Airbus 380 maak eerste flieg - geskiedenis

Airbus 380 maak eerste flieg - geskiedenis

Die Airbus 380 het sy eerste toetsvlug op 27 April 2005 gemaak. Die Airbus, die grootste kommersiële vliegtuig wat ooit gebou is, het 'n rekord opgestel, selfs as dit die swaarste kommersiële vliegtuig was wat ooit gevlieg het. Die 380 wat Boeing aangekondig het dat hy nie sal meeding nie, sal Airbus beheer gee oor die mark vir die grootste vliegtuie.


Die laaste Airbus A380 wat ooit vervaardig is, maak die eerste vlug

Lugvaartnerdes regoor die wêreld moes Woensdag 'n gesamentlike sug gehad het met die nuus dat die laaste Airbus A380 superjumbo -jet wat ooit vervaardig sou word, van die vervaardiger se hoofkwartier in Toulouse vertrek het. Dit het in Hamburg aangekom, waar dit in die lewering van sy lugredery, Emirates, geverf sal word voordat dit na 'n nuwe huis in Dubai gaan. Die vlug is die einde van 'n era en 'n korter aanloopbaan as wat Airbus verwag het toe hy sy ambisieuse dubbeldekkerprojek in 2000 begin het.

Die laaste A380 van Airbus gaan na Emirates nadat dit in Hamburg geverf is. (Foto deur REMY GABALDA/AFP. [+] Via Getty Images)

Die eerste Airbus A380 het in Oktober 2007 diens geneem en vir Singapore Airlines gevlieg. Sedertdien het ander lugrederye regoor die wêreld die groot wonder van ingenieurswese bestel, waaronder Air France, ANA, British Airways, Emirates, Etihad, Korean Air, Lufthansa, Qantas en Qatar Airways. Byna 250 van die vliegtuie is in Toulouse vervaardig. Daar is veral geen Amerikaanse lugredery wat die vliegtuig bestel het nie.

Met 'n kapasiteit van tot 853 passasiers (alhoewel geen lugredery soveel sitplekke in hul weergawes ingesluit het nie), is dit ingelui as 'n nuwe era van lugvaart wat roetes met hoë verkeer doeltreffender en winsgewender sou maak. Ongelukkig het die ekonomie blykbaar nie gewerk nie, en 'n dreigende einde aan die A380 -program wat reeds begin het, is net bespoedig deur die Covid -pandemie en die besluit van verskeie groot draers om hul A380 -vloot te grond.

Die vliegtuig se doodsklok het in Februarie 2019 geklink met 'n gesamentlike verklaring van Airbus en Emirates, die grootste kliënt van die vliegtuig, dat die lugdiens sy bestaande A380 -bestelling destyds van 162 na 123 vliegtuie sou verminder. Die volgende grootste kliënte was Singapore Airlines, wat oor die jare 24 A380's geneem het, Lufthansa met 14 en British Airways en Qantas, met 12 elk. "As gevolg daarvan en weens die gebrek aan agterstand by ander lugrederye, sal Airbus die aflewering van die A380 in 2021 staak," het Airbus destyds aangekondig en sy fokus verskuif na kleiner vliegtuie van die volgende generasie, soos die A350 en A330neo.

Alhoewel 'n aansienlike reisherstel nodig sal wees vir lugrederye om hul gestoorde A380's weer in gebruik te neem, is die kans goed dat vlieërs hulle die volgende 10-15 jaar in die lug sal sien terwyl hulle hul produktiewe lewensduur bedien. Daarbenewens kan die A380 net 'n geheue word, net soos die Concorde.


Die laaste Airbus A380 superjumbo maak sy eerste vlug

AFP via Getty Images

Byna 16 jaar nadat die grootste passasiersvliegtuig ter wêreld die eerste keer die lug ingehaal het, het die laaste Airbus A380 superjumbo ooit sy eerste vlug voltooi.

Tydens middagete op 17 Maart het die laaste A380 wat bymekaargemaak is, opgestyg vanaf die Airbus ’ Jean-Luc Lagardere-aanleg, 'n doelgerigte fasiliteit op die lughawe Toulouse-Blagnac in Suid-Frankryk.

Studente -vlieënier Virgile Prodault het 'n video op Twitter gedeel van die vaartuig wat 'n lae pas uitvoer en 'n “wing golf ” — 'n tradisionele duik van die vlerke vir 'n nuwe vaartuig om afskeid te neem van die lughawe waar dit gemaak is.

Die bestemming op hierdie toetsvlug was die Airbus-vervaardigingsaanleg op die Hamburg-Finkenwerder-lughawe in Duitsland.

Dit is waar die kajuit ingerig en die vliegtuig geverf sal word, het die bestuurder van Airbus se mediaverhoudinge, Anne Galabert, verlede jaar aan CNN Travel gesê. Dit sal die kleed van die kliëntelugdiens Emirates dra.

Die samestelling van 'n A380 is 'n reuse -taak, met 1 500 ondernemings wat betrokke is by die vervaardiging van al die individuele onderdele, van klinknaels tot boute, tot sitplekke en enjins. Vier miljoen individuele onderdele moes gevlieg, bestuur en gestuur word uit 30 verskillende lande.

Die laaste konvooi na die Final Assembly Line (FAL) het in Februarie 2020 plaasgevind, met honderde wat in die Franse dorpie Levignac opgedaag het om die vlerke, rompafdelings en horisontale stertvliegtuig te sien vervoer slegs 'n maand voor die pandemie massa byeenkomste onmoontlik.

Rompgedeeltes kom uit Hamburg, Duitsland en Saint-Nazaire, Frankryk, die horisontale stertvliegtuig is in Cadiz, Spanje, vervaardig en die vertikale stertvin is ook in Hamburg vervaardig.

Die aanvanklike samestelling van die laaste dubbeldekkerstraal, reeksnommer 272, is verlede September in Toulouse voltooi, wat die prentjie bo-aan hierdie artikel is.

Sedertdien was dit op stasie 30, waar die enjins geïnstalleer is en toetse uitgevoer is op elektriese en hidrouliese stelsels, boordrekenaars, landingsgestel en bewegende onderdele.

Die finale toetse word buite uitgevoer, en Galabert het in September aan CNN gesê met die kontroles, insluitend kalibrasie van brandstofmeter, druk in die kajuit, radio's, radar, navigasiestelsels en verseëling van brandstoftenk, en die vliegtuig is dan voorberei vir vlug. ”

Die Airbus A380 is ontwikkel vir 'n koste van $ 25 miljard, en met 'n kapasiteit van tot 853 passasiers is dit die grootste massaprodusente burgerlike vliegtuig in die geskiedenis.

Die superjumbo se eerste aflewering was in 2007 by Singapore Airlines, en sedertdien het byna 250 A380's van die lyn in Toulouse gerol.

Dit is nou twee jaar sedert Airbus aangekondig het dat die vliegtuig gaan staak.

Dit is 'n pynlike besluit, het Tom Enders, uitvoerende hoof van Airbus, in Februarie 2019 gesê. Ons het baie moeite, baie hulpbronne en baie sweet in hierdie vliegtuig belê. ”

Airbus het lugrederye oorskat en#8217 se aptyt vir die superjumbo. Teen die tyd van die aankondiging van 2019 het dit slegs 234 van die vaartuie gelewer en minder as die helfte van die 600 wat dit voorspel het toe die dubbeldekker bekend gestel is.

Die belangstelling van lugrederye het verskuif na ligter, meer brandstofdoeltreffende vaartuie, en die pandemie het die vliegtuie nog verder versnel.

Lugrederye, waaronder Lufthansa, Qantas en Air France, het verlede jaar hul superjumbo gegrond, in 'n tyd toe die skerp afname in die vraag na lugreise beteken dat baie vliegtuie naby leeg vlieg.

A380's sal egter nog 'n rukkie in ons lug wees. Die MSN 272 is een van vyf splinternuwe vliegtuie wat nog geskeduleer is vir aflewering aan Emirates, die grootste kliënt van die vliegtuig.

Die president van die lugdiens, Tim Clark, het onlangs tydens 'n CAPA Live-konferensie bevestig dat hy van plan is om met sy vloot A380's te vlieg, waarvan daar tans ongeveer 120 — tot middel 2030's is.


Airbus A380 maak lugvaartgeskiedenis met eerste vlug

Die eerste vlug van die wêreld se grootste passasiersvliegtuig is 'n mylpaal vir lugvaart en die stryd van die Europese vliegtuigmaker met die Amerikaanse mededinger Boeing Co.

BLAGNAC, Frankryk (AP) - Die wêreld se grootste passasiersvliegtuig, die Airbus A380, het Woensdag sy eerste vlug voltooi, 'n mylpaal vir lugvaart en die stryd van die Europese vliegtuigvervaardiger met die Amerikaanse mededinger Boeing Co.

Die reuse -vliegtuig het om 14:22 (1222 GMT) tot applous geruk ná 'n vlug van net minder as vier uur. Byna 30 000 toeskouers het gekyk hoe die gees opstyg en land, 101 jaar nadat die Wright-broers die eerste beheerde, volgehoue ​​vlug met hul 274 kilogram (605 pond) vliegtuie bereik het.

'' Die eerste vlug van 'n splinternuwe vliegtuig is 'n ware mylpaal, 'het mede-vlieënier Claude Lelaie gesê. Hy noem die A380 'n '' wonderlike vliegtuig ''.

Voordat dit land, met sy voorligte skyn, vlieg die A380 stadig bo die lughawe in Blagnac, suidwes van Frankryk, waar dit om 10:29 uur (0829 GMT) vertrek het, terwyl die vier enjins verbasend stil was toe hulle die romp met 'n dubbeldek, 280 metrieke ton (308 ton).

Die wit straal met 'n blou stert het 'n bemanning van ses en 20 ton (22 ton) aan boord toetsinstrumente gedra. Die bemanning, geklee in oranje pakke, waai gelukkig toe hulle die deur van die vliegtuig oopgooi en die trappe afklim na die landing.

'' 'N Nuwe bladsy in die lugvaartgeskiedenis is geskryf,' het die Franse president Jacques Chirac gesê. '' Dit is 'n uitstekende resultaat Europese industriële samewerking. '

Die vlieëniers het die vliegtuig se basiese hanteringseienskappe nagegaan terwyl die boord-toerusting metings vir 150 000 afsonderlike parameters aangeteken het en real-time data na rekenaars op die grond teruggestraal het. Die bemanning het aandenkingsfoto's tydens vlug geneem en nadat hulle aangeraak het.

Hulle het ook geen kans gewaag nie - valskerms aangetrek vir die eerste vlug. 'N Leuning in die toetsvliegtuig het vanaf die kajuit gelei na 'n ontsnappingsdeur wat sou kon vasval as die vlieëniers beheer verloor het.

In Parys het die ministers van die Franse kabinet applous ingebreek toe Chirac hulle vertel van die suksesvolle begin van die vlug. Die hoof van die mededinger van Boeing se Franse afdeling, Yves Galland, het gesê dat hy die vertrek op televisie gekyk het en 'net hierdie keer' die gevoel van die mense van Airbus gedeel het. '

'' Die vertrek was absoluut perfek, '' het die hooftoetsvlieënier Jacques Rosay per radio aan die A380 -kajuit gesê toe hy op 'n afstand van 3000 meter net noord van die Pyreneë -berge, ongeveer 'n uur in die vlug, gevlieg het. '' Die weer is wonderlik. ''

Die vlug het 'n maksimum van 11 jaar voorbereiding en 'n besteding van 10 miljard euro (13 miljard dollar) beloop.

Orville en Wilbur Wright, daarteenoor, het na raming 'n geskatte US $ 1.000 (euro770 teen die huidige tariewe) bestee aan die ontwikkeling van hul skeletvliegtuig wat 12 sekondes in die lug op die eerste vlug die oggend van 17 Desember 1903 gebly het. Hulle vliegtuig was gebou van spar en as bedek met moeselien en weeg slegs 274 kilogram (605 pond), volgens die Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington.

Airbus, insluitend sy omvangryke toetstoerusting, toebehore en brandstof, het gesê die A380 weeg Woensdag 421 ton (464 ton) by die opstyg - ongeveer 75 persent van die maksimum gemagtigde opstyggewig vir kommersiële vlugte.

Toeskouers het by die lughawe gekamp om daar te wees, wat volgens sommige die grootste lugvaartbyeenkoms in Europa was sedert die eerste vlug van die supersoniese Concorde in 1969.

Die A380, met 'n katalogusprys van US $ 282 miljoen (euro216 miljoen), verteenwoordig 'n groot weddenskap van Airbus dat lugrederye baie groot vliegtuie benodig om passasiers tussen steeds besige lughawens te vervoer. Tot dusver het Airbus 154 bestellings vir die A380 bespreek, wat volgens hom passasiers 5 persent verder sal bring as Boeing se langste 747 jumbo teen 'n passasiersprys van tot 'n vyfde onder sy mededinger.

Maar Airbus moet nog bewys dat hy wins kan maak op sy belegging, waarvan 'n derde van Europese regerings kom. Sommige ontleders sê tekens van 'n oplewing in die mark vir kleiner, langafstandvliegtuie, soos Boeing se 787 '' Dreamliner '', toon dat Airbus verkeerd was om hulpbronne op die superjumbo te fokus ten koste van sy eie A350- wat in diens tree in 2010, twee jaar na sy Boeing -mededinger.

Net hierdie week het Air Canada en Air India 'n totaal van 82 nuwe bestellings vir Boeing -vliegtuie aangekondig - waaronder 41 787's - wat Boeing se Dreamliner -bestelboek na 237 geneem het.

Maar Noel Forgeard, uitvoerende hoof van Airbus, het Boeing se onlangse bestellings en die ontwikkelingsvoorsprong van die 787 afgemaak en gesê dat die stryd om die mark in kleiner vliegtuie oor 20 jaar uitgeveg sou word, nie twee nie.

Forgeard, wat later vanjaar uittree om gesamentlike uitvoerende hoof te word van Airbus-ouer European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co. '' tweede helfte van 2006 '' - ongeveer drie maande agter die vorige skedule.

'N Deel van die vertraging is die gevolg van die sukkel van die superjumbo met 'n gewigsprobleem wat maande se ingenieurstyd in beslag geneem het en die grootste deel van die program se koste van $ 1,88 miljard (1,45 miljard euro). Mededingende druk op lugdienste om meer, swaarder sitplekke in die sakeklas aan te bied, het die druk toegeneem.

Airbus sê die A380-toetsvlugprogram sal waarskynlik meer as 'n jaar duur en klaar wees voordat die vliegtuig middel 2006 in diens is van Singapore Airlines.


Nog 10-15 jaar oor vir die A380

Terwyl die vlug van vandag die begin van die einde vir die Airbus A380 is, is dit onwaarskynlik dat die tipe wat die vervaardiger betref, spoedig uit die lug sal verdwyn. Emirates sal hierdie vliegtuig in 2022 ontvang en sal dit goed wil gebruik voordat hulle uittree.

Die lugredery het vroeër onthul dat dit van plan is om die reus van die lug in die middel van die 2030's te bedryf, en met 'n vloot van meer as 100 stralers sal dit 'n rukkie neem om hulle almal te vervang. Die lugdiens beplan reeds om die A380 tot 18 stede hierdie somer te bedryf, met die doel om die hele vloot teen 2022 weer in diens te neem.

Is u hartseer om die laaste eerste vlug van die Airbus A380 te sien? Laat ons weet wat u dink en waarom in die kommentaar!


Waarom het die Airbus A380 misluk?

Maar die Airbus-program, wat te lank vertraag en te groot is, het nooit werklik voorspellings afgeskud dat dit 'n wit olifant van die lug sou wees nie.

Waarom het die grootste passasiersvliegtuig ter wêreld, wat beskryf word as 'n 'quothotel in the sky', dan misluk na slegs 12 jaar se produksie?

Die A380, waarvan die vlerke gemaak is by Airbus UK, was 'n dapper uitdager vir die Amerikaanse mededinger Boeing se oorheersing van die groot vliegtuigmark.

Terwyl Airbus 'n weddenskap van miljarde dollar onderneem het dat lugrederye in die toekoms groot vliegtuie wil hê, ontwikkel Boeing sy kleiner, flink (en skynbaar meer suksesvolle) 787 Dreamliner.

Met ongeveer 550 passasiers - maar met kapasiteit vir meer - oor 'n afstand van 8 000 seemyl, het die A380 gestaan ​​op die vinnig groeiende markte in Asië en die Midde -Ooste, waar lugrederye meer mense per vlug wou vlieg.

Die A380 spog ook met meer as 500 vierkante meter bruikbare vloeroppervlakte, sodat vervoerders luukse eersteklas suites, kroeë, skoonheidsalonne en belastingvrye winkels kan aanbied.

Maar na 'n aanvanklike toename in bestellings, veral uit Emirates in Dubai, het die vraag opgedroog en het die program nooit wins gemaak nie.

Die hele program het $ 25 miljard (£ 19,4 miljard) gekos en is onderhewig aan kontroversies oor subsidies van die Franse en Duitse regerings.

Verlede jaar het die Wêreldhandelsorganisasie beslis dat die EU nie voldoen aan die versoeke om staatshulp aan die vliegtuigmaker te beëindig nie, wat die handelsspanning tussen die blok en die VSA verhoog.

Die doelwit was om in totaal 700 te verkoop.

Ironies genoeg is die dubbeldekker-vliegtuie gewild onder passasiers, maar lugrederye beskou dit as ondoeltreffend.

Sommige beweer dat die A380 te groot is, wat dit nie winsgewend maak as te veel sitplekke nie vol is nie. En Willie Walsh, baas van British Airways -eienaar IAG, het net verlede week voorgestel dat die vliegtuig - hoewel goed - te duur was.

Terwyl brandstofpryse styg en kampvegters die omgewingsimpak van vliegtuie bevraagteken, het sommige lugrederye gekies vir kleiner, maar meer doeltreffende vliegtuie wat deur Boeing en Airbus vervaardig is.

Sommige lugrederye het verkies om te wag vir meer besonderhede oor Boeing se nuwe familie van 777's - waarvan die aflewerings in 2020 begin - met minder sitplekke, maar dieselfde reeks, meer vrag en twee minder enjins.

Sedert 2005 is altesaam 57 vaste bestellings vir die A380 gekanselleer deur lugrederye, waaronder Emirates, Virgin Atlantic en Lufthansa. 'N Vragweergawe van die vliegtuig het ook nooit opgestyg nie weens 'n gebrek aan belangstelling.

Nie verrassend nie, spekulasie dat die vliegtuig geskrap kan word, draai al jare om, hoewel Airbus in beperkte getalle die A380 sou kon voortbring, sê kenners.

'N Besluit van sy grootste kliënt, Emirates, om 'n bestelling af te gradeer, blyk Airbus se hand egter te dwing.


Inhoud

Die huidige onderneming is die produk van konsolidasie in die Europese ruimtevaartbedryf, wat terugkeer na die vorming van die Airbus Industrie GIE konsortium in 1970. In 2000 is die European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (EADS) NV gestig. Benewens ander filiale wat betrekking het op beveiligings- en ruimte-aktiwiteite, besit EADS 100% van die reeds bestaande Eurocopter SA, wat in 1992 gestig is, asook 80% van Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001 is Airbus Industrie GIE herorganiseer as Airbus SAS, 'n vereenvoudigde aandelemaatskappy. In 2006 het EADS die oorblywende 20% van Airbus van BAE Systems verkry. [17] EADS NV is in 2014 en 2015 onderskeidelik herdoop tot Airbus Group NV en SE. [18] [19] [20] As gevolg van die oorheersing van die Airbus SAS -afdeling in Airbus Group SE, is die uitvoerende komitees van die moeder- en filiaalmaatskappye in Januarie 2017 in lyn gebring, maar die maatskappye is as aparte regspersone gehou. Die beheermaatskappy het sy huidige naam in April 2017 gekry. [21]

Daimler-Benz se lugvaartbelange

Die logo's van Airbus Industrie GIE en Airbus SAS vertoon 'n gestileerde turbinesimbool, rooi van 'n straalmotor, en 'n lettertipe soortgelyk aan Helvetica Black. Die logo -kleure word weerspieël in die standaard Airbus -vliegtuie in elke periode. Die EADS-logo tussen 2000 en 2010 kombineer die logo's van die saamgesmelte ondernemings, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG ('n vierstraalster) en Aérospatiale-Matra ('n geboë pyl), waarna hierdie elemente verwyder is en 'n nuwe lettertipe met 3D-skaduwee gekies is . Hierdie lettertipe is behou in die logo's van Airbus Group NV (2014–2015) en Airbus Group SE (2015–2017), daarna Airbus SE:

Burgerlike redigering

Die Airbus-produkreeks het in 1972 met die A300 begin, die wêreld se eerste tweegang-tweemotorige vliegtuig ter wêreld. 'N Korter, gevleuelde, hermotorvariant van die A300 staan ​​bekend as die A310.

Gebaseer op sy sukses, het Airbus die A320 gelanseer, die eerste kommersiële straalvliegtuig wat 'n digitale vlieg-deur-draad-stelsel gebruik het. Die A320 was en is steeds 'n groot kommersiële sukses. Die A318 en A319 is korter afgeleides, met 'n paar laasgenoemde onder konstruksie vir die korporatiewe sakevliegtuigmark as Airbus Corporate Jets. 'N Uitgestrekte weergawe staan ​​bekend as die A321. Die A320 -gesin se primêre mededinger is die Boeing 737 -gesin. [22]

Die breë liggaamsprodukte van groter afstande-die tweevliegtuig A330 en die viermotorige A340-het doeltreffende vlerke, versterk deur winglets. Die Airbus A340-500 het 'n werkafstand van 16.700 kilometer (9.000 nm), die tweede langste reeks van enige kommersiële straalvliegtuig ná die Boeing 777-200LR (reikafstand van 17 446 km of 9 420 seemyl). [23]

Alle Airbus -vliegtuie wat sedertdien ontwikkel is, het kajuitstelsels soortgelyk aan die A320, wat dit makliker maak om die bemanning op te lei. Die produksie van die vier-enjin A340 is in 2011 beëindig weens 'n gebrek aan verkope in vergelyking met sy tweemotorige eweknieë, soos die Boeing 777. [24]

Airbus bestudeer 'n plaasvervanger vir die A320-reeks, voorlopig NSR genoem, vir 'Nuwe kortafstandvliegtuie'. [25] [26] Hierdie studies dui op 'n maksimum toename in brandstofdoeltreffendheid van 9–10% vir die NSR. Airbus het egter besluit om die bestaande A320 -ontwerp met nuwe winglets te verbeter en aan aerodinamiese verbeterings te werk. [27] Hierdie "A320 Enhanced" behoort 'n verbetering in brandstofdoeltreffendheid van ongeveer 4-5%te hê, wat die bekendstelling van 'n A320 -vervanging na 2017–2018 verskuif.

Op 24 September 2009 het die COO Fabrice Bregier gesê Le Figaro dat die maatskappy oor ses jaar van € 800 miljoen tot € 1 miljard nodig sou hê om die nuwe vliegtuiggenerasie te ontwikkel en die onderneming se tegnologiese voorsprong te behou van nuwe mededingers, soos die Chinese Comac C919, [28] wat teen 2015–2020 sou funksioneer. [29]

In Julie 2007 het Airbus sy laaste A300 aan FedEx afgelewer, wat die einde van die A300/A310 -produksielyn was. Airbus is van voorneme om die finale vergadering van Toulouse A320 na Hamburg te verskuif, en die produksie van A350/A380 in die teenoorgestelde rigting as deel van sy Power8-organisasieplan wat onder die voormalige uitvoerende hoof, Christian Streiff, begin is. [30]

Airbus verskaf vervangingsonderdele en diens vir Concorde tot met sy aftrede in 2003. [31] [32]

Produklys en besonderhede (datuminligting van Airbus)
Vliegtuie Beskrywing Sitplekke Maks 1ste vlug Produksie het gestaak
A220 2 enjins, enkelgang, oorspronklik Bombardier CSeries 108–130 133–160 2013-09-16
A300 2 enjins, dubbelganger 228–254 361 1972-10-28 2007-03-27 (561 gebou)
A310 2 enjins, tweelinggang, aangepaste A300 187 279 1982-04-03 2007-03-27 (255 gebou)
A318 2 enjins, enkelgang, 6,17 m verkort van A320 107 132 2002-01-15 2013-12-31 (80 gebou)
A319 2 enjins, enkelgang, 3,77 m verkort van A320 124 156 1995-08-25
A320 2 enjins, enkelgang 150 186 1987-02-22
A321 2 enjins, enkelgang, 6,94 m verleng van A320 185 240 1993-03-11
A330 2 enjins, dubbelganger 246–300 406–440 1992-11-02
A340 4 enjins, dubbelganger 239–380 380–440 1991-10-25 2011-11-10 (377 gebou) [24]
A350 2 enjins, dubbelganger 270–350 475 2013-06-14
A380 4 enjins, dubbeldek, tweelinggang 555 853 2005-04-27 2021 (251 gebou) [33]

Airbus Corporate Jets bemark en verander nuwe vliegtuie vir private en sakekliënte. Dit het 'n modelreeks wat ooreenstem met die kommersiële vliegtuie wat die maatskappy aanbied, wat wissel van die A318 Elite tot die dubbeldek Airbus A380 Prestige. Na die toetrede van die 737 -gebaseerde Boeing Business Jet, het Airbus in 1997 by die sakevliegtuigmark aangesluit met die A319 Corporate Jet. Hoewel die term Airbus Corporate jet aanvanklik slegs vir die A319CJ gebruik is, word dit nou gereeld vir alle modelle gebruik, insluitend die VIP wye liggame. Sedert Desember 2008 is daar 121 korporatiewe en private stralers, 164 vliegtuie is bestel, waaronder 'n A380 Prestige en 107 A320 -familie Corporate Jet. [34]

In September 2014 werk Aerion saam met Airbus (hoofsaaklik Airbus Defense) [35] om saam te werk aan die ontwerp van die Aerion AS2, 'n supersoniese 11-sitplek privaat sakevliegtuig, in die hoop op 'n toegang tot die mark in 2021. [36] Airbus is vervang met Lockheed Martin in 2017. [37]

Verbruikersprodukte Redigeer

In Junie 2013 het Airbus aangekondig dat hy 'n reeks 'slim tasse' ontwikkel, bekend as Bag2Go vir lugreisigers, in samewerking met bagasievervaardiger Rimowa en IT-firma T-Systems. [38] [39] Die kaste bevat 'n versameling ingeboude elektroniese toestelle wat met 'n slimfoon-app en met die IT-stelsels van die lugredery kommunikeer, om die reisiger by te staan ​​en die betroubaarheid en veiligheid van bagasiehantering te verbeter. Gadgets bevat 'n weegskaal en 'n liggingopsporing, met behulp van GPS vir liggingopsporing, RFID vir identifikasie en 'n SIM -kaart vir boodskappe. [40] [41] Sedertdien is soortgelyke produkte deur ander ondernemings aangekondig.

Militêre redigering

Aan die einde van die negentigerjare het Airbus toenemend belanggestel in die ontwikkeling en verkoop aan die militêre lugvaartmark. Dit het twee belangrike ontwikkelingsvelde aangepak: hervulling in die lug met die Airbus A310 MRTT (Multi-Roll Tanker Transport) en die Airbus A330 MRTT, en taktiese lugbrug met die Airbus A400M Atlas.

In Januarie 1999 stig Airbus 'n aparte maatskappy, Airbus Military SAS, om die ontwikkeling en vervaardiging van 'n turbopropaangedrewe taktiese vervoervliegtuig, die A400M, te onderneem. [42] [43] Die A400M word ontwikkel deur verskeie NAVO -lede, België, Frankryk, Duitsland, Luxemburg, Spanje, Turkye en die Verenigde Koninkryk, as 'n alternatief om op buitelandse vliegtuie staat te maak vir taktiese lugvaartkapasiteit, soos die Oekraïense Antonov An-124 Ruslan [44] en die Amerikaanse C-130 Hercules. [45] [46] Die A400M -projek het verskeie vertragings ondergaan [47] [48] Airbus het gedreig om die ontwikkeling te kanselleer, tensy dit staatsubsidies ontvang. [49] [50]

Pakistan het in 2008 'n bestelling geplaas vir die Airbus A310 MRTT, wat 'n omskakeling van 'n bestaande vliegtuigraamwerk sal wees, aangesien die basismodel A310 nie meer in produksie is nie. [51] Op 25 Februarie 2008 het Airbus 'n bevel gekry vir drie MRTT -vliegtuie wat aangevul is, aangepas uit A330 -passasiersvliegtuie, uit die Verenigde Arabiese Emirate. [52] Op 1 Maart 2008 het 'n konsortium van Airbus en Northrop Grumman 'n kontrak van $ 35 miljard gekry vir die bou van die nuwe vliegvullingstankvliegtuig KC-45A, 'n Amerikaanse weergawe van die MRTT, vir die USAF. [53] Die besluit het 'n formele klagte van Boeing ingedien, [54] [55] en die KC-X-kontrak is gekanselleer om weer te begin bied. [56] [57]

Airbus vliegtuig nommering stelsel Wysig

Die Airbus -nommerstelsel is 'n alfanumeriese modelnommer, gevolg deur 'n streep en 'n driesyfergetal. [58]

Die modelnommer neem dikwels die vorm aan van die letter "A" gevolg deur 'n '3', 'n syfer, dan normaalweg gevolg deur 'n '0', byvoorbeeld A350. Daar is enkele uitsonderings soos: A220, A318, A319, A321 en A400M. Die daaropvolgende driesyfergetal verteenwoordig onderskeidelik die vliegtuigreeks, die vervaardiger van die enjin en die weergawe van die enjin. Om 'n A380-800 te gebruik met Engine Alliance (EA) GP7200-enjins as voorbeeld Die kode is 8 vir reeks 800, 6 vir Engine Alliance en enjinweergawe 1, dus is die vliegtuignommer A380-861.

Soms word 'n bykomende brief gebruik. Dit sluit in: 'C' vir 'n kombi -weergawe (passasier/vragskip), 'F' vir 'n vragskipmodel, 'R' vir die langafstandmodel en 'X' vir die verbeterde model.

Motorkodes Wysig

Kode Vervaardigingsonderneming
0 General Electric (GE)
1 CFM International (GE en SNECMA, nou 'n filiaal van Safran)
2 Pratt & amp; Whitney (P & amp)
3 Internasionale Aero-enjins (P & ampW, R-R, MTU, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi en IHI) (IAE V2500 vir A320ceo Family)
4 Rolls-Royce (R-R)
5 CFM International (GE en SNECMA/Safran) (CFM-I LEAP-1A vir A320neo Family)
6 Engine Alliance (GE en P & ampW) (EA GP7200 vir die A380)
7 Pratt & Whitney (P & ampW) (PW1100G vir A320neo Family)

Bestellings en aflewerings wysig

Vliegtuie Bestellings Aflewerings In werking Ongevul
A220 630 143 143 547
A300 561 561 232
A310 255 255 57
A320ceo* 8,047 7,996 7,479 51
A320neo* 7,451 1,617 1,617 5,834
A330ceo* 1,478 1,454 1,380 24
A330neo* 331 57 56 274
A340* 377 377 223
A350* 915 406 405 509
A380 251 246 243 5
Totaal 20,376 13,192 11,899 7,184

Data vanaf 31 Desember 2020. [59]

Afdelings Redigeer

Inkomste per afdeling, vanaf 2014: [60]

Inkomste per afdeling, vanaf 2018: [61]

Kommersiële vliegtuie Edit

Kommersiële vliegtuie het 66% van die totale inkomste vir die groep in 2013 genereer. [62] Die produkportefeulje van sulke vliegtuie bevat kortafstandmodelle soos die A320 -gesin en die wêreld se grootste passasiersvliegtuig, die A380.

Airbus Transport International

Airbus Transport International is 'n vragvliegtuig wat 'n vloot van vyf Airbus Beluga -vliegtuie bedryf. Die Belugas vervoer vliegtuigonderdele van fabrieke tot by die laaste monteerlyne. In 2020, drie Airbus Beluga XL -vliegtuie wat twee A350 -vlerke kan dra eerder as een Airbus A350 -vleuel. Dit sal die vyf oorspronklike belugas in die komende jare stadig vervang.

Verdediging en ruimte Bewerk

Die afdeling Airbus Defense and Space is in Januarie 2014 gestig as deel van die herstrukturering van die groep van die voormalige EADS -afdelings Airbus Military, Astrium en Cassidian (saamgestel uit Cassidian Electronics - ontwikkel en vervaardig sensors, radars, avionika en elektroniese oorlogstelsels vir militêre en sekuriteitstoepassings, Cassidian Air Systems - ontwikkel bemande en onbemande lugstelsels (UAV's), sendingavionika, elektroniese verdedigings- en waarskuwingstelsels en Cassidian Systems - bied wêreldwye sekuriteitstelsels soos bevel- en versterkerbeheer, loodstelselintegrasie, TETRA- en TETRAPOL -kommunikasiestelsels vir publiek veiligheid, nywerheid, vervoer en verdediging. Hierdie onderneming was die eerste in die wêreld wat veldtoetse met TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS) begin [63]). [64]

    - 'n Griekse onderneming wat fokus op die ontwerp, ontwikkeling, vervaardiging en dienslewering van drone in die lug en op die oppervlak.

Die Airbus Military -afdeling, wat tenkwa-, vervoer- en sendingvliegtuie Eurocopter vervaardig het, die grootste helikopterverskaffer ter wêreld, Astrium, het stelsels verskaf vir lug-, land-, vloot- en burgerlike veiligheidstoepassings, waaronder Ariane, Galileo en Cassidian. Deur Cassidian was EADS 'n vennoot in die Eurofighter -konsortium sowel as in die missielstelselverskaffer MBDA.

Helikopters wysig

Airbus Helicopters, voorheen bekend as Eurocopter, is 'n helikoptervervaardigings- en ondersteuningsonderneming. Sien ook: Airbus Helicopters, Inc.

Filiale Redigeer

  • Airbus APWorks [65]
  • AirBusiness Academy [66] - (voorheen EADS Noord -Amerika) die Amerikaanse beheermaatskappy vir die Noord -Amerikaanse aktiwiteite van Airbus Group - Cargo Airline wat die vervoer van Airbus -onderdele tussen verskillende fasiliteite bestuur. [67] [68]

Gesamentlike ondernemings Redigeer

In September 2014 het Airbus dit oorweeg om Dassault en verskeie ander eenhede te verkoop om op lugvaart te fokus. [70] Hulle het hul aandeelhouding in Dassault Aviation teen einde 2016 tot 10% verminder.

Bestuur Redigeer

Die korporatiewe bestuur van die Airbus SE vanaf April 2019: [71]

Hoof Uitvoerende Beampte: Guillaume Faury

Lid Titel
Dominik Asam Hoof finansiële beampte
Thierry Baril Hoof Menslike Hulpbronne Beampte
Jean-Brice Dumont Uitvoerende vise -president ingenieurswese
Bruno Even Airbus Helicopters, uitvoerende hoof
John Harrison Algemene raad
Dirk Hoke Hoof uitvoerende beampte Airbus Defence and Space
Julie Kitcher Uitvoerende vise -president kommunikasie en korporatiewe aangeleenthede
Philippe Mhun Uitvoerende vise -president programme en dienste
Christian Scherer Kommersiële hoof
Michael Schöllhorn Bedryfshoof
Grazia Vittadini Hoof Tegnologie Beampte

Korporatiewe aangeleenthede Redigeer

Die filiaal Airbus Midde -Ooste het sy hoofkwartier in die Dubai Airport Free Zone. [72] Hierdie filiaal is in 2006 geopen. [73]

Die filiaal Airbus Japan K.K. (エ ア バ ス ・ ジ パ ン ン 株式会社) het sy hoofkwartier in die Roppongi Hills Mori Tower in Roppongi, Minato, Tokio. [74]

Internasionale vervaardigingsaanwesigheid Wysig

Airbus het verskeie finale monteerlyne vir verskillende modelle en markte. Hierdie is:

    , Frankryk (A320, A330 -gesin, A350 -gesin en A380), Duitsland (A318, A319, A320 en A321), Spanje (A400M), China (A319 en A320). , VSA - Airbus Mobile (A220, A319, A320 en A321), Kanada (A220), Wallis - vleuelkonstruksie [75]

Airbus het egter 'n aantal ander aanlegte op verskillende Europese plekke, wat die stigting daarvan as 'n konsortium weerspieël. 'N Oorspronklike oplossing vir die probleem met die verskuiwing van vliegtuigonderdele tussen die verskillende fabrieke en die monteeraanlegte is die gebruik van die Airbus Beluga, 'n aangepaste vragvliegtuig wat hele dele van die romp kan vervoer. Boeing het 'n soortgelyke oplossing aangeneem met 4 aangepaste 747-400's om die komponente van die 787 te vervoer. 'N Uitsondering op hierdie skema is die A380, waarvan die romp en vlerke te groot is om gedeeltes deur die Beluga te dra. Groot A380 -dele word per skip na Bordeaux gebring en dan deur die Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit, 'n spesiaal vergrote waterweg en padroete, na die vergaderingsfabriek in Toulouse vervoer. [76]

Airbus het in 2009. 'n vergaderfabriek in Tianjin, Volksrepubliek China, geopen vir sy vliegtuie in die A320 -reeks. [77] [78] [79] Airbus het in Julie 2009 begin met die bou van 'n komponentvervaardigingsaanleg van $ 350 miljoen in Harbin, China, wat 1.000 in diens sal neem. mense. [80] [81] [82] Die aanleg van 30 000 vierkante meter sal na bewering teen einde 2010 bedryf word, en sal saamgestelde dele vervaardig en saamgestelde werkpakkette vir die A350 XWB, A320-gesinne en toekomstige Airbus-programme saamstel. Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Corporation, Hafei Aviation Industry Company Ltd, AviChina Industry & amp Technology Company en ander Chinese vennote besit die aandeel van 80% van die aanleg terwyl Airbus die oorblywende 20% beheer. [83]

Noord -Amerika is 'n belangrike gebied vir Airbus in terme van sowel vliegtuigverkope as verskaffers. 2,000 van die totaal van ongeveer 5,300 Airbus-vliegtuie wat deur Airbus oor die hele wêreld verkoop word, wat elke vliegtuig in sy produkreeks verteenwoordig, van die A318 met 107 sitplekke tot die A380 met 565 passasiers, word bestel deur Noord-Amerikaanse kliënte. Volgens Airbus het Amerikaanse kontrakteurs, wat na raming 120 000 werksgeleenthede ondersteun, 'n geskatte waarde van $ 5,5 miljard (2003) verdien. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value.

Plans for a Mobile, Alabama aircraft assembly plant were unveiled by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Centre on 2 July 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley for the assembly of the A220, A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. It could employ up to 1,000 full-time workers when operational. Construction began on 8 April 2013, and became operable by 2015, [84] producing up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017. [85] [86]

In February 2019, Airbus stated that production of the A380 will end in 2021 after Emirates, the biggest customer for the plane, reduced its outstanding order for 53 planes to just fourteen. [87]

Financial information Edit

Revenues by region, as of 2013: [60]

In October 2005 the British Ministry of Defence warned European politicians to stop, as it sees it, interfering in the corporate governance of EADS. The former UK Defence Procurement Minister Lord Drayson hinted that the UK government, a major customer for EADS, may withhold future contracts. "As a key customer, we see it as important for EADS to move in a direction that is free from political interference." [88]

On 4 April 2006, DaimlerChrysler announced its intention to reduce its shareholding from 30 % to 22.5 %. The company places a value of the stake at "approximately €2.0 billion." [89] Lagardère will reduce its holding by an identical amount. However, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, a unit of the French government, acquired 2.25 % of EADS. At issue as a result is the fact that the German and French shareholdings are now in imbalance. [90]

On 30 August 2006, shortly after the stock price decline caused by the A380 delivery delays, more than 5 % of EADS stock has been reportedly purchased by the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank. [91] [92] Now its share is nearly 6 %. In December 2007, Vneshtorgbank sold EADS shares to another state-controlled bank Vneshekonombank. EADS sharers are to be delivered by Vneshekonombank to the charter capital of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" in 2008. [93] [94]

On 3 October 2006, shortly after EADS admitted further delays in the Airbus 380 programme would cost the company 4.8 billion euros in lost earnings in 2010, EADS shares, traded on the Paris arm of Euronext, were suspended after they surpassed the 10 % loss limit. Trading resumed later in the day with the one-day loss holding at 7 %.

In 2007, Dubai Holding acquired 3.12 % of EADS stock, making the Dubai buy-out fund one of the largest institutional shareholders. [95]

In 2008, EADS had arms sales equivalent of $17.9 billion, which constituted 28 % of total revenue. [96]

In April 2013, Daimler sold its shares in EADS. [97]

As of 22 June 2018 [update] , 73.6 % of Airbus Group stock is publicly traded on six European stock exchanges, while the remaining 26.4 % is owned by a "Contractual Partnership". As at 26 April 2018, the partnership is owned by SOGEPA (11.1%), GZBV (11.1%) and SEPI (4.2%). SOGEPA is owned by the French State, GZBV is majority owned by KfW, while SEPI is a Spanish state holding company. [98]

In April 2020, Airbus announced that it has cut aircraft production by a third due to the COVID-19 outbreak. According to Guillaume Faury, the company was "bleeding cash at an unprecedented speed." The recession put its survival at stake and presented the need for deep job cuts throughout all Airbus departments. 3,000 workers in France were involved in government-assisted furlough schemes. [99]

Finances [100] 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Sales EUR billion 59.256 56.480 49.128 45.752 42.822 43.265 39.123 39.434 34.206 31.761
EBITDA in Mio. EUR 4.575 4.142 3.473 2.769 1.446 4.439 1.751 2.033 4.365 3.841
EBIT in Mio. EUR 2.661 2.186 1.696 1.231 (322) 2.830 52 399 2.852 2.432
Research and development costs EUR million 3.160 3.142 3.152 2.939 2.825 2.669 2.608 2.458 2.075 2.126
Consolidated net income EUR million 1.465 1.198 1.104 584 (722) 1.613 (433) 199 1.769 1.342
Earnings per share in EUR 1,85 1,46 1,27 0,68 (0,94) 1,95 (0,56) 0,12 2,11 1,50
Dividend per share in EUR 0,75 0,60 0,45 0,22 0,00 0,20 0,12 0,12 0,65 0,50
Free cash flow in EUR million (818) 3.472 958 2.707 585 2.559 3.354 2.029 2.413 1.614
New orders in EUR million 218.681 102.471 131.027 83.147 45.847 98.648 136.799 69.018 92.551 44.117
Order backlog at 31.12. in EUR million 686.734 566.463 540.978 448.493 389.067 400.248 339.532 262.810 253.235 184.288
Employees (number) 31.12. 144.061 140.405 133.115 121.691 119.506 118.349 116.493 116.805 113.210 110.662
accounted for under IFRS The fiscal year ends on 31/12.

Sales of military equipment in 2012 amounted to 15.4 billion US dollars. [101]

Airbus has committed to the "Flightpath 2050", an aviation industry plan to reduce noise, CO2, and NOx emissions. [102]

Airbus was the first aerospace business to become ISO 14001 certified, in January 2007 this is a broader certification covering the whole organisation, not just the aircraft it produces. [103]

In association with Honeywell and JetBlue Airbus has developed a biofuel to reduce pollution and dependence on fossil fuels, claiming that this has the potential to replace up to a third of the world's aviation fuel. Algae-based biofuel absorbs carbon dioxide during growth and does not compete with food production. This alternative may be commercially available by 2030 but algae and other vegetation-based fuels are in an early stage of development and fuel-bearing algae has been expensive to develop. [104] Airbus offers delivery flights to airlines using a 10% biofuel blend in standard engines. The fuel does not cut carbon emissions but is free of sulphur emissions and demonstrates that the fuel could be used in commercial flights in unmodified engines. [105]

In September 2020, Airbus unveiled three liquid hydrogen-fueled "ZEROe" concept aircraft that it claims could become the first commercial zero-emission aircraft, entering service by 2035. [106] [107]

Government subsidies Edit

Boeing has continually protested over "launch aid" and other forms of government aid to Airbus, while Airbus has argued that Boeing receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks. [108]

In July 2004 former Boeing CEO Harry Stonecipher accused Airbus of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU-US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments. Airbus is given reimbursable launch investment (RLI), called "launch aid" by the US, from European governments with the money being paid back with interest plus indefinite royalties, but only if the aircraft is a commercial success. [109] Airbus contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. The agreement allows up to 33% of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties. These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0.25%, which would be below market rates available to Airbus without government support. [110] Airbus claims that since the signature of the EU-US agreement in 1992, it has repaid European governments more than U.S.$6.7 billion and that this is 40% more than it has received.

Airbus argues that the military contracts awarded to Boeing, the second largest U.S. defence contractor, are in effect a form of subsidy, such as the controversy surrounding the Boeing KC-767 military contracting arrangements. The significant U.S. government support of technology development via NASA also provides significant support to Boeing, as do the large tax breaks offered to Boeing, which some people claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. In its recent products such as the 787, Boeing has also been offered direct financial support from local and state governments. [111]

In January 2005 the European Union and United States trade representatives, Peter Mandelson and Robert Zoellick respectively, agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions. [112] [113] These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement. [114]

WTO ruled in August 2010 and in May 2011 that Airbus had received improper government subsidies through loans with below market rates from several European countries. [115] In a separate ruling in February 2011, WTO found that Boeing had received local and federal aid in violation of WTO rules. [116]

Cluster bomb allegation Edit

In 2005 the Government Pension Fund of Norway recommended the exclusion of several companies producing cluster bombs or components. EADS and its sister company EADS Finance BV were among them, arguing that EADS manufactures "key components for cluster bombs". The criticism was centred around TDA, a joint venture between EADS and Thales S.A. TDA produced the mortar ammunition PR Cargo, which can be considered cluster ammunition, however this definition has since been successfully battled by EADS. EADS and its subsidiaries are now regarded as fulfilling all the conditions of the Ottawa Treaty. According to the new point of view, no product of EADS or its subsidiaries falls into the category of antipersonnel mines as defined by the Ottawa Treaty ("landmines under the Ottawa Treaty"). In April 2006, the fund declared that the basis for excluding EADS from investments related to production of cluster munitions is no longer valid, however its shareholding of MBDA means the fund still excludes EADS due to its indirect involvement in nuclear weapons production. [117]

Insider trading investigation Edit

On 2 June 2006 co-CEO Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months. Forgeard was one of a number of executives including Jean-Paul Gut who exercised stock options in November 2005 and March 2006. He and twenty-one other executives are [ wanneer? ] under investigation as to whether they knew about the delays in the Airbus A380 project which caused a 26 % fall in EADS shares when publicised. The French government's actions were also under investigation The state-owned bank Caisse des Dépots et Consignations (CDC) bought part of Lagardère's 7.5 % stake in EADS in April 2006, allowing that latter to partially escape the June 2006 losses. [118]

Bribery allegations Edit

South Africa Edit

In 2003 Tony Yengeni, former chief whip of South Africa's African National Congress, was convicted of fraud worth around US$5 billion relating to an arms deal with South Africa, in which Airbus (formerly EADS) were major players,. [119] It was claimed that Airbus had admitted that it had "rendered assistance" to around thirty senior officials, including defence force chief General Siphiwe Nyanda, to obtain luxury vehicles. [120] In March 2003, South Africa withdrew all charges of bribery against the former head of EADS South Africa, [121] and in September 2004, the prosecutor's office dismissed the bribery charges against Yengeni. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Saudi Arabia Edit

In August 2012 the UK's Serious Fraud Office opened a criminal investigation into an EADS subsidiary, GPT Special Project Management Ltd, regarding bribery allegations made by GPT's former programme director, Ian Foxley. Foxley alleged that luxury cars were bought for senior Saudis, and that millions of pounds sterling were paid to mysterious Cayman Islands companies, possibly to secure a £2 billion contract to renew the Saudi Arabian National Guard's military telecommunications network. [122] Foxley's allegations were supported by two other GPT employees. [123] The later agreement between Airbus and the SFO on 31 January 2020 excluded settlement of this case. [124]

British and French investigations Edit

The French National Financial Prosecutor's Office (PNF), the UK Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and the US Department of Justice (DoJ) had been jointly investigating irregularities in Airbus marketing practices since 2016, in particular the activities of agents Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Austria, [a] but also China, the United Arab Emirates, South Korea, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Kuwait, Turkey, Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Vietnam, India, Colombia and Nepal. [124]

In July 2016, SFO opened a criminal investigation into "suspicions of fraud, bribes and corruption" after Airbus informed British authorities of a failure to disclose the role played by some intermediaries facilitating the sale of aircraft. Airbus was required to provide this information in order to benefit from export credits, which the British, French and German governments had suspended. In March 2017, the PNF subsequently opened a preliminary investigation into "suspicions of fraud and corruption in civil aviation activities" in cooperation with the SFO. [124]

The allegations included that from 2012 onwards Airbus was responsible for recruiting and remunerating intermediaries to influence the award of civil and military contracts. Payments worth hundreds of millions of euros in alleged secret commissions were made and numerous sales including in Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Indonesia, Austria, China and Mauritius were under suspicion of bribery. [125] [ verifikasie nodig ] [126]

The investigation focussed on the Airbus, Strategy and Marketing Organization (SMO), the department responsible for negotiating sales contracts and which, La Tribune reported as having "a network and an incredible influence around the world." Directed successively by Jean-Paul Gut and Marwan Lahoud, the SMO was dissolved in 2016 under the new executive director, Thomas Enders, as part of a “clean hands” operation. [127]

In 2014, in a case referred to as the Kazakhgate affair, a search at Airbus Helicopters by French authorities found emails confirming that Airbus had agreed in principle to pay €12 million in pots of wine to the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan to facilitate the sale of helicopters. Officers from the Central Anti-Corruption Office (OCLCIFF) then searched the home of Marwan Lahoud on 8 February 2016. [b] This revealed that two Turkish intermediaries had claimed payment of commissions due in connection with the sale of 160 aircraft to China valued at US$10 billion. A message by Lahoud suggested that the commissions could reach US$250 million. The SMO was to conceal these commissions as false invoices for a fictitious Caspian pipeline project. [c]

In January 2020, French, British and American courts validated three agreements between Airbus and the PNF, [128] the UK SFO, [124] [129] and the US DoJ. [130] [131] Airbus recognised the charges and agreed to pay fines of €3.6 billion in France, €984 million in the United Kingdom and €526 million in the United States. The penalties were the highest ever issued by the French and British bodies. [132] [133] [134]

These settlements close the prosecution of Airbus regarding the Kazakhstan case but not allegations of misconduct in Saudi Arabia, China and Turkey, which Airbus denies. [135] Airbus managers may still be pursued as private individuals. [d]


A380 is 15 today: will the world’s biggest passenger plane make it to 20?

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Fifteen years ago, the world’s biggest passenger plane took off for the first time.

The double-deck Airbus A380 took off smoothly, quietly and elegantly on 27 April 2005 for a test flight from the factory in Toulouse.

It was the first journey of an aircraft that was expected to have a glittering career.

Not since Concorde and the Boeing 747 Jumbo jet had an aviation event been so hotly anticipated.

The “SuperJumbo” was supposed to transform flying. It could carry more people, more comfortably than ever before. Even while it was little more than a concept, the aviation industry was enthused with the opportunities it could offer.

Recommended

Inflight facilities from gyms to jaccuzis were envisaged. While Korean Air introduced a walk-through duty-free shop, most carriers settled for seats, seats and more seats in their specification.

The A380 entered passenger service 30 months after its maiden flight, connecting Singapore and Sydney for the launch carrier, Singapore Airlines.

Dozens of other airlines eagerly awaited deliveries of the aircraft that was supposed to change the travel experience – and extract maximum capacity from a constrained airport system.

It was no surprise that Heathrow soon became one of the leading destinations for the aircraft.

Until March 2020, there were dozens of daily departures and arrivals of the A380 from what was then Europe’s busiest airport. Emirates alone had six take-offs and six landings, extracting maximum capacity from the most sought-after slots in aviation.

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

1 /12 Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Inside the A380: the world's largest passenger plane

Emirates is the only airline that stood between Airbus and abject failure. The Dubai-based carrier is responsible for nearly half the SuperJumbo’s 242 deliveries so far. Before the coronavirus pandemic, Emirates said it would aim to fly at least some of them until 2035.

But there are growing doubts about whether the A380 will make it to the 20th anniversary of its maiden flight, let alone the 30th.

Most passengers love the plane, for its spaciousness and extra comfort. The main (lower) deck is 69cm (2ft 3in) wider than the Boeing 777, Emirates’ other plane type, yet has the same number of seats across: 10.

Some airlines use the rear of the upper deck for economy seating, eight abreast, which is widely regarded as the most civilised “cheap seats” in aviation. And that is all the more important, given the remarkably long routes that the A380 has been deployed upon: for a while, the Qantas link from Dallas-Fort Worth to Sydney was the longest on the planet, and Emirates’ Dubai to Auckland route is one of the most extreme.

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The A380 has flown billions of passenger-miles safely, notwithstanding a couple of alarming uncontained engine failures: on Qantas shortly after take-off from Singapore, destination Sydney, in 2010 and on Air France over Greenland en route between Paris and Los Angeles.

The aircraft is an undoubted technological success. But it is fundamentally a 20th-century aircraft that has not achieved the high hopes for transforming air travel in the 21st century.

FlightRadar24, the aircraft-tracking service, could find only one A380 flying anywhere in the world today. There are more than that currently being “parted out”. The A380 has no significant secondhand value: the aircraft used for the historic first commercial flight is currently being dismantled for parts in the foothills of the Pyrenees, at Lourdes in southwest France – not far from its birthplace.

What some saw as a miracle plane – a dream machine – has turned into a nightmare for its owners, whether they are the airlines themselves or leasing companies. In the post-coronavirus world, everyone expects demand for aviation to fall substantially for several years, with business travel particularly hard hit as hard-pressed companies insist executives continue with Zoom or Microsoft Teams meetings rather than flying halfway around the world in the lap of aviation luxury.

Big is no longer beautiful: it is an expensive liability. Filling 500-plus seats (not to mention Etihad’s “The Residence,” comprising double bedroom, en-suite shower and living room) profitably will not be feasible on many routes. Emirates had already deployed the A380 on some implausible links, such as Glasgow to Dubai, cutting fares to fill seats.

The next chapter in aviation will be about keeping a lid on capacity. Suppressing supply means fares will rise, allowing the airlines that are on course to lose a quarter of a trillion pound collectively this year to make a bit of money. And keeping costs down involves modern “big twins” such as the Airbus A350, which will prove far more durable than its larger, older sister.

Is all hope lost? The one possible role I can see for the A380 is that an ambitious (and well-heeled) long-haul, low-cost investor emerges. Given that you can pick up a SuperJumbo for next to nothing, there may be a decade more of life in it for high-density intercontinental flying.

No-one has operated the aircraft close to its maximum certified limit of 853 passengers. If London to Hong Kong becomes a much more economy-focused route, it might just work. But I’ll be on the next Cathay Pacific A350 from Gatwick, thanks, assuming that comes back.

Sadly, the A380 has proved to be an evolutionary cul-de-sac – an expensive, heroic failure, as was Concorde. And, like the supersonic jet, while passengers will miss the SuperJumbo, the world will not.


VIDEO: Last Built Airbus A380 Performs Fly-by over Toulouse

MAMI – The last-ever produced Airbus A380 aircraft took off on its first test flight in Toulouse, marking the end of an era for the Super Jumbo.

At 12:54 PM local time (UTC +1), the Airbus A380, MSN 272, took off for its first test flight from Toulouse Blagnac Airport (TLS), France, as the aircraft (temporarily registered as F-WWSH) is being prepared for delivery to Emirates (EK), becoming its 118th double-decker.

The airline, the type’s largest customer, is currently awaiting the delivery of the final five A380s, including MSN 272. The latest delivery of the type for EK took place in mid-December 2020. According to Airbus Orders & Deliveries data, EK has 123 Airbus A380 aircraft on order, with a total of 251 A380 aircraft being delivered.

The Last Super Jumbo

While airlines such as EK, British Airways (BA), and Qantas (QF) will fly the double-decker on certain routes, this would be the last A380 ever made, as Airbus and EK announced on February 14, 2019, that the carrier would reduce its A380 backlog by 39 aircraft.

Airbus had also stated at the time that the development of its Superjumbo would end in 2021 due to a lack of substantial backlog, with no basis to continue production. The shrink in the A380’s backlog was also sped up by the pandemic.

A number of operators of the jet, including Air France (AF) and Lufthansa (LH) made the decision to retire their A380s in 2020 as a result of the ongoing uncertainty regarding international travel. In addition, Thai Airways (TG) decided to put its A380 up for sale back in December.

Photo: Alberto Cucini/Airways

16 Years of the Airbus A380

The first completed A380 rolled out of the Airbus hangar on January 18, 2005. Registered F-WWOW, the type was one of five Airbus Superjumbos used for flight testing and demonstration. Three months later, on April 27, the aircraft took to the skies for the first time, piloted by Airbus Chief Test Pilot Jacques Rosay.

Although the first Airbus A380 entered into service with Singapore Airlines (SQ) in October of 2007, the superjumbo’s development began back in 1988, in an effort to compete with the Boeing 747 and its dominance of the large aircraft long-haul market.

Since the production start of the type, affectionately known as the flying whale, close to 300 Arbus convoys have paraded through the rural town of Levignac, France, carrying parts from the company’s production facilities located in Saint-Nazaire, France, to the final assembly line.


History of the Airbus A380

The 555 seat, double deck Airbus A380 aircraft is the most ambitious civil aircraft program yet. On entering service in October 2007, the Airbus A380 was and is the world’s largest airliner, easily eclipsing Boeing’s 747.

Airbus first began studies on a very large 500 seat airliner in the early 1990s. The European manufacturer saw developing a competitor and successor to the Boeing 747 as a strategic play to end Boeing’s dominance of the very large airliner market and round out Airbus’ product line-up. Airbus began engineering development work on such an aircraft, then designated the A3XX, in June 1994. Airbus studied numerous design configurations for the A3XX and gave serious consideration to a single deck aircraft which would have seated 12 abreast and twin vertical tails. However, Airbus settled upon a twin deck configuration, largely because of the significantly lighter structure required. Key design aims include the ability to use existing airport infrastructure with little modifications to the airports, and direct operating costs per seat 15-20% less than those for the 747-400. With 49% more floor space and only 35% more seating than the previous largest aircraft, Airbus is ensuring wider seats and aisles for more passenger comfort.

A Malaysia Airlines A380 at Heathrow.

Using the most advanced technologies, the A380 is also designed to have 10-15% more range, lower fuel burn and emissions, and less noise. The A380 would feature an advanced version of the Airbus common two crew cockpit, with pull-out keyboards for the pilots, extensive use of composite materials such as GLARE, and four 320 to 347kN (72,000 to 78,000lb) class Rolls Royce Trent 900 or Engine Alliance (General Electric/Pratt and Whitney) GP-7200 turbofans now under development.

Several A380 models are planned: the basic aircraft is the 555 seat A380-800 and high gross weight A380-800, with the longer range A380-800R planned.

Future models will include the shortened, 480 seat A380-700, and the stretched, 656 seat, A380-900. (The -700, -800, and -900 designations were chosen to reflect that the A380 will enter service as a fully developed aircraft and that the basic models will not be soon replaced by more improved variants). A380 final assembly takes place in Toulouse, France, with interior fitment in Hamburg, Germany. Major A380 part assemblies are transported to Toulouse by ship, barge and road.

A380 History Time Line

Datum Gebeurtenis
1988 A team of engineers at Airbus began work to design a ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA) to compete with Boeings’ 747 stranglehold of that market
September 1990 The announcement to go ahead with an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA) project was made at the Farnborough airshow.
January 1993 Boeing and several Airbus related companies start a joint study into a Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT)
June 1994 Airbus announce they will be going it alone to develop their own Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT) which they designated the A3XX
19 December 2000 The board of the newly restructured Airbus, approved €8.8-billion to go ahead with the rechristened A380 project.
23 January 2002 The design having been finalised the previous year, construction starts on the first wing box.
18 January 2005 The first of 5 test A380s was unveiled in Toulouse. Her registration was F-WWOW.
27 April 2005 The maiden flight of the A380, registration F-WWOW, took place at 10:29am, French time and lasted 3 hours and 54 minutes. This was using Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engines.
Junie 2005 Customers for the A380 were advised to expect a 6-month delay due to wiring problems.
01 December 2005 The A380 achieved its maximum design speed of mach .96 in a shallow dive.
10 January 2006 First trans-Atlantic test to José María Córdova International Airport in Colombia.
0 6 February 2006 Cold climate testing was performed at Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada.
14 February 2006 Stress testing of the wing revealed that the wing broke at 146% of the required level instead of 150%. Further strengthening was added which increased the weight by 30Kg.
26 March 2006 In Hamburg a test with 853 passengers and 20 crew managed to evacuate a darkened A380 with half the exits blocked in 78 seconds. The requirement is for this to be achieved in under 90 seconds.
29 March 2006 Type approval for the A380 was received from both the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
13 June 2006 A380 customers were advised of a further delay with a slippage of a further 6 to 7 months.
25 August 2006 A380, registration F-WWEA first flew using the Engine Alliance GP7200. Engine Alliance was a 50/50 alliance between General Electric and Pratt and Whitney.
04 September 2006 Passenger facilities and comfort testing began using 474 Airbus employees.
03 October 2006 A third delay of the A380 was advised to customers with the first delivery being slated for October 2007.
15 October 2007 The first Airbus A380, registration 9V-SKA, was delivered to launch customer Singapore Airlines.
25 October 2007 The first commercial flight of the A380 took place from Singapore to Sydney. All seats were auctioned off for charity.

If there is more you want to learn about this airliner, please visit: A380 Home, A380 Specs, A380 Order Book, A380 Interior and A380 Assembly.
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