De Grasse AP -164 - Geskiedenis

De Grasse AP -164 - Geskiedenis

De Grasse

Admiraal Comte de Grasse (1722-1788) was bevelvoerder oor die Franse vloot wat die Britte verslaan het in die Slag by die Virginia Capes, 6 September 1781. Lord Cornwallis se weermag, afgesny van seesteun deur De Grasse, het aan generaal Washington in Yorktown oorgegee die deurslaggewendste oorwinning van die Revolusionêre Oorlog.

Die eerste De Grasse (nr. 1217), 'n seiljag, is van Julie tot November 1918 op die vlootlys gedra.

De Grasse II

(AP-164: dp. 4 023; 1. 441'6 "; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4 ";
s. 12 k .; kpl. 206; a. 1 6 ", 4 3"; kl. Krater)

Die tweede De Grasse (AP-164) is op 24 Februarie 1943 as Nathaniel Wyeth van stapel gestuur deur Oregon Shipbuilding Corp., Portland, Oreg., Kragtens 'n kontrak van die Maritieme Kommissie; geborg deur mev. V. Palmer; Verkry deur die vloot 28 Oktober 1943; omskep deur United Engineering Co. Alameda, Kalifornië, en op 8 November 1943 in opdrag van kommissaris W. Jordon, USNR, in opdrag. Sy is op 20 Augustus 1944 herklassifiseer AK-223.

De Grasse vaar uit Port Hueneme, Kalifornië, 22 November 1943 met boubataljonstroepe en vrag en arriveer op 2 Desember by Pearl Harbor. Saam met die opleiding van aanvalsmagte in die Hawaiiane, het sy in Februarie en Maart 1944 op twee reise manne en toerusting na die Marshalls en Gilberts gebring. Op 29 Mei vertrek sy uit Pearl Harbor vir die inval in die Marianas, en tussen 20 en 26 Junie en weer op 2 en 3 Julie Saipan aflê om versterkings te land. De Grasse keer 27 Julie terug na Pearl Harbor en het tot einde 1944 troepe tussen die Marshalls, die Gilberts en die Marianas vervoer en manne in die Hawaiiaanse gebied opgelei vir amfibiese aanvalle.

De Grasse het op 17 Januarie 1945 van Pearl Harbor af gevaar om troepe van Eniwetok, Guam, Saipan en Majuro na Ulithi te vervoer, opvoerplek vir die Okinawa -operasie. De Grasse het 26 April by Okinawa aangekom en die volgende dag mans en voorrade in Le Shima geland. Na twee reise om Army -hospitaal -eenhede van Noumea en Espiritu Santo na Okinawa te vervoer, het sy op 6 Augustus vanaf Okinawa gevaar vir San Francisco en opknapping. De Grasse is na die oorlog aangestel as 'Magic Carpet'. Sy keer op 23 Januarie 1946 terug na San Francisco, word op 28 Maart 1946 uit diens gestel en dieselfde dag by die War Shipping Administration afgelewer.

De Grasse het drie gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Kenmore (AP-162) Klas: foto's

Klik op die klein foto om dieselfde prentjie groter te sien.

USS Kenmore (AK-221, ex AP-162)

In San Francisco Bay, Kalifornië, ongeveer Desember 1945.
Hierdie Liberty -skip en haar drie vlootsusters is deur die War Shipping Administration omgeskakel in troepeskepe en het geen ekstra vlootomskakelings ondergaan nie.

Foto nr NH 78569
Bron: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

USS Kenmore (AK-221, ex AP-162)

In San Francisco Bay, Kalifornië, ongeveer Desember 1945.
Die opvallendste kenmerk van hierdie klas (waarskynlik hul WSA -susters ingesluit) is die groot, maar ligte statiefmas oor die brug, waar ander Liberty -skepe 'n ligpaal gehad het.

Foto nr NH 98732
Bron: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

USS Livingston (AK-222, ex AP-163)

In San Francisco Bay, Kalifornië, ongeveer Januarie 1946.

Foto nr NH 98738
Bron: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

USS De Grasse (AK-223, ex AP-164)

In San Francisco Bay, Kalifornië, ongeveer Januarie 1946.
Die spore is stampvol troepe wat terugkeer huis toe op hierdie Magic Carpet -reis.


De Grasse se vloot by Chesapeake Bay

Medio Augustus 1781 was die vloot van Admiral Hood aan die noordelike rand van die Karibiese Eilande, op soek na die aankoms van de Grasse's, toe Hood van 'n boodskappersskip wat uit New York gestuur is, verneem dat De Grasse waarskynlik New York sou aanval. Die boodskap het gesê dat de Grasse eers na Newport sou gaan, by die vloot van Barras sou aansluit, en dan sou albei die Britse vesting aanval - daarom moet Hood na New York jaag om hulle te help afweer. Op 25 Augustus het Hood uit die Karibiese Eilande vertrek na die Amerikaanse kus “die land 'n ent suid van Kaap Henry gemaak.

Agt-en-veertig uur later het die vloot van De Grasse by Chesapeakebaai aangekom, met agt-en-twintig skepe van die lyn, vier fregatte en drieduisend Franse soldate.

'N Klein bootjie kom uit om die Ville de Paris te ontmoet. Ondanks die siening van sy fleur-de-lis-vlae en sy matrose in wit geklee, nie in Britse blou nie, het diegene in die bootjie gevra waar admiraal Rodney gevind kan word. Die besoekers is na de Grasse se kajuit vervoer waar hulle ingelig is dat hulle nou gevangenes is. Die banket wat hulle gebring het, bedoel vir Rodney, is deur die Franse offisiere geëet terwyl hy vir hom roosters aangebied het. Om enige Cornwallis -uitgang van die skiereiland te voorkom, het de Grasse 'n paar skepe gestuur om die York en James Rivers te blokkeer. Kort daarna het Lafayette se medewerker Jean-Joseph Soubadère de Gimat aan boord gekom met die nuus dat Rochambeau en Washington langs die Atlantiese kus marsjeer om met die vloot te skakel.

Die twee bevelvoerders was op die oomblik besig om Philadelphia te bereik en was baie welkom. Op versoek van Washington het Rochambeau twintigduisend dollar spesies aan Robert Morris geleen. Die termyn was kort - een maand. Die lone van die Franse generaal se eie troepe wag op kontant wat de Grasse uit Kuba bring en die geld wat Laurens uit Versailles gedra het. Morris het toe vir Rochambeau 'n geskenk meel uit sy pakhuise gegee-miskien nadat hy die verhaal van bakkery-bedrog gehoor het, wat Rochambeau graag wou herhaal-en het tienduisend dollar van sy eie bygevoeg aan die twintigduisend vir Washington. Die dertigduisend dollar het die bevelvoerder in staat gestel om sy troepe te verras met 'n maand se loon in harde kontant. "Dit was die eerste wat geld genoem kon word, wat ons sedert die jaar '76 as lone ontvang het," onthou die dagboekskrywer Joseph Plumb Martin: ses Franse krone elk, slegs betaal aan lyndienssoldate, nie aan offisiere nie.

Die armoede van die weermag word weerspieël in sy ragtag -voorkoms toe die mans deur Philadelphia in 'n ry van twee myl lank marsjeer en stofwolke roer. Kontinentale offisiere in aantreklike uniforms sorg vir 'n helder kontras, maar nie so verrassend soos die Franse die volgende dag nie. Na 'n stilstand aan die buitewyke om pruike te poeier en wit uniforms te laat glinster, paradeer die Franse optoggangers deur Philadelphia, pragtig ver buite die Britte in die besetting van 1777-1778. Lauzun's Legion, wat op gedrapeerde perde gery het, het die opwindendste veelkleurige kledingstuk gedra. Die Soissonnais -regiment het 'n vertoning van ingewikkelde geweerhantering aangebied.

Washington glimlag vir die gaste tydens die formele onthale in Philadelphia, maar was "ongemaklik", erken hy in 'n brief aan Lafayette omdat hy nie geweet het of de Grasse Chesapeake Bay gemaak het nie. Om die landmagte na Virginia te beweeg, het Washington 'n groot waagstuk gemaak: sou De Grasse nie op skedule aankom of deur die Britse vloot aangeval word nie, kan die Amerikaanse en Franse leërs, eerder as Cornwallis's, vasgevang word en die oorlog verloor.

Teen die tyd dat Washington Philadelphia bereik het, het sy gesant aan de Grasse, Duportail, aan boord van die Ville de Paris gegaan en homself voorgestel. Die admiraal was besig om drieduisend troepe aan wal te bring, onder leiding van Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, om met Lafayette se magte, wat van Jamestown af nader gekom het, te skakel. Aflaai was altyd 'n gevaarlike tyd, aangesien die mag nie in 'n goeie verdedigingsposisie was nie en daarom kwesbaar was. Saint-Simon se beamptes was verbaas dat Cornwallis nie aangeval het nie. Hulle het haastig geraak met die aflaai, wat de Grasse se begeerte aangewakker het om die gesamentlike troepe onmiddellik te gebruik om die Britte aan te val.

Nog nie, pleit Duportail en baseer sy versoek op 'n Washington-brief wat hy aan de Grasse oorhandig het en waarskynlik ter plaatse vir hom vertaal het. Washington het die admiraal gesmeek om nie net op sy en Rochambeau se aankoms te wag voordat hy Cornwallis aanval nie, maar om skepe langs die rivier los te maak om die Amerikaanse en Franse troepe na die Yorktown -skiereiland te bring. "Ek het nie gehuiwer om my hart oop te maak vir [Duportail] en hom kennis te maak met al my hulpbronne en my bevele nie," het de Grasse teruggeskryf en bereidwilligheid uitgespreek om te wag op 'n generaal "wie se ervaring in die wapenberoep, kennis van die land en insig sal ons hulpbronne aansienlik vergroot, ”maar protesteer dat sy kort tydjie in Amerikaanse waters dit onmoontlik maak om die vaartuie wat nodig is om Cornwallis se voorraadskepe te blokkeer, vir vervoer te gebruik. 'Kom met die grootste ekspedisie', het Duportail Washington in sy eie brief aangespoor. 'Kom ons maak ons ​​[e] van die kort verblyf van die graaf de grasse hier. ons het geen keuse meer nie, dink ek, as 27 van die ry in Chesapeake is, as die groot Amerika en die Franse magte saamgevoeg word, moet ons Cornwallis inneem of almal onteer word. ”

Duportail wou ook dat Washington haastig was omdat hy gevrees het dat de Grasse Lafayette in 'n onmiddellike aanval kan vlei. De Grasse het wel vir Lafayette gesê: 'Ek wil alles in my vermoë lewer om u heerlikheid te bevorder en u te verseker dat u 'n winter van rustigheid kan deurbring [nadat u Cornwallis oorwin het] ... Met plesier sluit ek u aan by u bewonderaars.' Lafayette weerstaan ​​die druk.

Middeloggend op 5 September het die aflaai voortgegaan toe die verkenner -fregat Aigrette dui op 'n seilpers wat uit die noorde aankom. De Grasse het gehoop dat dit Barras was, maar namate die aantal vaartuie toeneem, het die Aigrette gou beduie dat dit die Britte was, met soveel skepe dat de Grasse tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat beide Hood's en Graves se eskaders agter hom aan gekom het.

Hy wou met krag uitvaar om hulle te ontmoet. Maar om dit te doen, moes hy wag totdat die gety van Chesapeakebaai tot eb word. Die Franse uitgang van Chesapeake Bay het om 11:30 begin, met Bougainville se vlagskip wat die voortou was. Alhoewel die vloot veranker was in die regte drie-kolomvorming, het dit nog 'n paar uur geneem voordat al die skepe die relatief smal kanaal verlaat het, wat hulle een vir een moes doen, en selfs dan moes De Grasse die vier oorlogskepe agtergelaat Cornwallis te blokkeer, saam met die agtienhonderd matrose en negentig offisiere wat troepe afgelaai het. Die vloot van De Grasse vir hierdie aksie by die Virginia Capes was dus kleiner as wat dit was, en het kortgeknip en hy het 'n formidabele vyand in aanvalvorming teëgekom wat die weerstoestand gehad het.

Op dieselfde uur sweef Rochambeau en sy gevolg langs die Delaware -rivier vanaf Philadelphia na Head of Elk. Hulle het Fort Mercer en Mifflin en ander belangrike plekke van die oorlog verbygesteek. Washington en sy gevolg het oor die land vertrek om hulle by Head of Elk te ontmoet, maar die bevelvoerder was lief daarvoor om op sy boot te ry en het nie daarvan gehou om op 'n boot te wees nie. Toe die Franse die stad Chester nader, sien hulle op die oewer 'n Amerikaanse offisier wat woes na hulle waai met 'n hoed in die een hand en 'n wit sakdoek in die ander. Naby het hulle besef dat dit Washington was. 'Ek het nog nooit 'n man so deeglik en openlik verheug gesien nie,' onthou Lauzun. Wat daarna gebeur het, het almal verstom. Washington, nadat hy aan Rochambeau meegedeel het dat de Grasse Chesapeake Bay gemaak het, het Rochambeau in 'n omhelsing van die hele liggaam omhul. Elke generaal, het Closen opgemerk, het rede om, net soos die jong offisiere, in ekstase te wees, 'brandend van die begeerte om hul krag teen die vyand te probeer en ywerig soos ons almal.' Daar was 'n gevoel dat alles uiteindelik bymekaarkom, van 'n oomblik om te geniet van die samesmelting van Amerikaanse en Franse harte en testamente in 'n uiteindelike gesamentlike strewe.

Die Britse vloot wat de Grasse's in die gesig staar, was nie in 'n goeie toestand as wat dit die eerste keer aan die Franse bril lyk nie. Toe Hood Sandy Hook bereik het, het hy daarop aangedring om onmiddellik na De Grasse te gaan, maar Graves protesteer dat sy vloot in New York nie gereed is nie. Sy skepe het swak herstel en om vierhonderd bekwame liggame te bekom, moes persbendes onlangs mans uit hul beddens haal. Nadat hy drie dae geneem het om sy vaartuie gereed te maak, het Graves nog steeds vyf hoofskepe agtergelaat - en Hood was ontsteld. Op see was dit Graves se beurt om geïrriteerd te wees, aangesien Hood se vaartuie "die skaduwee van skepe meer as stof was", wat die vloot tot drie knope per uur vertraag het. Die negentien skepe van die lyn bevat slegs drie onlangse toevoegings, 'n tiende van die skepe wat die Admiraliteit in Europese waters behou het om Franse en Spaanse inisiatiewe in die Middellandse See en Nederlandse in die Noordsee teen te werk. Deur te besluit om die grootste deel van die Britse skepe in 1781 in Europese waters te hou, skryf 'n vloothistorikus: "Die Admiraliteit het uiteindelik die gelykheid opgeoffer in vlootsterkte waarop die veiligheid van die verspreide Britse leër [in Amerika] afhang."

Aan die begin van die Slag van die Virginia Capes, vroeg in die middag van 5 September 1781, was die Britse vloot drie myl noord van die Franse, "in 'n posisie wat byna buite die wildste drome van 'n seebevelvoerder was", 'n vloot ontleder het later geskryf, aangesien Graves se “hele vloot voor die wind afloop en sy vyand ... stadig uit die hawe werk. Hy moes net met volle krag op hul bakkie val en die dag was syne. ” Maar die standaard bevele vir die beveg van die admiraliteit bepaal dat aanvallende skepe in lyn moet wees, 'n maneuver wat Graves negentig minute geneem het om te bereik en wat die Franse in staat gestel het om heeltemal uit die baai te kom. Eers om 15:46 het Graves die sein gegee om in te skakel, en kort daarna 'n ander bevel uitgevaardig, met die gevolg dat slegs sommige Britse skepe, eerder as die hele lyn, behoorlik geposisioneer is.

Beide kante het toe begin ontplof.

'Donder, skuim en vuur', het Bougainville van daardie dag geskryf 'Die paar toetsoomblikke waarvoor 'n hele vlootoffisier se lewe gebou is en waarvoor soveel arms gewerk het, soveel sweet in die skeepswerwe gestort is om bymekaar te kom al die hout, daardie yster, daardie seile. ” Die voorkant van sy skip is twee keer afgeskiet en matrose wat dit herstel het, is deur vyandelike vuur doodgemaak. Maar sy Auguste het, terwyl hy sewe en sestig slagoffers opgedoen het, daarin geslaag om die Britse Terrible te raaisel en dit amper gesink. Die Auguste het ook drie ander Britse skepe buite werking gestel.

Nadat negentig minute verloop het en Graves sien dat die Franse aanhou vorder, beduie hy sy skepe om die aanval te staak en weg te vaar. Teen 18:30 die skietery het vir die dag geëindig. Die Britse skepe het meer gely as die Franse, hoewel die Franse meer mans verloor het. Bougainville het nuwe respek gekry vir de Grasse, met wie hy gestry het, en de Grasse het hom geprys en gesê: "Dit is wat ek noem veg." Aan die Britse kant het Hood woedend geword oor die gemiste geleenthede van Graves, hoewel ontleders later ook Hood die skuld gegee het vir sy ywer om die bevele van die bevelvoerder uit te voer.

Deur die nag het die twee vloote parallel gedryf. Die oggend het onthul dat die Franse skepe minder beskadig is as die Britte. Die wind bly onbeduidend, wat dit vir beide kante onmoontlik maak om meer te doen as om relatiewe posisies te behou. Op die derde dag het reënballe en 'n Britse begeerte om aksie en volledige herstelwerk te vermy, ook geen skermutselinge tot gevolg gehad nie. Die Franse vlootkorporaal Simon Pouzoulet was in sy dagboek verwonderd oor die vaardigheid van sy bevelvoerders om vir die weer te waag en betreur dat sy skip nie naby die Britte was om kanonne op hulle af te skiet nie. Vroeg op 8 September het Graves bevel gegee om na die voorkant van die Franse te vaar en gereed te wees om aan te val, maar kon slegs die weerstand vir 'n kort tydjie gebruik, aangesien de Grasse deur goed uitgevoerde maneuvers Graves dit laat afstaan ​​het. Tog het daar baie min gevegte ontstaan. Nog 'n nag het verbygegaan. Die volgende oggend, 9 September, het die mans van De Grasse 'n vloot op die horison gewaar en gedink dat dit die Britte was, het hulle gejaag. Hulle het dit nooit gekry nie, maar Graves het de Grasse agterna gesit, en aan die einde van die dag was albei vloote nader aan Cape Hatteras, Noord -Carolina, as aan Cape Henry, Virginia. Dit het die onbekende vloot, wat aan Barras behoort, toegelaat om onbestrede in die ankerplek van Chesapeakebaai te gly.

Barras het dit reggekry deels omdat die Britte hom nie verwag het nie - hulle het aangeneem dat hy al met de Grasse gekombineer het en nie onafhanklik vaar nie - maar meestal as gevolg van sy eie inisiatief. Met die listigheid wat deur hom gedompel is deur 'n lang loopbaan in die Franse vloot, waar die behoud van bates altyd hoog geag is, en die wete dat hy kosbare vrag saamgevat het, om te voorkom dat die Britse Barras 'n ompadroete gekies het. Van Newport af vaar hy oos om Long Island, en dan suidwaarts totdat hy 'n posisie lateraal na Chesapeakebaai bereik het, waar hy skerp wes draai en deur 'n vinnige vaart onbestrede Chesapeake Bay binnedring. Met sy aankoms het hy onmiddellik die swaar artillerie, proviand en troepe van Newport afgelaai.

Voordat skote op die land in Yorktown geskiet is, het die twee Franse admirale, de Grasse en Barras, hul weermagbroers baie bygestaan ​​om die gemeenskaplike doel te bereik, die nederlaag van Cornwallis se leër.

Washington was toe in Baltimore, onbewus daarvan dat daar reeds 'n beslissende Slag van die Virginia Capes was, en ook onkundig dat Barras die baai belê het. Die aand het hy die sestig myl na Mount Vernon gery, alleen maar vir sy persoonlike bediende en een hulp. Hy was sedert 4 Mei 1775 nie tuis nie. Die volgende oggend skryf hy aan Lafayette: "Ek hoop dat u Lord Cornwallis veilig sal hou, sonder voedsel of voer, totdat ons aankom."

De Grasse was op pad na die Chesapeake om presies dit te doen, omdat hy geredeneer het dat die Britte die seevaart sou laat vaar en probeer om hom in die anker te slaan, sonder om te weet dat Barras reeds daar was. 'N Moderne Franse admiraal skryf dat "La prudence et le sang-froid" (versigtigheid en koelte onder vuur) in die seestryd in Virginia Capes, terwyl die Grasse nie so aggressief was as 'n Suffren of Rodney nie, noodsaaklike oorwinning - volledige beheer oor Chesapeake Bay.

By die aankoms van de Grasse in die baai, het Barras dit, alhoewel dit ouer was en bevoegd was, genadiglik opgelewer. Met waardering vir die gebaar, het de Grasse vinnig gedoen wat Washington wou, maar dat hy nie vroeër gevoel het dat hy verplig was nie: stuur skepe om Franse en Amerikaanse troepe en matériel te gaan haal, met behulp van Barras se vervoer en 'n paar gevange Britte wat op vlak vlak kon werk. waters.

Die Slag van die Virginia Capes het afgesluit toe 'n fregatt van die Graves -verkenning berig het dat die Franse oral in Chesapeakebaai was. Die Britse bevelvoerders het toe, soos Graves aan Londen geskryf het, ooreengekom dat hulle, weens die beter posisie van die vyand, die swak toestand van die Britse skepe, die naderende orkaanseisoen, "en die onuitvoerbaarheid om generaal Earl Cornwallis 'n effektiewe steun te gee" keer terug na New York en herstel. Met 'n bietjie geluk sou hulle terugkeer voordat Cornwallis uitgehonger en gedwing was om oor te gee.


Daar is 'n monument ter herdenking van Admiral de Grasse en die matrose wat die Verenigde State gehelp het om sy onafhanklikheid van die Britse kroon te bereik by die Cape Henry Memorial, Joint Expeditionary Base East, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Dit word onderhou deur die Colonial National Historical Park van die National Park Service. 'N Standbeeld van Admiral de Grasse is in die Place de la Tour van Le Bar-sur-Loup, die dorp waar hy gebore en grootgeword het, en 'n ander standbeeld is geleë in die rivierwandeling in Yorktown, Virginia.

A. Kingsley Macomber, 'n Amerikaanse inwoner van Frankryk sedert die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, het in 1931 die monument van Admiral de Grasse in die Trocadero -paleis in Parys in gebruik geneem. [2]

Die Grasse -rivier, wat deur St. Lawrence County, New York, vloei, is na hom vernoem.

De Grasse was die naam van twee mediumgrootte passasierskepe van die Franse lyn, die een wat in 1924 in Skotland gebou is, en die ander formeel die 1956-geboude Bergensfjord van Norwegian America Lines, wat in 1971 bekendgestel is. Die eerste skip was wêreldwyd bekend, wat die transatlantiese roete bedien en later die bondgenote as 'n troepeskip in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien het. Na die einde van die oorlog was sy die eerste Franse vaartuig wat diens ingehuldig het. Na vervanging deur nuwer skepe in die onderneming, is die voering in 1952 aan Canadian Pacific Lines verkoop as 'n noodvervanger vir hul brandskade Keiserin van Kanada vir die besige Coronation Year-seisoen, is dit weer in 1956 verkoop aan Grimaldi-Siosa Lines en daarna aan 'n ander firma wat haar verder gemoderniseer en haar hernoem het Venezuela. Nadat sy in 1962 naby Cannes gestrand was, is sy later in die jaar geskrap.

Die tweede De Grasse het die diens Le Havre-Southampton-Wes-Indië met min sukses bedien, aangesien die ou koloniale ambagte deur die lugdienste verdring is. Wes -Indiese seevaarte, plus opdragte na die Baltiese, Middellandse See en Noord -Afrika het ook gemengde winste behaal; sy is in 1973 verkoop, onder 'n kort reeks nuwe Israeliese en Griekse eienaars geleef, en na twee brande in 1977 en 1980, in Griekeland geskrap. [4]

Ayn Rand beweer dat hy op die eerste keer na Amerika geëmigreer het De Grasse. [5]


De Grasse tot redding by Yorktown

'N Verrassende taktiese stap deur die trots van die Franse koninklike vloot het 8 000 Britse soldate en matrose op die Virginia -skiereiland vasgekeer, 'n regering in Londen laat val - en gehelp om die Amerikaanse rewolusie te wen.

Toe die nuus van die Britse oorgawe in Yorktown in Oktober 1781 Londen bereik, het Lord North, die eerste minister, uitgeroep: “O God, dit is verby! Dit is alles verby! ” Generaal -majoor lord Charles Cornwallis het 7 252 offisiere en mans, 840 seemanne, 214 artilleriestukke, 7 320 vuurwapens, 457 perde en 40 vaartuie oorgegee. Dit was 'n groot verlies, selfs vir die grootste militêre mag ter wêreld. North het bedank, en na langdurige onderhandelinge het Groot -Brittanje op 3 September 1783 die Verdrag van Parys onderteken, waarin die onafhanklikheid van die Verenigde State erken is.

As ons nadink oor die wonderlike gebeure wat na Yorktown gelei het, word 'n mens getref deur die onwaarskynlikheid, die byna wonderbaarlike kwaliteit daarvan, en dit blyk duidelik dat die grootste deel van die krediet aan die Franse admiraal behoort, wie se ingryping die kritieke verskil gemaak het. Die geskrewe verslag van generaal George Washington aan die president van die kongres bevestig soveel:

Ek wens dit was in my vermoë om aan die kongres uit te spreek hoeveel skuld ek ek het aan die graaf de Grasse en die offisiere van die vloot onder sy bevel vir die gesiene hulp en ondersteuning wat hulle, tussen hulle en die weermag, verleen het. die gelukkigste samesyn van gevoelens en sienings het bestaan ​​en van wie elke moontlike samewerking ondervind is.

In 1781 is pas bevorder Jean-Paul Francois, graaf de Grasse, Marquis de Tilly Luitenant -generaal des Armees Navales, die ekwivalent van agteradmiraal. Op 59 het die Grasse teruggekyk oor 'n lang, suksesvolle loopbaan by die Franse koninklike vloot, en baie daarvan het bestee aan die stryd teen die Britte. Hy was hoog aangeskryf vir seemanskap, moed en waagmoed, maar kon min vriende onder sy mede -offisiere eis. Hy was toegewy aan koning Lodewyk XVI, en sy verbintenisse aan die hof van Versailles het ongetwyfeld afguns veroorsaak.

De Grasse het nou bevel oor 28 oorlogsmanne en 200 handelaars-die grootste Franse vloot wat ooit bymekaargekom het-van Brest af op 22 Maart 1781. Sy bevele was om die handelaars na die Karibiese Eilande te begelei, Franse belange daar te beskerm en te koördineer met die verteenwoordigers van Spanje, wat as bondgenoot Franse hulp belowe is om Jamaika van die Britte te neem. Die bevele, wat op 7 Maart onderteken is deur die minister van vloot Charles de Castries, bevat ook hierdie bepaling: 'Maak na die winter 'n deel van u vloot los of lei, soos u goeddink, na die Amerikaanse kus, en koördineer met die Amerikaanse en Franse grondgeneraals om te help hulle hul doelwitte bereik. ”

Vir die matrose wat op daardie lewendige Maartmiddag vaarwel roep, is daar min gedink aan die stryd tussen die 13 kolonies en Brittanje, of aan die alliansie wat Frankryk met die Amerikaners gesluit het. Hulle het gehoop om Britse skepe en eiendom in die Wes -Indiese Eilande te vang en 'n klein maar beduidende deel van die opbrengs te bekom, na die gebruik van die dag. De Grasse se belangrikste motivering was om sy koning te dien deur die Britte op see te verslaan.

Frankryk se alliansie met die Amerikaanse kolonies, wat drie jaar tevore deur Ben Franklin so onderhandel is, het nie goed gegaan nie. Ten spyte van die belegging van Franse troepe en skatte, het die opstand teen Brittanje in 'n sombere dooiepunt gedryf, sonder dat een van die partye die wil of middele kon opdoen om 'n beslissende oorwinning te behaal. Aan die einde van 1780 het die Kontinentale Kongres dringend 'n sending na Parys gestuur om meer troepe en geld te versoek. Die gevolg was 'n wroegingstoelaag van 6 miljoen lewres (ongeveer $ 45 miljoen in vandag se geld) en 'n waarskuwing dat daar geen hulp meer sou wees nie. Daar was 'n gevoel in die Franse regering, veral van graaf Vergennes, die magtige minister van buitelandse sake, dat die kolonies nie genoeg doen nie en dat Washington as opperbevelhebber onvoldoende aggressief was.

Die Franse kontant het gehelp om aan die terugbetaal- en toerustingbehoeftes van die onstuimige kontinentale weermag te voldoen, maar dit was nie genoeg om die balans te kantel nie. Washington was diep teleurgesteld. In April 1781, toe die vloot van De Grasse reeds suidwaarts in die Atlantiese Oseaan op pad was, skryf hy in sy dagboek: 'In 'n woord - in plaas daarvan om alles gereed te hê om die veld te neem, het ons niks nie, en in plaas van die vooruitsig van 'n 'n heerlike offensiewe veldtog voor ons, het ons 'n verdwaalde en somber verdedigingsveldtog. "

Die vloot van de Grasse op sy reis suid was 'n perifere eskader wat bedoel was om by die Noord -Amerikaanse afdeling van admiraal graaf de Barras se agt oorlogskepe in Newport, RI, aan te sluit. Dit het ook 'n geheime boodskap aan Rochambeau van de Grasse gebring, waarin hy sy voorneme om na Amerika te vaar, aangekondig en gevra word dat vlieëniers wat vertroud is met die Chesapeakebaai na hom gestuur word by Cap Francais (nou Cap Haitien) in Santo Domingo. De Grasse het Rochambeau gewaarsku dat sy betrokkenheid by Amerikaanse waters nie langer as ses weke kan duur nie.

Die vloot ontwyk die Britse vlootblokade van Newport, en die brief het Rochambeau op 25 April veilig bereik. Dit is onmiddellik na Washington gekopieer. Die brief van De Grasse het 'n gebrek aan besonderhede, maar het veranderinge in die geallieerde strategiese denke geprikkel. Die Amerikaanse en Franse magte het ooreengekom om 'n gesamentlike aanval op New York te loods, 'n plan wat Washington baie waardeer en deur Rochambeau ondersteun word, meer uit lojaliteit as uit entoesiasme. Washington het egter nie heeltemal uitgesluit dat Cornwallis in Virginia aangeval word nie. Die aankoms van de Grasse se brief het saamgeval met berigte van die Marquis de Lafayette, wat in bevel was van 'n klein Frans/Amerikaanse mag in Virginia, dat Cornwallis sy troepe op die smal skiereiland tussen die James- en York -riviere konsolideer.

Op 29 April het de Grasse 'n groot Britse eskader teëgekom onder admiraal sir Samuel Hood van die Franse eiland Martinique. Met sy groter getalle het de Grasse die Britse oorhand gekry en Hood se eskader teruggesak na Barbados. Vier Franse oorlogskepe wag op De Grasse by Fort Royal, en nadat hulle daar ingerig is, het die versterkte Franse vloot na Santo Domingo vertrek en op 15 Julie by Cap Francais aangekom. Die dag tevore het die Franse fregat Concorde het uit Newport aangekom met geheime versendings van Rochambeau en de Barras. Die Amerikaanse vlieëniers de Grasse het ook aan boord gevra.

Rochambeau se boodskap, 'n reaksie op de Grasse se brief van 5 April, beskryf die grimmige status van die kontinentale leër en pleit nie net vir skepe nie, maar ook vir troepe en geld. Rochambeau het die notule van die geallieerde oorlogsraad van 22 Mei in Wethersfield, Connect.

Die volgende dag, 16 Julie, terwyl hy alleen in sy kajuit sit Ville de Paris by Cap Francais oor die versendings uit Amerika, het de Grasse 'n belangrike besluit geneem. Hy ignoreer die afsluiting van die krygsraad op Wethersfield en ryker, byna roekeloos, om sy bevele uit te brei, en besluit om sy hele vloot na die Chesapeake te neem en dit onmiddellik te doen. Boonop sou hy sy uiterste bes doen om die gevraagde troepe en geld saam te bring. Sy optrede sou die Franse besittings op die eilande onbeskermd laat - 'n gewaagde waagstuk en 'n stap wat die Britte nooit verwag het nie.

Dit was nie maklik om troepe en geld by Santo Domingo te reël nie. Die enigste beskikbare troepe was die drie Franse regimente (ongeveer 3 000 man) onder bevel van die markies de St. Simon wat onder Spaanse gesag geplaas was om te help met die vang van Jamaika. Hierdie goed opgeleide en toegeruste troepe was van die bestes ter wêreld. Alhoewel die Spanjaarde amper nie van die Amerikaners hou nie, het de Grasse dit reggekry om die goewerneur van Santo Domingo te oorreed om hom die regimente te "leen" vir die ingryping in Virginia, wat hy beloof het dat dit kort sou wees.

Om die nodige kontant te bekom, het de Grasse eers handelaars by Cap Francais genader en aangebied om persoonlike bates te verpand, waarvan die waarde die aangevraagde bedrag oorskry het. Tot sy spyt is hierdie voorstel van die hand gewys. Daarna het hy gereël om 1,2 miljoen livres (ongeveer $ 9 miljoen vandag) by handelaars in Kuba te leen, om die fregat te stuur Aigrette na Havana om die muntstuk op te tel. Om vertraging te vermy, Aigrette is opdrag gegee om met die vloot op see te vergader. De Grasse se verbintenis was so sterk dat hy met sy persoonlike geld vir skeepsvoorrade by Cap Francais betaal het.

Op 28 Julie het de Grasse 'n boodskap aan Rochambeau in Newport gestuur Concorde dat hy op 3 Augustus Cap Francais sou vertrek met 28 skepe van die lyn en drie regimente infanterie. Sy bestemming was die Chesapeake.

Hierdie brief bereik Rochambeau en Washington op 14 Augustus en verander alles. Nou was die militêre doelwit, skielik en sonder twyfel, Cornwallis in Virginia. Die geallieerde bevelvoerders het dringend planne beraam om 6000 troepe na die Chesapeake te marsjeer, en probeer om hierdie verandering so lank as moontlik van die Britte te vermom. Gelukkig was die bevelvoerder van New York, generaal sir Henry Clinton, steeds oortuig dat die stad die ware doelwit van die bondgenote was.

Op 5 Augustus, twee dae agter die skedule, was die Franse vloot gereed om te vaar. De Grasse het skerp besluit om die Bahamas -kanaal - die gang tussen Kuba en die Bahamas - na die Chesapeake te neem. Hierdie roete was stadiger en gevaarliker, veral gedurende die orkaanseisoen, maar dit was minder geneig om sy vloot aan die Britte bekend te maak. Om die geheimhouding verder te verseker, vang die Franse al vier die vyandelike vaartuie wat in die gesig gestaar is.

Die Britse Atlantiese bevelvoerder, admiraal sir George Rodney, beveel dat admiraal Hood sy eskader van 12 oorlogskepe via die mees direkte roete van die Karibiese Eilande af moes neem nadat 'n Franse vloot Cap Francais weswaarts verlaat het, maar nie sy sterkte of bestemming geken het nie. die Chesapeake. Rodney het ook 'n waarskuwing aan admiraal Thomas Graves in New York gestuur, maar die skip wat dit vervoer het, is deur 'n Amerikaanse kaptein gevang.

De Grasse bereik die Chesapeake op 30 Augustus met skepe, bemanning en die drie regimente, almal in 'n goeie toestand. Hood’s squadron had arrived three days earlier. Seeing no sign of the French, Hood assumed de Grasse was already headed for New York and proceeded there immediately to join forces with Graves’ squadron of 12 warships. The British remained serenely confident, never imagining that de Grasse’s entire fleet of 28 warships was anchored some 400 miles to the south.

De Grasse established contact with Lafayette and immediately sent transports to disembark St. Simon’s regiments on the north side of the James River. Aware that Cornwallis was rapidly strengthening his fortifications around Yorktown, and eager for a quick victory, the French admiral proposed an immediate attack without waiting for allied troops to arrive from the north. With St. Simon’s three regiments, the French and American troops under Lafayette, and the sailors and marines who could be spared from the fleet, they could put together a force of almost 7,000. With the support of heavy naval guns, this might be enough to defeat Cornwallis, who was thought to have about 6,000 troops at Yorktown. St. Simon agreed with this plan, but Lafayette vigorously argued for patience. Washington and Rochambeau would arrive soon with 6,000 troops, virtually assuring success with fewer casualties. The young French commander prevailed.

Meanwhile, Washington and Rochambeau stopped in Philadelphia on their march south. No word had been received from de Grasse since his letter of July 28 from Cap Francais. So many things could have gone wrong. A sea battle, a storm, a move by Cornwallis, even a lengthy delay, could have rendered fruitless the considerable effort and expense of moving the 6,000-man allied army to Virginia. On September 2, Washington wrote plaintively to Lafayette:

I am distressed beyond expression to know what is become of the Count de Grasse, and for fear that the English Fleet, by occupying the Chesapeake, shall shatter our flattering prospects in that quarter….My Dear Marquis, if you get any thing New from any quarter, send it I pray you on the Spur of Speed.

On September 5, at Chester, Pa., Washington stood on the banks of the Delaware River awaiting Rochambeau, who was crossing the river by ferry. At that moment a dust- covered courier galloped up to the general with a dispatch from de Grasse. The admiral had anchored in the Chesapeake with 28 warships, was disembarking 3,000 troops and was already in contact with Lafayette. Suddenly, incredibly, the key elements of the trap planned for Cornwallis had fallen into place. Washington was overjoyed.

In New York, Admirals Graves and Hood, having learned of de Grasse’s arrival in the Chesapeake, hurriedly provisioned 19 of their 24 warships and headed south, still not knowing the full strength of the French fleet. At about 10:30 a.m. on September 5, French frigates on lookout at the mouth of the bay signaled the approach of the British fleet. De Grasse, well aware of the vulnerability of stationary ships, ordered his captains immediately to cut anchor chains and head for the open sea. The hurried departure of his warships left 90 officers and 1,200 sailors ashore. This meant that, although de Grasse had the advantage in cannons— 1,800 to 1,400—many of his guns were unmanned.

It was not until noon that the French ships, sailing against the wind, struggled in poor battle order past Cape Henry into the open sea. But the British failed to attack when they had the greatest advantage, perhaps because of a misunderstanding between Graves and Hood, who had scant regard for each other. Around 4:30 p.m., the French forward squadron, under Louis Antoine de Bougainville, closed aggressively on the British middle and unleashed a vicious cannon attack. Both fleets were soon heavily engaged. When the firing ceased at sunset, the French emerged in a much stronger position. They had fatally disabled the British ship Terrible, and seriously damaged three others while only one French warship, Diademe, received major injuries.

After three days of maneuvering, with only intermittent cannon fire, the French slipped out of sight to return to the Chesapeake while the British sank Terrible and took the rest of their fleet back to New York for repairs. It was not a knockout blow, but what has become known as the Battle of the Capes was a French victory of enormous strategic significance. By achieving total naval control of the Chesapeake, the French blocked all supply and escape routes by sea for Cornwallis at Yorktown.

While the two fleets were stalking each other east of Cape Henry, Admiral de Barras, who had evaded the British by staying well out to sea, quietly glided his squadron of eight warships into the Chesapeake. The combined French fleet now totaled 36 ships of the line, giving it overwhelming superiority.

Washington learned of de Grasse’s victory on September 15, shortly after arriving at his new headquarters in Williamsburg, and immediately requested a meeting. Responding promptly and graciously, de Grasse made available to Washington, Rochambeau and their staffs the luxury schooner Koningin Charlotte, recently captured from the British. They embarked without delay. On September 20, as Charlotte approached Ville de Paris, Washington received the 13-gun salute normally accorded a Marechal de France. From the commanding height of the Ville de Paris’ quarterdeck, Washington had his first view of the entire French fleet, three straight rows of warships riding at anchor as far as the eye could see—a reassuring sight for the weary general.

Following the initial ceremonies, Washington, Rochambeau, Lafayette and staff adjourned to the admiral’s cabin. Washington shrewdly had prepared a list of 20 questions, in both French and English, for what was likely to be a difficult negotiation. The first issue was de Grasse’s insistence on leaving by October 15, in only 31⁄2 weeks. Following some friendly give and take, de Grasse consented to stay until the end of October, but no longer. And then he would have to take with him the three infantry regiments borrowed from the Spanish. To help accelerate the assault, de Grasse agreed to make available 2,000 sailors and marines as well as some heavy cannons.

On September 28, the combined armies of France and America marched to their assigned positions around Yorktown to launch the ground attack. They were 16,000 strong, of which about 9,000 were French soldiers, sailors and marines. Opposing them were some 7,000 British manning the barricades at Yorktown and the small garrison on the opposite side of the York River at Gloucester. Allied artillery, including new French mortars and siege guns, began a continuous pounding on the two main redoubts dominating the British trench network. In a coordinated night bayonet attack, the first redoubt was taken by a squad of French volunteers and the second successfully stormed by Americans led by Colonel Alexander Hamilton. With his trench defenses compromised and continuous bombardment inflicting heavy casualties, Cornwallis wrote Clinton in New York on October 14, advising against sending reinforcements because of the high risk.

The next night, Cornwallis launched a desperate effort to break the siege. Using small boats, he sought to transport most of his troops across the York to Gloucester Point, leaving some 2,000 sick and wounded behind with a small detachment to look after them and to assist in their surrender. The breakout failed when a storm forced the boats to return to Yorktown.

Then, on the morning of October 17, allied infantry in the trenches were startled by a drumbeat and the appearance of two crimson-clad figures on the parapet. Next to the drummer stood an officer waving a white flag. The latter was promptly blindfolded and escorted to Washington’s headquarters where the commander in chief was handed a note:

I propose a cessation of hostilities for twenty four hours and that two officers may be appointed by each side to meet at Mr. Moore’s house to settle terms of surrender of the posts of York and Gloucester.

I have the honour to be, etc.,

Two days later, the surrender ceremony took place outside Yorktown. Alleging illness, Cornwallis did not attend, and his sword was presented to Washington by his deputy, Brig. Gen. Charles O’Hara. Suffering from a genuine stomach ailment, de Grasse was represented by Admiral de Barras.

De Grasse’s courageous decision on July 16 to take the entire French fleet to the Chesapeake was surely the single most important event leading to victory at Yorktown. He exceeded his orders, and he knew that failure, or even serious losses, would have brought an inglorious end to his naval career. He decided to wager everything—his reputation, personal assets and honor— on achieving success in Virginia. He won, and so did America.

Originally published in the December 2006 issue of American History. Klik hier om in te teken.


Grasse

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Grasse, town, Alpes-Maritimes departement, Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur région, southeastern France. It lies northwest of Cannes and west-southwest of Nice. Situated at an elevation of 1,100–1,250 feet (330–380 metres) on a slope in a natural amphitheatre in the lower Alps, it is a resort that is visited in both summer and winter. Grasse is also a world leader in the production of natural fragrances for the perfume industry and of flavourings for food manufacturers. The perfume industry, although largely controlled by multinational groups, dominates the local economy. Roses, jasmine, and other flowers, as well as bitter orange blossom, from which the perfumes are distilled, are cultivated in the vicinity. The International Perfume Museum, comprising exhibits tracing the history of fragrance, reopened in 2008.

In the 12th century Grasse was a miniature republic, but in 1227 it was taken by Raymond Bérenger, count of Provence, and from 1244 until 1790 was an episcopal see. Its Fragonard Museum, named after the 18th-century French court painter, who was born there, contains three paintings and several drawings by the master. Queen Victoria of Great Britain (reigned 1837–1901) passed several winters at Grasse.

The town has various agricultural processing industries and is noted for its candied fruit. It is also an administrative and commercial centre as well as a dormitory town for commuters to Cannes and Nice. Pop. (1999) 43,874 (2014 est.) 50,409.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Richard Pallardy, navorsingsredakteur.


Provence Art & History Museum

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The Provence Art and History Museum (M.A.H.P.) brings together, in the Clapiers-Cabris mansion, large collections devoted to both everyday life in eastern Provence since prehistoric times, and fine arts and decorative arts from the 17th century to the first half of the 20th century.

This regional museum is the work of François Carnot (1872-1960), son of the former President of the Republic who married, in Grasse, Valentine Chiris, daughter of a perfume industrialist responsible for inventing solvent extraction. The creation of this museum quickly drew the local elite and a number of French and foreign donors. It is based on a large group of Friends of the Museum, owners of the collections, which today supports the museum’s development and activities.

With a focus on regional archaeology and popular arts and traditions, expressed in a selection of paintings, sculptures, graphic arts, furnishings, ceramics, glassware, textiles, jewelry, and weapons, the museum tells the history of eastern Provence where traditions, firmly rooted in everyday life, fostered the emergence of strong local identities.

In this mansion, which has retained its original interior of staterooms and private spaces, visitors will find accurate and fascinating room reconstructions and educational exhibition in a harmonious museology cover three levels overlooking the gardens on the south side.

Website :

To go there :

2 Rue Mirabeau
06130 GRASSE
+33 (0)4 97 05 58 00
[email protected]


- Parking : Cours Honoré Cresp, Notre Dame des Fleurs, La Foux
- Bus: towards Grasse Gare Routière – Thouron stop. Sillages lines/SNCF train station: A, B, C, D, 5, 6, 20, 40
- Train: SNCF terminal at Grasse, then shuttle towards Grasse Gare Routière – Thouron stop


Explore Grasse: The World Capital of Perfume

The world capital of perfumery, the Mediterranean city of Grasse hasn’t always smelled of roses, as Jennifer Ladonne discovers

In 2018, the “world capital of perfume” was honoured with UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage status to acknowledge and protect a centuries-old expertise.

Of the five senses smell is our most neglected, its miraculous subtlety drowned out by those workhorses hearing and sight. But scents are evocative, and informative, on levels we don’t consciously compute. It turns out that emotions have an odour. Why do we prefer to be around someone who’s giddy in love? Because we like the smell of delight. Scientists have even pinpointed odours that make us appear more attractive. In one study, participants who smelled and enjoyed the aroma of ripe grapefruit guessed the age of women shown in photographs to be around 12 years younger than they actually were floral or spicy notes made women appear around four pounds slimmer. It seems science is finally catching up with some of the mysteries the perfumers of Grasse have known for centuries.

Congress palace. (C) Palais des Congrès

Nestled between the Côte d’Azur and the foothills of the Southern Alps, the Pays de Grasse’s temperate weather, rich soil and sheltered fields coincide to create the ideal microclimate for the cultivation of flowers. Iris, mimosa, tuberose, violet, orange blossom, hyacinth and most of all jasmine and the tousled pink centifolia rose (called the May rose) provided the backbone of an early cottage industry that over the centuries blossomed into the world epicentre of perfume.

Grasse @capg

But Grasse has not always smelled like roses. Tanners found the region’s many rivers indispensable to their trade – a notoriously foul-smelling one due to the stench of decaying hides, not to mention the use of animal excrement in the tanning process – which thrived here from the 12th century onward. Prized by the French nobility, Grasse’s leather products – especially its supple gloves – reeked.

Queen Catherine de’ Medici, the industrious widow of King Henry II, credited with bringing everything from fine pastry to the fork to France from her native Italy, came to the rescue by dousing her gloves in scent. Catherine bestowed perfumed gloves from Grasse on all her favourites (and, allegedly, poisoned versions on her not-so-favourites) sparking a 16th century craze that nourished Grasse’s parallel industries: leather and perfume.

International Perfume Museum and view on Grasse historic city. @capg

While high post-Revolution taxes finally dealt the death blow to Grasse’s leather works, the Industrial Revolution’s technological innovations were wholeheartedly embraced by the city’s old glovemaking-perfumer families (including perfumers Galimard, Molinard, and Fragonard, still major presences in Grasse today), who pioneered ever new methods of extraction from plants grown in Grasse and from less perishable materials – such as woods, resins or leaves – imported from abroad. Today, some of the most famous elixirs ever to grace a wrist are still inextricably linked to Grasse expertise… including the perfume many consider to be the greatest ever created.

The town of Grasse. @capg

A Grasse story

In 1920, Coco Chanel decided to proceed with a project she’d envisioned for years: aligning her fashion house with a signature perfume, a new trend pioneered by only two other couturiers at the time. There was just one place to go: the Pays de Grasse.

Museum of Art and History of Provence. @capg

On the Côte d’Azur, about 15 miles from Grasse, Chanel was introduced to Ernest Beaux, a brilliant “nose” working for a notable Grasse perfumer. Both daring innovators and resolutely modern, Beaux and Chanel were a perfect match. Chanel knew what she wanted: something refined, sensuous, daring and luxurious. Beaux gave her his masterpiece: the legendary Chanel No. 5. When Chanel summoned Grasse’s expertise, dozens of family growers worked nearly 5,000 acres of flowers and plants cultivated for perfume – about 2,000 acres of jasmine, 1,700 acres of roses, 160 of tuberose and the rest reserved for orange trees, violets, verbena and other aromatic plants. But in the 1960s and 1970s, production began a precipitous decline due a flood of low-cost synthetic materials and a Côte d’Azur real-estate boom that made the fields of the Pays de Grasse more lucrative for villas than for flowers. Today Grasse cultivates about 12 acres of jasmine and 120 acres of roses.


USS Comte de Grasse (DD-974) - Operational History

After being commissioned in August 1978, the "Count" journeyed to homeport in Norfolk, Virginia. She would make a deployment to the Caribbean to participate in training in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. While there she also made a port call in Nassau, Bahamas. In the Fall of 1979, she deployed to Northern Europe to participate in NATO Exercises. She visited Breast France, "Dunkirk", France, Hamburg, Germany, and Portsmouth, England. In the early Spring of 1980, the "Count" visited New York City, the hometown of Captain Frank J. Lugo.

In late February-early March 1980, Comte de Grasse took part in Exercise Safepass-80. Comte de Grasse sailed on her maiden Mediterranean deployment in April 1980, returning home in December. Since then she deployed there six times.

In February 1981, Comte de Grasse went to the Vieques NGFS Range. The following month, she took part in READEX 1-81. In May, she took part in a Comprehensive Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) in the Virginia Capes Operations Area. In late August, she took part in Ocean Venture-81 and exercise Magic Sword. In September, she took part in Exercise Ocean Safari-81. She was drydocked for a short period in November for voyage repairs and replacement of her Sonar Dome Rubber Window, before departing for a Mediterranean deployment on 1 December.

1982 saw Comte de Grasse take part in Exercise Sardinia-82 from 27 February to 9 March. She then took part in Exercise Norther Wedding/United Effort-82 from 23 August to 20 October. From 7 December to 14 December, she took part in COMPTUEX 1-83.

From 8 January to 10 July 1983, she deployed to join NATO's Standing Naval Forces Atlantic. During that time, she took part in Exercise Roebuck near Scotland, Spring Train off Gibraltar, Bright Horizon and May West off Norway, Nor Ops, and Ocean Safari. Upon her return home, she was drydocked from 28 October 1983 to 10 July 1984 for a routine overhaul at Ingalls Shipyard, Pascagoula, MS.

From 4 September to 13 September, she underwent Harpoon Certification, Tomahawk Material Certification, and from 24 September to 26 September, Combat Systems Ship Qualification Test (CSSQT), at the Virginia Capes Operations Area.

From 19 March to 23 March 1985, Comte de Grasse underwent Tomahawk Tactical Qualification Test (TTQT). Then from 22 April to 7 May, she participated in COMPTUEX 2-85, before deploying to join the Middle East Force on 6 June. She transited the Suez Canal into the Red Sea on 26 June and entered the Persian Gulf on 4 July. She took part in Exercise Inferno Creek/Bright Star-85 from 11 August to 17 August. Transiting though the Suez Canal into the Mediterranean Sea on 15 November, she returned home on 5 December.

1986 saw Comte de Grasse take part in a number of gunnery, air targeting and submarine tracking exercises in the Virginia Capes and Puerto Rico operations areas. From 4 September to 8 September, she took part in drug interception operations in the Caribbean.

Comte de Grasse took part, from 9 January to 28 January 1987, in BLASTEX 1-87, and from 10 February to 1 March, in FLEETEX 1-87. Then after being drydocked in March on USS Sustain, she took part in Solid Shield 87, from 30 April to 8 May, and FLEETEX 2-87 from 9 May to 10 May. She departed for her Mediterranean deployment 3-87 on 6 June and returned home on 17 November.

From 11 May to 23 May 1988, Comte de Grasse took part in a USN/FGN missile exercise. Then from 15 June to 1 July, she participated in FLEETEX 2-88 (BASIC). From 12 August to 1 September, she assisted United States Coast Guard law enforcement operations in the Caribbean operations area. Then, from 7 November to 22 November, she participated in FLEETEX 1-89 (ADV) and SOCEX 1-89.

From 8 February to 1 March 1989, Comte de Grasse took part in FLEETEX 1-89. She was in drydock from 14 April to 7 May at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia, for replacement of its sonar dome rubber window. She deployed on 11 May for her Mediterranean/Indian Ocean deployment 2-89. She transited on 25 June through the Suez Canal into the Red Sea, then from 4–6 July, conducted operations in the Strait of Hormuz, Eastern Patrol Area (SOHEPA). Entering the Persian Gulf on 14 August, she transited the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean Sea on 6 September before returning home on 9 November.

From 16 January to 28 January 1990, Comte De Grasse spent time at the Vieques Gunnery Range where she earned the designation of Top Gun of the Year. On 15 February 1990, she was visited by a delegation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and the Chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, Les Aspin.

1991 saw Comte de Grasse undergo a number of qualification training and tests.

From 6 January to 10 January 1992, Comte de Grasse took part in the SWET Competition. Then from 13 January to 13 February, she took part in FLEETEX 2-92 followed by Exercise Fabric Falcon Brave form 26 February to 3 March.

Comte de Grasse's superior performance was again recognized in March 1992 when she was awarded a second consecutive Battle Efficiency Award, representative of the best destroyer in Cruiser - Destroyer Group Eight. This prestigious award encompassed Mission Area Excellence Awards in Navigation and Deck Seamanship, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW), Electronic Warfare (EW), Anti-Aircraft Warfare (AAW), Engineering, Damage Control, Surface Ship Safety, and Command Control and Communications.

In preparation for her next deployment, Comte de Grasse completed Refresher Training in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, conducted various battle group exercises in the Caribbean Sea, such as FLEETEX 2-92, and successfully passed a myriad of pre-deployment inspections and exercises, including a Combat Systems Assessment (CSA), in which Comte de Grasse received the highest grade of any unit in the entire U.S. Atlantic Fleet during 1991.

Comte de Grasse departed on her next Mediterranean deployment 2-92 on 6 May. She sailed with the Saratoga carrier battle group to the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. During the deployment, she took part in intense battle group operations, developed and integrated new tactics for small combatants, conducted maritime interdiction operations in the Red Sea, took part in major exercises, such as NATO Display Determination, and supported United Nations humanitarian efforts in the Adriatic Sea near the troubled lands of the former Yugoslavian Republic.

Comte de Grasse transited the Suez Canal into the Red Sea on 7 September, at which point she conducted maritime interdiction force operations until 20 September when she transited the Suez Canal into the Mediterranean Sea. She returned home on 6 November.

One of the highlights of Comte de Grasse's deployment, was her participation in Grasse Day on 19 October 1992. On the occasion, which honors the French Admiral Francois-Joseph Paul, Comte de Grasse, the officers and crew of the ship took part in ceremonies in Grasse and Bar sur Loup, France. In commemorating the day, which is built on and symbolized by Franco-American friendship, the town of Grasse adopted the warship Comte de Grasse, and proclaimed the town's populace as sponsors of Comte de Grasse.

From 18 January to 15 February 1993, Comte de Grasse took part in Operation Sea Signal in the Caribbean Sea. Then from 3 May to 25 May, she conducted counter drug operations in the Caribbean. She spent time dry docked in August, then participated in COMPTUEX, in the Caribbean Sea from 19 October to 22 October, before finishing off the year with a fleet exercise in the Cherry Point operations area from 1 December to 15 December.

On 12 January 1994, the ship's port main reduction gear was discovered to have been sabotaged, resulting in a delay in its deployment. It finally got underway for its Mediterranean deployment on 5 February. She conducted operations in the Southern Adriatic in support of Operation Sharp Guard and returned home on 24 June. From 6 September until 1 October, Comte de Grasse took part in Operations Support/Uphold/Restore Democracy in the Haitian operations area.

1995 saw Comte de Grasse take part in CART II, from 7 January to 16 January in COMPTUEX in the Caribbean from 24 April to 14 May then from 1 July until 3 December, in UNITAS XXXVI-95. UNITAS 95 included operations and port calls in Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

From 24 February to 12 March 1996, Comte de Grasse conducted counter drug operations in the Caribbean Sea.

In 1997, she took part in SPONTEX 97-1, from 4 March to 10 April. Then she took part in INDEX 97-3 from 9 May to 16 May in the Puerto Rican operations area. Comte de Grasse then took part in UNITAS XXXVIII-97 form 1 July to 26 November 1997.

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Andre De Grasse

Canadian sprinter Andre De Grasse (July 2016).

Vroeë lewe

Andre De Grasse was born to Beverley De Grasse and Alex Waithe on 10 November 1994. He has three siblings: Julian, Alexandra and Dantee Waithe. His father moved to Canada from Barbados as a teenager, while his mother immigrated to Toronto from Trinidad and Tobago in her mid-20s. Both De Grasse’s parents were sprinters in their youth.

De Grasse was raised by his mother in Markham, Ontario, a city in the northeast corner of the Greater Toronto Area. As a child, De Grasse played soccer, basketball and baseball. Later, as a student at Milliken Mills High School, De Grasse’s attention narrowed to basketball. He excelled at the sport until Milliken Mills cancelled its basketball program in De Grasse’s final year. At the time, De Grasse was struggling in school: his grades were low, and he was hanging out with the wrong crowd and doing drugs. The loss of the basketball team didn’t help. On a whim De Grasse, 17, decided to join friends and compete in a regional high school track and field meet.

First Race

During the York Region Track and Field Championships, held at York University in May 2012, De Grasse competed in the senior boys 100 m dash, 200 m dash and long jump. When he took his spot at the starting line for the 100 m dash — his first time trying the sport — De Grasse ignored the starting blocks, instead standing upright and sideways, like a baserunner leading off first base. He wore a t-shirt, baggy basketball shorts and borrowed track spikes.

It took De Grasse 10.91 seconds to get from that awkward stance to the finish line. Though it wasn’t fast enough to win (he placed second), his time was remarkable, considering both his age and lack of experience. It is unusual for men in this age category (senior boys) to run 100 m in under 11 seconds, and De Grasse had done so in his first race, without the aid of starting blocks or coaching.

The feat caught the attention of Tony Sharpe, a former Olympian who happened to be in the stands that day. Sharpe, who won a bronze medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California, invited De Grasse to join his track club, the Speed Academy, in Pickering, Ontario. “I’ve been in this sport 40 years, competed in the Olympics, seen a lot of fast guys,” Sharpe would later tell Scott Reid of the Orange County Register. “In terms of pure talent, I’ve seen nothing like Andre De Grasse.”

Kollege

After graduating from Milliken Mills in 2012, De Grasse attended Coffeyville Community College in Coffeyville, Kansas, from 2012 to 2014. Coffeyville, like other “junior” colleges, is well known for its athletic program, and is generally considered a track and field powerhouse. Many student athletes begin their careers at junior or community colleges and then transfer to major colleges. At Coffeyville, De Grasse won five National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) titles, including two 200 m dash titles and one 100 m title.

From there, De Grasse was pursued by colleges all over the United States. He chose the University of Southern California (USC) and began training with coach Caryl Smith Gilbert in fall 2014. As a member of the USC Trojans, De Grasse turned heads at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Championships in June 2015. He won the 100 m dash with a time of 9.75 seconds and the 200 m dash in 19.58 seconds. Both times were wind aided, meaning the runners were assisted by a tailwind of over 2 m per second, and therefore couldn’t be counted as official NCAA records. Still, De Grasse’s times represented two of the fastest in the history of the sport. That year, for example, the fastest wind-legal times were 9.74 seconds in the 100 m, posted by American sprinter Justin Gatlin, and 19.55 seconds in the 200 m, posted by Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt.


2015 Pan Am Games

In the summer of 2015, Toronto hosted the Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, where De Grasse competed in the 100 m and 200 m races, as well as the 4x100 m relay. As a hometown athlete hot off his remarkable performance at the NCAA Championships, De Grasse’s presence at the Games was highly anticipated. It had been 19 years since Donovan Bailey’s gold medal performance at the 1996 Olympic Games, and 16 years since Bruny Surin matched Bailey’s time of 9.84 seconds and won silver at the 1999 World Championships.

De Grasse won gold in both the 100 and 200 m dashes, with times of 10.05 and 19.88 seconds respectively. His time in the 200 m race broke his own Canadian record.

For a brief moment, many thought De Grasse had won a third gold medal after his team finished first in the 4x100 m relay. They were disqualified, however, once it was confirmed that Gavin Smellie had stepped on the lane line during the first leg of the race.

During the Games, many observed what appeared to be De Grasse’s bewilderment with his rapid rise to stardom. He lacked the bravado typical of most of the fastest men in the world, looking around in awe as fans cheered the announcement of his name at the starting line.

“A lot of people before this, they didn’t know how to pronounce my name,” De Grasse told the Toronto Star following his 200 m win. “They used to say De Grasseeee. But now I think everybody knows that my name is De Grasse [pronounced de grass].”

2015 World Championships

In August 2015, immediately following the Pan Am Games, De Grasse competed in the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships in Beijing, China. It was the first time the 20-year-old competed against the likes of Usain Bolt, the fastest man in the world, and Justin Gatlin, who was generally considered the favourite to win. De Grasse, with a time of 9.92, tied for bronze with American Trayvon Bromell, behind Gatlin and Bolt, who won the race.

Professional Sprinter

De Grasse became a professional sprinter in December 2015, signing a multi-year, $11.25 million sponsorship contract with Puma. He also left the University of Southern California to work with coach Stuart McMillan at the ALTIS training centre in Phoenix, Arizona.

2016 Olympic Summer Games

At the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, De Grasse took home three medals. He won silver in the 200m, finishing behind the great Jamaican runner, Usain Bolt, and bronze in the 100m, behind Bolt and American Justin Gatlin. De Grasse also took home a second bronze as a member of the 4x100m relay team, with teammates Akeem Haynes, Brendon Rodney and Aaron Brown. He was the first Canadian athlete to take three sprint medals at a single Olympic Games.

Canadian relay team of Andre De Grasse, Brendon Rodney, Aaron Brown and Akeem Haynes celebrates their bronze medal in men's 4x100 relay, at the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio. Canadian Andre De Grasse won bronze in the men's 100m at the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio, finishing behind Jamaican Usain Bolt and American Justin Gatlin. Canadian Andre De Grasse won silver in the men's 200m at the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio, finishing behind the great Jamaican runner, Usain Bolt.

Following the Games, he returned to the University of Southern California. He finished his degree in sociology in December 2016.

Running Career Since 2016

Prior to the 2017 world championships, De Grasse was considered a favourite for gold in the 200m. He was also looking forward to facing Usain Bolt in the 100m. "I want to beat him before he retires,” he told the CBC. However, a hamstring injury forced De Grasse to withdraw from the championships. The following year, he was named to the Canadian team for the 2018 Commonwealth Games but withdrew to work on his fitness. That July, he suffered another hamstring injury during the national championships and lost his Canadian titles in both the 100m and 200m to teammate Aaron Brown.

Personal Life and Charitable Activity

De Grasse and his partner, American hurdler Nia Ali, welcomed daughter Yuri in 2018. The pair met while they were both track athletes at the University of Southern California. Ali won silver in the 100m hurdles at the 2016 Olympic Summer Games.

Also in 2018, the sprinter launched the Andre De Grasse Family Foundation, a charitable organization aimed at empowering youth through sport and education. The foundation’s first initiative was the Andre De Grasse Future Champions Fund, which it established in conjunction with the Athletics Canada Foundation. The Fund provides scholarships to high school athletes who are not yet part of a track and field club.

Andre De Grasse posing for pictures with kids during Jerome International Track Classic in Burnaby, British Columbia. Picture taken June 17, 2016.