Slag van Gujarat of Kayadara, 1178

Slag van Gujarat of Kayadara, 1178

Slag van Gujarat of Kayadara, 1178

Die slag van Gujarat of Kayadara (1178) was 'n nederlaag wat Muhammad van Ghur gely het tydens sy eerste veldtog teen 'n Hindoe -heerser in Indië. Die eerste veldtog van Mohammed was in 1175 teen die Moslemheersers van Multan en het met 'n oorwinning geëindig. In 1178 draai hy suid en lei sy leër van Multan na Uch en dan oor die woestyn na die hoofstad van Gujarat Anhilwara (moderne Patan).

Gujaray is regeer deur die jong Raja Bhimdev II (regeer 1178-1241), 'n lid van die Solanki-dinastie (een van verskeie Chalukya-dinastieë), hoewel die ouderdom van die Raja beteken het dat die leër onder bevel was van sy ma Naikidevi. Die leër van Mohammed het baie gely tydens die optog oor die woestyn, en Naikidevi het hom 'n groot nederlaag toegedien in die dorpie Kayadra (naby Mount Abu, ongeveer veertig kilometer noordoos van Anhilwara). Die invallende weermag het swaar slagoffers gely tydens die geveg, en ook tydens die terugtog oor die woestyn na Multan.

Mohammed van Ghur het nooit weer na Gujarat teruggekeer nie. 'N Weermag onder leiding van Qutb al-din Aibek, sy adjunk in Indië, val in ongeveer 1995-1977 binne en plunder die hoofstad, maar keer dan terug na Delhi. Gujarat is eers in 1297 deur die Sultanaat Delhi geannekseer.


Slag van Gujarat of Kayadara, 1178 - Geskiedenis

Die slag van Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) was 'n nederlaag wat Muhammad van Ghor gely het tydens sy eerste veldtog teen 'n Indiese heerser in Indië. Gujarat is beheer deur die jong Indiese heerser Bhimdev Solanki II (regeer 1178–1241), hoewel die ouderdom van die Raja beteken het dat die leër onder bevel van sy ma Naikidevi was. Die leër van Mohammed het baie gely tydens die optog oor die woestyn, en Naikidevi het hom 'n groot nederlaag toegedien in die dorpie Kayadara (naby Mount Abu, ongeveer veertig myl noordoos van Anhilwara).

Korrekte opsie: B.

Die slag van Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) was 'n nederlaag wat Muhammad van Ghor gely het tydens sy eerste veldtog teen 'n Indiese heerser in Indië. Gujarat is beheer deur die jong Indiese heerser Bhimdev Solanki II (regeer 1178–1241), hoewel die ouderdom van die Raja beteken het dat die leër onder bevel van sy ma Naikidevi was. Die leër van Mohammed het baie gely tydens die optog oor die woestyn, en Naikidevi het hom 'n groot nederlaag toegedien in die dorpie Kayadara (naby die berg Abu, ongeveer veertig kilometer noordoos van Anhilwara).

Die Indiese leër onder die Sultanaat van Delhi is sterk beïnvloed deur die buitelandse invalle. Op grond van sulke militêre krag het Alauddin Khalji die Mongole twee keer suksesvol afgeweer. Sy militêre sukses was te danke aan die oprigting van 'n groot staande leër wat direk deur die staat gewerf en betaal is. Hy herroep alle toelaes wat deur vorige sultans gemaak is, stel prysbeheer in werking en dek die graan.

Korrekte opsie: B.

Die Indiese leër onder die Sultanaat van Delhi is sterk beïnvloed deur die buitelandse invalle. Op grond van sulke militêre krag het Alauddin Khalji die Mongole twee keer suksesvol afgeweer. Sy militêre sukses was as gevolg van die oprigting van 'n groot staande leër wat direk deur die staat gewerf en betaal is. Hy het alle toelaes wat deur vorige sultans gemaak is, ingetrek, prysbeheer ingestel wat bykans die hele mark dek en die graan gerantsoeneer.

Ala-ud-din Khilji beskryf homself as die Tweede Alexander op sy eie. Hy het gedroom om 'n wêreldwye ryk te stig, wat in die munt van sy era uitgebeeld word.

Korrekte opsie: B.

Ala-ud-din Khilji beskryf homself as die Tweede Alexander op sy eie. Hy het gedroom om 'n wêreldwye ryk te stig, wat in die munt van sy era uitgebeeld word.

  1. Die Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Graf van Salim Chishti
  4. Die Mariam -paleis

Die Moti Masjid in Agra is gebou deur Shah Jahan. Die ander Moti Masjid is 'n groot wit marmer-moskee wat deur die Mughal-keiser Aurangzeb gebou is by die Rooi Fort-kompleks in Delhi, Indië, van 1659-1660.

Korrekte opsie: B.

Die Moti Masjid in Agra is gebou deur Shah Jahan. Die ander Moti Masjid is 'n groot wit marmer-moskee wat deur die Mughal-keiser Aurangzeb by die Rooi Fort-kompleks in Delhi, Indië, gebou is tussen 1659-1660.

  1. Die Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Graf van Salim Chishti
  4. Die Mariam -paleis

Die Moti Masjid in Agra is gebou deur Shah Jahan. Die ander Moti Masjid is 'n groot wit marmer-moskee wat deur die Mughal-keiser Aurangzeb by die Rooi Fort-kompleks in Delhi, Indië, gebou is tussen 1659-1660.

Korrekte opsie: B.

Die Moti Masjid in Agra is gebou deur Shah Jahan. Die ander Moti Masjid is 'n groot wit marmer-moskee wat deur die Mughal-keiser Aurangzeb by die Rooi Fort-kompleks in Delhi, Indië, gebou is tussen 1659-1660.


Agtergrond van die geveg: Fanatiese Ghurids vs Outnumbered Chalukyas

Nadat hy koningin geword het, kyk Naiki Devi onmiddellik na die administrasie en militêre aangeleenthede van die koninkryk. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Moh Ghori multan gevange geneem en reeds 'n Ghurid -ryk oor Afghanistan gevestig.

Met sy basis in Multan het die ambisieuse Ghori besluit om Indië binne te val vir rykdom. Gemotiveer deur die verhale oor aanvalle wat Moh Ghazni etlike jare uitgevoer het voordat hy met 'n groot leër na Uch, die suidelike deel van die Punjab -provinsie in Pakistan, marsjeer. Daar word ook geglo dat Moh Ghori se primêre doel was om die Somnath -tempel te buit, soos Ghazni etlike jare tevore gedoen het.

Van daar af kon hulle die woestyn oorsteek en begin marsjeer na Anhilwara (hoofstad van Chalukyan Kingdom). Die Chalukyan -koninkryk het destyds bestaan ​​uit Gujarat en Rajasthan.

Ghori was deeglik bewus van die feit dat die Chalukyan's nie 'n koning gehad het nie en kwesbaar was vir aanvalle. Maar hy sou binnekort baie verkeerd bewys word.

Intussen het Naiki Devi hulp gesoek by naburige feodatoriese heersers, naamlik Jalor Chahamana heerser Kirtipala, heerser Arbuda Paramara Dharavarsha en Naddula Chahamana heerser Kelhanadeva.

Die Chalukyan -leër was uitgetel en Naiki Devi het die ruwe terrein van Gadaraghatta gekies as 'n gebied aan die voet van die berg Abu naby die dorp Kasahrada. Dit is deur haar gekies as gevolg van die smal bergpaadjies wat dit vir die indringers moeilik gemaak het om met volle krag aan te val en hul aanval te verdun.

Die leër van Moh Ghori was vol ervare soldate en het bestaan ​​uit steppe nomades wat uitstekende boogskutters was, uitstekende gepantserde kavallerie en sentraal -Asiatiese steppe perde wat spoed en uithouvermoë in Ghori se weermag verskaf het. Behalwe dat hulle tegniese voordeel gehad het, was Moh Ghori en sy soldate ook gemotiveer deur godsdienstige ywer. Hulle was, net soos alle ander Islamitiese indringers, versot op die doodmaak van ongelowiges (nie -Moslems) en die omskakeling van die hele nie -Moslem -lande in 'n Islamitiese land.

As u ondersteun wat ons doen en wil bydra om ons te help groei en meer Indiërs te bereik om hulle meer te leer oor sulke vergete historiese Indiese helde en verhale, oorweeg dit om 'n bedrag te skenk. Dit sal ons help groei


Ghurid -dinastie

In ongeveer 1117 nC het Mohammed Ghori die troon in Ghazni bestyg terwyl sy ouer broer in Ghur regeer het. Omdat hy 'n baie ambisieuse heerser was, was hy nie net tevrede met Ghazni nie en wou hy sy ryk uitbrei om meer mag en beheer te kry. Hy was deeglik bewus van die politieke, godsdienstige, sosiale en militêre swakhede van Indië en ook die enorme rykdom wat Indië gehad het. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat, in teenstelling met Mahmud van Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori baie geïnteresseerd was in die vestiging van 'n permanente ryk in Indië en nie net die plundering van sy rykdom nie.

Muhammad Ghori (c.1173-1206 CE)

Hy was die ware stigter van die Islamitiese Ryk in Indië. Daar was soveel as sewe groot invalle van Muhammad Ghori teen Indië, en meestal het hy die wenner geword. In c.1175 CE het hy sy eerste ekspedisie teen Multan, wat grootliks suksesvol was. In dieselfde veldtog verower hy Uchch van die Bhatti Rajputs en vestig daar 'n fort.

In c.1178 CE, marsjeer hy weer om Gujarat te verower, maar die Chalukya -heerser van Gujarat, Solanki Bhima II, verslaan hom by die Slag van Kayadara. Maar hierdie nederlaag het Muhammad Ghori nie ontmoedig nie en hy besef die noodsaaklikheid om 'n geskikte basis in Punjab te skep voordat hy die verdere verowering van Indië sou aandurf.

Die Slag van Gujarat of Kayadara (1178) was 'n nederlaag wat Muhammad Ghori gely het tydens sy eerste veldtog teen 'n Hindoe -heerser in Indië. In 1178 draai hy suid en lei sy leër van Multan na Uch en dan oor die woestyn na die hoofstad van Gujarat Anhilwara (moderne Patan).

Gujarat is beheer deur die jong Raja Bhimdev II (regeer 1178-1241), 'n lid van die Solanki-dinastie (een van verskeie Chalukya-dinastieë), hoewel die ouderdom van die Raja beteken het dat die leër onder bevel was van sy ma Naikidevi. Die leër van Mohammed het swaar gely tydens die optog oor die woestyn en Naikidevi het hom 'n groot nederlaag toegedien in die dorpie Kayadra (naby Mount Abu, ongeveer veertig kilometer noordoos van Anhilwara). Die invallende weermag het swaar slagoffers gely tydens die geveg, en ook tydens die terugtog oor die woestyn na Multan.

Mohammed van Ghur nooit teruggekeer nie aan Gujarat. 'N Weermag onder leiding van Qutab al-din Aibek, sy adjunk in Indië, val in die jaar 1995-1997 binne en val die hoofstad buit, maar keer daarna terug na Delhi. Gujarat is eers in 1297 deur die Sultanaat Delhi geannekseer.

Eerste Slag van Terrein (c.1191 CE)

Ghori se besit van Punjab en sy poging om in die Gangetic Doab te vorder, het hom in direkte konflik met 'n Rajput -heerser gebring, Prithviraj Chauhan, wat al baie klein state in Rajputana oorskry het, Delhi verower het en wou uitbrei met bewerings van Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). In die eerste geveg wat by Tarain geveg is, is die leër van Ghori gered en het hy die dood ontduik. Prithviraj het Bhatinda verower, maar hy het geen pogings aangewend om dit effektief te beveilig nie. Dit het Ghori in staat gestel om sy magte weer bymekaar te maak en voor te berei op nog 'n opmars na Indië. Hy het dus 'n veldtog begin teen die besittings van Ghaznavid in Punjab. As gevolg hiervan verower hy Peshawar c.1179, Sindh in c.1182 CE, Punjab en Lahore in 1190 CE.

Tweede Slag van Terrein (omstreeks 1192 nC)

Hierdie stryd word beskou as een van die keerpunte in die Indiese geskiedenis Prithviraj Chauhan is verslaan en Ghori het suksesvol na vore gekom. Turkse magte onder Ghori was goed georganiseer met vinnig bewegende kavallerie. Die omvangryke Indiese magte was nie in ooreenstemming met die voortreflike organisasie, vaardigheid en spoed van die Turkse kavallerie nie. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat die Turkse kavallerie twee uitstekende tegnologieë gebruik het, naamlik die gebruik van hoefysters en die gebruik van ysterbeugels. 'N Groot aantal Indiese soldate is dood. Prithviraj ontsnap, maar word later naby Saraswati gevange geneem.

Hy mag 'n geruime tyd oor Ajmer heers, aangesien die muntstukke oor hierdie tydperk 'n legende dra "Prithvirajadeva ”aan die een kant en die woorde “Sri Muhammad Sam”aan die ander kant. Kort daarna is Prithviraj tereggestel op die aanklagte van sameswering. Die Turkse weermag het die vestings van Hansi, Saraswati, Samana, Delhi en Ajmer ingeneem.

Slag van Chandwar (omstreeks 1194 nC): Ghori verslaan Jaichandra (die heerser van Kannauj) van die Gahadavalas -dinastie. So het die gevegte van Tarain en Chandwar die grondslag gelê vir die Turkse bewind in Noord -Indië. Na hierdie inval is Qutub-ud-din Aibak onderkoning van Muhammad Ghori gemaak. Hierna keer Ghori terug na Ghazni om sy verowerings in die westelike grense uit te voer, en laat die sake van Indië in die hand van die vertroude slawe-generaal Qutab-ud-din Aibak, wat sy verowerings in Indië voortsit.

Opstand van Khokhars (omstreeks 1205 nC): Ghori moes weer na Indië kom om die opstand van die Khokhars te verpletter. In 1206 CE is Ghori egter vermoor deur iemand naby die Dhamyak -distrik van Jhelum (nou in Pakistan) terwyl hy terug is na Ghazni. Hierdie bewind van Indië het oorgedra na Aibak, wat die grondslag van die Slawe -dinastie.


Naikidevi: die koningin wat Muhammad Ghori verslaan het

Dit is bekend dat Muhammad Ghori Prithviraj Chauhan in die 2de Slag van Tarain in 1192 verslaan het en die grondslag gelê het van die Sultanaat van Delhi. Wat egter nie so bekend is nie, is die feit dat hy 14 jaar voordat hy hierdie stryd gewen het, verslaan is deur 'n Goa -gebore koningin van Gujarat - Naikidevi! Alhoewel min bekend is oor Naikidevi, het ons nie eens 'n beeld van hoe sy gelyk het nie, en dit is wat ons weet.

Muhammad Ghori is verslaan deur 'n Goa -gebore koningin van Gujarat, Naikidevi

Naikidevi was die weduwee van 'n Solanki -koning (die dinastie word ook die Chalukyas van Gujarat genoem) Koning Ajayapala wat vir 'n kort tydperk van 4 jaar regeer het vanaf 1171. Sy was die dogter van die Kadamba -heerser Mahamandalesvara Permadi van Goa en na die Naikidevi se dood by haar man, Naikidevi het as koninginregent gedien, aangesien haar seun Mularaja II net 'n kind was.

Dit was tydens haar kort regentskap dat die koningin geskiedenis gemaak het. Naikidevi word onthou as die vrou wat die invallende leërs van Muhammad Ghori in 1178 nC verslaan en teruggestuur het. Hierdie oorwinning word deur plaaslike Hindoe sowel as Moslem -kroniekskrywers beskryf.

Die hofdigter Someshwara in die Gujarati, wat in die hof van die latere konings van Solanki gedien het, noem dat die babakoning Mularaja (die seun van Naikidevi) 'n leër verslaan het mlechhas (Ghori indringers). Die mees presiese beskrywing van Naikidevi wat die leër van Muhammad Ghori verslaan, kom egter uit werke van die Jain -geleerde Merutunga, 14de nC. In sy werk, Prabandha Chintamani hy noem hoe Naikidevi, die koningin en die moeder van Mularaja II, die leërs van die mleccha koning by Gadararaghatta of Kyara naby die voet van die berg Abu.

Naikidevi, die koningin en moeder van Mularaja II, het die leërs van die mleccha -koning naby die voet van die berg Abu geveg.

Daar is ook verwysings na Muhammad Ghori se nederlaag uit sy koninkryk. Die Persiese kroniekskrywer Minhaj-i-Siraj uit die 13de eeu van Ghor, wat later as kroniekskrywer van die Slawe-dinastie van Delhi gedien het, noem dat Muhammad Ghori via Uchchha en Multan na Nahrwala (die Solanki-hoofstad Anhilwara) opgeruk het. Die 'Rae van Nahrwala' (die Solanki -koning) was jonk, maar het 'n groot leër met olifante beveel. In die daaropvolgende geveg 'is die leër van Islam verslaan en in die wiele gery', en die indringende heerser moes sonder enige prestasie terugkeer.

Ongelukkig eindig die verhaal van Naikidevi hier. Soos baie van die groot vroue in die geskiedenis, vind sy net 'n kortstondige vermelding en verdwaal mettertyd!

Cornelia Sorabji was die eerste Indiese vrou wat 'n graad aan die Bombay University en Oxford behaal het. Sy beveg die stelsel om 'n prokureur te word wat onvoorstelbare hindernisse in die gesig staar. Hier is haar verhaal, van gretigheid en moed teen alle kanse!

Het u geweet dat 'n vrou uit Gujarat verantwoordelik was om die Verenigde Nasies te dwing om die openingsreëls van die Universele Verklaring van Menseregte meer geslagsneutraal te maak? Sy het kastehindernisse verbreek om met die man wat sy liefgehad het, te trou en het ook gehelp om die Grondwet van Indië op te stel. Lees alles oor 'n vergete held met die naam Hansa Mehta

Kyk na die verhaal van Umabai Kundapur, 'n onbesonge held van die vryheidstryd van Indië, wat die kollig vermy en anonimiteit verkies as 'Desh Sevika'.


Staan aan bewind van Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori

Toe Sultan Ghias-ud-din die troon van Ghor bestyg, het hy die regering van die stad Takinabad, die grootste stad in Garmsir, aan sy broer Muiz-ud-din oorgegee. Geskiedkundiges sê dat die broers 'n soort gesamentlike heerskappy gehad het. Vanaf Takinabad begin Muiz-ud-din deurlopende aanvalle na Ghazni, wat toe onder die beheer van die Ghuzz-turke was. Uiteindelik in 1173, toe Ghias-ud-din Ghazni verower, het hy Muiz-ud-din sy onderkoning in Ghazni aangestel en sodoende die reis begin van Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori, ook bekend as Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (1173 -1206). Ghori volg sy broer amptelik op met sy dood in 1203. [3] opstaan


Dood van Prithviraj Chauhan:

Op daardie tydstip vertel Chand Bardai die plek van die troon van Muhammad Ghori in die vorm van poësie aan die Prithviraj Chauhan.

Chaar baaj, chouvis Gaj, Angul Ashta Pramaan, Ta Upar Sultan hai mat Chuke Chauhan.

Op die tweede oomblik, nadat hy hierdie gedig gehoor het, is Sultan Muhammad Ghori deur 'n pyl deur Prithviraj Chauhan doodgemaak. Daar was dus 'n gemors in die hof. Prithviraj en Chanda Bardai het die tema self met 'n dolk doodgemaak en hul lewens volgens plan geoffer.

Op hierdie manier is ons held, Prithviraj Chauhan, van sy ernstige pyn onthef deur die plan van die digter Chand Bardai. Tweedens het die sultan Muhammad Ghori nie die plesier geniet om die oorlog te wen nie.


Top 10 Rajput Kings van Indië | Indiese geskiedenis

In hierdie artikel het ons 'n lys saamgestel van die tien beste Rajput -konings wat oor Noord -Indië geheers het. Hulle is: 1. Koning Bhoja (1000-Byna 1055 AD) 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (Byna 1178-1192 AD) 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 AD) 4. Dharmapala (770-810 AD) 5. Devapala ( 810-850 AD) 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 AD) 7. Mahipala (912-944 AD) 8. Yaso Varman (Byna 690-740 AD) en nog 'n paar.

Rajput King # 1. Koning Bhoja (1000-Byna 1055 AD):

Bhoja was die grootste heerser van die Parmaras wat die mag van sy dinastie tot 'n keiserlike rang verhoog het. Hy word as 'n geleerde en 'n suksesvolle bevelvoerder as groot beskou. Hy het baie gevegte gevoer, hoewel hy nie 'n gebied behalwe Konkan kon verower nie. Hy het hom met die Kalachuri -koning Gangeyadeva en die Chola -koning Rajendra verbind en die koninkryk van die Chalukya Jayasinha binnegeval, Malwa aangeval en Dhara, Ujjain en Mandu geplunder.

Die poging van Bhoja om Gwalior te verower, is gefrustreerd deur Kirttiraja. Sy poging om oppergesag oor Bundelkhand te beweer, is deur die koning van Chandela, Vidyadhara, gefaal. Hy kon ook nie sukses behaal teen die Rashtrakutas van Kanyakubja en die Chauhanas van Nadol nie. Die Chauhana -heerser van Sakambhari het hom egter oorgegee. Bhoja ondersteun die Hindushahi -heerser, Anandapala, teen Mahmud van Ghazni en gee skuiling aan sy seun Trilochanpala.

Hy het by 'n konfederasie van die Rajput-opperhoofde teen die Turke aangesluit en Jhansi, Thaneswar, Nagarkot, ens. Verower. So het hy bygedra tot die verdediging van Noord-Indië teen die invalle van die Turke. Bhoja se betrekkinge met die Chalukyas van Gujarat was ook nie goed nie.

Hy het nie veel teen hulle geslaag nie, behalwe om Anhihvada een keer te plunder. Terwyl Bhoja oorlog gevoer het, beide in die ooste en die weste met sy bure, is hy aan 'n siekte dood. Alhoewel Bhoja hom voortdurend in gevegte besig gehou het, kon hy nie veel voordeel trek nie. Sy permanente verkryging was slegs Konkan.

Bhoja het meer bekend geword deur sy geleerdheid as deur sy verowerings. Die outeurskap van meer as drie -en -twintig boeke oor uiteenlopende onderwerpe word aan hom toegeskryf. Hy was ook 'n beskermheer van kuns en letterkunde. Hy het geleerdes soos Dhanapala en Uvata beskerm. Hy het baie skole en 'n kollege in Dhara gestig waar studente en geleerdes gestroom het om te leer.

Hy het die stad Dhara uitgebrei en verfraai en 'n nuwe stad, Bhojapur, naby gevind waar hy 'n groot aantal tempels gebou het ter ere van Siva. Dit alles het hom in die rang van groot heersers van die Middeleeuse Indië geplaas. Dr DC Ganguly skryf: “ Al hierdie prestasies van Bhoja op verskillende lewensterreine bevestig dat hy as een van die grootste konings van die Middeleeuse Indië beskou kan word. ”

Bhoja is opgevolg deur Javasinha I. Hy soek hulp by die Chalukya -koning. Somesvara I, teen die Kalachuris en die Chalukyas. Hy is deur sy vyande omvergewerp en dit was slegs as gevolg van die hulp van koning Someswara I dat hy sy troon kon herwin. In ruil daarvoor het hy Somesvara I gehelp in sy veldtogte van die Deccan. Maar Jayasinha, ek kon dit nie goed doen met die volgende Chalukya -koning, Somesvara II nie.

Somesvara II het hulp van die Chalukya -koning Bhimadeva I van Gujarat geneem, Jayasinha I aangeval en hom vermoor. Udayaditya, die opvolger van Jayasinha I, het hulp by Vigraharaja III, die Chauhanaking van Sakambhari, gesoek en daarin geslaag om Malwa terug te kry. Sy opvolgers was onderskeidelik Lakshmanadeva en Nara Varman. Albei het vir hul bestaan ​​geveg teen Chalukya Jayasinha Siddharaja van Gujarat.

Maar Jayasingha Sidharaja het uiteindelik daarin geslaag om Malwa in 1135 nC vas te lê, die Chaluky, wat twintig jaar lank oor Malwa geheers het. Daarna is dit herwin deur Parmara Vindhya Varman van Mularaja II. Vindhya Varman het geveg teen die heersers van Hoysala en Yadava en het weer die aansien van die Parmaras in Malwa gevestig. Sy opvolgers, Subhata Varman en Arjuna Varman, veg teen die Chalukyas en die Yadavas Arjuna Varman word opgevolg deur Devapala.

Sultan Iltutmish van Delhi het Bhilasa beset en Ujijain geplunder tydens die bewind van Devapala. Devapala is opgevolg deur onderskeidelik Jaitugideva, Jayasinha II, Arjuna Varman II en Bhoja II.

Malwa is voortdurend aangeval deur die Yadavas, Chauhanas, Bagehlas en deur die Turk Sultans van Delhi tydens die bewind van hierdie heersers wat die magte van die Parmaras in Malwa verbreek het. Die laaste heerser van die Parmaras was Mahlak Deo. Hy is aangeval deur Ala-ud-din Khalji in 1305 nC, vermoor deur sy generaal Ain-ul-Mulk en Malwa is uiteindelik deur die Moslems verower.

Rajput King # 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (Byna 1178-1192 AD):

Toe Prithviraja die troon bestyg, word hy met baie probleme en gevare gekonfronteer, die ergste is die inval van die Turke onder Mohammed van Ghur. Mohammed het die heerskappy van Khusrav Malik, die heerser van die Yamini -dinastie van Ghazni en die westelike Punjab, omvergewerp. Nou raak sy grense die grens van die koninkryk Prithviraja III. Mohammed was vasbeslote om Indië te verower en Prithviraja III was die mees vasberade vyand om sy ambisie na te gaan.

Aan die begin van die bewind van Prithviraja stel Muhammad 'n vredesverdrag met hom voor terwyl hy Gujarat aanval. Prithviraja het egter sy aanbod van die hand gewys en besluit om hom te beveg toe hy daarin kon slaag om Nadol te verower. Maar Prithviraja en die Chalukyas van Gujarat was nie in goeie verhouding met mekaar nie, en daarom het Prithviraja op daardie tydstip geweier om Muhammad aan te val en te wag op die uitslag van die geveg tussen Mohammed en die Chalukyas. In 1178 nC, die Chalukya -koning, verslaan Mularaja II Mohammed aan die voet van Abu onder die bekwame leiding van sy ma, Nayikadevi.

Prithviraja was verheug oor die nuus van die nederlaag van Mohammed en daarna, nadat hy die opstand van sy neef Nagarjuna onderdruk het, gaan hy voort met sy veroweringsplanne. Byna ongeveer 1182 nC verslaan hy die Bhadanakas wat die gebiede Rewari, Bhiwani en 'n deel van die ou Alwar -staat beset het.

Dieselfde jaar val hy die Chandela -heerser Paramardi aan, ook bekend as Parmal, koning van Jejakabhukti (Bundelkhand). Alha en Udal, die beroemde generaals van Parmardi, het Prithviraja in die geveg sterk weerstand gebied, maar is doodgemaak. Prithviraja het Mahoba en Kalinjar beset, hoewel hy dit nie lank onder sy onderwerping kon hou nie. In 1283 nC herwin die Kandelare hul verlore koninkryk. In 1186 nC val Prithviraja Gujarat aan.

Hy word gekant teen die Paramara Dharavarsha en die Pritihara Jagaddeva wat deur Bhima II, die regerende koning van Gujarat, gestuur is om hom teë te staan. Die geveg bly besluiteloos, maar uiteindelik aanvaar Bhima II vrede met Prithviraja. Prithviraja het dus 'n beleid van verowering teen sy bure gevoer, maar die beleid het nie veel geslaag nie. Al hierdie oorloë het skynbaar geen verkryging van grondgebied tot gevolg gehad nie.

In 1190 nC het Muhammad van Ghur via Punjab na Delhi gegaan. Hy verower Tabarhindah (Bhatinda), wat binne die gebied van Prithviraja was. Daarna het hy teruggegaan om sy voorbereiding vir die naderende stryd teen Prithviraja te voltooi. Terwyl Prithviraja na Tabarhindah gegaan het om dit te herower, keer Muhammad terug en kyk Prithviraja op die slagveld van Tarain, 80 kilometer van Delhi af. Hierdie eerste slag van Tarain tussen Muhammad en Prithviraja is in 1190-91 n.C.

Mohammed is in hierdie geveg verslaan en beseer. 'N Khalji -edelman het die lewe van die Sultan gered deur hom van die slagveld weg te neem. Volgens die Hammira-Mahakavya het Prithviraja Muhammad gevange geneem, maar hom daarna vrygelaat. Maar dit blyk 'n oordrewe weergawe te wees. Prithviraja het Tabarhindah en oostelike Punjab egter weer herower.

Intussen het die vyandskap tussen Prithviraja en Jayachandra, die heerser van Kannauj, toegeneem. Beide was besig om teen mekaar te beplan vir die soewereiniteit van Noord -Indië en sou dus in konflik met mekaar sou kom. Boonop is waarskynlik ook die ontwyking van Sanvogita, die dogter van Jayachandra, met Prithviraja een van die redes vir die vyandskap en het dit 'n oop besluitlose stryd tussen die twee tot gevolg gehad.

Historici is verdeeld oor die romantiese verhaal van die huwelik van Sanyogita met Prithviraja. Dr DC Ganguly aanvaar die verhaal nie as 'n historiese feit nie, terwyl dr Dashratha Sharma dit as 'n feit aanvaar. Die verhaal, soos vertel, is dat Jayachandra alle belangrike Hindoeheersers na sy hoofstad genooi het vir die keuse van 'n bruidegom vir en deur sy dogter Sanyogita.

Maar hy het nie sy vyand, Prithviraja, genooi nie. In plaas daarvan het hy sy standbeeld by die poort van die byeenkomssaal geplaas om Prithviraja te verneder en hom as paleiswag te wys. Sanyogita besluit om Prithviraja as haar man te aanvaar en versier sy standbeeld van haar eie keuse. Prithviraja, wat daar vermom was, het saam met haar na sy koninkryk gevlug.

Terwyl die soldate en die generaals van Prithviraja die weermag van Kannauj op verskillende plekke konfronteer en nagaan, het Prithviraja veilig by Ajmer gekom met Sanyogita en met haar getrou. As die verhaal as 'n historiese feit aanvaar word, is daar geen twyfel dat dit die vyandskap tussen hierdie twee magtige heersers van Noord -Indië moes aangesteek het, baie teen die belang van Indië toe dit ernstig bedreig is deur die inval van Mohammed van Ghur.

Mohammed kon sy nederlaag teen Prithviraja nie vergeet nie. Hy organiseer 'n mag van honderd en twintigduisend man by Ghazni en keer in 1192 na Indië terug om sy nederlaag te wreek. Prithviraja kyk weer na hom op die slagveld van Tarain. Hy is ondersteun deur byna 150 feodatoriese hoofde, maar geen onafhanklike heerser van Rajput van prominensie het hom te hulp gekom tydens die nasionale ramp nie.

Muhammad het Prithviraja gevra om Islam te aanvaar en sy hoogmoed wat minagtend geweier is. Prithviraja bied egter vrede aan as Mohammed tevrede kon bly met die besetting van Tabarhindah en die ooste van Punjab. Muhammad het Prithviraja bedrieg deur hom in vredesgesprekke te voer en eendag vroeg die oggend die Rajputs aangeval en dit verras.

Die Rajputs is verslaan tydens wat bekend staan ​​as die tweede Slag van Tarain. Prithviraja het daarvandaan gevlug, maar is in die omgewing van Sursuti (Sarasvati) gevange geneem. Daarna is hy ter dood veroordeel op 'n aanklag van sameswering teen die lewe van Sultan Muhammad.

Die tweede slag van Tarain was die einde van die ryk van die Chauhanas. Die minderjarige seun van Prithviraja is natuurlik 'n geruime tyd as heerser van Ajmer agtergelaat, maar sy regering was eenvoudig 'n marionet. Hariraja, broer van Prithviraja, het die seun van Prithviraja na 'n tyd afgesit en die soewereiniteit van Ajmer tot 1194 nC verseker.

Daarna is Hariraja verslaan deur Qutb-ub-din Aibak. Hariraja het homself doodgebrand en Ajmer is deur die Turke beset. Die val van Ajmer, wat reeds in die hande van die Turke was, was getuie van die finale vernietiging van die Chauhanas. Hulle afstammelinge het natuurlik in Ranthambhore bly regeer, maar die keiserlike dinastie van die Chauhanas het tot 'n einde gekom. Ranthambhore is uiteindelik deur Ala-ud-din Khalji gevange geneem.

Prithviraja III alias Rai Pithora was dus die laaste roemryke koning van die Chauhanas. Maar Prithviraja is beroemd nie vanweë sy sukses in wapens of diplomasie nie, maar vanweë sy persoonlike karakter wat verteenwoordigend was van sy ouderdom en die ondeugde en deugde van die Rajputs van daardie tyd gehad het. Prithviraja was 'n bekwame vegter en 'n vreeslose heerser.

Hy was moedig, ridderlik, waaghalsig en romanties en het dus naam en roem verwerf onder sy tydgenote. Maar hy was nie diplomatiek of versiend nie. Sy deugde was dié van 'n held van baie veldslae eerder as van 'n suksesvolle heerser. Hy was nie bewus van die gevaarlike gevolge van die inval van die Turke nie en het hom in ridderloë en romanse teen sy bure gewikkel.

Daarom het nie een van hulle tot sy steun gekom teen Mohammed van Ghur nie. Natuurlik het honderd -en -vyftig feodatoriese hoofmanne hom bygestaan ​​in die tweede slag van Tarain, maar nie een van hulle was 'n onafhanklike heerser van enige belang nie. Op daardie tydstip was Bhima Deva II van Gujarat en Jayachandra van Kannauj ander magtige heersers van Noord -Indië. Die leër van Gujarat het Muhammad een keer verslaan en Prithviraja het hom in die eerste slag van Tarain met een hand verslaan.

As Bhimadeva II en Jayachandra, of selfs een van hulle, besluit het om Prithviraja te ondersteun ten tyde van die tweede slag van Tarain, was die moontlikheid van die sukses van die Rajputs teen die Turke moontlik. In daardie geval sou die verloop van die Indiese geskiedenis anders gewees het. Waarskynlik het Bhimadeva II en Jayachandra ook geen versiendheid gehad nie en besluit daarom om Prithviraja alleen teen Mohammed te laat.

Maar Prithviraja moet meer verantwoordelik gehou word vir die ongeluk van sy ryk en die van die Indiese bevolking. As die heerser van Delhi, was hy by die poort van Indië, en dit was hoofsaaklik sy verantwoordelikheid om die vordering van die Turke na Indië na te gaan. As hy versiend en diplomaties was, kon hy daarin geslaag het om die ondersteuning van Bhimadeva of Jayachandra of albei te verseker.

Boonop het hy nie 'n aggressiewe beleid teenoor Mohammed aangeneem nie. Hy het nie voordeel getrek uit die nederlaag van Mohammed teen Mularaja van Gujarat of sy eie sukses tydens die eerste slag van Tarain nie. Hy kon maklik die ongeluk van Mohammed tot sy voordeel benut deur Punjab te beset en sy toegang uit die noordweste te weerhou.

In plaas daarvan het hy gekies om in die verdediging te wees, die versterkings en verdediging van sy grens fort Tabarhindah verwaarloos, wat maklik twee keer deur Mohammed gevange geneem is, nie voldoende voorbereidings getref vir 'n laaste geveg teen Mohammed nie en selfs toegelaat dat Mohammed hom met 'n stratagem kon verslaan. en verrassingsaanval.

Prithviraja was dus nie 'n diplomaat of 'n skerp militêre bevelvoerder nie. Prithviraja word onthou as 'n ridderlike koning en, meer as dit, omdat die Turke daarin geslaag het om 'n ryk in Indië te vestig na sy nederlaag en sodoende 'n nuwe hoofstuk in die Indiese geskiedenis begin het. Net soos ander hedendaagse heersers van sy ouderdom, het ook Prithviraja die reg om oor sy onderdane te heers, verloor, omdat ook hy, soos ander, nie daarin geslaag het om Indië, sy kultuur en die lewe en eer van sy mense te verdedig nie.

Prithviraja, net soos alle ander heersers van Indië, wou nie hierdie land en sy mense teen buitelandse indringers verdedig nie, maar slegs sy eie koninkryk. Alle Hindoe -heersers van daardie tyd het 'n beperkte visie gehad, en dit was een van die hoofoorsake van hul mislukking teen die Turke.

Rajput King # 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 n.C.):

Vijayasena was an ambitious, courageous and diplomatic king. He converted the small principality of Radha into the strong empire of Bengal. He married Vilasadevi, a princess of the Sura family and entered into an alliance with Ananta Varman, king of Kalinga. He tried to take advantage of the disintegration of the Pala kingdom after the death of its ruler Rampala and desired to conquer the whole of Bengal.

His ambition brought him in conflict with his neighbouring rulers but mostly he succeeded. He defeated the rulers of Kotatavi and Kausambi, led a naval expedition in the west along the course of the Ganga, probably against Govindachandra, the ruler of Kannauj and on this very occasion defeated Nanyadeva, the ruler of Mithila. He occupied Gaunda and forced the last Pala ruler Madanapala to seek safety in Magadha.

About the middle of the twelfth century he defeated Bhoja Varman and conquered East Bengal. Thus, the entire Bengal was united under his rule. He also defeated Raghava who, after the death of his father Ananta Varman, had become the king of Kalinga. The ruler of Kamarupa was also defeated by him. Probably, he snatched away south Bihar as well from the Pala ruler Madanapala.

Thus, Vijayasena was the real founder of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. He ruled for nearly 60 years and brought about peace and prosperity in Bengal which was ruined because of the disintegration of the Pala dynasty. He was a devotee of Siva and built a temple in the Rajshahi district. The poet Umapatidhara lived at his court and composed the famous Deopara-Prasasti from which the details of his reign are known to us.

Rajput King # 4. Dharmapala (770-810 A.D.):

Dharmapala, the son and successor of Gopala proved a great ruler. He understood the feeling of sacrifice and devotion of the people of Bengal and utilised it properly by successfully converting the kingdom of Bengal into one of the foremost empires of northern India.

When he ascended the throne, the Pratiharas, who had established, their power in Malwa and Rajputana were gradually extending their power towards the east and so also the newly established power of the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan desired to possess the plains of north India. Each of them tried to capture Kannauj which was regarded as the key-centre and prestigious state of north India at that time.

Dharmapala desired the same and therefore, came in conflict with both the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. Dharmapala first fought a battle against the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab and was defeated. But before Vatsaraja could exploit the situation in his favour, the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva attacked north India and forced Vatsaraja to seek safety in Raiputana. Dhruva proceeded further and defeated Dharmapala as well. But he retreated to the South soon.

The attack of Dhruva in the north and even his own defeat did not harm Dharmapala. On the contrary, it helped him indirectly. Dhruva had given a powerful shock to the growing power of the Partiharas which helped Dharmapala in consolidating his power in northern India. Dharmapala attacked Kannauj, deposed Indrayudha and placed Chakrayudh on the throne under his sovereignty.

Though details are not available about the wars of conquest of Dharmapala, yet it is certain that Bengal and Bihar were under his direct rule, the ruler of Kannauj was under his suzerainty and many other rulers of Punjab, Rajputana, Malwa and Berar also acknowledged his overlordship.

Dharmapala’s position was again challenged by the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II, the son and successor of Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta attacked Kannauj and turned out Chakrayudha who was under the suzerainty of Dharmapala. Therefore, Dharmapala had to fight against Nagabhatta. The battle between the two was fought near Monghyr (Bihar) in which Dharampala was defeated.

But, once again the interference of the Rastrakutas in the politics of the North proved effective. The Rashtrakuta king, Govinda III, attacked north India. Chakrayudha and Dharmapala accepted his suzerainty without fighting. Probably, both of them had invited the Rashtrakuta king to avenge their defeat at the hands of Nagabhatta who fought against Govinda III but was defeated.

Again, the defeat of the Pratiharas by the Rashtrakutas gave Dharmapala an opportunity to consolidate his power in the North. The power of Pratiharas being shattered, he again asserted himself after the retirement of Govinda to the south and gained large territories to his empire. He left a large empire to his son and successor Devapala.

Dharmapala was a capable king. Of course, the transformation of Bengal from a kingdom to an empire was the creation of the spirit of self-sacrifice and political wisdom displayed by the people of Bengal at that time, but, the credit of this achievement goes to king Dharmapala as well. He was a courageous commander and a good diplomat.

He fought many battles, was defeated by the Pratiharas twice, yet he kept up his courage and determination to create an empire. He took great advantage of the conflict of the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas in the politics of north India and succeeded in establishing an empire and also governing it well. He assumed the high sounding titles of Parmeswara, Paramabhattarak and Maharajadhiraj.

For the first time, he, certainly, assigned the empire of Bengal a significant position in the politics of north India. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of him, “The country which was hopelessly divided by internal dissensions and trampled upon by a succession of foreign invaders for more than a century, was raised by him to the position of a strong integrated state exercising imperial sway over a considerable part of northern India. Sasanka’s dream of founding a great Gauda empire was at last fulfilled.”

Dharmapala distinguished himself in the peaceful pursuits of life as well. He found the famous Vikramsila monastery which afterwards developed into a great centre of Buddhist learning. He also found a great Buddhist Vihara in the Rajshahi district. In his old age Dharampala married Rannadevi, one of the Rashtrakuta princess who gave birth to his son and successor Devapala.

Rajput King # 5. Devapala (810-850 A.D.):

Devapala was a worthy son of a worthy father. He not only kept intact the empire which he inherited from his father but also extended it further. Devapala followed an aggressive imperialist policy and spent a great part of his life in military campaigns. Again, the Pratiharas proved to be the main rival to the Palas. The Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II had occupied Kannauj.

Devapala forced him to retreat and then proceeded to conquer north India. It has been suggested that he made attacks from the Himalayas in the North to the Vindhyas in the South. In the north-west he attacked up to the territories of Kamboja and Punjab. He forced the rulers of Assam and Utkal to accept his suzerainty, attacked the boundaries of the empire of the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta and, probably, fought wars against the Rashtrakutas or the Pandyas of the South.

He also defeated the Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj. Thus, his military campaigns were successful. Certainly his direct rule was limited to the territories of Bengal and Bihar but most of the rulers of northern India acknowledged suzerainty while the Pratiharas, his powerful rival in the North failed to check his progress. The Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj could get success and restore the glory of the Pratihara empire only after the death of Devapala.

Devapala ruled for nearly forty years. Leaving apart the success of military campaigns, he has been accepted as a patron of Buddhist religion, literature and fine arts. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described him as a more powerful ruler than his contemporary Pratihara and Rashtrakuta rulers.

Devapala succeeded more than his father. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of them, “The reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala constitute the most brilliant chapter in the history of Bengal. Never before, or since, till the advent of the British, did Bengal play such an important role in Indian politics.”

The Period of Downfall (850-988 A.D.):

The successors of Devapala proved weak and pursued a peaceful policy which led to the weakening of the Pala empire. Vigrahapala I, the successor of Devapala ruled for a very short period. Vigrahapala I was succeeded by his son, Narayanapala, who ruled between the period 854-908 A.D. He was a man of religious disposition and pursued a pacific policy. This encouraged the enemies of the Palas and both the Rashtrakutas and the Pratiharas took advantage of it.

The policy was followed by feudatory chiefs of the Palas as well. Some time after 860 A.D., the Rashtrakutas defeated the Pala ruler. The Pratiharas also took advantage of the weakness of the Palas and their rulers Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala gradually extended their power to the east. Narayanapala not only lost Magadhabut also north Bengal for some time.

The feudatory chiefs of Assam and Orissa also got the opportunity to throw off the yoke of the Palas and asserted independence. Thus, the Palas lost their glory and territories and, for a time, the rule of Narayanapala was confined to a part of Bengal only. However, he succeeded in recovering Magadlia and north Bengal from the Pratiharas during the later part of his life.

This was, probably, due to the Rashtrakuta invasion on the Pratihara dominions. Narayanapala was defeated by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II as well, but peace was established and, probably, strengthened by a marriage alliance. Narayanapala was succeeded by Rajyapala, Gopala II and Vigrahapala respectively. Put together, they ruled for nearly eighty years.

But each of them proved to be an incapable ruler and whatever was left by Narayanapala was lost by them. The Chandelas, the Kalachuris and the Kambojas attacked and conquered different territories of the Palas, while the south and east Bengal was occupied by the Chandra dynasty. The disintegration of the Pala empire was, thus, complete.

Rajput King # 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 A.D.):

Mahipala I succeeded to the throne of his father Vigrahapala II about 988 A.D. By that time the territories of the Palas had remained limited to Magadha or south Bihar. The Palas had lost even their ancestral kingdom in Bengal. Mahipala once more revived the power and prestige of the Palas. He ruled during 988-1038 A.D. and constantly engaged himself in wars.

He succeeded in capturing north, west and east Bengal and, towards the west, extended his territories up to Banaras. But his power was seriously shattered by an attack on Bengal by one of the commanders of the Chola king, Rajendra some time during 1021-1023 A.D. Bengal was invaded by Kalachuri ruler Gangeyadeva also towards the close of the reign of Mahipala.

This reduced the extent of the territories of Mahipala, yet he was able to keep control over the larger part of Bengal and Bihar. Mahipala not only saved the Pala kingdom from impending ruin but also restored, to a large extent, the lost glory and power of the Palas. That is why he has been justly regarded as the founder of the second Pala empire. Mahipala constructed and repaired a large number of religious places, towns and tanks at different places.

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Nayapala who ruled during 1038-1055 A.D. The most important event of the reign of Nayapala was the protracted war between Nayapala and Kalachuri ruler Kama. Kama desired to push up the boundary of his empire further to the east at the cost of the Palas. This led to long time enmity between the Palas and the Kalachuris.

However, during the period of Nayapala, after severe conflicts, peace was restored between the two powers primarily because of the efforts of reconciliation by the famous Buddhist monk Dipankara Srijnana. Nayapala was succeeded by Vigrahapala III who ruled during 1055-1070 A.D. During his period Bengal was attacked by different powers. First, the Kalachuri king Kama revived the hostilities and attacked the boundary of western Bengal.

However, peace was restored and Kama even got his daughter married to Vigrahapala. Afterwards, the Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya VI, attacked Bengal and defeated Vigrahapala. Mahasiva Gupta Yayati, ruler of Kosala also raided the territories of Bengal. These foreign attacks weakened the power of Vigrahapala and independent kingdoms were established at different places out of the territories of the Palas. With much difficulty, Vigrahapala was able to keep Gauda and Magadha under his rule.

In 1070 A.D. Mahipala II, son of Vigrahapala III, ascended the throne. He proved quite incapable. His nobles revolted against him and killed him. One of them named Divya or Divoka occupied Varendri (North Bengal).

Mahipala II had imprisoned his brothers — Surapala and Ramapala. During the period of revolt against Mahipala they fled from the prison and established themselves in Magadha. Surapala ruled there for a couple of years and was then succeeded by his younger brother Ramapala in 1077 A.D. Ramapala restored the lost prestige of the Palas and proved to be the last capable ruler of the dynasty.

He defeated Bhima, the successor of Divya and ruler of Varendri (North Bengal) and occupied his kingdom. He defeated and forced the ruler of Assam to accept his suzerainty. He interfered in the politics of Orissa and tried to check the growing influence of the ruler of Kalinga there. He entered into a matrimonial alliance with Govindachandra, king of Kannauj and successfully resisted his ambitions towards the east.

He could also check the power of the Senas of west Bengal and that of Nanyadeva, ruler of north Bihar so that none of them could interfere in his kingdom. Thus, both by diplomacy and war, Ramapala succeeded in restoring and maintaining the power of the Palas at least in a large part of Bengal and Bihar. He died in 1120 A.D. and that resulted in the fall of the Palas.

Rajput King # 7. Mahipala (912-944 A.D.):

Mahendrapala was succeeded by his son Bhoja II but his cousin, Mahipala, shortly dethroned him and became the ruler of Kannauj. During his period, the Rashtrakutas again interfered in the politics of north India. The Rashtrakuta king, Indra III, attacked sometime between 915-918 A.D., defeated Mahipala of Kannauj, occupied Kannauj and pursued Mahipala as far as Allahabad.

But, as on previous occasions, the Rashtrakutas did not stay long enough to consolidate their conquests in the north. So, after the retirement of Indra III to the south, Mahipala again consolidated his position and recovered a large part of his lost empire. But, in the meantime, the Pala rulers took advantage of his weakness and captured some eastern parts of his empire.

Once more, about 940 A.D., the Rashtrakutas attacked the north (during the reign of Krishna III) and occupied the forts of Kalinjar and Chitrakuta. Thus, though Mahipala succeeded in recovering a large part of his empire, the attacks of the Rashtrakutas lowered the power and prestige of the Pratiharas. The advantage was drawn not only by the Palas but also by feudatory rulers. The Chandelas, the Chedis, the Parmaras etc. succeeded in asserting their independence. Thus, though Mahipala could safeguard a large part of his empire yet his period marked the beginning of the decline of the power of Partiharas.

The Successors of Mahipala and the Fall of the Pratihara Empire — (944—Nearly 1036 A.D.):

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala II. He ruled only for a year. Afterwards, we find no less than four successors during a period of fifteen years. Devapala, Vinayakapala II, Mahipala II and Vijayapala ruled in succession over the throne of Kannauj but none of them proved to be a capable ruler. Rather, the quick succession of these rulers proves that family feuds had started among the Pratiharas.

This resulted in the disintegration of the Pratihara empire from the period of Devapala (948 A.D.). Near about 963 A.D., the Rashtrakuta king Indra III again attacked northern India and gave the final blow to the Pratihara domination in Central India. The central authority of the Pratihara empire was broken and out of its ruins arose the independent kingdoms of the Chalukyas in Gujarat, the Chandelas in Jejakabhukti, the Kachchhaghata in Gwalior, the Kalachuris in Central India, the Paramaras in Malwa, the Guhilas in south Rajputana, the Chhahamanas (Chauhanas) in Sakambhari, etc.

Thus, by the time Rajyapala ascended the throne of Kannauj late in the tenth century, he was no more a ruler of an empire but that of a small kingdom. The Pratihara empire had vanished by the time. The Turks invaded India during the reign of Rajyapala. The challenge from the north­west was met by the Brahmanashahi kingdom on the borders of Afghanistan. Rajyapala supported the Brahamanshahi ruler Jaipala against Sabuktagin in 991 A.D. and then his son Anandapala also against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1008 A.D.

Ultimately, Mahmud succeeded in destroying the Brahmanashahi kingdom and attacked Kannauj in 1018 A.D. Rajyapala did not fight against him but fled. Feeling dissatisfied with the shameful behaviour of Rajyapala against a foreign attacker, the Chandela ruler Ganda sent his son Vidyadhar to attack Kannauj. Vidyadhar defeated and killed Rajyapala and placed his son Trilochanapala on the throne of Kannauj.

Trilochanapala was defeated by Sultan Mahmud in 1019 A.D. though he remained alive till 1027 A.D. His successor and the last ruler of Pratihara dynasty was Yasapala who remained as a petty ruler up to 1036 A.D. Thus ended the mighty Pratihara empire. In fact, the power of the Pratiharas had declined during the reign of Mahipala late in the tenth century though, in name, it survived a little longer.

Noted historian Dr R.C. Majunidar has given a respectable position to the Pratiharas in the history of India. He describes that the credit of establishing the last great empire in Hindu India does not go to emperor Harsha but to the Pratiharas. One after the other, Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta II, Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala I brought glory to the Pratiharas, succeeded in creating an extensive empire in northern India even after fighting against the powerful Palas and Rashtrakutas and maintained that empire for about a century.

Another achievement of the Pratiharas was to check the penetration of the Arabs into the interior of India. Elphinstone and all other historians after him expressed surprise at the fact that the Arabs failed to penetrate deeper into India even at the zenith of their power. The reason was that they were checked by the power of the Pratiharas. The Arabs themselves have given a glorious account of the might and prosperity of the Pratiharas.

The Arab traveller Sulaiman described Mihirbhoj as the greatest enemy of the Islam. Thus, there is no doubt that the Pratiharas effectively checked the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, which must be regarded as a significant contribution of the Pratiharas to the history of India. Besides, even when the power of the Pratiharas was in a broken state, the Pratihara king Rajyapala supported the Brahmanashahi rulers Jaipala and Anandapala against Sabuktagin and Mahmud of Ghazni.

This proves that Rajyapala was also anxious to pursue the traditional policy of the Pratiharas to check the penetration of Muslim invaders into India though, of course, he himself fled against the mighty power of Sultan Mahmud. Thus, the Pratiharas maintained the dignity of a great empire in north India for about a century and fulfilled their duty to fight against foreign invaders.

Besides, the empire of the Pratiharas proved more durable as compared to their contemporary empire- builders — the Palas and the Rashtrakutas. Thus, the Pratiharas played a significant role in the history of India after the fall of the empire of Harsha and were the last empire-builders of Hindu India.

Rajput King # 8. Yaso Varman (Nearly 690-740 A.D.):

In the beginning of the eighth century, we find a powerful monarch Yaso Varman occupying the throne of Kannauj. Nothing is known of the early history and antecedents of this king. Jain-texts have described him as related to the Maurvas while certain scholars regard him related to the Maukhari family as the word varman is attached to his name. But none of the above views has been justified by evidences.

However, Yaso Varman was a powerful monarch who engaged himself in many military adventures. He was a contemporary of Lalitaditya Muktapida, the ruler of Kashmir. He sent Pu-ta-sin (Buddhasena) as his ambassador to China, with which he had diplomatic relations, in 731 A.D. The chief source of our knowledge of his life and reign is the poetical work in Prakrat by his celebrated court-poet Vakapati.

Vakapati has described his conquests in highly glorified terms, yet it is believed that Yaso Varman had certainly succeeded in conquering Magadha and Bengal. His empire extended towards the north-west as well and he defeated the Arabs also. One inscription of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya suggests that Yaso Varman fought against Vinyaditya, father of Vijyaditya.

Both parties had claimed victory in the battle. Therefore, the success of Yaso Varman towards the south is doubtful. However, the inscription refers to him as ‘the great king of North India’ which justifies that Yaso Varman had conquered the greater part of northern India. Yaso Varman was, however, defeated by Lalitaditya, the ruler of Kashmir in 733 A.D. Kalhana, who described the history of Kashmir in his famous work the Rajatarangini has given a detailed description of the long struggle between these two kings.

He explicitly wrote that Yaso Varman was defeated. Probably, both the kings were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other for the sovereignty of north India in which Lalitaditya finally emerged victorious. Yaso Varman, probably, lived even after this defeat but his power and fame were lost. His successors failed to revive the glory of Kannauj and were therefore, lost to obscurity.

Yaso Varman’s rise to power was sudden and so was his fall. He rose to power as a military adventurer like Sasanka of Gauda and Yasodharman of Malwa and the same way he lost his power. However, he was not only a great conqueror but also a patron of learning. Besides Vakapati and many others, the famous poet of Sanskrit language Bhavabhuti, who wrote his renowned works the Malti- madhava, the Mahavira-charita and the Uttar-Ramcharita, was also at his court.

Rajput King # 9. Mihirbhoj (Nearly 836-885 A.D.):

Mihirbhoj made Kannauj his capital and succeeded in consolidating his power and influence in Malwa, Rajputana and Madhya-Desh. But he had to face many challenges and initially failed. He had to fight against Devapal and was defeated, a fact which checked the extension of his power towards further east.

Again, when he tried to take advantage of internal conflicts of the Rastrakutas and attacked south India sometime between 845-860 A.D., he was defeated by Dhruva, the ruling king of the Gujarat-branch of the Rashtrakutas. He was also defeated by the Kalachuri King Kokkalla. These successive defeats resulted in weakening his hold over Rajputana and even the feudatory Pratihara ruler of Jodhpur became independent.

Yet, these reverses failed to subdue the ambition and spirit of Mihirbhoj. He bade his time and waited for the right opportunity. The death of Devapal, ruler of Bengal and, thereafter, weakness of his successors gave him an opportunity to revive his strength towards the east and the peaceful policy pursued by Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha encouraged him to take his chances towards the south.

First, he defeated the Pala king Narayanapala and snatched away from him a considerable part of his western dominions. Next, he took offensive against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II and defeated him on the banks of the Narmada. Thereafter he occupied Malwa and Kathiawar. He fought once again against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II at Ujjayini. This time he was defeated. But, whether he lost Malwa or not is not clear.

Yet, Mihirbhoj succeeded in reviving the glory of the Pratiharas and the rulers of Kannauj. He had an extensive empire which included Kathiawar, territories up to the Punjab in the north-west, Malwa and Madhya-Desh. He had consolidated his power in Rajputana and the Kalachuris of Bihar and Chandelas of Bundelkhand had accepted his sovereignty. Dr. R.C. Majumdar writes, “Bhoja thus consolidated a mighty empire in northern India for which Vatsaraja and Nagabhatta had fought in vain, and raised Kannauj, once more, to the posiuon of an imperial city.”

Rajput King # 10. Lakshmanasena (1178-nearly 1205 A.D.):

Lakshmanasena sat on the throne at the ripe age of sixty years. He was a great military leader and fought many victorious battles during the reign of his father and grandfather. When he became king he fought against Jayachandra, the ruler of Kannauj. He succeeded in defeating him and made an attack up to Banaras and Allahabad. He included the larger part of Bihar in his kingdom. He also successfully defended his kingdom against the attacks of the Kalachuris.

But the kingdom of Lakshmanasena began to disintegrate in the closing years of the twelfth century. Some nobles of Lakshmanasena were successful in asserting their independence. And, while the kingdom was thus weakened by internal disruptions. Muhammad Bakhtyar Khalji attacked its capital Nadia and occupied it in a surprise move. Lakshmanasena fled to east Bengal for safety. He continued to rule over east and south Bengal even afterwards but failed to recover his power and prestige. He died shortly after 1205 A.D.

The Successors of Lakshmanasena and the Fall of the Sena Dynasty:

Lakshmanasena was succeeded by his son, Visvarupasena, who ruled for about 14 years. He was succeeded by his brother, Kesavasena who probably ruled over east Bengal up to 1245 A.D. After him, east Bengal was occupied by the Deva- dynasty ruler Dasarathadeva. The rest of Bengal remained in the hands of the Turks.

Importance of the Senas:

The credit of safeguarding Bengal from anarchy after the fall of the Pala dynasty went to the Senas. The Senas believed in Hinduism. They contributed to the revival of Hinduism and Sanskrit literature in Bengal. Vallalasena and Lakshmanasena were scholarly kings and both patronised scholars and education. Jayadeva, the writer of the Halayudha and the Gitagovinda was patronised by them.


Inhoud

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region of Khorasan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time. [1] Mu'izz also had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn, but were later released by the latter's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad. [3] When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath, and helped him ascend the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by several Ghurid chiefs Mu'izz aided Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.

Ghiyath was then challenged by his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud, who claimed the throne for himself, and had allied with Tadj al-Din Yildiz, the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh. [4] However, the coalition was defeated by Ghiyath and Mu'izz at Ragh-i Zar. The brothers managed to kill the Seljuq governor during the battle, and then conquered Zamindawar, Badghis, Gharjistan, and Urozgan. Ghiyath, however, spared Fakhr al-Din and restored him as the ruler of Bamiyan. Mu'izz, after returning from an expedition from Sistan, was shortly awarded with Kandahar by his brother. In 1173, the two brothers invaded Ghazni, and defeated the Oghuz Turks who had captured the city from the Ghaznavids. Mu'izz was then appointed as the ruler of Ghazni. [4]

In 1175, the two brothers conquered Herat from its Seljuq governor, Baha al-Din Toghril, and also managed to conquer Pushang. The ruler of Sistan, Taj al-Din Harb ibn Muhammad, shortly acknowledged the sovereignty of the Ghurids, and so did the Oghuz Turks dominating Kirman. [1]

During the same period, the Khwarazmian Sultan Shah, who was expelled from Khwarezm by his brother Tekish, took refuge in Ghor and requested military aid from Ghiyath. Ghiyath, however, did not help the latter. Sultan Shah managed to get help from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and began plundering the northern Ghurid domains.

After having helped his brother in expanding the western frontiers of the Ghurid Empire, he began to focus on India. Mu'izz's campaign against the Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175 had ended in victory. [5] He turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Chaulukya capital of Anhilwara (modern day Patan in Gujarat) in 1178. On the way, Muizz suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kayadara, during his first campaign against an Indian ruler. [5] Gujarat was ruled by the young Chaulukya ruler Mularaja II the Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. [6] Mu'izz's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and the Chaulukyas inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). [5] The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan. [5] However, Mu'izz was able to take Peshawar and Sialkot.

In 1186, Mu'izz, along with Ghiyath, ended the Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore and executed the Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau-Malik. [7]

Mu'izz shortly returned to Ghor, and along with the rulers of Bamiyan and Sistan, aided his brother Ghiyath in defeating the forces of Sultan Shah at Merv in 1190. He also annexed most of the latter's territories in Khorasan.

First Battle of Tarain

In 1191, Mu'izz proceeded towards Indian Sub-continent through the Khyber Pass in modern-day Pakistan and was successful in reaching Punjab. Mu'izz captured a fortress, Bathinda in present-day Punjab state on the northwestern frontier of Prithvīrāj Chauhān's kingdom. After appointing a Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fortress, [8] he received the news that Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai were on their way to besiege the fortress. The two armies eventually met near the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Thanesar in present-day Haryana. The battle was marked by the initial attack of mounted Mamluk archers to which Prithviraj responded by counter-attacking from three sides and thus dominating the battle. Mu'izz mortally wounded Govind Tai in personal combat and in the process was himself wounded, whereupon his army retreated [9] and Prithvīrāj's army was deemed victorious. [10]

According to Rima Hooja and Kaushik Roy, Govind Tal was wounded by Ghori, and later fought at the second battle of Tarain, where he was killed. [11] [12]

Second Battle of Tarain

On his return to Ghor, Mu'izz made preparations to avenge the defeat. According to Firishta, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry and infantry (most likely a gross exaggeration). [13] Minhaj-i-Siraj, stated Mu'izz brought 120,000 fully armored men to the battle in 1192. [13]

Prithviraj had called his banners but hoped to buy time as his banners (other Rajputs under him or his allies) had not arrived. Before the next day, Mu'izz attacked the Rajput army before dawn. Rajputs had a tradition of fighting from sunrise to sunset. Although they were able to quickly form formations, they suffered losses due to surprise attack before sunrise. The Rajput army was eventually defeated and Prithviraj was taken prisoner and subsequently executed. [10]

Further campaigns

When the state of Ajmer failed to fulfill the tribute demands as per the custom after a defeat, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, in 1193 took over Ajmer [14] and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. [15] Hindu kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after the Battle of Chandwar, defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. [16] Within a year, Mu'izz controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. [17] The Kingdom of Ajmer was then given over to Golā, on condition that he send regular tributes to the Ghurids. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Mu'izz returned west to Ghazni to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkic and Khalaj generals such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Followed by his conquest of Delhi. An army led by Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Mu'izz's deputy in India, invaded in ca. 1195–97 and plundered Anahilapataka. [18]

In 1200, Tekish died, and was succeeded by Muhammad II of Khwarezm (who took the honorific name 'Ala' al-Din). Among the first to hear of this were Ghiyath and Mu'izz al-Din. Within weeks the two brothers had moved their armies westwards into Khorasan. Once they had captured Nishapur, Mu'izz al-Din was sent on an expedition towards Ray, but he let his troops get out of control and got little further than Gurgan, earning criticism from Ghiyath which led to the only reported quarrel between the brothers. [19]

Ghiyath died at Herat in 1202 after months of illness. Mu'izz, who had quickly returned to Ghor from India, obtained the support of Ghurid nobles, and was crowned as Sultan of the Ghurid Empire at Firuzkuh. Just after his ascension, Muhammad II invaded his domains, and besieged Herat. Mu'izz managed to repel him from Herat and then pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, their capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, on his way to his domains in Ghur, he was defeated at Andkhud in 1204. [20] [21] Mu'izz, however managed to reach Ghur, and prepared a counter-attack against the Khwarmezians and Kara-Khitans. A revolt shortly broke out in Punjab and the surrounding regions, which forced Mu'izz to make order in the region before mounting a counter-attack against his enemies.

In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India, [22] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave Qutb al-Din Aibak.

On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Dhamiak near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan). He was assassinated on March 15, 1206 while offering his evening prayers. [ aanhaling nodig ] His killers are unconfirmed. It may have been the Khokhars or Ismāʿīlīs. [23] One source states that he was assassinated by the Nizari Ismaili Assassins

In Indian folklore, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj Chauhan, [24] but this is not borne out by historical documents and Prithviraj died much earlier before the death of Mu'izz. [25] [26]

Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Mu'izz's army and government.

When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Mu'izz retorted:

"Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories." [ This quote needs a citation ]

Mu'izz's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:


1186-1190

1185-1188 Northern Europe: The Kuvlungs insurgence in SW Norway, led by Jon Kuvlung, endagers king Sverre's power, but is eventually crushed.

British Isles: Madoc of Dublin and Leinster subdues in repeated campaigns the southwestern Irish kingdoms of Desmond and Thomond (Munster), then dies and his conquests mostly wane in a sweep of rebellion led by local Irish clans.

British Isles: The High King of Ireland, Rory O'Connor, is overthrown by his son, Connor Maenmaige.

North Africa: The Maurian Catholic count Paul nicknamed Iron Cross, a remote descendant of the Rodrigo/Marmazon who conquered Spain, defeats the Cathar tribes of the Rawel (*OTL Rif) mountains at the battle of Baskara, then turns on the Andalusian and Spanish crusaders who subsequently tried to get rid of him also the vanquished Cathars flock under his banner, now a rallying symbol of national pride.

Byzantine Empire: A bloodless coup deposes Basil I Vatatzes from the throne and makes the immensely popular Alexius Branas the new basileus. The deposed ruler retires as a monk in Bulgaria.

Middle East: Sultan Abdullah of Arabia's army captures Damascus from the Tripoline Crusaders and the Knights of St. John after a protracted siege, crushing three subsequent attempts to relieve the blockade of the city.

Northern Europe: Finnic pirates from Courland and Estonia destroy the Swedish city of Sigtuna.

Southern Europe: Pope Urban III dies, succeeded by the Roman Leo IX (Giacinto Bobone, *OTL Celestine III), who finally settle disputes with the Urbs' populace by allowing the election of local magistrates representing the people. The Genoese wrest from the Pisans the almost impregnable Corsican port of Bonifacio, a town they had been claiming for decades.

North Africa: King Augustine IV of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) conquers Tlemsen from the local duke, Mastanabal III the Cruel. Middle East: Baalbek and the Bekaa Valley fall in the hands of Mohammed Mansur Billah, sultan Abdullah of Arabia's cousin and best general count Bernat I of Tripoli requests help from Europe against the renewed Muslim comeback. Sultan Al-Adil Saphadin of Egypt allies with the Crusaders of Jerusalem against the Arabian ruler, securing the right to enter the Holy City for Muslim unarmed pilgrims in exchange for the alliance and an annual tribute in Mamluk warriors.

India: The Ghorids liquidate the last Ghaznavid stronghold in Lahore, killing the last scion of the rival dynasty, Khusraw Malik.

Southern Europe: A major heretical revolt shakes Lombardy, as thousands of poors flock to the banners of Arnaldist preacher Ranieri da Parma. The movement, after sacking the countryside, burning to ashes some castles and minor towns and coming to besiege some cities, is finally crushed and annihilated and its leaders horribly tortured to death.

1188 Western Europe: Tournai becomes a free town, sparking the Communal movement in the active trade environment of Flanders.

Southern Europe: The rift between the Guidoni (Piedmontese) and Amedei (royal) branches of the Lombard Susa-Biandrate Anscarids is finally composed by two dynastical marriages in the event of an extinction of one of the families, the other would inherit its lands.

Central-Eastern Europe: A Hungarian invasion of Galicia is defeated by the Pólacak/White Ruthenians at the battle of Sambor. The pagan Yotvingians of duke Mingayl kill in battle the king of Poland Casimir II the Just and establish at Grodno their independent duchy of Sudovia as an ally of the powerful Pólacak Empire of Polotsk/Palteskei. Mieszko III the Old regains the Polish crown and pays tribute to the White Ruthenians.

Middle East: The Knight Hospitalier of Saint John lead the legendary defence of Krak des Chevaliers against the hordes of Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam of Arabia

Central-Eastern Europe: Mieszko III reigns in Poland, supported by his brother-in-law, the Ruthenian Czar Volodar of Polotsk he is constantly fought by the nobility, supporting the cause of Leszek the White en Conrad of Mazovia, Casimir II's young sons, as the kingdom slips more and more into feudal anarchy.

1189 Central-Eastern Europe: Konchak Khan establishes the Khanate of Cumania in OTL Moldavia after defeating the Vlacho-Bulgarians at the Prut river and sacking Kiev. Middle East: Sultan Abdullah's forces crush the last Zengid emirate in Mosul, who was trying to put up a desperate alliance with the Crusaders against the new master came from the desert. A subsequent Arab invasion of Palestine to capture Jerusalem is halted in the bloody battle of Nablus by allied Crusader and Egyptian forces.

Arabia: Wali (*Sunni “Pope”) Abdussalam I of Mecca abolishes the title of Caliph, claiming it had a sense only until the creation of the Waliate this fatwa (*decision) is supported by sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam bin Yusuf an-Nafudi, a zealot partisan of Waliist Islam.

India: In reaction to the formal abolition of any Caliphate by the Meccan Waliate, the Ghorid Caliphist sultan Muhammad proclaims himself Caliph, sparking major Waliist and Ismaili revolts and a rivalry with his brothers that weaken his empire. Final fall of the Chalukyas of Kalyani (Karnataka) their ancient kingdom is carved between the Seunas/Yadavas in the north, the Kakatiyas and the Hoysalas in the remaining lands.

British Isles: The young Owain ap Iorwerth rebels against his uncle Dafydd I of Wales and secures the throne as king Owain III with the help of emperor Amaury the Great of Greater Normandy, renewing Welsh feudal submission and dynastical ties to the Normans. The defeated Dafydd will die as a monk in France.

1189-1191 Byzantine Empire: Basileus Alexius II Branas counterattacks the Turks in Anatolia by allying with the Danishmendids against the Ortoqids and their clients. Byzantine forces defeat and kill Alpay Yusuf of Iconium, enthroning there his Christian cousin Gregory as duke of Batiturkeia Crusader strongholds in the Taurus are also eliminated or subdued, surviving only along the southern Anatolian coast.

1190 Southern Europe: The Serbs defeat the Byzantine army in the Morava valley, securing their independence from Constantinople.

Arabia: Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam conquers Aden from the Egyptians, then campaigns in Oman, completing his conquest of the Arabic peninsula. Actually, its southern fringes remain a hotbed of Zaydi (Yemen) and Ibadi-Khariji (Oman) rebellious tribes, being subjected only in name to the sultan, and, worst of all, firmly adverse to Waliism.

India: The Hoysala ruler, Ballala II, defeats his Seuna/Yadava rival Bhillama V by die battle of Sorituru, winning the struggle for the Chalukya legacy in southern India.

SE Asia: Anawratha's dynasty is restored in Pagan (Burma) with help from his Sri Lankan allies following a civil war. The Khmers capture Vijaya (*OTL Binh Dinh, Vietnam), again vassalizing their Cham rivals.


Kyk die video: The Greeks of Central Asia