. Cort s had Cuauht moc executed for allegedly conspiring to kill him and the other Spaniards

2. Benito Juarez (March 21, 1806 July 18, 1872) A Zapotec who served five presidential terms and fought against the French occupation.

3. Miguel Hidalgo , full name Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla Gallaga Mondarte Villase or (May 8, 1753 July 30, 1811) The priest who launched the war for independence and was executed .

4. Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 April 10, 1919) A mestizo (mixed European and Indian ancestry ) who Fought for land and liberty , " Tierra y libertad ", during the Mexican Revolution .Was a small landholder and horse trainer who battled in court against Diaz's land reforms in the small central Mexican state of Morelos .He became a general of the army that formed in that state, the Ej rcito Libertador del Sur ( Liberation Army of the South ), commonly known as Zapatistas. The Zapatistas were mainly poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income. As a result, Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time, and then return home to spend most of the year farming. He fought the Constitutionalist Carranza after Huerta was defeated. Carranza put a bounty on Zapata's head, and a federalist offiicer pretended to defect to Zapata's side and killed him in an ambush .

5. Sor Juana de la Cruz female poet and writer of the colonial period .

6. Pancho Villa (June 5, 1878 July 20, 1923) A bandito who became the commander of the Divisi n del Norte (Army of the North )Villa tried to give each soldier a horse to make his army more mobile .Legendary as a cavalry commander and nicknamed El Centauro del Norte (The Centaur of the North) he was defeated by Obregon who used WWI tactics in the decisive Battle of Celaya in 1915. He fought the Revolution for Land reform and equal education. He caused Americans under Pershing to invade Mexico after killing Americans and raids into America, but was never caught.He was assassinated in 1923 after retiring .

7. Ninos Heros de Chapultepec Six teenage cadets who died fighting rather than retreat during the Mexican American War (1846-7) at in Mexico City .The last survivor ( Juan Escutia ) leapt from Chapultepec Castle wrapped in the Mexican flag to prevent it from being taken by the enemy.

8. Lazaro Cardenas President of Mexico, 1934-40. Hard working, honest, president who nationlized foreign oil holdings and redistributed land

9. Juan de Zumarraga ( 1468 3 June 1548 ) The first bishop of Mexico who fought against corruption and for Indian rights . He preached sermons condemning judges at risk to his life.

10. Jose Marcia Morelos y Pavon (1765-1815) Priest who continued the fight for independence after Hildago was executed .

1. Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) So hated that, after the independence from Spain, one of the first offical acts was to call for the destruction of his bones. His remains were hidden. In 1981 the statue and the body were in danger of destruction by a nationalistic group. However, he was the founder of the Spanish culture in Mexico and was a capable leader who preferred diplomacy to force

2. Santa Anna (1794-1876) President of Mexico multiple times . Reviled for losing much of modern day southwest America during the Texas Rebellion, the Mexican American War and the Gadsden Purchase and overturning the early republic.

3. Pofirio Diaz (1830-1915 ) A young general who became a hero during the French Intervention .Despite his own rebellions against previous leaders who ran for more than one term ( the Constitution at the time only allowed one term, to prevent dictators ), stayed in office for multiple terms. Oversaw modernization of Mexico, but is reviled for associated with social and political abuses and the following bloody Mexican Revolution .

4. Carlos Salinas de Gortari, President 1988 - 1994, vilified for the economic crisis Mexico plunged into after he left office , possible corruption and links to assassination .

5. Marina or La Malinche Indian woman who helped Cortes .Reviled by many people as a traitor. Die woord malinchismo is used by modern-day Mexicans to identify countrymen who betray their race and country.

6. Victoriano Huerta (1850-1916) General who led a coup against Modero and assumed power. Driven into exile .

7. Henry Lane Wilson US ambassador involved in the plot to overthrow Modero in the Mexican Revolution.

8. Miguel de la Grua Talamanca (1755-1812) viceroy of New Spain from July 12, 1794 to May 31, 1798. He is known as one of the most corrupt viceroys in the history of New Spain .

9. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, President 1964 - 70, President during the time of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre .

10.Nuno de Guzman (1490-1544) In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power .


9. Margaret Corbin // Molly Pitcher

During the Revolution, women followed along behind the armies on both sides. These camp followers, often the wives or female relatives of soldiers, did laundry, mended clothing, cooked and took on other chores in exchange for food and shelter. However, a few ventured out of the camps and onto the battlefield. Margaret Corbin was one of them.

Corbin’s husband handled ammunition for a cannon, and she assisted him. In the fall of 1776, they were stationed at Fort Washington, New York, when the fort was attacked by British troops. The man operating the cannon was killed, and Corbin’s husband quickly took his place, with Corbin taking over the ammunition duties.

Then Corbin’s husband was struck down by enemy fire and killed, too. Without a pause, Corbin worked the cannon, firing it until she was struck by grapeshot that mangled her chest and left arm.

In 1779, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania awarded Corbin a $30 stipend in exchange for her service. They also recommended that the Board of War grant her a soldier’s pension, and the board complied. The Continental Congress gave her a monthly stipend of half an active-duty soldier’s pay. Corbin and Deborah Samson were the only women to receive federal pensions for their service in the Revolution.


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