Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Cramm, die derde van die sewe seuns van baron Burchard von Cramm en gravin Jutta von Steinberg, is gebore op die familiegoed naby Nettlingen, Nedersakse, Duitsland, 7 Julie 1909. (1)

Die gesin het sedert die 13de eeu grond in Nedersakse besit en sy ma was die enigste erfgenaam van die fortuin van 'n ander ou familie. Sy pa wou baie graag hê dat sy seuns goeie sportlui moet wees en hy bou 'n tennisklei -baan by die Oelber -kasteel. (2)

In 1928 arriveer Von Cramm in Berlyn vasbeslote om 'n voltydse tennisspeler te word. In 1932 wen hy die Duitse nasionale tenniskampioenskap en word hy lid van die Duitse Davisbeker -span. Hy werk saam met Hilde Krahwinkel om die 1933 Mixed Doubles -titel in Wimbledon te wen. In 1934 behaal hy sy eerste individuele Grand Slam -titel deur die Franse Ope te wen deur die Australiese aas Jack Crawford te klop.

Volgens Will Magee, "was hy (von Cramm) ryk, gesellig en oop, terwyl sy sport sukses hom baie gewild gemaak het by die huis. Hy het 'n wenpersoonlikheid gehad, sowel as 'n reputasie vir goeie maniere, sportmanskap en eerbare gedrag. teenoor sy teenstanders. ” Gottfried von Cramm trou in September 1930 met Elisabeth von Dobeneck. (3)

Gottfried von Cramm het in konflik gekom met Adolf Hitler oor sy anti-Joodse beleid. Op 24 April 1933 het Hans von Tschammer und Osten, Reichssportführer (Reich -sportleier) 'n verklaring namens die Duitse tennistennisvereniging uitgereik waarin verklaar word dat geen Jood vir die nasionale span gekies kan word nie, en spesifiek dat die Joodse speler met die naam Daniel Prenn nie tot die Duitse Davisbeker -span gekies word nie. Von Cramm protesteer teen hierdie besluit, maar hy kon Hitler nie oorreed om van plan te verander nie en Prenn emigreer na Engeland. (4)

In die Davisbeker Interzone 1935 -eindstryd teen die Amerikaners, tydens die deurslaggewende dubbelspelwedstryd, moes Cramm sy veel swakker vennoot, Kai Lund, dra teen Wilmer Allison en Johnny Van Ryn, wat saam vier grand slam -dubbelspel gewen het. Een koerant beskryf dit as "die grootste een-man-dubbelspel ooit". Op die vyfde wedstrydpunt het Gottfried 'n koeël bedien wat Allison skaars teruggekry het. na 'n ruil, het Lund uiteindelik vir die wedstryd weggesit, maar nie heeltemal nie. Die baron, die siel van ridderlikheid, stap na die skeidsregter en laat hom rustig meedeel dat die bal sy raket bewei het voordat sy maat dit weggesit het. teenstanders of die skeidsregter het dit opgemerk. Die punt het gegaan aan die Amerikaners en uiteindelik het hulle die wedstryd en die rubber die volgende dag gewen. "

In die kleedkamer na die wedstryd het die Duitse kaptein Heinrich Kleinschroth vermoedelik die muur van die span se kleedkamer met 'n kop gestamp. Gloeiend van woede noem hy Gottfried von Cramm '' 'n volksverraaier ''. Hy het geantwoord: "Tennis is 'n gentleman -spel, en dit is hoe ek dit gespeel het sedert ek 'n raket opgetel het. Dink jy dat ek vanaand sou slaap met die wete dat die bal my raket geraak het sonder dat ek dit gesê het? Inteendeel, ek dink nie ek laat die Duitse mense in die steek nie. Ek dink ek gee hulle eer. " (5)

Charles Graves beweer dat "Gottfried von Cramm ... die beste maniere op die tennisbane van enige speler het, hetsy Engels of buiteland. Hy maak altyd die mees bekoorlike verskonings vir geslaan teenstanders. Hy verloor nooit sy humeur nie, gooi nooit sy raket oor nie , en is in werklikheid 'n voorwerp-les in goeie gedrag. As hy in aksie is, grynslag hy nie en gril nie. Geen wonder dat die verkoop van die prentkaartjies by Wimbledon bewys dat hy die gewildste van al die aas is nie. Hy is vyf voet elf en weeg presies tien klip. Hy rook nooit ... eet nooit, speel nooit gholf nie ... skiet, visvang, hokkie of swem is 'n ander saak. Gottfried von Cramm is een van die mooiste seuns wat ek nog ooit gehad het Hy het duidelike, grysblou oë, in sy kop, baie soos die van wyle TE Lawrence. Graves het hom ook geprys omdat hy "soos 'n Engelsman aangetrek het" en dat hy nie die "afgryslike kortbroek" aangeneem het wat sommige van die manne destyds gedra het nie. (6)

In 1935 is Von Cramm in die Wimbledon -eindstryd deur Fred Perry geklop. Hy het wraak geneem deur Perry in die Franse Ope van 1936 te klop. Perry het hom in 1936 weer op Wimbledon geklop en die jaar daarna was hy naaswenner van Don Budge. Voor die wedstryd het Von Cramm 'n oproep ontvang van Adolf Hitler, wat tien minute lank die deugde van die Ariese ras bestudeer en die noodsaaklikheid van sy erfenis in ag neem. Hy het ook twee Grand Slam -dubbelspelkampioenskappe met Heinrich Henkel gewen en in 1937 is hy aangewys as die beste tennisspeler ter wêreld. (7)

Gottfried von Cramm word as 'n "argetipiese Ariër" beskou en Adolf Hitler wou hom as 'n kragtige simbool deur die regime voorstel. Hy was egter nie eens met Hitler se politiek nie en ondanks die druk wat Hermann Göring op hom uitoefen, het hy geweier om by die Nazi -party aan te sluit. "Alhoewel hy verplig was om tenniswitte te dra wat met 'n hakekors versier was en 'n Sieg Heil voor die aanvang van die wedstryde op te voer, het hy talle benaderings weerstaan ​​om hom 'n sentrale deel van die Nazi's se propagandadryf te maak. Terwyl ander sportlui entoesiasties aangesluit het by die As idee van die Ariese sportoorheersing, het Gottfried aanhou om tennis te speel en probeer om met sy lewe voort te gaan. " (8)

In die somer van 1937 speel Duitsland teen die Verenigde State in die Davisbeker -interzone -eindstryd. Dit was twee wedstryde, en die laaste beslissende wedstryd was tussen Don Budge en Von Cramm. Budge onthou later: "Oorlogspraatjies was oral. Hitler het alles in sy vermoë gedoen om Duitsland op te wek. Die atmosfeer was vol spanning, hoewel Von Cramm 'n bekende anti-Nazi was en een van die beste here en die gewildste speler op die gebied was. kring. " Budge het gesê dat Cramm 'n oproep van Hitler gekry het minute voor die wedstryd begin het en bleek en ernstig uitgekom het en 'elke punt gespeel het asof sy lewe afhang van wen'. Von Cramm was met 4–1 voor in die laaste stel toe Budge 'n terugkeer begin, en uiteindelik met 8-6 wen in 'n wedstryd wat as een van die grootste in die tennisgeskiedenis beskou word. (9)

Volgens Robert S. Wistich het hierdie nederlaag 'die lot van Von Cramm verseël'. (10) Die Gestapo het Gottfried von Cramm en sy gesin begin ondersoek. Hulle het ontdek dat sy vrou, Elisabeth von Dobeneck, die dogter was van Robert von Dobeneck en sy vrou, die voormalige Maria Hagen, 'n kleindogter van die Joodse bankier Louis Hagen. Hulle het agterdogtig geraak toe amptelike rekords toon dat die egpaar in Mei 1937 geskei het op grond van 'onverenigbaarheid van temperament'. (11)

Na verdere navraag het die Gestapo ontdek dat hy homoseksuele verhoudings gehad het. Een van sy geliefdes was Geoffrey Nares, 'n jong Engelsman. Dit was egter sy verhouding met Manasse Herbst, 'n jong Joodse akteur, wat in 1936 uit Duitsland gevlug het, die grootste kommer veroorsaak. Kort nadat hy aan die bewind gekom het, beveel Hitler wetgewing wat homoseksualiteit onwettig maak. Op 5 Maart 1938 is Von Cramm gearresteer. Die Daily Herald berig dat Von Cramm paragraaf 175 van die Strafwet, wat seksuele oortredings dek, oortree het. Sy vriende beweer egter dat die werklike rede vir sy gevangenisstraf 'onverstandige politieke uitsprake' was. (12)

Gottfried von Cramm is in werklikheid aangekla van homoseksualiteit en om finansiële hulp aan 'n Jood te gee. Hoewel die aanklagte ongetwyfeld deur die politiek gemotiveer is, kon hy dit nie ontken nie, aangesien hy inderdaad 'n homoseksuele verhouding met Herbst gehad het, en hy het hom beide gehelp en sy ontsnapping na Palestina gefinansier. Hy beweer egter dat die verhouding geëindig het voordat homoseksualiteit in 1934 verbied is. In 'n geheime hof is hy tot 'n jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis. (13)

Don Budge, Joe DiMaggio en 24 ander ondertekenaars "wie se name bekend is in die grasveldtennis en ander sportsoorte, het 'n ope brief openbaar gemaak waarin gevra word dat die Duitse regering onmiddellik Gottfried von Cramm moet vrylaat en vryspreek". Die brief kritiseer die 'donker geheimhouding' van die verhoor en veroordeel die aanklagte as 'blote onderonsies'. Dit beskryf "Baron von Cramm as 'n ideale sportman, 'n volmaakte heer en ordentlikheid verpersoonlik ... Geen land sou 'n meer kredietwaardige eksponent wou hê nie." Dit het bygevoeg dat "hierdie duisternis van stilte wat so kenmerkend is van diktature, waar die vryheid van uitdrukking van die woord of druk lankal plek gemaak het vir die onderdrukking van nuus en sensuur." (14)

By sy vrylating uit die gevangenis, in Oktober 1938, probeer Von Cramm weer tennis speel. Erich Schönborn, die president van die Duitse Tennisfederasie, het hom egter meegedeel dat hy weens sy kriminele rekord nie weer Duitsland mag verteenwoordig nie. Op uitnodiging van koning Gustav V het hy in Swede gaan woon en aan verskeie tennistoernooie in daardie land deelgeneem.

Aangesien Von Cramm se belangrikste mededingers Fred Perry, Don Budge, Bill Tilden en Ellsworth Vines professioneel geword het, was hy 'n gunsteling vir die Wimbledon -enkelspelkampioenskappe in 1939. Aangesien hy in sy eie land nog steeds op die swartlys was, het hy geen ander keuse gehad as om as individu aansoek te doen nie (nasionale tennisfederasies het gewoonlik hul spelers ingeskryf). Soos Marshall Jon Fisher uitwys: "die Wimbledon -komitee bestaan ​​uit viscounts en vleuelbevelvoerders en regte eerbewys het besluit dat hulle nie 'n speler wat skuldig bevind is aan 'n sedelike aanklag, kan toelaat nie." (15)

Gottfried von Cramm is die vorige week toegelaat om by Queens te speel en hy het Bobby Riggs, die wenner van die Wimbledon-eindstryd daardie jaar, met 6-0, 6-1 geklop. Von Cramm se vriend, Taki Theodoracopulos, het gekla dat hy beslis die kampioenskap in 1939 sou gewen het as hy nie 'deur die lafhartige All England -klub geweier was nie' weens morele onstuimigheid. (16) Elizabeth Wilson het aangevoer Love Game: A History of Tennis, van Victoriaanse tydverdryf tot wêreldwye verskynsel (2015) dat Von Cramm "een van die grootste tennisspelers was wat nog nooit Wimbledon gewen het nie." (17)

Dit is later ontdek dat die Britse establishment agter die besluit was om hom nie te laat speel nie. Harold Harmsworth, die eerste Lord Northcliffe, die eienaar van die Daaglikse pos, en 'n groot vriend van Adolf Hitler, het druk op die All England Club geplaas om toegang tot die kompetisie te weier. (18) Sir Louis Greig, destyds die voorsitter van die All England Club, soos Harmsworth, 'n ondersteuner van Oswald Mosley, stem saam en sorg dat Von Cramm nie deelneem as dit Hitler in die verleentheid stel nie. (19)

Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is Gottfried von Cramm as militêre diensplig ingeroep as lid van die Hermann Goering -afdeling. Ondanks sy agtergrond het Cramm oorspronklik as privaat soldaat gedien totdat hy 'n kompanie gekry het. Hy sien aksie aan die Oosfront en word bekroon met die Ysterkruis. Sy onderneming het onder moeilike omstandighede te staan ​​gekom en Cramm is gevlieg as gevolg van ernstige bevrorenheid. Die meeste van sy geselskap is vermoor en twee van sy broers. Nie ver daarvandaan nie, tydens die Slag van Stalingrad, is ook sy voormalige dubbelspelmaat, Heinrich Henkel, dood. (20)

Volgens Richard K. Mastain, die skrywer van The Old Lady of Vine Street (2009) Gottfried von Cramm was betrokke by die Julie -plan om Adolf Hitler te vermoor. Luitenant-kolonel Claus von Stauffenberg het die bom op 20 Julie 1944 geplant, maar dit het Hitler nie doodgemaak nie. As die poging suksesvol was, was Von Cramm van plan om na Swede te gaan en 'n oorgawe met die Britse minister van buitelandse sake, Anthony Eden, te onderhandel. (21)

Na die oorlog het Gottfried von Cramm teruggekeer na tennis. Hy het die Duitse nasionale kampioenskap in 1948 en weer in 1949, toe hy 40 jaar oud was, gewen. Von Cramm het aanhou Davis Cup -tennis speel totdat hy ná die 1953 -seisoen uitgetree het en hou steeds die rekord van die meeste oorwinnings deur enige Duitse spanlid. Na sy uittrede uit aktiewe kompetisie, dien Cramm as administrateur in die Duitse Tennisfederasie en word hy suksesvol as katoeninvoerder. (22)

In November 1955 trou Gottfried von Cramm met Barbara Hutton, 'n Amerikaanse geselligheid en 'n erfgenaam van die fortuin van Woolworth. Von Cramm was Hutton se sesde eggenoot en het aan die pers gesê: "Ons moes agtien jaar gelede getroud gewees het. Ons het verlief geraak ná ons eerste ontmoeting in Kaïro in 1937, maar op een of ander manier het dit nooit gebeur nie." (23) Hy het later erken dat hy met haar getroud was om 'haar te help deur middel van dwelmmisbruik en depressie, maar uiteindelik nie in staat was om haar te help nie'. Hulle is in 1959 geskei. (24)

Baron Gottfried von Cramm, 66, sterf in 'n motorongeluk op 'n woestynpad in Egipte op 'n terugreis uit Alexandria op 8 November 1976.

Gottfried von Cramm, wat Fred Perry slegs ses weke gelede in die Franse kampioenskap geklop het, het die beste maniere op die tennisbane van enige speler, hetsy Engels of buiteland. Geen wonder dat die verkoop van die prentkaartjies by Wimbledon bewys dat hy die gewildste van al die aas is nie.

Hy is vyf voet elf en weeg presies tien klip. Hy praat bewonderenswaardig Engels, danksy 'n Engelse goewerneur, het baie wit tande en blonde hare wat teruggeborsel is. Hy trek soos 'n Engelsman aan, geniet die lewe en weier, dankie tog, absoluut om die verskriklike kortbroek te dra wat Tom Webster -ouens so genadig en verdienstelik het.

Die verhoor van baron Gottfried von Cramm, Duitsland se tennisspeler, begin op 14 Mei. Toe Von Cramm in Maart gearresteer is, word die oortreding van paragraaf 175 van die Strafwet, wat seksuele misdrywe dek, genoem. Daar word ook gerugte gemaak oor “onverstandige politieke uitsprake”.

As tennisliefhebbers in hierdie land dink aan die 1936 -eindstryd van Wimbledon vir mans, assosieer hulle dit in die eerste plek met Fred Perry. Dit is 'n finale wat 'n belangrike plek in die nasionale bewussyn inneem, want dit was voor Andy Murray se oorwinning in 2013 die laaste keer dat 'n Britse man Wimbledon gewen het. Perry is meedoënloos grootgemaak gedurende die Tim Henman-era, en het nog 'n stok geword waarmee die meerjarige landwyd van die land geklop kan word. Uiteindelik het dit 77 jaar geneem voordat Perry se heldedade in Wimbledon deur 'n Britse sportman geëwenaar is. Byna agt dekades lank het tennis aan hierdie oewers vir ewig teruggekyk na die somer van 1936.

Dit gesê, daar was nog nooit veel aandag aan Perry se teenstander in die noodlottige eindstryd nie. Toe Perry aan die einde van die drieë-sarsie na die net gaan, skud hy 'n lang, blonde heer; 'n man met sagte, aantreklike kenmerke sowel as merkwaardige senings en sterkte. Die man was Gottfried von Cramm, een van die grootste Duitse tennisspelers ooit. Hy was 'n uitstekende atleet, maar ook 'n man in konflik. Tereg bewonder as 'n groot sportman, was hy ook een van die interessantste karakters wat ooit na die hof gekom het.

Gottfried kondig homself werklik aan in die tenniswêreld in 1934, toe hy die Australiese aas Jack Crawford verslaan en Roland Garros wen. Alhoewel hy voorheen die Duitse nasionale kampioenskappe gewen het, was dit sy eerste Grand Slam. Sy agtergrond het hedendaagse belange geprikkel, veral nie vanweë sy nasionaliteit en die koorsagtige politieke situasie in die destydse Duitsland nie.

Gottfried was 'n Saksiese aristokraat, die derde seun van Burchard Baron von Cramm. Hy was ryk, gesellig en oop, terwyl sy sport sukses hom by die huis baie gewild gemaak het. Hy het 'n wenpersoonlikheid gehad, sowel as 'n reputasie vir goeie maniere, sportmanskap en eerbare optrede teenoor sy teenstanders. Alhoewel dit eers gefluister is tydens sy eerste Grand Slam, was hy ook gay en in 'n diskrete verhouding met Manasse Herbst, 'n jong akteur en Galiciese Jood.

In die Duitsland van 1934 was hierdie verhouding ernstig problematies. Adolf Hitler het sy mag as Führer gekonsolideer, en dit sal skaars 'n jaar duur voordat homoseksualiteit in die wet gekriminaliseer word. Joodse burgers was reeds onderhewig aan diskriminasie, haat en geweld, en vrees het hul gemeenskap aangegryp. Dit was in hierdie konteks dat Gottfried von Cramm een ​​van Duitsland se mees gevierde atlete geword het, en daarom is hy gevra om 'n land te verteenwoordig wat vinnig in die totalitêre afgrond sink.

Blond, gebeiteld en argetipies Ariër, Gottfried is deur die regime as 'n kragtige simbool beskou. Vanweë sy eie omstandighede en oortuigings was hy egter onwrikbaar bereid om die vereiste rol te speel. Alhoewel hy gedwing was om tenniswitte te dra wat met 'n hakekors versier was en 'n Sieg Heil voor die aanvang van wedstryde op te voer, het hy talle benaderings weerstaan ​​om hom 'n sentrale deel van die Nazi's se propagandadryf te maak. Terwyl ander sportlui entoesiasties aangesluit het by die idee van Ariese sportoorheersing, het Gottfried aanhou om gentleman -tennis te speel en probeer om met sy lewe voort te gaan.

Die spanning tussen Gottfried en die regime het geleidelik toegeneem na die Davisbeker -eindstryd van 1935, wat Duitsland teen die VSA verloor het. Hy het geweier om 'n wedstrydpunt in die beslissende wedstryd van die wedstryd te neem, nadat hy die skeidsregter in kennis gestel het dat die bal sy raket tydens die saamtrek laat kantel het. Niemand het die fout gesien nie, maar Gottfried het nietemin aangedui dat 'n punt teen hom geroep moet word. Duitsland het verloor, en die skuld val direk op die skouers van die agbare Von Cramm.

Na die wedstryd het die Duitse kaptein, Heinrich Kleinschroth, vermoedelik met die muur van die span se kleedkamer gestamp. Gloeiend van woede noem hy Von Cramm '' 'n verraaier van die nasie '. Die antwoord van Gottfried toon sy karakter. 'Inteendeel, ek dink nie ek het die Duitse volk gefaal nie,' het hy gesê. 'Trouens, ek dink ek het hulle vereer.' Die owerhede het die nederlaag nogal anders gesien, en daar was toenemende druk op hom om te voldoen.

Gottfried het herhaaldelik geweier om by die Nazi -party aan te sluit, ondanks die dreigende aandrang van onder andere Hermann Göring. Hy het nie net hul diskriminerende beleid minag nie, hy was ook gekritiseer oor die ballingskap van die Poolse Jood en voormalige spanmaat Daniel Prenn. Anekdoties word voorgestel dat Von Cramm na Hitler verwys het as "die huisskilder", 'n jibbel in die vroeë jare van die Führer as 'n mislukte kunstenaar in Wene. Dit was 'n gevaarlike houding om Nazi -Duitsland in te neem, veral vir 'n gay man met die oë van die nasie op hom.

Ondanks dit alles het Von Cramm voortgegaan om uit te blink op die baan. Hy het in 1936 weer by die Franse kampioenskappe geseëvier en die dubbelspel vir mans by Roland Garros en die Amerikaanse Ope gewen saam met sy protégé, Heinrich Henkel, die jaar daarna. Sy beroemdste optredes was egter in Wimbledon. Alhoewel hy nooit die toernooi gewen het nie, het sy prestasies by die All England Club hom wêreldwyd geprys.

Gottfried was drie jaar agtereenvolgens naaswenner in Wimbledon, en verloor die eerste en tweede wedstryde van Fred Perry in 1935 en '36, en die derde van die Amerikaanse tennislegende Don Budge in '37. Terwyl hy al drie wedstryde in regstelle verloor het, het hy dit teen die onbetwiste supersterre van die dag gedoen, en hy het homself in die proses baie eer bewys. Boonop het sy eerste wedstryd teen Perry en sy laaste wedstryd teen Budge as wettige klassieke in die geskiedenis gegaan, met 'n paar van die beste en vermaaklikste tennis van die era.

Namate die politieke situasie in Europa versleg en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog steeds groter geword het, het die gespanne verhouding tussen Von Cramm en die Nazi's vinnig verbrokkel. Voor 'n berugte wedstryd met Budge by die Davisbeker van 1937, is gerugte dat Gottfried 'n oproep van Hitler ontvang het om hom te beveel om ten alle koste die oorwinning te behaal. Hy het met 4-1 voorgeloop in die laaste stel, net om sy voorsprong te laat glip en uiteindelik met 8-6 te verloor. Terwyl Budge simpatie gehad het met sy angstige, belasde teenstander, het die regime dit nie gedoen nie.

Op 5 Maart 1938 het twee Gestapo -agente by 'n Von Cramm -gesinsete ingeloer. Gottfried is summier gearresteer en in die gevangenis van die Duitse regering opgesluit. Hy is aangekla van homoseksualiteit en die gee van geldelike hulp aan 'n Jood. Hoewel die aanklagte ongetwyfeld deur die politiek gemotiveer is, kon hy dit nie ontken nie. Manasse Herbst het in 1936 uit die land gevlug vir Palestina, en Von Cramm het hom gehelp en sy ontsnapping gefinansier.

Gottfried het die verhouding aan die owerhede erken en is tot 'n jaar tronkstraf gevonnis. Sy prokureur het daarin geslaag om die erns van die straf te verminder deur te beweer dat Herbst hom afgepers het om die geld te stuur, aangesien hy 'n "skelm Jood" was. Dit was 'n slenter, en die feit dat Von Cramm na die oorlog Herbst aangebied het, getuig van hul blywende vriendskap. As dit nie vir Gottfried se geld was nie, is dit heel moontlik dat Herbst nie die gruwels sou oorleef nie.

As 'n man met baie vriende in tennis het verskeie hoëprofielspelers tot Von Cramm se verdediging gespring. Klagte is by die Duitse owerhede ingedien, terwyl Don Budge die handtekeninge van sy professionele persone versamel het voordat hy 'n protesbrief aan Hitler gestuur het. Ongelukkig was die tennishiërargie baie minder verstaanbaar. Na die vroeë vrylating van Von Cramm vroeg in 1939, is hy deur die All England Club verwyder. Die politieke klimaat was ongetwyfeld die belangrikste faktor in sy uitsluiting van Wimbledon daardie jaar, maar die amptelike voorwendsel was dat hy 'n veroordeelde misdadiger was en dus ongeskik was om die gras te versorg.

Von Cramm is gebore in 'n baie ou, aristokratiese Duitse familie, en sy verwoestende voorkoms, sowel as sy ongeëwenaarde sportmanskap, het hom in Duitsland en Brittanje 'n afgod gemaak. Hy het drie keer die eindstryd op Wimbledon gehaal en al drie wedstryde verloor (alhoewel hy in sy tweede eindstryd 'n spier getrek het en moes geweier het, maar galant geweier het). Gottfried het die Franse kampioenskappe twee keer agtereenvolgens gewen, terwyl die stadige klei perfek was vir sy pragtige plathoue en sy verwoestende tweede draai. Cramm was bekend daarvoor dat hy nooit na 'n slegte oproep na 'n lynman gekyk het of 'n oproep betwis het nie. In die Davisbeker Interzone 1935 -eindstryd teen die Amerikaners, tydens die deurslaggewende dubbelspelwedstryd, het Cramm wonderwerke verrig en sy veel swakker vennoot, Kai Lund, gedra teen die formidabele Wimbledon -wenners Wilmer Allison en Johnny Van Ryn. Die koerante noem dit 'die grootste eenman-dubbelspel ooit'. Op die vyfde wedstrydpunt bedien Gottfried 'n koeël wat Allison skaars teruggekry het. Die punt het gegaan aan die Amerikaners en hulle het uiteindelik die wedstryd en die rubber die volgende dag gewen.

In die kleedkamer het 'n Duitse amptenaar 'n senuwee -ineenstorting gehad. Hy herinner Gottfried daaraan dat Duitsland nog nooit so naby was om die beker te wen nie - baie meer gesog as destyds - en het von Cramm daarvan beskuldig dat hy die kant in die steek gelaat het. Hier is die antwoord van die baron: "Tennis is 'n gentleman -spel, en dit is die manier waarop ek dit gespeel het vandat ek 'n raket opgetel het. Ek dink ek verdien hulle krediet." Dit alles op 'n kalm, saamgestelde en elegante manier. Die luisterende Amerikaners was stomgeslaan. Toe juig hulle.

Na sy nederlaag teen Budge in die Wimbledon -eindstryd van 1938, is die baron, wat getroud was met die pragtige Lisa von Dobeneck, deur die Nazi's van homoseksualiteit aangekla en vir 'n jaar na 'n konsentrasiekamp gestuur. Von Cramm was homoseksueel, maar 'n mens sou dit nooit geweet het deur sy gedrag nie, 'n onberispelike heer. In 1939, met Cramm die laaste gunsteling om uiteindelik die Wimbledon-eindstryd te wen (hy het die uiteindelike wenner Bobby Riggs die vorige week met 6-0, 6-1 in Queens geklop), is hy deur die lafhartige All England-klub geweier om toegang turpitude, 'n Nazi -uitvinding, aangesien niemand ooit na vore gekom het om Cramm te beskuldig van enigiets wat op openbare skandelikheid lyk nie. Erger nog, Cramm is tot sy dood in 1976 deur die Verenigde State geweier weens 'n Nazi -aanklag.

Twee van Gottfried se broers is op die Russiese front vermoor, waar hy die militêre kruis vir dapperheid gedien en gewen het. Hy het Wimbledon tot in sy veertigerjare gespeel, sowel as die Davisbeker, en is dood in 'n motorongeluk in Kaïro in 1976. Sy weduwee was Barbara Hutton, die oorspronklike arm klein ryk dogtertjie.

In die hedendaagse barbaarse sportkultuur, waar oorbetaalde, steroïdebesmette freaks optree soos opgeleide robbe, lyk die aristokratiese voorkoms, briljante beroertes en onberispelike sportmanskap van Gottfried amper onproduktief, maar die teenoorgestelde is waar. Sowel Budge as hy is dood in motorongelukke, maar hul wedstryd in 1937 sal vir ewig lewe vir sy glans sowel as vir sy drama. 'Dankie, Don, dat u my die beste tennis van my lewe laat speel het,' sê Cramm terwyl hy na die net gaan om Budge geluk te wens. Een of ander verloorder. Hitler draai nog steeds om oor die een.

Baron Gottfried von Cramm, Duitse tennisster van die dertigerjare, is vandag dood in 'n motorongeluk op 'n woestynpad op 'n terugreis uit Alexandria. Hy was 66 jaar oud.

Die Wes -Duitse ambassade het gesê sy motor en 'n vragmotor het ongeveer 32 kilometer buite Kaïro gebots. Die bestuurder van sy motor is ook dood. Daar was geen ander onmiddellike besonderhede nie.

Baron Gottfried von Cramm se posisie in die wêreld van internasionale tennis is veilig. Die Duitse ster het bekend geword in die skemer van Bill Tilden se loopbaan, en speel teen grootes soos Fred Perry van Brittanje en Don Budge van die Verenigde State,

Hy was 'n geselligheid, 'n lid van die vooraanstaande familie wat belowe het dat hy nooit 'n professionele persoon sou word nie ("Hulle sal my nie vang nie, maak nie saak wat hulle voorstel nie"), 'n veteraan uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, die sesde man van Barbara Hutton, die vyf en dime erfgenaam van wie hy later geskei is, en 'n beweerde slagoffer van Nazi -intrige.

Sy tennisloopbaan strek van 1930 tot 1953, waartydens hy 82 van 102 Davisbeker -wedstryde gewen het. Hy wen die Franse enkelspeltitel in 1934 en 1936 en hou die Duitse kampioenskap van 1932 tot 1935. Na die oorlog verower hy die Wes -Duitse enkelspeltitel in 1948 en 1949.

Dit was miskien sy ongeluk om in die tyd van Perry en Budge bekend te word. Hy verloor in die eindstryd op Wimbledon vir Perry in 1935 en 1936 en vir Budge in 1937. Sy enigste Wimbledon -kampioenskap kom in 1933, toe hy en Hilda Krahwinkel die gemengde dubbelspel neem.

Tennisgeskiedkundiges beskou sy Davisbeker -tussenstryd teen Budge in Wimbledon in Julie 1937 as een van die grootste hofduelle. Von Cramm, wat briljant gespeel het, het die eerste twee stelle geneem, maar die rooikop in Kalifornië het herstel en uiteindelik gewen, 6-8, 5-7, 6-4, 6-2, 8-6. in die vyfde stel het von Cramm vyf wedstrydpunte afgeveg voordat hy toegegee het.

Net soos die Daaglikse pos terwyl hy 'n beskuldigende vinger na Jeremy Corbyn gewys het oor antisemitisme, het Adolf Hitler se spook teruggekeer na die koerant wat vroeër berug was dat hy die belangrikste cheerleader in Fleet Street was.

Mandrake hoor dat sy bestuurders 'n stuk oor Baron Gottfried von Cramm, die wêreld se voorste tennisspeler, voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog opdrag gegee het, wie se lewe gevier word in 'n groot rolprent genaamd Poster Boy.

Dit sou oor twee bladsye strek, totdat iemand 'n paar paragrawe opgemerk het wat bewys hoe die All England Club met die Nazi's saamgespan het toe hy die Duitse speler uit die Wimbledon -toernooi in 1939 verbied het, al was hy die gunsteling om te wen.

Ongemaklik was die belangrikste motor om hom verban te kry, die man wat toe die eienaar was Daaglikse pos, Harold, die eerste Viscount Rothermere, wat 'n groot geraas in die klub was en 'n toegewyde fan van die Führer was.

Rothermere het hom inderdaad 'Adolf die Grote' genoem, en gesorg dat hy in sy eie koerant geprys word en onvermydelik ontstoke was wat von Cramm geskik was om sy afgod in die openbaar te kritiseer. 'Daar was duidelik geen sprake van Harold in die artikel nie, maar laat ons sê dat daar 'n skerp bewustheid van die familiegeskiedenis van ons eienaar is,' fluister my nark in die nuuskamer. 'Die stuk is na bo verwys en behoorlik gepik.'

Of dit nou 1939 of 2016 is, daar kan altyd op een koerant staatgemaak word dat dit aan die verkeerde kant van die argument is.

Dit is geen verrassing dat die Daaglikse pos het dit verkeerd aangaande Adolf Hitler en Brexit.

Wat verbasend is, is dat dit nou blykbaar die groot Britse instelling van Wimbledon na sy vlak sou sleep.

Mandrake het verlede week onthul dat die Mail 'n funksie bevat wat hy opdrag gegee het oor hoe Wimbledon met die Nazi's saamgespan het toe hy die Duitse tennisas, Baron Gottfried von Cramm, verbied het om in die laaste toernooi voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te speel.

Die rede hiervoor was dat die bestuurders van die koerant te laat twyfel dat Harold, die eerste Viscount Rothermere - toe die eienaar van die Mail - sy invloed op Wimbledon gebruik het om te verseker dat von Cramm nie mag meeding nie, alhoewel daar van hom verwag is om te wen. Rothermere - 'n stoere ondersteuner van Hitler - het von Cramm geminag, soos hy goedgedink het om sy afgod te kritiseer.

Na 'n geruime tyd het Wimbledon 'n verklaring uitgereik in reaksie op my stuk waarin hulle beweer dat von Cramm daardie jaar nie deur die Duitse Lawn Tennis Federation ingeskryf is nie.

Hulle het ook gesê dat die land 'n ander speler, Daniel Prenn, ingeskryf het.

Ek het kontak gemaak met Patrick Ryecart, die akteur wat die draaiboek geskryf het vir 'n komende film oor von Cramm genaamd Poster Boy - hy het dit in samewerking met wyle sir David Frost ontwikkel - en hom gevra om kommentaar te lewer op Wimbledon se verklaring.

Hy het gelag. 'Wimbledon het geweier om die papierwerk wat hulle oor hierdie tydperk het, bekend te maak, maar hierdie oortuigers glo,' het hy gesê.

'Vir eers is Prenn verbied om in Duitsland te speel omdat hy 'n Jood was en in 1935 na die Verenigde Koninkryk ontsnap het en by die Sieff -gesin gewoon het, wat Marks & Spencer gestig het.

Wimbledon se weergawe van gebeure word ook weerspreek deur John Olliff, die eerbiedwaardige speler en voormalige Daily Telegraph tenniskorrespondent, wat in sy gesaghebbende boek geskryf het, Die romanse van Wimbledon, dat von Cramm toegang tot die Wimbledon -toernooi in 1939 “geweier” is.

Ek het Alexandra Willis, Wimbledon se woordvoerder, gevra of sy nou wil hê dat ek 'n ry in hierdie rubriek moet voer waarin ek ondubbelsinnig kan sê dat niemand destyds betrokke by Wimbledon - insluitend Rothermere - probeer het om von Cramm te verbied om aan die 1939 -toernooi deel te neem nie. Sy het besluit om my nie op my aanbod te neem nie.

Dit is nie gereeld dat die uittredende Daily Mail-redakteur Paul Dacre en Mail on Sunday-redakteur Geordie Greig gemeen het nie, maar die Oog het 'n ongewone geval van kruispapier gevind.

'N Paar maande terug verskyn die Mandrake -kolom in die Nuwe Europeër berig dat die Daaglikse pos het 'n stuk oor die tenniskampioen Baron Gottfried von Cramm uit die dertigerjare uitgespreek, wat teen die Nazi -regime gekant was en deur die Duitse owerhede in die tronk gesit is omdat hy 'n homoseksuele verhouding gehad het. Die stuk is gekibbel nadat 'n personeellid 'n paar reëls opgemerk het waarin beskryf word hoe Wimbledon se All England Club die speler uit sy 1939 -toernooi verbied het en ontdek het dat die Pos 'Die destydse eienaar, Harold, die eerste Burggraaf Rothermere, het sy invloed gebruik om die verbod van von Cramm aan te dring.

Na die Daaglikse pos's rejection, the tennis piece was peddled elsewhere and picked up by the Mail on Sunday which, as Private Eye readers will know, is not at all averse to running stories deemed unacceptable by its Mail stablemate. An MoS news reporter was put on the case to forensically examine the details of why von Cramm was excluded from Wimbledon. At this point the hack unearthed an unexpected connection. The chairman of the All England Club at the time of von Cramm's exclusion was Sir Louis Greig, a member of Oswald Mosley's January club and the grandfather of one Geordie Greig. The piece was hastily spiked by the Mail on Sunday too. Game, set and match to the forefathers

(1) Deane MeGowen, New York Times (10th November, 1976)

(2) Elizabeth Wilson, Love Game: A History of Tennis, from Victorian Pastime to Global Phenomenon (2015) page 102

(3) Will Magee, Life, Death, Tennis and the Nazis: Gottfried von Cramm, The Man That Wimbledon Forgot (30th June, 2016)

(4) Raghu Krishnan, Times of India (13th June, 2011)

(5) Taki Theodoracopulos, Die toeskouer (2nd September, 2009)

(6) Charles Graves, The Bystander (8th July, 1936)

(7) Deane MeGowen, New York Times (10th November, 1976)

(8) Will Magee, Life, Death, Tennis and the Nazis: Gottfried von Cramm, The Man That Wimbledon Forgot (30th June, 2016)

(9) William Joseph Baker, Sports in the Western World (1988) page 257

(10) Robert S. Wistich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany (2001) page 33

(11) The Leeds Mercury (8th March 1938)

(12) The Daily Herald (4th May, 1938)

(13) Marshall Jon Fisher, A Terrible Splendor: Three Extraordinary Men, a World Poised for War, and the Greatest Tennis Match Ever (2010) page 233

(14) Open letter sent to Adolf Hitler and signed by 26 leading sportsmen (May, 1938)

(15) Marshall Jon Fisher, A Terrible Splendor: Three Extraordinary Men, a World Poised for War, and the Greatest Tennis Match Ever (2010) page 238

(16) Taki Theodoracopulos, Die toeskouer (2nd September, 2009)

(17) Elizabeth Wilson, Love Game: A History of Tennis, from Victorian Pastime to Global Phenomenon (2015) page 110

(18) Mandrake, The New European (13th April, 2018)

(19) Private Eye: 1472 (15th June, 2018) page 9

(20) Will Magee, Life, Death, Tennis and the Nazis: Gottfried von Cramm, The Man That Wimbledon Forgot (30th June, 2016)

(21) Richard K. Mastain, The Old Lady of Vine Street (2009) page 2

(22) Deane MeGowen, New York Times (10th November, 1976)

(23) The Daily Mirror (9th November, 1955)

(24) Marshall Jon Fisher, A Terrible Splendor: Three Extraordinary Men, a World Poised for War, and the Greatest Tennis Match Ever (2010) page 247


Tennis History - Don Budge vs Baron Gottfried Von Cramm - Davis Cup

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Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm (Duitse uitspraak: [ˈɡɔtˌfʁiːt fɔn kʁam] ( listen ) English: Baron [A] [5] Gottfried von Cramm, Duitse uitspraak: [ˈɡɔtˌfʀiːt fɔn ˈkʁam] 7 July 1909 – 8 November 1976), was a German amateur tennis champion who won the French Open twice. He was ranked number 2 in the world in 1934 and 1936, and number 1 in the world in 1937. [3] [6] [7] He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1977, an organisation which considers that he is "most remembered for a gallant effort in defeat against Don Budge in the 1937 Interzone Final at Wimbledon". [4]

The Nazi regime attempted to exploit his appearance and skill as a symbol of Aryan supremacy, but he refused to identify with Nazism. He was persecuted as a homosexual by the German government and was jailed briefly in 1938.

Cramm figured briefly in the gossip columns as the sixth husband of Barbara Hutton, the Woolworth heiress.


Sports Then and Now

In this series we’ve talked about how tennis in the early days (late 19th and early 20th century) was a game for elite members of society. Dwight Davis, a Harvard student and tennis innovator was wealthy enough at the age of 20 to purchase from his own funds an enormous sterling silver ‘pot’ to serve as trophy for the Davis Cup. Fred Perry was the son of a leading member of the British Parliament, and self-made 1930s-style British millionaire. An exception – Don Budge was an unassuming middle class kid who learned to play tennis in a public court in Oakland California. (If you’ve never been to Oakland, it is where the docks associated with San Francisco Bay are actually located. Few would confuse Oakland, California, with … San Francisco.).

No elite athlete in tennis’ long history probably had a loftier pedigree than that of Baron Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm. He usually dropped the ‘Baron’ and the ‘von’ when interacting with his peers – asking people to call him ‘Gottfried Cramm.’ He was the third son of Baron von Cramm, a title inherited by his eldest brother, Aschwin in 1936 associated with a Saxon region of Germany in what is now the county of Lower Saxony (created by the British after WWII).

In the 1980s, the late Jack Kramer listed Von Cramm as one of the 21 greatest tennis players of all time. And Von Cramm played perhaps the greatest tennis match in history in 1937 in front of the British King at Wimbledon, representing of all things, Nazi Germany in a Davis Cup final (WWII broke out in 1939). He was devastatingly handsome, he was blond, he was athletic, he was aristocratic (ever the gentleman on court). Though he was everything the Aryan race was supposed to be (and his wins are listed next to a Nazi flag on websites such as wikipedia [see Fred Perry]), von Cramm was anything but a Nazi.

Despite playing for, and representing Hitler in 1937 on the world stage, von Cramm was arrested, tried and convicted by the Nazis of homosexuality in 1938, served six months of a year sentence, and was prevented by the Nazis from defending his title at the French Open, and from playing in the US Open, as the USTA followed the Nazi example and prevented a convicted homosexual from playing in the tournament.

In 1939 von Cramm could not obtain a visa to play in Australia. Von Cramm was prevented by Germany from playing in an international tennis tournament in 1940 that would feature fellow German (an presumably Aryan) champions Henner Henkel and Rolf Goepffert out of fear, according to reports of the day, that he would show them up on the court. He was allowed to play at Queen’s Club in 1939 (but not Wimbledon) where he beat Bobby Riggs in the final 6-0 6-1. (Bobby Riggs would go on years later to play perhaps the most famous tennis exhibition of all time in the 1970’s against Billie Jean King, after maintaining that the woman’s game was inferior and that the top woman could not beat him at the age of 55.)

The trophy at Queen's club (now called the Aegeon Championships), one of the few places where von Cramm could play, and where he defeated Bobby Riggs.

Even as late as 1951, von Cramm was denied a visa to participate in a French indoor tournament in Lyon, France.

We’ll never know how many majors von Cramm might have won if his career had taken place under ‘normal’ circumstances. He won two Grand Slam titles, both French Open titles, one in 1934 (Hitler had just become Chancellor of Germany), and again in 1936 (Hitler had repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, and was remilitarizing the Rhineland). The war caused interruptions in the majors, with The Championships at Wimbledon not played from 1940 to 1945, a whopping five years, an incredible amount of time in a tennis player’s career, and the years 1941-1945 are not counted in the annals of the French Open as the tournament was a shadow of its traditional self, open only to French players of the Vichy regime. The tense political environment wreaked havoc with someone like von Cramm, of German descent in an international game such as tennis when playing in England, France, and America. Drafted into the German armed forces in 1940, Von Cramm saw action on the Eastern front, but was later dismissed from military service on account of his conviction for homosexuality.

His romantic liasons included Manasse Herbst, a Jewish actor who blackmailed him for $12,000 before moving to what was then known as Palestine (before the state of Israel) in 1936 first wife, Baroness Elisabeth “Lisa” von Dobeneck a granddaughter of the Jewish banker Louis Hagen (seven years) and Barbara Hutton, American heiress to the Woolworth five-and-dime fortune (four years).

In 1979 Jack Kramer wrote that von Cramm’s abilities ranked in a category of greatness with such legends as Ken Rosewall, Rod Laver, and Bjorn Borg. In 1935, no less of an expert than Bill Tilden ranked von Cramm’s tactical skills and all-court abilities as the greatest in the world, and Fred Perry listed von Cramm ahead of Don Budge in 1936.

His chief competitors in the Grand Slams of the day were Fred Perry and Don Budge. He lost to Fred Perry in the 1935 French Open finals, and twice in Wimbledon finals, 1935 and 1936. He lost to Don Budge in three successive historic finals in 1937: Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Davis Cup (semi-final). After the war was over, von Cramm resumed playing Davis Cup tennis for West Germany until 1953 – a record for Davis Cup participation by any player.

Long before Borg/McEnroe, Agassi/Sampras, or Evert/Navratilova, the ‘match of the 20th century’ was the all-time classic played by Gottfried von Cramm against Don Budge in the Davis Cup semi-finals in July, 1937. Hitler was two years from invading Poland, Neville Chamberlain was Prime Minister of Britain, Heinrickh Himmler was forming a German security force around the notion of Aryan racial supremacy (a notion for which von Cramm was a look-alike poster-boy), and tensions between Britain and Germany were at an all time high. The match would be played at Wimbledon before a packed house, including the English king.

Von Cramm and his partner had lost the doubles tie the day before.

Evidently, Don Budge reported that von Cramm got a phone call from Hitler just before the tie, and came out to play white as a sheet.

After winning the toss, von Cramm began to play as if his life depended upon it. Time and again he went after Don Budge’s backhand, then volleyed the ball to the forehand side for a winner. He passed Budge on every occasion when Budge ventured to the net. Von Cramm would take the first two tightly contested sets 8-6 7-5.

But Don Budge was younger. Just twenty-two years old, Budge was at the beginning of his time on the world stage. Von Cramm, twenty-eight, tired in the 3rd and 4th sets, allowing Budge back in the match 4-6 2-6.

Reports of the time suggest that Budge expected to hold serve and then break von Cramm, as the German was weakening. But the German played according to a different protocol, breaking Budge instead to go up 3-1. There followed a return break, then a series of suspenseful deuce games that visibly tired von Cramm. Nonetheless, at 6-6, he began to play like the von Cramm of the first set. At 6-7 30-30, von Cramm drove the ball out, and Budge had match point. But he could not convert.

Then came the most nerve wracking series of deuce games, twice with advantage going to von Cramm, and once going to Budge and back to deuce again. Long rallies. But von Cramm turning whiter and whiter as the contest progressed.

Finally von Cramm charged the net, was passed with a Budge winner, and the match was over.

Reports of the day say he lost all but honor. When, a few months later, charges of homosexuality were levied against von Cramm and he was hospitalized briefly with nervous fatigue, it was Don Budge who submitted a letter of to Adolf Hitler to express the outrage of von Cramm’s colleagues and friends in the tennis world.

Von Cramm was a much beloved tennis star in his day, popular with fans and fellow players. Though he doesn’t have the numbers to back up is evident prowess on the court, hopefully history will be kinder to his memory and continue to count him among the great men of tennis.

Here’s a collage of great players from those days, including Budge and von Cramm (in French, but with the visuals to provide a sense of how they swung their forehands and backhands!).


Adverteer

A few quibbles aside, I did like the book — several chunks of it enormously. I knew the outlines because I'd read Budge's own entertaining account of the match, but there's enough in the topic that it's overflowing even out of Splendor's much lengthier treatment.

I'm glad the book is good because the excellent prose and evocative subject matter would probably have guaranteed it positive reviews in general publications anyway, even if the integrity of the material hadn't been there. The German side is mostly new to me, so I can't really judge it, but I see a lot of meticulous stitching elsewhere. I agree with you that the story would have worked without as much Bill Tilden, and maybe even been neater — but Tilden is so compelling that I can understand not being able to resist writing him at length, and he also pads out certain themes that Fisher seems to want to focus on.

The other short player portraits in the book were very enjoyable too — I never knew that Alice Marble and Frank Parker's lives were quite that dramatic. And all the famous non-tennis name-dropping — Alistair Cooke, James Thurber, Ed Sullivan, etc. — adds a bit of mainstream glamour but also helps show that the match was really a happening event.


Gottfried von Cramm, the homosexual tennis player who stood up to Nazism

Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt von Cramm, son of Baron Burchard Von Cramm and Countess Jutta von Steiberg, He was one of the first great tennis players to be seen at the beginning of the 20th century. Born in 1909, he was an aristocratic young man who had grown up in Bruggen Castle in Hannover, which was owned by his father.

In that neo-Gothic enclosure in Lower Saxony, his father built a tennis court for him and his brothers so that they could practice sports and learn all the manners that discipline gave. At that time tennis was exclusive to high society and Baron Burchard’s family was not going to be the exception.

Despite having a great economic pass and the privilege of being able to choose to study at a university, Gottfried Von Cramm was inclined towards tennis and at the age of 18 he joined the Rot Weiss Tennis Club, an entity that was founded in 1897. There this blond player of 1.83 meters tall began to hit the old rubber balls on the Germanic grass.

His tennis ability was innate. In 1932 he became a national champion and was called up to play the Davis Cup.. A year later, he was champion of Wimbledon in the mixed double modality with Hilde Krahwinkel and in 1934 he won the French Open after beating Jack Crawford.

Thanks to all these achievements, his youth and his nascent fame, Von Cramm began to attract the attention of Adolf Hitler, who had taken command of Germany after proclaiming himself leader and imperial chancellor upon the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The objective was to capture the tennis player to add him to his political propaganda.

Despite the insistence of Nazism, Von Cramm never gave in and rejected all requests to join them. Their ideology and convictions went against everything they proposed, in addition to protesting against Hitler every time he played abroad. And as if that were not enough, he was one of the few personalities who refused to expel the Jews from the German national teams.

Although he was a finalist at Wimbledon in 1935 and champion of the French Open in 1936, the German government did not abandon its ideal of having him on its head. In 1937, Germany and the United States had to define the interzonal final of the Davis Cup. Von Cramm and Don Budge were the protagonists who defined that duel.

Several years after that meeting, which ended in Budge’s favor, the American himself said that his rival had received a call from Hitler in the pre-match and he had stressed the importance of winning the match.. Despite winning two sets up, Von Cramm was pale throughout the match because of the call and Don Budge ended up beating him.

The return to Germany in 1938 was not easy. On his arrival at Hanover Castle, he was greeted by the Gestapo (German secret police during Hitler’s rule) and was charged and arrested for being homosexual, in addition to having financed the flight of a Jew. Faced with these accusations, Von Cramm was imprisoned and did not deny his charges.

It is that the German had effectively financed, in 1936, the flight of Manasse Herbst to Palestine, with whom he had had a relationship of several years despite being married to Elisabeth von Dobeneck.

Despite the fact that the sentence was only one year, Von Cramm was released after six months thanks to the help of his friend Don Budge. The American collected 25 signatures on a letter from famous athletes around the world, among which stood out that of Joe DiMaggio, a baseball star of the time, and was given to Hitler.

In the letter it said, among other things, that “Von Cramm is an ideal athlete, a perfect gentleman and no country could have wished for a better exponent ”. In October 1938 he was freed but Nazism did not make it easy for him.

Although he intended to play again, Erich Schonborn (President of the German Tennis Federation) He prohibited him from playing the Davis Cup and from playing any tournament on German soil. As a result of this, he went into exile in Sweden, where he was invited by his friend the King Gustav V. In the Nordic country he played several tournaments but none of great renown.

With the Second World War underway and his misadventures in tennis, Von Cramm was drafted into military service as a member of the Hermann Goering division and came to command an army on the Russian front that nearly cost him his life due to casualties. temperatures. In that battle, two of his brothers died and in Stalingrad Heinrich Henkel, his doubles partner between 1937 and 1938, lost his life.

After returning to Germany, he was awarded the Iron Cross for his acts of great courage but could not play tennis again. until the war conflict ended. From there, he won the national tournaments in 1948 and 1949. Despite being over 40 years old, he participated in the German team during the Davis Cup until 1953, the year in which he retired.

By hanging up the racket, Von Cramm served as administrator of the German Tennis Federation and became a major cotton importer. As a leader, he was in charge of financing the repair of the Rot Weiss Tennis Club in Berlin, which had suffered extensive damage as a result of the war. Thanks to this, today the street where it is located bears his name.

In 1961 he decided to settle in Egypt and lived there until 1976. That year He died in a traffic accident in which he went from Cairo to Alexandria. A year later he was inducted into the tennis hall of fame. In this way, Gottfried Von Cramm’s sporting and human legacy will not be lost despite the advance of time.


Gottfried von Cramm, the homosexual tennis player who stood up to Nazism

Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt von Cramm, son of Baron Burchard Von Cramm and Countess Jutta von Steiberg, He was one of the first great tennis players to be seen at the beginning of the 20th century. Born in 1909, he was an aristocratic young man who had grown up in Bruggen Castle in Hannover, which was owned by his father.

In that neo-Gothic enclosure in Lower Saxony, his father built a tennis court for him and his brothers so that they could practice sports and learn all the manners that discipline gave. At that time tennis was exclusive to high society and Baron Burchard’s family was not going to be the exception.

Despite having a great economic pass and the privilege of being able to choose to study at a university, Gottfried Von Cramm was inclined towards tennis and at the age of 18 he joined the Rot Weiss Tennis Club, an entity that was founded in 1897. There this blond player of 1.83 meters tall began to hit the old rubber balls on the Germanic grass.

His tennis ability was innate. In 1932 he became a national champion and was called up to play the Davis Cup.. A year later, he was champion of Wimbledon in the mixed double modality with Hilde Krahwinkel and in 1934 he won the French Open after beating Jack Crawford.

Thanks to all these achievements, his youth and his nascent fame, Von Cramm began to attract the attention of Adolf Hitler, who had taken command of Germany after proclaiming himself leader and imperial chancellor upon the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The objective was to capture the tennis player to add him to his political propaganda.

Despite the insistence of Nazism, Von Cramm never gave in and rejected all requests to join them. Their ideology and convictions went against everything they proposed, in addition to protesting against Hitler every time he played abroad. And as if that were not enough, he was one of the few personalities who refused to expel the Jews from the German national teams.

Although he was a finalist at Wimbledon in 1935 and champion of the French Open in 1936, the German government did not abandon its ideal of having him on its head. In 1937, Germany and the United States had to define the interzonal final of the Davis Cup. Von Cramm and Don Budge were the protagonists who defined that duel.

Several years after that meeting, which ended in Budge’s favor, the American himself said that his rival had received a call from Hitler in the pre-match and he had stressed the importance of winning the match.. Despite winning two sets up, Von Cramm was pale throughout the match because of the call and Don Budge ended up beating him.

The return to Germany in 1938 was not easy. On his arrival at Hanover Castle, he was greeted by the Gestapo (German secret police during Hitler’s rule) and was charged and arrested for being homosexual, in addition to having financed the flight of a Jew. Faced with these accusations, Von Cramm was imprisoned and did not deny his charges.

It is that the German had effectively financed, in 1936, the flight of Manasse Herbst to Palestine, with whom he had had a relationship of several years despite being married to Elisabeth von Dobeneck.

Despite the fact that the sentence was only one year, Von Cramm was released after six months thanks to the help of his friend Don Budge. The American collected 25 signatures on a letter from famous athletes around the world, among which stood out that of Joe DiMaggio, a baseball star of the time, and was given to Hitler.

In the letter it said, among other things, that “Von Cramm is an ideal athlete, a perfect gentleman and no country could have wished for a better exponent ”. In October 1938 he was freed but Nazism did not make it easy for him.

Although he intended to play again, Erich Schonborn (President of the German Tennis Federation) He prohibited him from playing the Davis Cup and from playing any tournament on German soil. As a result of this, he went into exile in Sweden, where he was invited by his friend the King Gustav V. In the Nordic country he played several tournaments but none of great renown.

With the Second World War underway and his misadventures in tennis, Von Cramm was drafted into military service as a member of the Hermann Goering division and came to command an army on the Russian front that nearly cost him his life due to casualties. temperatures. In that battle, two of his brothers died and in Stalingrad Heinrich Henkel, his doubles partner between 1937 and 1938, lost his life.

After returning to Germany, he was awarded the Iron Cross for his acts of great courage but could not play tennis again. until the war conflict ended. From there, he won the national tournaments in 1948 and 1949. Despite being over 40 years old, he participated in the German team during the Davis Cup until 1953, the year in which he retired.

By hanging up the racket, Von Cramm served as administrator of the German Tennis Federation and became a major cotton importer. As a leader, he was in charge of financing the repair of the Rot Weiss Tennis Club in Berlin, which had suffered extensive damage as a result of the war. Thanks to this, today the street where it is located bears his name.

In 1961 he decided to settle in Egypt and lived there until 1976. That year He died in a traffic accident in which he went from Cairo to Alexandria. A year later he was inducted into the tennis hall of fame. In this way, Gottfried Von Cramm’s sporting and human legacy will not be lost despite the advance of time.


Gottfried von Cramm, the homosexual tennis player who stood up to Nazism

Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt von Cramm, son of Baron Burchard Von Cramm and Countess Jutta von Steiberg, He was one of the first great tennis players to be seen at the beginning of the 20th century. Born in 1909, he was an aristocratic young man who had grown up in Bruggen Castle in Hannover, which was owned by his father.

In that neo-Gothic enclosure in Lower Saxony, his father built a tennis court for him and his brothers so that they could practice sports and learn all the manners that discipline gave. At that time tennis was exclusive to high society and Baron Burchard’s family was not going to be the exception.

Despite having a great economic pass and the privilege of being able to choose to study at a university, Gottfried Von Cramm was inclined towards tennis and at the age of 18 he joined the Rot Weiss Tennis Club, an entity that was founded in 1897. There this blond player of 1.83 meters tall began to hit the old rubber balls on the Germanic grass.

His tennis ability was innate. In 1932 he became a national champion and was called up to play the Davis Cup.. A year later, he was champion of Wimbledon in the mixed double modality with Hilde Krahwinkel and in 1934 he won the French Open after beating Jack Crawford.

Thanks to all these achievements, his youth and his nascent fame, Von Cramm began to attract the attention of Adolf Hitler, who had taken command of Germany after proclaiming himself leader and imperial chancellor upon the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The objective was to capture the tennis player to add him to his political propaganda.

Despite the insistence of Nazism, Von Cramm never gave in and rejected all requests to join them. Their ideology and convictions went against everything they proposed, in addition to protesting against Hitler every time he played abroad. And as if that were not enough, he was one of the few personalities who refused to expel the Jews from the German national teams.

Although he was a finalist at Wimbledon in 1935 and champion of the French Open in 1936, the German government did not abandon its ideal of having him on its head. In 1937, Germany and the United States had to define the interzonal final of the Davis Cup. Von Cramm and Don Budge were the protagonists who defined that duel.

Several years after that meeting, which ended in Budge’s favor, the American himself said that his rival had received a call from Hitler in the pre-match and he had stressed the importance of winning the match.. Despite winning two sets up, Von Cramm was pale throughout the match because of the call and Don Budge ended up beating him.

The return to Germany in 1938 was not easy. On his arrival at Hanover Castle, he was greeted by the Gestapo (German secret police during Hitler’s rule) and was charged and arrested for being homosexual, in addition to having financed the flight of a Jew. Faced with these accusations, Von Cramm was imprisoned and did not deny his charges.

It is that the German had effectively financed, in 1936, the flight of Manasse Herbst to Palestine, with whom he had had a relationship of several years despite being married to Elisabeth von Dobeneck.

Despite the fact that the sentence was only one year, Von Cramm was released after six months thanks to the help of his friend Don Budge. The American collected 25 signatures on a letter from famous athletes around the world, among which stood out that of Joe DiMaggio, a baseball star of the time, and was given to Hitler.

In the letter it said, among other things, that “Von Cramm is an ideal athlete, a perfect gentleman and no country could have wished for a better exponent ”. In October 1938 he was freed but Nazism did not make it easy for him.

Although he intended to play again, Erich Schonborn (President of the German Tennis Federation) He prohibited him from playing the Davis Cup and from playing any tournament on German soil. As a result of this, he went into exile in Sweden, where he was invited by his friend the King Gustav V. In the Nordic country he played several tournaments but none of great renown.

With the Second World War underway and his misadventures in tennis, Von Cramm was drafted into military service as a member of the Hermann Goering division and came to command an army on the Russian front that nearly cost him his life due to casualties. temperatures. In that battle, two of his brothers died and in Stalingrad Heinrich Henkel, his doubles partner between 1937 and 1938, lost his life.

After returning to Germany, he was awarded the Iron Cross for his acts of great courage but could not play tennis again. until the war conflict ended. From there, he won the national tournaments in 1948 and 1949. Despite being over 40 years old, he participated in the German team during the Davis Cup until 1953, the year in which he retired.

By hanging up the racket, Von Cramm served as administrator of the German Tennis Federation and became a major cotton importer. As a leader, he was in charge of financing the repair of the Rot Weiss Tennis Club in Berlin, which had suffered extensive damage as a result of the war. Thanks to this, today the street where it is located bears his name.

In 1961 he decided to settle in Egypt and lived there until 1976. That year He died in a traffic accident in which he went from Cairo to Alexandria. A year later he was inducted into the tennis hall of fame. In this way, Gottfried Von Cramm’s sporting and human legacy will not be lost despite the advance of time.


Wartime service and postwar career [ edit | wysig bron]

After the outbreak of World War II, von Cramm was drafted into military service in May 1940 Α] as a member of the Hermann Goering Division. [aanhaling nodig] He saw action on the Eastern Front and was awarded the Iron Cross. [aanhaling nodig] Because of his previous conviction he was dismissed from military service in 1942. Α]

While war robbed von Cramm of some of his best years for tennis, he still won another German national championship in 1948 and was already forty years old when he won it for the last time in 1949. He played Davis Cup tennis until retiring after the 1953 season and still holds the record for most wins by any German team member.

Following his retirement from active competition, von Cramm served as an administrator for the German tennis federation and became successful in business as a cotton importer. In addition, he managed the farm property he had inherited from his father at Wispenstein in Lower Saxony.


Tom Daley’ s Announcement / Remembering Gottfried von Cramm

The popular British diver Tom Daley’s public announcement, via a Youtube video, that he is in a relationship with a man has caused a stir that is out of all proportion with the true levels of interest in his sport or his ranking within it. Daley is pop icon as much as sports star – known for his prodigious early talent and the close relationship with his father, who died in 2011, that has been documented very publicly in the media. It has rightly been argued that his public announcement is ‘brave’ and that, like it or not, his sexuality really does still matter.

If we need a reminder, we need only look at the draconian laws prohibiting the ‘promotion’ of homosexuality in the host country of the 2014 Winter Olympics, Russia. And we might remind ourselves of sports history and the case of a true icon of global sport, Baron Gottfried von Cramm (1909-1976), one of the 3 or 4 best tennis players in the world during the 1930s. The aristocratic and highly principled Cramm had the misfortune to be both a man of honour and a German during the peak of Hitler’s power. He was also gay. His considerable popularity and aristocratic connections could protect him for only so long, and in 1938 he was arrested and convicted for being homosexual, serving 5 months of a year’s sentence in Berlin. Upon his release, the former double winner of the French open (1934, 1936) regained his form and won the pre-Wimbledon Queens Club tournament. With Fred Perry ineligible for Wimbledon as a professional, Cramm should have been the outstanding favourite. He was however prevented from participating in Wimbledon – because he was a convicted felon. A rule designed, presumably to maintain the ‘honour’ of the All English Club, proved to be anything but honorable or fair.

Von Cramm is a rather obscure figure to most today, and is certainly not as revered as his contemporary Perry, to whom he twice lost in the Wimbledon final. He’s paid the price for the historical circumstances that shaped his career. It’s likely that his sexuality would have remained private had he chosen to be loyal to Hitler. Yet his oppositional stance against the Nazis, and the persecution he suffered as a consequence, should serve as a reminder that for sports stars in the public eye, ‘private’ lives can matter very much. Tom Daley lives in a very different age – but one in which openly gay athletes are still incredibly rare, particularly in team sports, and in which homosexuality is, in many countries, still legally or socially proscribed. In that sense, yes, his announcement does indeed matter.


Kyk die video: Gottfried von Einem: Concerto per pianoforte, 19531955