Noordwes -verordening [1787] - Geskiedenis

Noordwes -verordening [1787] - Geskiedenis

AFDELING I. Of dit deur die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader is, dat genoemde gebied vir die tydelike regering een distrik is, maar dit moet in twee distrikte verdeel word, soos toekomstige omstandighede dit meen, Kongres, maak dit nuttig.

[AFDELING 2 het betrekking op die afkoms en verspreiding van boedels.]

SEK. 3. Of die voorgeskrewe gesag bepaal dat, van tyd tot tyd, deur die kongres 'n goewerneur aangestel word, wie se kommissie vir drie jaar van krag bly, tensy dit vroeër deur die kongres herroep word; hy sal in die distrik woon en 'n vaste eiendom hê in 'n duisend hektaar grond, terwyl hy sy amp uitoefen.

SEK. 4. Van tyd tot tyd word deur die Kongres 'n sekretaris aangestel, wie se kommissie vir vier jaar van krag bly, tensy dit vroeër herroep word; hy sal in die distrik woon en 'n vaste eiendom daarin hê, in vyfhonderd hektaar grond, terwyl hy sy amp uitoefen. Dit is sy plig om die handelinge en wette wat deur die wetgewer aangeneem is, en die openbare rekords van die distrik, en die verrigtinge van die goewerneur in sy uitvoerende departement te bewaar en te bewaar, en elke ses maande outentieke afskrifte van sodanige handelinge en verrigtinge oor te dra aan die sekretaris van die kongres. Daar sal ook 'n hof aangestel word, bestaande uit drie regters, van wie twee elkeen 'n hof sal vorm, wat 'n gemeenregtelike jurisdiksie het, en woonagtig is in die distrik, en elkeen daarin 'n vaste eiendom het, in vyfhonderd hektaar groot grond , terwyl hulle hul ampte uitoefen; en hul opdragte sal van krag bly tydens goeie gedrag.

SEK. 5. Die goewerneur en regters, of 'n meerderheid daarvan, neem wette van die oorspronklike state, kriminele en siviele, wat nodig is en wat die beste by die omstandighede van die distrik pas, in die distrik aan en publiseer dit en rapporteer dit aan Kongres van tyd tot tyd, watter wette in die distrik van krag is tot die organisasie van die algemene vergadering daarin, tensy dit deur die kongres afgekeur word; maar daarna sal die wetgewer die bevoegdheid hê om dit te verander na gelang van sy mening.

SEK. 6. Die goewerneur is voorlopig die opperbevelhebber van die burgermag, benoem en beveel alle offisiere in dieselfde posisie onder die rang van algemene offisiere aan; alle algemene amptenare word deur die kongres aangestel en in opdrag van die kongres.

SEK. 7. Voor die organisasie van die algemene vergadering moet die goewerneur die landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare in elke graafskap of township aanstel wat hy nodig vind om die vrede en goeie orde daarin te behou. Nadat die algemene vergadering georganiseer is, word die bevoegdhede en pligte van die landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare gereguleer en gedefinieer deur genoemde vergadering; maar alle landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare, wat nie hierin andersins aangedui word nie, sal tydens die voortbestaan ​​van hierdie tydelike regering deur die goewerneur aangestel word.

SEK. 8. Vir die voorkoming van misdade en beserings is die wette wat aangeneem of gemaak moet word, van krag in alle dele van die distrik, en vir die uitvoering van die proses, strafregtelik en burgerlik, moet die goewerneur behoorlike verdeling daarvan maak; en hy sal van tyd tot tyd, na gelang van omstandighede, die dele van die distrik waarin die Indiese titels uitgedoof is, in provinsies en townships neerlê, maar onderhewig aan veranderinge wat daarna aangebring kan word deur die wetgewer.

SEK. 9. Sodra daar vyfduisend vrye manlike volwassenes in die distrik is, sal hulle, met tyd en plek, magtiging kry om verteenwoordigers uit hul graafskappe of townships te kies, verteenwoordig hulle in die algemene vergadering: Met dien verstande dat daar vir elke vyfhonderd gratis manlike inwoners een verteenwoordiger sal wees, ensovoorts, geleidelik, met die aantal gratis manlike inwoners, die reg op verteenwoordiging toeneem totdat die aantal verteenwoordigers beloop vyf en twintig; waarna die aantal en verhouding van die verteenwoordigers deur die wetgewer gereguleer word: Met dien verstande dat niemand in aanmerking kom of gekwalifiseer is om as verteenwoordiger op te tree nie, tensy hy 'n burger van een was
van die Verenigde State drie jaar, en 'n inwoner in die distrik wees, of tensy hy drie jaar in die distrik gewoon het; en in elk geval, op dieselfde manier, tweehonderd hektaar grond in dieselfde reg op eie bodem: Met dien verstande ook dat 'n erf in vyftig hektaar grond in die distrik, nadat hy 'n burger van een was van die State, en woonagtig in die distrik, of soortgelyke eiendom en twee jaar verblyf in die distrik, is nodig om 'n man as 'n kieser van 'n verteenwoordiger te kwalifiseer.

SEK. IO. Die aldus gekose verteenwoordigers dien vir die termyn van twee jaar; en in die geval van die afsterwe van 'n verteenwoordiger, of as hy uit sy amp onthef word, moet die goewerneur 'n lasbrief uitreik aan die provinsie of gemeente waarvoor hy lid was, om 'n ander persoon in sy plek te kies om vir die res van die termyn te dien.

SEK. II. Die algemene vergadering, of wetgewer, bestaan ​​uit die goewerneur, wetgewende raad en 'n huis van verteenwoordigers. Die wetgewende raad sal uit vyf lede bestaan, wat vyf jaar in die amp bly, tensy dit vroeër deur die kongres verwyder word; enige drie van wie 'n kworum moet wees; en die lede van die raad word op die volgende wyse benoem en aangestel, te wete: Sodra verteenwoordigers verkies is, stel die goewerneur 'n tyd en plek aan om saam te vergader, en by ontmoeting benoem hulle tien persone, inwoners in die distrik, en elkeen besit 'n vrye besit in vyfhonderd hektaar grond, en gee hul name terug aan die kongres, waarvan vyf die kongres aanstel en opdrag gee om te dien soos voormelde; en wanneer 'n vakature in die raad plaasvind, deur die dood of ontslag uit die amp, sal die huis van verteenwoordigers vir elke vakature twee persone benoem, gekwalifiseerd soos hierbo genoem, en hul name aan die kongres teruggee, waarvan een die kongres aanstel en in opdrag van die res van die term; en elke vyf jaar, vier maande, ten minste voor die verstryking van die dienstyd van die raadslede, moet die genoemde huis tien persone benoem, gekwalifiseerd soos hierbo genoem, en hul name aan die kongres teruggee, waarvan vyf die kongres aanstel en opdrag gee om vyf jaar as lede van die raad te dien, tensy dit vroeër verwyder word. En die goewerneur, wetgewende raad en huis van verteenwoordigers sal in alle gevalle wette kan maak vir die goeie regering van die distrik, nie afstootlik vir die beginsels en artikels in hierdie verordening wat vasgestel en verklaar is nie. En alle wetsontwerpe, met 'n meerderheid aangeneem
in die huis, en met 'n meerderheid in die raad, na die goewerneur verwys word vir sy instemming; maar geen wetsontwerp, of wetgewende handeling in elk geval, sal van enige mag wees sonder sy instemming nie. Die goewerneur het die bevoegdheid om die algemene vergadering byeen te roep, voor te skryf en te ontbind wanneer dit na sy mening voordelig is.

SEK. I2. [Die goewerneur en ander offisiere moet 'n eed aflê]. Sodra 'n wetgewer in die distrik gevorm word, het die raad en die huis wat in een kamer vergader, by gesamentlike stembrief die bevoegdheid om 'n afgevaardigde vir die kongres te kies wat 'n setel in die kongres het, met 'n debatreg, maar nie om te stem tydens hierdie tydelike regering nie.

SEK. I3. En vir die uitbreiding van die fundamentele beginsels van burgerlike en godsdiensvryheid, wat die basis vorm waarop hierdie republieke, hul wette en grondwette opgerig word; om die beginsels vas te stel en vas te stel as die basis van alle wette, grondwette en regerings wat vir ewig hierna in genoemde gebied gevorm sal word; om ook voorsiening te maak vir die stigting van state en die permanente regering daarin, en vir hul toelating tot 'n aandeel in die federale rade op gelyke voet met die oorspronklike state, op so vroeë tydperke as wat in ooreenstemming is met die algemene belang:

SEK. I4. Hierby word deur die gesag voorgeskryf en verklaar dat die volgende artikels as kompakte artikels tussen die oorspronklike state en die mense en state in genoemde gebied beskou sal word en vir ewig onveranderlik sal bly, tensy met algemene toestemming, :

ARTIKEL E I.

Niemand wat homself op 'n vreedsame en ordelike wyse verneder, mag ooit gemolesteer word weens sy manier van aanbidding of godsdienstige gevoelens in die genoemde gebiede nie.

ARTIKEL E II.

Die inwoners van genoemde gebied is altyd geregtig op die voordele van die wet van habeas corpus en van die verhoor deur die jurie; van 'n proporsionele verteenwoordiging van die mense in die wetgewer en van geregtelike verrigtinge volgens die gang van die gemenereg. Alle persone is borgtog, behalwe vir kapitaalmisdrywe, waar die bewys duidelik is, of die vermoede groot is. Alle boetes moet matig wees; en geen wreedaardige of ongewone strawwe mag opgelê word nie. Niemand mag sy vryheid of eiendom beroof word nie, maar deur die oordeel van sy eweknieë of die wet van die land, en indien die openbare nood dit vir die algemene bewaring noodsaaklik maak om iemand se eiendom te neem, of vir spesifieke dienste, word volle vergoeding daarvoor gemaak. En in die regverdige behoud van regte en eiendom word dit verstaan ​​en verklaar dat daar nooit 'n wet op die genoemde gebied gemaak mag word nie, wat privaatkontrakte of verbintenisse in elk geval kan beïnvloed of beïnvloed. , bona fide, en sonder bedrog wat voorheen gevorm is.

ARTIKEL III.

Godsdiens, sedelikheid en kennis wat nodig is vir goeie regering en die geluk van die mensdom, skole en opvoedingsmiddele, sal vir ewig aangemoedig word. Die uiterste goeie trou sal altyd in ag geneem word teenoor die Indiane; hulle grond en eiendom sal nooit van hulle ontneem word sonder hul toestemming nie; en in hul eiendom, regte en vryheid sal hulle nooit binnegedring of versteur word nie, tensy dit in regverdige en wettige oorloë deur die Kongres goedgekeur is; maar wette wat in geregtigheid en menslikheid gebaseer is, sal van tyd tot tyd gemaak word om te verhoed dat hulle onreg aangedoen word en om vrede en vriendskap met hulle te behou.

ARTIKEL IV.

Die genoemde gebied, en die state wat daarin gevorm kan word, sal vir ewig deel uitmaak van hierdie konfederasie van die Verenigde State van Amerika, onderhewig aan die statute van die konfederasie, en aan die veranderings daarin wat grondwetlik aangebring word; en al die handelinge en verordeninge van die Verenigde State in die kongres wat daarby vergader is. Die inwoners en setlaars in die genoemde gebied is onderhewig aan 'n deel van die federale skuld betaal, gekontrakteer of gekontrakteer, en 'n proporsionele deel van die regering se uitgawes wat deur die kongres op hulle toegedeel word, volgens dieselfde algemene reël en 'n maat waarmee die verdeling daarvan op die ander state gemaak moet word; en die belasting vir die betaling van hul verhouding word gelê en gehef deur die gesag en leiding van die wetgewers van die distrik, of distrikte, of nuwe state, soos in die oorspronklike state, binne die tyd wat die Verenigde State ooreengekom het in die kongres wat vergader is. Die wetgewers van daardie distrikte, of nuwe state, mag nooit inmeng met die primêre beskikking van die grond deur die Verenigde State in die kongres nie, en ook nie met enige regulasies wat die kongres nodig mag vind om die titel in sodanige grond aan die bona fide kopers te verseker nie. Geen belasting word opgelê op grond wat die eiendom van die Verenigde State is nie; en in geen geval moet eienaars van nie-inwoner hoër as inwoners belas word nie. Die bevaarbare waters wat na die Mississippi en Saint Lawrence lei, en die dra -plekke tussen hulle, is algemene snelweë en vir ewig gratis, sowel as vir die inwoners van die genoemde gebied, sowel as die burgers van die Verenigde State en dié van enige ander state wat toegelaat kan word tot die konfederasie, sonder enige belasting, oplegging of pligte daarvoor.

ARTIKEL V.

Daar moet op die genoemde gebied minstens drie of meer as vyf state gevorm word; en die grense van die state, sodra Virginia- haar daad van staking en toestemming daartoe sal verander, word soos volg vasgestel en bepaal, naamlik: Die westelike staat, in genoemde gebied, word begrens deur die Mississippi , die Ohio- en die Wabash -riviere; 'n direkte lyn getrek vanaf die Wabash en Post Vincents, noordwaarts, na die territoriale lyn tussen die Verenigde State en Kanada; en deur die genoemde territoriale lyn na die Lake of the Woods en Mississippi. Die middelstaat word begrens deur die genoemde direkte lyn, die Wabash van Post Vincents na die Ohio, deur die Ohio, deur 'n direkte lyn wat noordwaarts getrek word van die monding van die Groot Miami na die genoemde territoriale lyn en deur die genoemde territoriale lyn lyn. Die oostelike staat word begrens deur die laasgenoemde direkte lyn, die Ohio, Pennsylvania, en die genoemde territoriale lyn: mits dit egter verder verstaan ​​en verklaar word dat die grense van hierdie drie state tot dusver onderhewig is aan verander, dat as die kongres dit hierna noodsaaklik vind, hulle die bevoegdheid het om een ​​of twee state in die deel van die genoemde gebied te vorm
lê noord van 'n oos- en westelike lyn wat deur die suidelike buiging of die uiterste van die Michiganmeer getrek word. En wanneer enige van die genoemde state sestigduisend vrye inwoners daarin het, sal die staat deur sy afgevaardigdes op dieselfde vlak as die oorspronklike state in die Kongres van die Verenigde State toegelaat word, in alle opsigte; en het die vryheid om 'n permanente grondwet en staatsregering te vorm: Met dien verstande is die grondwet en regering wat gevorm moet word republikeins en in ooreenstemming met die beginsels in hierdie artikels, en, vir sover dit konsekwent kan wees met die algemene belang van die konfederasie, is sodanige toelating op 'n vroeëre tyd toegelaat, en as daar 'n minder aantal vrye inwoners in die staat is as sestigduisend.

ARTIKEL VI.

Daar mag geen slawerny of onwillekeurige diensbaarheid in die genoemde gebied wees nie, anders as in die straf van misdade, waarvan die party behoorlik skuldig bevind is: Met dien verstande, dat enige persoon wat daarin ontsnap, van wie arbeid of diens wettiglik geëis word in enige van die oorspronklike state, so 'n vlugteling kan wettiglik teruggeëis en oorgedra word aan die persoon wat sy of haar diens of diens eis soos voormelde.


Die Noordwes -verordening (formeel die verordening vir die regering van die gebied van die Verenigde State, noordwes van die rivier Ohio) het hoofsaaklik die Noordwes -gebied geskep. Die verordening is op 13 Julie 1787 deur die Kontinentale Kongres goedgekeur en met geringe wysigings deur die Amerikaanse Kongres op 7 Augustus 1789 bevestig. Bepalings van die Noordwes -verordening bevat verskeie bepalings van die Grondwet en die Eerste Wysiging en kondig 'n verbod aan van slawerny in die state wat uit die gebiede gevorm moet word. State wat deur die Noordwestelike gebied van die Verenigde State gedek is, omstreeks 1787. (Beeld via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0)

Die Noordwes -verordening (formeel die verordening vir die regering van die gebied van die Verenigde State, noordwes van die rivier Ohio) het hoofsaaklik die Noordwes -gebied geskep. Die verordening is op 13 Julie 1787 deur die Kontinentale Kongres goedgekeur en met geringe wysigings deur die Amerikaanse Kongres op 7 Augustus 1789 bevestig. Bepalings van die Noordwes -verordening bevat verskeie bepalings van die Grondwet en die Eerste Wysiging en kondig 'n verbod aan van slawerny in die state wat uit die gebiede gevorm moet word.


2. 'n Kort geskiedenis van staatsopvoeding in Michigan

Die wortels van die Michigan-regering wat deur die regering gefinansier is, strek oor twee eeue tot 'n stuk wetgewing wat deur die Konfederasie-kongres uitgevaardig is en die wetgewende liggaam van die Verenigde State voor die aanneming van die Grondwet. Die Noordwes -verordening van 1787 het riglyne daargestel waarin federale gebiede, insluitend Michigan, state kan word. Die verordening het ook 'n besondere grondbeleid geskep wat ontwerp is om staatsopvoeding te ondersteun, en het gedeeltelik gesê dat "godsdiens, sedelikheid en kennis wat nodig is vir 'n goeie regering en die geluk van die mensdom, skole en opvoedingsmiddele, vir ewig aangemoedig sal word." 32

Die verordening het onderwys op hierdie manier 'aangemoedig': dit het die gebied van Michigan verdeel in townships van ses vierkante kilometer elk. Die townships is daarna onderverdeel in 36 afdelings met 'n minimum grootte van 640 hektaar. Elke afdeling is daarna op 'n openbare veiling verkoop met 'n aanvangsbod van $ 1 per hektaar. Die fondse wat ingesamel is deur die verkoop van artikel 16 in elke gemeente, is dan opsy gesit vir die finansiering van skole. 3 3

Elkeen van Michigan se vier grondwette sedert 1835 het die taal en gees van die Noordwes -verordening aangeneem wat onderwys 'aangemoedig' het. Michigan het ook sy verdere toewyding aan staatsonderwys bewys deur die oprigting van die staatskantoor van die superintendent van openbare onderrig, wat van 1836 tot 1942 die langste ononderbroke tydperk van onderrig onder toesig in die geskiedenis van die land moontlik gemaak het. 34


Goewerneurs word aangestel

President Martin Van Buren, 'n demokraat, het Robert Lucas aangestel as die eerste territoriale goewerneur van Iowa. Burlington het die eerste hoofstad geword. In 1840 word William Henry Harrison, lid van die Whig Party, president. Hy het 'n ander Whig, John Chambers, die tweede territoriale goewerneur van Iowa aangestel. Die territoriale hoofstad is na Iowa City verskuif.

Sowel Lucas as Chambers het Iowans aangemoedig om te dring aan op staatskaping. Maar baie setlaars was nie haastig nie. Solank Iowa 'n gebied was, het die federale regering die koste van 'n groot deel van die regering betaal. As Iowa 'n staat word, betaal die setlaarsbelasting 'n groot deel van die regering. Vroeë intrekkers wou nie sien dat hul belastingrekeninge toeneem nie. Iowans in die Whig -party was bly dat 'n president van Whig die goewerneur aanstel. Hulle was bang dat die Demokrate 'n verkiesing vir goewerneur sou wen as Iowa 'n staat word.


Die Noordwes -verordening (1787)

Die algemene beginsels vir Amerikaanse uitbreiding weswaarts op die vasteland is neergelê in Thomas Jefferson se verordening van 23 April 1784, maar aangesien dit nie in detail voorsiening gemaak het vir die oprigting van 'n administratiewe struktuur nie, is dit nooit in werking gestel nie. Die Noordwes -verordening van 13 Julie 1787, wat van toepassing was op die gebiedsregering wat noordwes van die Ohio -rivier gevestig was, het die verordening van Jefferson fundamenteel gevolg. Die onmiddellike impuls daarvan kom van lede van die Ohio Company of Associates en van die Society of the Cincinnati, wat kolonies in die Ohio -land wou vestig. Die outeurskap van die Ordonnansie is 'n saak van omstredenheid, maar dit lyk waarskynlik dat Rufus King en Nathan Dane die belangrikste outeurs daarvan was.

13 Julie 1787

'N Ordonnansie vir die regering van die gebied van die Verenigde State noordwes van die rivier Ohio.

Of dit nou deur die Verenigde State op kongres vergader is, dat genoemde gebied vir die tydelike regering een distrik is, maar dit moet in twee distrikte verdeel word, soos toekomstige omstandighede volgens die oordeel van die kongres dit is nuttig.

Laat die boedels, beide van inwonende en nie -inwonende eienaars in genoemde gebied, sterwende intestaat, afdaal na en versprei onder hul kinders en die afstammelinge van 'n oorlede kind, in gelyke dele die afstammelinge van 'n oorlede kind of kleinkind om die deel van hul oorlede ouer in gelyke dele onder hulle te neem: En waar daar geen kinders of afstammelinge mag wees nie, dan in gelyke dele aan die naasbestaandes in gelyke mate en onder collaterals, die kinders van 'n afgestorwe broer of suster van die intestaat sal in gelyke dele hul oorlede ouers deel hê en daar sal in geen geval 'n onderskeid tussen die bloedverwante en die halfbloedbesparing van die weduwee van die haar derde deel van die vaste eiendom lewenslank, en 'n derde deel van die persoonlike boedel en hierdie wet met betrekking tot afdraande en laer, bly van krag totdat dit deur die wetgewer van die distrik verander word. En totdat die goewerneur en regters wette sal aanneem soos hierna genoem, kan boedels op genoemde gebied opgestel of nagelaat word deur testamente skriftelik, onderteken en verseël deur hom of haar in wie die boedel kan wees (op volle ouderdom) en getuig deur drie getuies en vaste eiendom kan oorgedra word deur huurkontrak en vrylating, of onderhandeling en verkoop, onderteken, verseël en afgelewer deur die volwassene, in wie die boedel mag wees, en getuig deur twee getuies, mits sodanige testamente behoorlik is bewys, en sodanige oordragte word erken, of die uitvoering daarvan is behoorlik bewys, en word aangeteken binne een jaar nadat behoorlike landdroste, howe en registers daarvoor aangestel is en persoonlike besittings kan deur afleweringsbesparing oorgedra word, maar aan die Franse en Kanadese inwoners en ander setlaars van die Kaskaskies, St. Vincents en die naburige dorpe wat tot dusver as burgers van Virginia verklaar is, hul wette en gebruike wat nou onder hulle van toepassing is, familielid na die afkoms en vervoer van eiendom.

Laat dit deur die gesag voorgeskryf word, dat daar van tyd tot tyd deur die kongres aangestel word, 'n goewerneur, wie se kommissie vir drie jaar van krag bly, tensy hy vroeër deur die kongres herroep word en in die distrik woon. 'n vaste eiendom daarin op 1 000 hektaar grond, terwyl hy sy amp uitoefen.

Die kongres word van tyd tot tyd aangestel as 'n sekretaris, wie se kommissie vir vier jaar van krag sal bly, tensy hy vroeër herroep word in die distrik en 'n vaste erf daarin het op 500 hektaar grond, terwyl hy sy kantoor. Dit is sy plig om die handelinge en wette wat deur die wetgewer aangeneem is, en die openbare rekords van die distrik, en die verrigtinge van die goewerneur in sy uitvoerende departement, te bewaar en te bewaar en elke ses maande outentieke afskrifte van sodanige handelinge en verrigtinge oor te dra , aan die sekretaris van die kongres: daar sal ook 'n hof aangestel word wat bestaan ​​uit drie regters, waarvan twee 'n hof sal vorm, wat 'n gemeenregtelike jurisdiksie het, en in die distrik woonagtig is, en elkeen daarin 'n vaste eiendom het. in 'n oppervlakte van 500 hektaar, terwyl hul kantoor en kommissies tydens goeie gedrag van krag bly.

Die goewerneur en regters, of 'n meerderheid daarvan, sal wette van die oorspronklike state, strafregtelik en burgerlik, in die distrik aanneem en in die distrik publiseer, en dit van tyd tot tyd aan die kongres rapporteer. van tyd tot tyd: watter wette in die distrik van krag sal wees tot die organisasie van die Algemene Vergadering daarin, tensy die kongres dit afkeur, maar daarna sal die wetgewer die bevoegdheid hê om dit te verander soos hulle dit goedvind.

Die goewerneur is voorlopig die opperbevelhebber van die burgermag, stel alle amptenare in dieselfde posisie onder die rang van algemene offisiere aan en beveel alle algemene beamptes aan en in opdrag van die kongres.

Voor die organisasie van die algemene vergadering moet die goewerneur die landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare in elke land of gemeente aanstel, wat hy nodig vind om die vrede en goeie orde te behou: nadat die algemene vergadering georganiseer is , sal die bevoegdhede en pligte van die landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare deur die genoemde vergadering gereguleer en gedefinieer word, maar alle landdroste en ander burgerlike amptenare wat nie hierin andersins gerig word nie, word deur die goewerneur aangestel tydens die voortbestaan ​​van hierdie tydelike regering.

Vir die voorkoming van misdade en beserings is die wette wat aangeneem of gemaak moet word, van krag in alle dele van die distrik, en vir die uitvoering van die proses, strafregtelik en burgerlik, moet die goewerneur behoorlike verdeling daarvan maak en van tyd tot tyd die tyd wat die omstandighede vereis, om die dele van die distrik waarin die Indiese titels uitgewis is, in provinsies en townships uit te lê, maar onderhewig aan veranderinge wat daarna deur die wetgewer aangebring kan word.

Sodra daar vyfduisend gratis manlike volwassenes in die distrik is, sal hulle, met tyd en plek, die gesag kry om 'n verteenwoordiger uit hul graafskappe of townships te kies om hulle in die distrik te verteenwoordig algemene vergadering: Met dien verstande dat daar vir elke vyfhonderd vrye manlike inwoners een verteenwoordiger sal wees, en so meer en meer met die aantal vrye manlike inwoners, sal die reg van verteenwoordiging toeneem totdat die aantal verteenwoordigers ná 25 wat, die aantal en verhouding van die verteenwoordigers deur die wetgewer gereguleer word: Met dien verstande dat niemand in aanmerking kom of gekwalifiseer is om as verteenwoordiger op te tree nie, tensy hy drie jaar 'n burger van een van die Verenigde State was en 'n inwoner was in die distrik, of tensy hy drie jaar in die distrik gewoon het, en in elk geval ook in eie reg tweehonderd hektaar groot en binne dieselfde op voorwaarde dat 'n erf op vyftig hektaar grond in die distrik, 'n burger van een van die state was, en woonagtig is in die distrik, of soortgelyke besit en twee jaar in die distrik, nodig wees om 'n man as 'n kieser van 'n verteenwoordiger te kwalifiseer.

Die aldus gekose verteenwoordigers dien vir die termyn van twee jaar, en in geval van die afsterwe van 'n verteenwoordiger of sy amp onthef, rig die goewerneur 'n lasbrief aan die provinsie of gemeente waarvoor hy lid was, om 'n ander te kies in sy plek om vir die res van die termyn te dien.

Die algemene vergadering of wetgewer bestaan ​​uit die goewerneur, wetgewende raad en 'n huis van verteenwoordigers. Die Wetgewende Raad sal uit vyf lede bestaan, wat vyf jaar lank in die amp bly, tensy een van die drie van hulle eers 'n kworum is: en die lede van die Raad word op die volgende wyse benoem en aangewys, naamlik: sodra verteenwoordigers gekies word, stel die goewerneur 'n tyd en plek aan om vir mekaar te vergader, en wanneer hulle ontmoet word, benoem hulle tien persone, inwoners in die distrik, en elkeen besit 'n vrye besit in vyfhonderd hektaar grond, en hul name aan die kongres teruggee, waarvan vyf die kongres aanstel en opdrag gee om as voormelde te dien, en wanneer 'n vakature in die raad plaasvind, deur die dood of ontslag uit die amp, moet die huis van verteenwoordigers vir elke persoon twee persone benoem, gekwalifiseerd soos hierbo genoem. leegstaan ​​en hul name aan die kongres teruggee, waarvan een die kongres vir die res van die termyn sal aanstel en in diens neem. En elke vyf jaar, vier maande, ten minste voor die verstryking van die dienstyd van die raadslede, sal die genoemde huis tien persone benoem, gekwalifiseerd soos hierbo genoem, en hulle name aan die kongres stuur, waarvan vyf die kongres aanstel en dien as lede van die raad vyf jaar, tensy dit vroeër verwyder word. En die goewerneur, wetgewende raad en huis van verteenwoordigers sal in alle gevalle vir die goeie regering van die distrik wette kan maak, nie afstootlik op die beginsels en artikels in hierdie verordening wat vasgestel en verklaar is nie. En alle wetsontwerpe, met 'n meerderheid in die huis en met 'n meerderheid in die raad, sal na die goewerneur verwys word vir sy toestemming, maar geen wetsontwerp, of wetgewende handeling, is van enige kracht sonder sy instemming. Die goewerneur het die bevoegdheid om die algemene vergadering byeen te roep, voor te skryf en te ontbind, wanneer dit na sy mening nuttig is.

Die goewerneur, regters, wetgewende raad, sekretaris en ander amptenare wat die kongres in die distrik aanstel, moet 'n eed of bevestiging van getrouheid aflê en die goewerneur as amp voor die president van die kongres aflê en alle ander amptenare voor die goewerneur. Sodra 'n wetgewer in die distrik gevorm word, het die raad en die huis wat in een kamer vergader, by gesamentlike stembrief die bevoegdheid om 'n afgevaardigde na die kongres te kies, wat 'n setel in die kongres het, met 'n debatreg, maar stem nie tydens hierdie tydelike regering nie.

En vir die uitbreiding van die fundamentele beginsels van burgerlike en godsdienstige vryheid, wat die basis vorm waarop hierdie republieke, hul wette en grondwette opgerig word om die beginsels vas te stel en vas te stel as die basis van alle wette, grondwette en regerings, wat vir ewig hierna sal wees gevorm in genoemde gebied: om ook voorsiening te maak vir die stigting van state en permanente regering daarin, en om op gelyke voet met die oorspronklike state toegang tot 'n aandeel in die federale rade te gee, op so vroeë tydperke as wat in ooreenstemming is met die algemene belang:

Hierby word die voorgeskrewe gesag bepaal en verklaar dat die volgende artikels as kompakte artikels tussen die oorspronklike state en die mense en state in genoemde gebied beskou sal word en vir ewig onveranderd sal bly, tensy met algemene toestemming:

Artikel I.

Niemand wat homself op 'n vreedsame en ordelike wyse verneder, mag ooit gemolesteer word weens sy manier van aanbidding of godsdienstige gevoelens in die genoemde gebied nie.

Artikel II.

Die inwoners van die genoemde gebied is altyd geregtig op die voordele van die geskrif van habeas corpus en die verhoor deur die jurie van 'n proporsionele verteenwoordiging van die mense in die wetgewer en van geregtelike verrigtinge volgens die gang van die gemenereg. Alle persone is borgtog, behalwe vir kapitaalmisdrywe, waar die bewys duidelik is of die vermoede groot is. Alle boetes is matig en geen wreedaardige of ongewone strawwe opgelê nie. Niemand mag sy vryheid of eiendom beroof word nie, maar deur die oordeel van sy eweknieë of die wet van die land en, indien die openbare nood dit noodsaak, vir die algemene bewaring, om eiendom van iemand te neem, of om te eis vir sy besondere dienste, word die volle vergoeding daarvoor gemaak. En in die regverdige behoud van regte en eiendom word daar verstaan ​​en verklaar dat daar nooit 'n wet op die genoemde gebied gemaak mag word of mag word wat privaatkontrakte of verbintenisse in elk geval kan beïnvloed of beïnvloed nie. , bona fide, en sonder bedrog, wat voorheen gevorm is.

Artikel III.

Godsdiens, sedelikheid en kennis, wat nodig is vir goeie regering en die geluk van die mensdom, skole en opvoedingsmiddele, sal vir ewig aangemoedig word. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.

Article IV.

The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this Confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other States and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The legislatures of those districts or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States and, in no case, shall nonresident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.

Article V.

There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three nor more than five States and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western State in the said territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash Rivers a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due North, to the territorial line between the United States and Canada and, by the said territorial line, to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line, drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami, to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And, whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles and, so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.

Article VI.

There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided, always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23rd of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby repealed and declared null and void.


Northwest Ordinance [1787] - History

THE LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 AND NORTHWEST ORDINANCE OF 1787

During colonial times, schooling was left up to each of the colonies individually. With the many different religions and ways of life, schooling was difficult to maintain and centralize. The New England Colonies focused on compulsory public maintainence (1). They wanted all capable children to attend school to be educated to become good citizens. The Middle Colonies policies were that of parochial education (2). Schools were primarily for educating the children with powerful minds to become ministers, priests, or hold good offices. The Southern Colonies, on the other hand, didnt really have much in the line of compulsory education because of the ruralness of these areas. Most education in the south consisted of apprenticeships and the like.

In an effort to consolidate schools and make education mandatory, Congress enacted the Land Ordinance of 1785. This ordinance set aside what was known as Section Sixteen in every township in the new Western Territory for the maintenance of public schools. It also allotted section number 29 for the purpose of religion and no more than two townships for a University. The separation of church and state was visible by now with the two entities being in different areas. Public schools were organized to corral the best minds for training for public leadership.

Two years later came the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. This ordinance provided land in the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions for settlement. (It eventually broke into five states: Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Illinois). Of particular interest is Article 3 of the ordinance, which reads in part: The point of this document is that education is necessary to become a good citizen and to have a strong government. Children will be encouraged to go to school, however religion is not specifically to be part of the curriculum. Schools then began to form everywhere over the next one-hundred plus years. Instead of township appointed teachers, they were subsidized to an extent by the government, and the rest by state taxes. Schools began teaching more that just religion, reading, and spelling. Sciences were part of the new curriculum. Thus, the federal government was able to create a public school system furnished to all children, especially in the new and ever growing West.


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Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

*Republican Party - - the political Party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1791 that went out of existence over the schism between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Today, for the sake of expediency, political scientists incorrectly refer to it as the Democratic-Republican Party. Party Members at the time never utilized the name Democratic-Republican because it was the Republican Party.


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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC01042 Author/Creator: Northwest Ordinance Place Written: [Cincinnati] Type: Pamphlet Date: 1795 Pagination: 11 p. 21 x 15 cm

One printed copy of "An Ordinance for the government of the territory of United States, northwest of the river Ohio" dated 1795. Details new laws on property rights. This printing comes from the first section of Laws of the Territory of the United States North-West of the Ohio. The Northwest Ordinance guaranteed residents' property rights as well as other rights such as trial by jury and freedom of religion. Article VI states that slavery will be prohibited in the Northwest Territory.

Article the Sixth. There shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary Servitude in the said territory otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

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Northwest Ordinance [1787] - History

Because the Articles of Confederation, adopted by the states in 1781 as the country's first constitution, have often been considered a failure, it is all too easy to overlook the significant accomplishments of the American government under the Articles. The Confederation negotiated a peace treaty ending the war with Great Britain, carried on diplomatic relations with foreign countries, settled land disputes with the Indian tribes and, in two brilliant pieces of legislation, established a far-reaching policy for the settlement and incorporation of western lands.

After first providing for the survey of the land west of the Appalachian mountains, the so-called Northwest Territory, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the single most important piece of legislation in the Confederation period. The Ordinance provided the means by which new states would be created out of the western lands and then admitted into the Union. Governors and judges appointed by Congress would rule a territory until it contained 5,000 free male inhabitants of voting age then the inhabitants would elect a territorial legislature, which would send a non-voting delegate to Congress. When the population reached 60,000, the legislature would submit a state constitution to Congress and, upon its approval, the state would enter the Union.

The importance of the statute, aside from providing for orderly westerly settlement, is that it made clear that the new states would be equal to the old there would be no inferior or superior states in the Union. Moreover, in the Ordinance Congress compacted with the settlers of the territories that they would be equal citizens of the United States, and would enjoy all of the rights that had been fought for in the Revolution. Where the Articles of Confederation lacked a bill of rights, the Ordinance provided one that included many of the basic liberties the colonists had considered essential, such as trial by jury, habeas corpus,1 and religious freedom. One should also note, however, the important role that property still played in government, a holdover from British theory that only those with a tangible stake in society should partake in its governance.

The Northwest Ordinance would, with minor adjustments, remain the guiding policy for the admission of all future states into the Union.

For further reading: Merrill Jensen, The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confe- deration, 1781-1789 (1950) John Porter Bloom, ed., The American Territorial System (1974) T.C. Pease, "The Ordinance of 1787," Miss. Valley Hist.Rev. 25 (1938): 167.

Footnote 1: Habeas Corpus, which literally means "you have the body," is one of the fundamental rights in Anglo-American law. Through the writ of habeas corpus, a prisoner may challenge the legality of his or her imprisonment, and if the state cannot present adequate evidence to justify the jailing, the court may order the prisoner's release.

Die Noordwes Ordonnansie

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein in 1,000 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a secretary, whose commission shall continue in force for four years unless sooner revoked he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive department, and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings, every six months, to the Secretary of Congress: There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction, and reside in the district, and have each therein a freehold estate in 500 acres of land while in the exercise of their offices and their commissions shall continue in force during good behavior.

The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress from time to time: which laws shall be in force in the district until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disapproved of by Congress but afterwards the Legislature shall have authority to alter them as they shall think fit.

The governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same below the rank of general officers all general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by Congress.

Previous to the organization of the general assembly, the governor shall appoint such magistrates and other civil officers in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same: After the general assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of the magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly but all magistrates and other civil officers not herein otherwise directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the governor.

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof and he shall proceed from time to time as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject however to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the legislature.

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants of full age in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships to represent them in the general assembly:

Provided, That, for every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants shall the right of representation increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to twenty-five after which, the number and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the legislature:

Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified to act as a representative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years and, in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same

Provided, also, That a freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the states, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years residence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative.

The representatives thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years and, in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the governor shall issue a writ to the county or township for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.

The general assembly or legislature shall consist of the governor, legislative council, and a house of representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress any three of whom to be a quorum: and the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit: As soon as representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for them to meet together and, when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres of land, and return their names to Congress five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid and, whenever a vacancy shall happen in the council, by death or removal from office, the house of representatives shall nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress one of whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term. And every five years, four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of council, the said house shall nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the council five years, unless sooner removed. And the governor, legislative council, and house of representatives, shall have authority to make laws in all cases, for the good government of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this ordinance established and declared. And all bills, having passed by a majority in the house, and by a majority in the council, shall be referred to the governor for his assent but no bill, or legislative act whatever, shall be of any force without his assent. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve the general assembly, when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient.

The governor, judges, legislative council, secretary, and such other officers as Congress shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity and of office the governor before the president of congress, and all other officers before the Governor. As soon as a legislature shall be formed in the district, the council and house assembled in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating but not of voting during this temporary government.

And, for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions are erected to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the said territory: to provide also for the establishment of States, and permanent government therein, and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest: It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall be considered as articles of compact between the original States and the people and States in the said territory and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit:

ART. 1. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in the said territory.

ART. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident or the presumption great. All fines shall be moderate and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land and, should the public exigencies make it necessary, for the common preser-vation, to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of rights and property, it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the said territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, interfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud, previously formed.

ART. 3. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. . . .

ART. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three nor more than five States. . . . And, whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles and, so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.

ART. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided, always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

Bron: F. N. Thorpe, ed., Federal and State Constitutions, vol. 2 (1909), 957.

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1787: Northwest Ordinance

An ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, north-west of the River Ohio be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the said territory, for the purposes of temporary government, be one district subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future circumstances may in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates, both of resident and non-resident proprietors in the said territory, dying intestate, shall descend to, and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a deceased child in equal parts the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild, to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them: And where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate, shall have in equal parts among them, their deceased parents’ share and there shall in no case be a distinction between kindred of the whole and half blood saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her third part of the real estate for life, and one third part of the personal estate and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the legislature of the district.—And until the governor and judges shall adopt laws as herein after mentioned, estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her, in whom the estate may be (being of full age) and attested by three witnesses—and real estates may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed, sealed, and delivered by the person being of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly proved, and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, courts, and registers shall be appointed for that purpose and personal property may be transferred by delivery saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskies, Saint Vincent’s, and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.

There shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a secretary, whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner revoked he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office it shall be his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive department and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings, every six months, to the secretary of Congress. There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction, and reside in the district, and have each therein a freehold estate in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of their offices and their commissions shall continue in force during good behavior.

The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district, such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress, from time to time which laws shall be in force in the district until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disapproved of by Congress but afterwards the Legislature shall have authority to alter them as they shall think fit.

The governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same below the rank of general officers all gen-eral officers shall be appointed and commissioned by Congress.

Previous to the organization of the general assembly, the governor shall appoint such magistrates and other civil officers, in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same. After the general assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly but all magistrates and other civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the governor.

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof—and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the legislature.

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the general assembly Voorsien, That for every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants shall the right of representation increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to twenty-five after which, the number and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the legislature: Voorsien that no person be eligible or qualified to act as a representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years and, in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same: Provided also, That a freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years residence in the district shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative.

The representatives thus elected shall serve for the term of two years and in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the governor shall issue a writ to the county or township, for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.

The general assembly or legislature shall consist of the Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress any three of whom to be a quorum: and the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit: As soon as representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for them to meet together, and, when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres of land, and return their names to Congress five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid and, whenever a vacancy shall happen in the council, by death or removal from office, the House of Representatives shall nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress one of whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term. And every five years, four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of Council, the said House shall nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the Council five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives, shall have authority to make laws, in all cases, for the good government of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this ordinance established and declared. And all bills having passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, shall be referred to the Governor for his assent but no bill, or legislative Act whatever, shall be of any force without his assent. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue and dissolve the General Assembly, when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient.

The Governor, judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other officers as Congress shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity, and of office the Governor before the President of Congress, and all other officers before the Governor. As soon as a legislature shall be formed in the district, the Council and House assembled, in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting during this temporary government.

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions are erected to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the said territory: to provide also for the establishment of States, and permanent government therein, and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest:

It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall be considered as articles of compact between the original States, and the people and States in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit:

Article the first. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in the said territory.

Article the second. The inhabitants of the said territory, shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident or the presumption great. All fines shall be moderate and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land, and, should the public exigencies make it necessary, for the common preservation, to take any person’s property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of rights and property, it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, have force in the said territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, interfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud, previously formed.

Article the third. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they never shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress but laws founded in justice and humanity shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.

Article the fourth. The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this Confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made and to all the Acts and ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory, shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of government, to be appointed on them by Congress according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other States and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The legislatures of those districts or new States shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States and, in no case, shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.

Article the fifth. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three, nor more than five States and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western State in the said territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada and by the said territorial line to the lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami, to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern States shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Voorsien however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: provided the constitution and government so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity with the principles contained in these articles and so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.

Article the sixth. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided, always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23rd of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby repealed and declared null and void.


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