Belegging van Vellaunodunum, vroeg in 52 v.C.

Belegging van Vellaunodunum, vroeg in 52 v.C.

Belegging van Vellaunodunum, vroeg in 52 v.C.

Die beleg van Vellaunodunum (vroeg 52 v.C.) was die eerste van drie Romeinse aanvalle op Galliese dorpe wat Vercingetorix genoop het om sy beleg van Gorgobina vroeg in die Groot Galliese Opstand van 52 v.C.

Omdat hy nie daarin kon slaag om te keer dat Caesar sy legioene in hul winterkwartiere bereik nie, het Vercingetorix die Boii -stad Gorgobina, iewers in die stamgebiede van die Aedui, aangeval. Caesar het die Boii toegelaat om hulle in 58 vC in Gallië te vestig, en hierdie aanval het hom gedwing om sy legioene uit hul winterkwartiere te verwyder en suid te trek in 'n poging om Vercingetorix te dwing om die beleg op te hef.

Caesar het twee legioene en sy bagasie by Agendicum (Sens) gelaat, en het na twee dae na die Vellaunodunum, 'n stad van die Senones-stam, gekom (uiteenlopend geïdentifiseer in Beauns, Montargis of Château-Landon). Volgens sy kommentare het hy besluit om die stad aan te val om te verhoed dat 'n vyand in sy rug gelaat word, hoewel hy waarskynlik ook gehoop het dat 'n reeks aanvalle op Galliese dorpe Vercingetorix sou dwing om sy eie beleg van Gorgobina te laat vaar.

Die beleg van Vellaunodunum het slegs drie dae geduur. Teen die einde van die tweede dag het die Romeine hul omringingslyn rondom die stad gebou, en op die derde dag het ambassadeurs van die stad gevra vir oorgawe. Caesar het geëis dat hulle al hul wapens moes oorgee, al sy vee aan hom moes voorsien en 600 gyselaars moes oorgee. Die leiers van die stad het ingestem tot hierdie voorwaardes, en Caius Trebonius het die daadwerklike oorgawe verlaat en Caesar het Cenabum aangeval.


Belegging van Vellaunodunum, vroeg in 52 v.C. - Geskiedenis

Die stryd om Meghna was 'n heli-oordrag oos van Dacca wat die konflik van 1971 met 'n paar dae en honderde lewens moontlik verkort het. Majoor Chandrakant Singh skryf oor die geveg.

'N Huldeblyk aan Zoru Bakshi deur brigadier Rattan Kaul. Die Indiese weermag het 'n dapper soldaat verloor Op 24 Mei 2018. Zoru, soos hy deur sy seniors en kollegas genoem is, het ons jonger geslag van die 5de Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) in die Regiment ook stilweg na hom verwys as Zoru, maar andersins ook as generaal Zoru Bakshi, voltooi 'n bladsy van Braves of Indian Army. As u hom vra tot watter regiment hy behoort, voor 1980, sou hy sê TWEEDE VYF 'n hardnekkige Tweede Vywer (Tweede Bataljon die Vyfde Gurkha Rifles (Grensmag)) totdat hy in 1980 as kolonel van die Regiment verkies is.

A Sailor's Story, deur vise -admiraal N.Krishnan. Geredigeer deur: Arjun Krishnan - Boekresensie deur K. Chandni

INAS 311 is op 12 Mei 2009 in opdrag van die vlagoffisier in bevel van die opperhoof van die oostelike vlootkommando, Nirmal Verma, by INS Dega in Vishakapatnam.

INAS 311, onder bevel van bevelvoerder Sanjay Nandan, bedryf die Dornier 228 -vliegtuie.

Die Talwar -klas het sy oorsprong in die Severnoye (Noordelike) Ontwerpburo wat ontwikkel het na die Project 1135.6 -vaartuig met behulp van 'n vroeëre Project 1135.1 -ontwerp. Dit terug na die vroeë 1980's. Die uitgebreide omvang van herontwerp en herontwerp vir hierdie vaartuie het 'n veeldoelige oppervlaktebestryder van ongeveer 4000 ton verplasing tot gevolg gehad (hierdie toename word toegeskryf aan addisionele wapensisteme en die vervanging van ligte legerings met staal), op maat van die spesifieke missie van die Indiese Vloot en prestasievereistes.

28 jaar nadat dit aanvanklik op National TV uitgesaai is, kyk ons ​​weer na die baanbrekende film oor die "Salt of the Earth" van die Indiese Lugmag, wat die toon toon vir historiese akkuraatheid en lug -tot -filmfilmografie vir die daaropvolgende dekades. Deel drie - Nou op!

Kaptein Conrad Dalton 12430 GD (N), Indian Air Force, is 'n versierde veteraan -navigator wat op die English Electric Canberra gevlieg het. Hy is in 1970 by die IAF aangestel en het 'n loopbaan van 31 jaar gehad tot met sy aftrede in 2001. In hierdie reeks kort snitte praat hy oor die lewe van 'n Navigator in die IAF - in vervoer- en bomwerper -eskader sowel as in die lewe uit die IAF met die Canberra Bomber Association.

Die C-47 is 'n betroubare werkperd wat byna vier dekades lank in diens van die Indiese Lugmag gedien het. Meer as 200 voorbeelde bedien in die IAF oor die lengte en breedte van die land. Dit het 'n groot aantal ongelukke gesien en het bygedra tot 'n hele paar angstige oomblikke - in hierdie geval, toe 'n enjin onklaar geraak het na die opstyg - soos destyds vertel deur Flt Lt (later Air Cmde) Arun Karandikar, wat saam met 43 eskader by Jorhat gedien het.


Wat is die betekenis van die Babiloniese Ryk in die Bybelse geskiedenis?

Babilon het opgestaan ​​uit 'n Mesopotamiese stad aan die Eufraatrivier om 'n magtige stadstaat te word en later die hoofstad en naamgenoot van een van die grootste ryke in die geskiedenis. Die stad was geleë aan die oostekant van die vrugbare halfmaan ongeveer 55 kilometer suid van die moderne Bagdad. Die geskiedenis van Babilon sny die Bybelse tydlyn vroeg en gereeld. Die invloed van Babilonië op Israel en die wêreldgeskiedenis is diep.

Die stigting van Babilon
Die Bybel se eerste vermelding van Babilon kom in Genesis 10. Hierdie hoofstuk word die tafel van nasies genoem, aangesien dit die afstammelinge van Noag se drie seuns naspeur. In die geslagsregister van Gam, “was Kus die vader van Nimrod, wat 'n magtige vegter op aarde geword het” (Genesis 10: 8). Nimrod het 'n koninkryk gestig wat 'n plek met die naam "Babilon" in Shinar ingesluit het (Genesis 10:10).

Die Toring van Babel
Die toring van Babel word gevind in Genesis 11. In Engels is dit maklik genoeg om die verband tussen "Babel" en "Babilon" te maak, maar in Hebreeus is dit dieselfde woord. Hierdie hoofstuk bevestig die reputasie van Babilon as 'n stad van opstand teen God. Van toe af gebruik die Bybelse skrywers Babilon konsekwent as 'n simbool van boosheid en uittarting (sien 1 Petrus 5:13 en Openbaring 17: 5).

Babilon se vroeë groei
Teen die tyd van Abraham het Babilon 'n onafhanklike stadstaat geword wat deur die Amoriete beheer is. Die eerste Babiloniese dinastie was Hammurabi, die sesde koning, bekend vir sy wetskode. Hammurabi het die koninkryk uitgebrei, en die gebied rondom Babilon het bekend geword as Babilonië. Tydens die tweede dinastie was Babilon in kontak met Egipte en het hy 'n stryd van 600 jaar met Assirië aangegaan. Na 'n tyd van onderwerping aan die Elamitiese Ryk, het 'n vierde dinastie van Babiloniese konings floreer onder Nebukadnesar I. Toe val Babilon onder die skadu van Assirië.

Babylon se styging
Teen 851 vC was Babilon slegs nominaal onafhanklik, wat Assiriese 'beskerming' vereis en baie interne omwentelinge ondervind het. Uiteindelik het die Assiriese Tiglath-pileser III die troon ingeneem. Die Assiriërs en Merodach-baladan, 'n Chaldeër, het meer as een keer krag verhandel. Gedurende een van sy voordele het Merodach-baladan gestuurdes gestuur om Hiskia, die koning van Juda, te dreig (2 Konings 20: 12-19 Jesaja 39). Toe die Chaldeeuse opperhoof Nabopolassar in 626 v.C. beheer oor Babilon neem, het hy Nineve, die hoofstad van Assirië, afgedank.

Nebukadnesar II se verowering van Juda
Onder die Chaldeeuse dinastie, en waarskynlik in die res van die geskiedenis, het geen koning die heerlikheid en absolute mag van Nebukadnesar II se heerskappy oortref nie. As kroonprins (seun van Nabopolassar) verslaan hy Farao Necho II, wat die Assiriese leër te hulp gekom het, en wen hy die voormalige Assiriese lande, insluitend Israel, vir Babilon. Nadat hy as koning gekroon is, het Nebukadnesar koning Jojakim van Juda gedwing om “drie jaar lank sy vasaal te word. Maar toe het [Jojakim] van plan verander en teen Nebukadnesar in opstand gekom ”(2 Konings 24: 1). Die koning van Babilon, wat nie goedgesind was om teen hom in opstand te kom nie, het Jerusalem ingeneem en die koning en ander leiers, militêre manne en ambagsmanne as gevangenes na Babilon geneem (2 Konings 24: 12-16). Hierdie deportasie was die begin van die Babiloniese ballingskap van die Jode.

Nebukadnesar het Sedekia aangestel om Juda te regeer. Sedekia het egter, teen die raad van die profeet Jeremia, by die Egiptenare aangesluit in 'n opstand in 589 v.C. Dit het gelei tot die terugkeer van Nebukadnesar. Die oorblywende Jode is gedeporteer, Jerusalem is verbrand en die tempel is in Augustus 587 of 586 vC vernietig (Jeremia 52: 1-30).

Die profeet Daniël en die val van Babilon
Babilon is die opset vir die bediening van die profete Esegiël en Daniël, wat albei uit Juda gestuur is. Daniel het 'n leier en koninklike raadgewer geword van die Babiloniese en Persiese Ryk. Hy is gevange geneem na die slag van Carchemish in 605 v.C. (Jeremia 46: 2-12). Die boek Daniël beskryf Daniël se interpretasie van Nebukadnesar se droom (Daniël 2) en voorspel die val van Babilon vir die Mede en die Perse (Daniël 5). Vroeër het die profeet Jesaja ook die val van Babilon voorspel (Jesaja 46: 1-2).

Afsluiting
In die Bybel word Babilon van Genesis tot Openbaring genoem, omdat dit van sy opstandige begin af opstaan ​​om 'n simbool van die Antichris se bose wêreldstelsel te word. Toe God se volk dissipline vereis, gebruik God die Babiloniese Ryk om dit te bereik, maar Hy beperk Juda se ballingskap tot 70 jaar (Jeremia 25:11). Daarna het God belowe om “die koning van Babel en sy nasie te straf” (Jeremia 25:12) “vir al die onreg wat hulle in Sion gedoen het” (Jeremia 51:24). Uiteindelik sal alle boosheid geoordeel word, soos gesimboliseer deur die ondergang van Babilon in Openbaring 18:21: “Die groot stad Babilon sal verwoes word en sal nooit weer gevind word nie.”


6e. Gratis Afro -Amerikaners in die koloniale era

Toe Crispus Attucks sy ongelukkige aanspraak op roem as 'n slagoffer in die Boston -bloedbad verdien, was hy nie 'n slaaf nie. Hy was een van die relatief min Afro -Amerikaners wat vryheid in koloniale Amerika bereik het. Alhoewel vryheid duidelik wenslik is in vergelyking met 'n lewe in kettings, is gratis Afro -Amerikaners ongelukkig selde met dieselfde respek van hul blanke eweknieë behandel.

Daar was verskillende maniere waarop Afro -Amerikaners hul vryheid kon bereik. Bediende wat onder toesig was, kon die voorwaardes van hul kontrakte nakom, soos dié wat in 1619 na Jamestown gebring is. In die vroeë dae, toe eiendomsbesit toegelaat is, kon vaardige slawe genoeg geld verdien om hul vryheid te koop. Crispus Attucks en vele ander het vryheid op die harde manier bereik en deur 'n gewaagde ontsnapping gekom. Dit spreek vanself dat baie slawe die geleentheid sou kry om hulself te bevry, ten spyte van die groot risiko's, as hulle 'n ewigdurende gevangenskapstraf kry.

'N Ander manier om vry te word, is die vrystelling van 'n slaaf deur die meester genoem. Meesters het soms hul eie slawe bevry. Miskien was dit 'n beloning vir goeie dade of harde werk. Soms was dit die werk van 'n skuldige gewete, aangesien meesters soms hul slawe in hul testamente bevry het. Kinders wat deur slawe en meesters ontstaan ​​het, was meer geneig om hierdie behandeling te ontvang. Hierdie dade van vriendelikheid was nie heeltemal ongesiens in koloniale Amerika nie, maar dit was skaars. In die gees van die rewolusie het die vrystelling wel toegeneem, maar die toepassing daarvan was nie epidemies nie.

Gratis Afro -Amerikaners woon waarskynlik in stedelike sentrums. Die kans om bande te ontwikkel met ander wat gratis was, plus groter ekonomiese geleenthede, het die lewe van die stad verstandig gemaak. Ongelukkig was hierdie 'vryheid' taamlik beperk. Gratis Afro -Amerikaners is selde in die wit samelewing aanvaar. Sommige state het hul slawekodes ook toegepas op die bevrying van Afro -Amerikaners. Miskien was die ontstellendste vooruitsig ontvoering. Slawevangers sou soms gratis Afro -Amerikaners ontvoer en hulle weer in slawerny dwing. In 'n samelewing wat nie swart getuienis teen blankes toelaat nie, was daar baie min wat gedoen kon word om hierdie ellendige praktyk te stop.


Cortés en Montezuma: die verowering van Tenochtitlan

Die Asteke -krygers, versier met vere en verf, het gedraai, gedans en gestamp, terwyl hul lied in 'n bedwelmende crescendo opstaan ​​om die gode te eer. Terwyl die lang rye feeste in die tempelgebied ingedraai het, speel die groot trom voortdurend en verenig hul treë en hul stemme. Skielik, tussen die geluide van aanbidding, word die gille van die geveg gehoor en die tromspeler word skielik stil terwyl 'n Spaanse soldaat sy arms afsny. Die veroweraars het die ongewapende Asteke vasgevang en hulle genadeloos geslag totdat, volgens die Nahuatl (Aztec -taal) kronieke, "die bloed van die krygers soos water gevloei het".

Dit was die begin van die stryd om die Azteekse hoofstad Tenochtitlan, 'n openlike vyandigheidsverklaring wat sorgvuldige strategie in 'n volslae oorlogvoering verander het. Ongeveer 'n maand later, op 24 Junie 1520, keer die Spaanse kaptein Hernán Cortés van die kus af terug en was woedend toe hy sien dat die Asteke voorbereid was op oorlog en sy kamerade beleër en honger ly. Maande se taktiese maneuver is beëindig deur hierdie konfrontasie, en sy noukeurige planne vir 'n vreedsame oorwinning is verwoes. 'N Week later is meer as die helfte van die Spanjaarde dood tydens hul vlug uit die stad op 'n enkele "nag van trane" en Cortés staan ​​omring deur die oorblyfsels van sy groot ekspedisie. Maar slegs 'n jaar later sou Cortés sy plek in die geskiedenis verseker as die bevelvoerder van die verowering van Mexiko.

Hierdie merkwaardige omkering van fortuin is miskien deels verantwoordelik vir die 'mite' van die verowering, waarin die dapper avonturier Cortés en 'n paar honderd pittige veroweraars die oorweldigende kans oorwin het om die geweldige mag van die Asteke -ryk te verslaan. Die werklikheid is baie meer kompleks, maar terselfdertyd baie meer indrukwekkend. In slegs twee jaar het Hernán Cortés die ondergang van 'n doeltreffende militêre beskawing teweeggebring deur 'n kombinasie van diplomasie, oorlogvoering, taktiek, geluk en blote persoonlikheidskrag. Die verowering van die Asteke is ingewikkelder as die eenvoudige mite van Europese superioriteit, maar dit bly 'n ongelooflike prestasie in die militêre geskiedenis.

In die vroeë 16de eeu was Spaanse kolonies reeds goed gevestig op die Karibiese eilande en het hulle hul oë weswaarts gedraai. In 1519 is Cortés aangestel om 'n ekspedisie na die Amerikaanse vasteland te lei, maar blykbaar besef die potensiaal van die versamelde mag van "conquistadors", soos hulle genoem word, die goewerneur van Kuba agterdogtig en trek sy toestemming vir die ekspedisie terug. Met die meedoënlose ambisie wat hom tot sukses sou lei, het Cortés die goewerneur uitgedaag en in elk geval geseil, wat later sy optrede regverdig deur 'n beroep op die Spaanse Kroon.

By sy aankoms in die Golf van Mexiko met die grootste mag wat nog in die Nuwe Wêreld gesien is, beveel Cortés dat die meeste van die 10 skepe van sy vloot uitgeskakel moet word, wat die veroweraars en matrose van enige keuse ontneem as om hom in die oerwoud te volg.

Hierdie groot gebaar bevestig sy voorneme, soos hy later verklaar het, "dat hulle die land sou verower en sou wen, of sou sterf in die poging". Alhoewel sy oorspronklike instruksies slegs was om die streek te verken, het Cortés gehoop om veel groter winste te behaal. Gerugte van 'n magtige koninkryk in die binneland is bevestig deur sendelinge uit die stad Tenochtitlan, die hoofstad van die Asteke. Die boodskappers het goue geskenke gebring wat die Spanjaard se gierigheid opgewek het, en het die woord gebring van die Aztec tlatoani (spreker) Moctecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, die magtige heerser wat in die geskiedenis bekend geword het as Montezuma.

Toe hy hoor van Cortés se aankoms, weier Montezuma om met die Spanjaarde te vergader, in plaas daarvan om geskenke te stuur, wat die huldeblyk bied wat geskille in die Meso -Amerikaanse samelewing gereeld besleg. Daar is baie gewag gemaak van die Asteke se "bygelowige" oortuiging dat Cortés 'n god was en dat Montezuma verlam was van vrees deur 'n reeks voortekens wat die ondergang van die stad voorspel. Cortés se vergoddeliking blyk egter 'n kombinasie van wanvertaling en latere uitvinding te wees, en hoewel dit baie waarskynlik is dat sommige van die voortekens plaasgevind het - 'n komeet, 'n verduistering, 'n misvormde geboorte - lyk dit waarskynlik dat, op soek na hul verwoestende nederlaag, die Asteke het hierdie voortekens terugwerkend geïdentifiseer as tekens van hul ondergang. Daar is geen werklike bewys dat hulle voor die verowering as onheilspellende voorgevoelens beskou is nie.

Uitbuiting van interne vyandighede

Toe die veroweraars na Tenochtitlan marsjeer, het hulle die onderdane en vyande van die Asteke teëgekom, en Cortés het toenemend interne vyandelikhede waargeneem wat hy tot sy voordeel kon uitbuit. Deur 'n kombinasie van brutale geweld en diplomasie het hy geleidelik baie groepe oortuig om hom te ondersteun en die Asteke openlik te trotseer. Veral die mense van Tlaxcala was lankal vyande van Tenochtitlan, en nadat hulle eers die Spaanse inval verset het, aanvaar hulle die militêre meerderwaardigheid van die Europeërs en stem hulle in om hulle te ondersteun teen Montezuma se bewind. Met hul rooi en wit kentekens vergesel duisende Tlaxcalans die Spaanse, toe die veroweraars in November 1519 hul eerste oog op die eilandstad Tenochtitlan sien, wat vir 'n mens soos 'n "betowerde visioen" uit die meer lyk. Cortés het die waarde van die stad onmiddellik herken en gehoop om dit ongeskonde aan die Heilige Romeinse keiser Karel V te bied.

Om die stad vreedsaam te beveilig, onderhandel Cortés as ambassadeur van Karel V na Tenochtitlan en word pragtig ontvang deur Montezuma, wat die Spanjaarde en hul bondgenote uitbundig vermaak het. Gedurende hul eerste paar dae in die stad is die veroweraars sowel die wonders as die gruwels van hierdie nuwe wêreld getoon. Hulle was verwonderd oor die hoë tempels, groot paleise, pragtige tuine en groot markte, maar is in opstand gekom deur die verskriklike skouspel van menslike offerande. Die veroweraar Bernal Díaz, wat 'n beroemde geskiedenis van die verowering geskryf het, beskryf dit grafies: 'Die mure van die heiligdom was so gespat en met bloed bedek dat hulle en die vloer ook swart was ... die stank was erger as dié van enige slaghuis in Spanje ”.

Die Spaanse afkeer van menslike offerande word dikwels beskryf as niks anders as 'n regverdiging vir hul inval nie, maar die godsdienstige impuls tot verowering moet nie onderskat word nie. Cortés was 'n vroom Christen. Sy briewe aan Karel V toon die diepgaande oortuiging dat as die 'bose praktyke' van die Asteke gestaak kon word, sou hulle 'die ware God aanbid met ... ywer, geloof en ywer' en is sy houding tipies van baie Katolieke in hierdie tydperk. Sedert sy vroegste dae in die stad het Cortés die Asteke aangespoor om afstand te doen van menslike offerande en hul afgode te vervang met beelde van die Maagd Maria.

Omring deur duisende krygers in die Azteekse hoofstad, het die veroweraars al hoe meer bewus geword van hul benarde posisie en het hulle 'n strik begin vrees. Die onttrekking sou hul bondgenote vervreem het, wat 'n aggressiewe Asteekse gedrag in die provinsies ontvang het, en daarom het Cortés besluit om dapper te handel. Hy het Montezuma in beslag geneem en die komende agt maande het die stad deur hom beheer. Waarom en in watter mate Montezuma saamgewerk is nog onduidelik, maar sy samewerking verseker beslis die tydelike gehoorsaamheid van die mense, al was dit in 'n atmosfeer van toenemende wrok.

Toe Cortés gedwing is om die stad te verlaat om 'n mag te hanteer wat deur die goewerneur van Kuba gestuur is, het die toenemende antipatie tussen die Spaanse en die Asteke ontplof, en die Spanjaarde is uit die stad verdryf. In die nasleep van hierdie nag van trane het Cortés merkwaardige sterkte, leierskap en vindingrykheid getoon. Hy het na Tlaxcala teruggetrek, maar sonder moeite het hy sy oorblywende magte en bondgenote ingehaal en was vasbeslote om hul lot te keer. Die sleutel tot Cortés se plan was die bou van 12 brigantines wat hom in staat sou stel om die meer te beveel en Tenochtitlan te beleër. Die bote, wat in Tlaxcala gebou is, is deur duisende inheemse draers in stukke na die meer geneem, in 'n ongelooflike toewyding en vaardigheid.

Na Kersfees 1520 wou die veroweraars terugkeer na Tenochtitlan. Hulle moes aanvalle in die buitegebiede ondervind, maar die brigantines is uiteindelik laat in April 1521 van stapel gestuur, en met magte wat die stad uit elke rigting beleër het, het die geveg ernstig begin. Die beleg was verwoestend vir beide kante. Die vaardigheid en groot aantal van die Asteke -krygers het groot slagoffers onder die aanvallers veroorsaak, selfs al het hulle self in groot getalle weens hongersnood en siektes gesterf.

Cortés het herhaaldelik gesoek na die oorgawe van die Asteke, in die hoop om die totale vernietiging van die stad te vermy, maar dit het duidelik geword dat die Asteke tot die dood sou veg en die aanvallers moes noodgedwonge die ontsnappingslyne sluit en nie meer terugkeer na hul kampe by in die nag, maar vorder voortdurend en vernietig geboue om te voorkom dat hulle herower word. Gedurende die onstuimige dae voor die nag van trane, is Montezuma vermoor - 'n misdaad waarvan elke kant die ander beskuldig het. Cuauhtemoc, 'n jong en vasberade kryger, het die troon opgevolg nadat die ongelukkige opvolger van Montezuma gesterf het aan die pokke -epidemie wat die stad verwoes het.

Gekombineer met Spaanse militêre tegnologie, word Europese siektes dikwels 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die verowering van die Asteke, die teorie "gewere, kieme en staal" wat deur Jared Diamond gewild gemaak is. Die wapens en wapens van die Spanjaarde was beslis formidabel teen die maklik-verbryselde obsidiaanse lemme en pyle van die inheemse bevolking, maar die duisende bondgenote wat die veroweraars ondersteun, moet nie vergeet word nie. Pokke het beslis die strengheid van die beleg bygedra en die Asteekse bevelsketting ontwrig, maar dit het ook ander inheemse mense geraak, insluitend Cortés se bondgenote.

Hierdie 'kiemoorlogvoering' het 'n groot impak op die Nuwe Wêreld as geheel gehad, aangesien inheemse bevolkings wat geen natuurlike weerstand het nie, deur Europese siektes verwoes is. Op 13 Augustus 1521 is Cuauhtemoc gevange geneem en die Asteke erken nederlaag. Tenochtitlan, die groot prys van Cortés, en sy inwoners is verwoes. Cortés het die Asteke verower, maar ten koste van die pragtige stad wou hy verseker.

Daar is 'n laaste stuk, of liewer 'n persoon, in hierdie legkaart. Doña Marina, die inheemse vertaler wat voortdurend aan die kant van Cortés verskyn in beelde van die verowering, en wat hom uiteindelik 'n seun baar, was van kritieke belang vir sy vermoë om met inheemse mense te onderhandel, wat sentraal was in die verowering. Die figuur van Marina toon die kontroversie oor die erfenis van die verowering aan. Sy word afwisselend gesien as die moeder van die mestizo -volk (mense met gemengde bloed) of die uiteindelike verraaier van haar mense, en hierdie onduidelikheid lê ten grondslag aan die moderne Mexikaanse houding teenoor hul geskiedenis.

In die afgelope jaar is die Asteke -verlede toenemend herontdek en gewaardeer as 'n belangrike deel van die Mexikaanse erfenis, maar die Spaanse, veral die Katolieke, kultuur lê ook ten grondslag aan hul lewenswyse. Kolonialisme kan nie geregverdig word deur die twyfelagtige mate van vooruitgang nie, maar ten goede of ten kwade het conquistadors gehelp om die globale wêreld waarin ons leef, te skep. Transatlantiese skakels het die uitruil van goedere, inligting en mense bevorder en die verowerings- en kolonisasieproses begin wat ons moderne multikulturele wêreld geskep het.

Caroline Dodds is 'n dosent aan die Universiteit van Leicester wat spesialiseer in die Azteekse en vroeë moderne Atlantiese geskiedenis. Haar boek Bloedbindings: geslag, lewensiklus en opoffering in die Asteekse kultuur is in 2008 deur Palgrave Macmillan gepubliseer

Hernán Cortés: 'n kort biografie

Hernán Cortés is gebore in Extremadura, Spanje, in die middel van die 1480's van 'n eerbiedige maar ononderskeie hidalgo (minderjarige edele) geboorte. In 1506 vaar hy na die Indië waar hy help met die verowering van Kuba en trou met 'n familielid van die eerste goewerneur. In 1518, ontevrede met die lewe as grondeienaar, administrateur en politikus, vertrek hy op sy ekspedisie na die Amerikaanse vasteland.

In 1522, nadat hy die Asteke verower het, word Cortés aangestel as kaptein-generaal en goewerneur van "New Spain" (Mexiko), wat hom groot eiendom en invloed verleen. In 1528 vaar hy na Spanje, waar hy ontvang en beloon word

deur Karel V, wat ook sy tweede huwelik geseën het. Nadat hy in 1530 na Mexiko teruggekeer het, het hy 'n groot deel van sy lewe gesukkel om sy regte te handhaaf en sy reputasie te behou, nadat hy 'n aansienlike politieke opposisie gehad het en beskuldig is van die moord op sy eerste vrou (wat in 1522 oorlede is). Nadat hy in 1540 na Spanje teruggekeer het om sy saak te bepleit, sterf hy in 1547 ontnugter in Sevilla. Ten spyte van sy bitterheid was hy 'n ryk man en het hy rykdom en status aan sy talle kinders oorgelaat.

Die Asteke -ryk: kultuur en opoffering

Tussen ongeveer 1350 en die 1520's floreer die Asteke op die terrein van die hedendaagse Mexico City. Hulle het opgestaan ​​van 'n nederige begin as migrante uit die noorde deur 'n kombinasie van militêre en diplomatieke taktiek om die dominante mag in die streek te word.

Oorspronklik gestig op onherbergsame moeras en klein eilande in Texcoco -meer, het hul groot eilandhoofstad Tenochtitlan in die 16de eeu gegroei tot 'n skouspelagtige metropool, gekoppel aan die vasteland deur drie ontsaglike paaie en die hart van 'n netwerk van byna 400 onderwerpe en geallieerde stede. . 'N Groot mark het daagliks duisende mense van oral in hierdie' ryk '(soos sommige historici dit genoem het) gelok, en 'n seremoniële gebied het in die middel van die stad gelê, waaruit die piramide van die Groot Tempel oor die rooster van kanale getorring het en strate.

Die stad was skoon en goed georden, met sterk wette en politieke administrasie, maar die Asteke is dikwels as 'n wrede en selfs bose mense beskou omdat hulle menslike offerande beoefen het. Die Asteke -gode het menslike bloed (van lewende liggame sowel as deur die dood van offerslagoffers) nodig gehad om dit te voed en die wêreld te onderhou. Daar word geglo dat opoffering tot 'n bevoorregte hiernamaals gelei het, en sommige Asteke het self slagoffers geword, maar gevangenes word die meeste hiervoor gebruik.

Daar word geglo dat die gode die Asteke bestem het om 'n krygsvolk te wees, en hulle raak toenemend gefokus op oorlogvoering en militêre prestasie, en oefen selfs "blomoorloë" spesifiek met die doel om slagoffers te beveilig. Die Asteke is egter nie deur hierdie bloedvergieting ontmenslik nie. Dit was 'n ekspressiewe en gesofistikeerde beskawing wat poësie, kuns en familie hoog op prys gestel het. Hulle het geglo dat opoffering 'n voorreg was, en kon aanvaar dat gewelddadige dood 'n noodsaaklike deel van die lewe is.

Cortés se roete van Vera Cruz na Tenochtitlan

Tydens sy opmars na die Azteekse hoofstad versamel Cortés waardevolle bondgenote onder vyande van Montezuma

8 Augustus 1519: Begin van die opmars na Tenochtitlan

Nadat hulle langs die kus langs die kus gekom het en ontmoet het met die afgevaardigdes van Montezuma, het Cortés en die veroweraars na Tenochtitlan vertrek vanuit hul nedersetting Vera Cruz.

23 September 1519: Alliansie word gesmee

Na 'n paar weke van direkte konfrontasie sluit die veroweraars vrede met die Ttexcalan -vyande van die Asteke en kom hulle die stad Tlaxcala binne, wat die begin van die alliansie tussen hulle is.

8 November 1519 staan ​​Cortés voor Montezuma

Cortés kyk uit op Montezuma op die groot weg wat na Tenochtitlan lei. Minder as 'n week later gryp hy die Asteekse heerser oor en neem die beheer oor die stad.

30 Junie 1520: Spanjaarde vlug uit Tenochtitlan

Die Spanjaarde en hul bondgenote vlug uit Tenochtitlan op die nag van trane. Nadat hulle meer as die helfte van hul onderneming verloor het, het hulle bymekaargekom in Tlacopan voordat hulle teruggekeer het na Tlaxcala.

28 April 1521: Begin van die geveg om Tenochtitlan

Nadat hulle teruggekeer het na die meer, begin die veroweraars hul brigantines, beleër die stad, en die groot stryd om Tenochtitlan begin.

13 Augustus 1521: Asteke gee oor

Na maande se hewige gevegte, wat Tenochtitlan in puin laat, word die laaste tlatoani Cuauhtemoc in 'n kano op die meer gevang en die Asteke gee uiteindelik oor.

Vyf sleutelfaktore in die verowering

'N Kombinasie van geluk, bondgenote en moontlik het Cortés daarin geslaag om te slaag

Hernán Cortés

Die belangrikheid van sy leierskap is soms oorbeklemtoon, maar Cortés het ongetwyfeld kritiese en kreatiewe besluite op belangrike oomblikke in die verowering geneem en effektiewe en dikwels inspirerende leierskap gelewer. Hy was 'n duidelike en ambisieuse taktikus, vroom, dapper en eensaam om sy doelwitte na te streef.

Europese wapens

Gewere, wapens en staalwapens sou nie alleen voldoende gewees het om die Azteke se numeriese voordeel te oorkom nie, maar dit was beslis effektief, veral in skermutseling. Perde en oorlogshonde was ook nuut vir die Asteke, wat vinnig hul taktiese belangrikheid besef het en hulle in die geveg begin teiken het.

Inheemse bondgenote

Verbintenisse met die Asteke se vyande en ontevrede onderdane het die veroweraars 'n byna oneindige voorraad krygers, hulpondersteuning, voedsel en ander voorrade verseker. Bande met individue, veral die tolk Malinztin, het Cortés ook aansienlike taktiese en diplomatieke voordele gebied en hom in staat gestel om direk met inheemse mense te onderhandel.

Europese siektes

By gebrek aan enige natuurlike immuniteit, is die inheemse mense gedomineer deur siektes wat deur die veroweraars gebring is. Pokke was veral verwoestend tydens die verowering van Mexiko, en in die daaropvolgende jare het ander siektes soos masels, bof, tifus, griep en die pes baie inheemse Amerikaanse bevolkings byna uitgesterf.

Asteekse houdings

Die oorlog van die Asteke het hulle in sommige ontmoetings benadeel omdat hulle geveg het om slagoffers vir menslike opoffering te vang eerder as om dood te maak. 'N Vroeëre besef van die omvang van die veroweraars se bedoelings sou die Azteke ook moontlik gemaak het om weerstand te verskerp en doeltreffender daarteen te werk te gaan.


Titus Livius (Livy), Die geskiedenis van Rome, Boek 1 Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D., red.

Versteek blaaibalk U huidige posisie in die teks is in blou gemerk. Klik op enige plek in die lyn om na 'n ander posisie te spring:

Hierdie teks is deel van:
Soek die Perseus -katalogus vir:
Bekyk teks wat deur:
INHOUDSOPGAWE:

[6] En eerstens het hy die jaar in twaalf maande verdeel volgens die omwentelinge van die maan. Maar aangesien die maan nie maande van redelik dertig dae elk gee nie, en elf dae 'n volle kompliment van 'n jaar is, gekenmerk deur die son se omwenteling, het hy tussenkalfmaande so ingevoeg dat die dae in die twintigste jaar sou val met dieselfde posisie van die son waaruit hulle begin het, en die tydperk van twintig jaar word afgerond. [7] Hy het ook dae aangestel waarop openbare sake moontlik nie voortgegaan sou word nie, en ander as dit sou kon, aangesien dit soms wenslik sou wees dat niks voor die mense gebring word nie.

2 Dit is blykbaar geskryf voor 25 v.C., toe die tempel weer deur Augustus gesluit is. Maar dit is nie voor 27 geskryf nie, want eers in daardie jaar is die titel van Augustus aan die keiser toegeken. Ons bereik dus 'n geskatte datum vir die begin van Livy se geskiedenis.

Die Annenberg CPB/Project het ondersteuning gebied vir die invoer van hierdie teks.

/>
Hierdie werk is gelisensieer onder 'n Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Amerikaanse lisensie.

'N XML -weergawe van hierdie teks kan afgelaai word, met die bykomende beperking dat u Perseus enige wysigings wat u aanbring, bied. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.


A Twisted History of Neckties

Boys hate to put them on. Men love to unknot them after a day of wear. Postal workers, firefighters, police and those in many other uniformed occupations don't wear them anymore. But women still insist on buying them for men, especially at this time of year.

Neckties: textured, solid, striped, botanical, jacquard, geometric, 52 to 58 inches long, alternately withering or widening from 3112 to 5 inches, costing anywhere from three for $10 to $100 or more.

Why has this apparently useless piece of silk, or wool, or rayon, or polyester or even rubber (yes, there are Rubber-Necker Ties, "a recycled fashion statement for the eco-executive") survived the swings of fashion for more than three centuries? Why is it still fit to be tied?

Fashion observers say the necktie survives because it is the one formal accessory in the male wardrobe that expresses personality, mood or inner character. The tie is that splash of color, that distinctive pattern, that statement of individuality that a man can make in the world of uniform pinstripes and plaids.

On another level, the necktie can be seen as message-driven. "It's specific to the time, place and person," says Claudia Kidwell, curator of the Smithsonian Institution's costume division. For example, there's the proverbial power tie -- bold pinstripe, old school tie, club tie -- that shows a man's presumed position in society.

"Show me a man's ties, and I'll tell you who he is or who he is trying to be," writes John T. Molloy in his book Dress for Success. Molloy conducted experiments showing that men wearing expensive ties make stronger impressions in job interviews, are given better tables at restaurants and even make more money panhandling.

The tie has been seen as a form of male chest display, recalling the chest-pounding and puffing of our prehistoric ancestors. Or it can be viewed as the noose around the neck of the conformist white-collar worker, or the symbolic leash held by women who purchased more than 50 percent of the 105 million ties sold in the United States last year. Although most American men do not wear ties daily, U.S. neckware sales totaled $1.6 billion last year, with 70 percent made by American companies.

For 20 years, dressy turtleneck sweaters and buttoned shirts without collars have presented a continuing threat to neckwear. Nonetheless, in most of the developed world, neckties remain the necessary attribute of the white-collar occupations of business and commerce and the requirement for occasions of formality -- their principal function for more than three centuries.

From their origins in the mid-17th century, the strips of cloth that became known as cravats have multiplied in amazing variety. To modern eyes, the early ties look like bibs or scarves, strings or bows.

But beginning in the 1870s, the modern "four-in-hand" emerged, and it still dominates more than a century later. The modern variant of the bow tie accounts for less than 5 percent of sales.

"Ties are very related to their times, reflective of trends in society," says Mark-Evan Blackman, chairman of the menswear department at New York's Fashion Institute of Technology.

In the 2nd century A.D., Roman legionnaires probably didn't think of themselves as reflecting a trend when they tied bands of cloth around their necks. Most likely, they were just looking for protection from the weather.

Some historians have called the legionnaires' adornments the first neckwear. But others cite the excavation near the Chinese city of Xi'an of 3rd century B.C. terra-cotta statues of warriors who wore neck scarves in the belief that they were protecting the source of their strength, their Adam's apples.

Most experts, however, date the initial appearance of the modern precursor of the tie to 1636. Croatian mercenaries, hired in Paris by King Louis XIV, wore cloth bands around their necks to ward off natural elements, which in their line of work included sword slashes.

Parisians quickly translated the Croats' scarf into a new clothing accessory, and, voila!, the cravate was born. The French term cravate is derived from Croates, French for Croatian. Not to be outdone, the English adapted the cravat, dropping the final "e", and the American colonies soon stepped in line.

Once launched, the cravat and its styles and knots proliferated. Early cravats looked like lace bibs with bows backing them up, some reaching two yards in length.

Among emerging varieties in the late 17th century was the Steinkirk, a corkscrew-like wrap, originating from the Battle of Steinkirk where startled French officers hastily twisted their ties as they fled their tents to turn back the British onslaught.

During the early 18th century and into the 19th century, cravats had major competition: the stock. While a cravat generally was a long piece of cloth that wound around the neck and tied in front, the stock resembled collars worn today for whiplash or other neck injuries.

Made of muslin, sometimes with cardboard stiffeners inside, stocks were fastened in back by a hook or knot. In front, they had what looked like a pretied bowtie or sometimes a wide cravat covering the stock and swathing the neck like a poultice. Stocks forced men to stand upright in a stiff posture.

American revolutionaries George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and the Adamses (John and John Quincy) can be seen in contemporary portraits by Gilbert Stuart and Charles Willson Peale, wearing swath-like cravats, although the American versions were less radical than those of their counterparts in France.

In the mid-1800s, the "solitaire" appeared -- attached to the wig in the back, wrapped around the neck and brought to a bow in the front over a cravat.

Some other bizarre dress and tie styles emerged in the mid-18th century. In England, the so-called "Macaronis" were dandies affecting an Italian style, coloring their cheeks with rouge and wearing diamond-studded pumps and cravats with huge bows. The fashion may be alluded to in the lyrics to "Yankee Doodle Dandy."

Over in France, the incroyables -- literally, "incredibles" -- wore such large cravats that their chins were hidden.

At the turn of the 19th century, collars were heightened with pointed edges around the chin and cheeks, while cravats wrapped tightly around the neck ended in bows of varying lengths. English novelist Charles Dickens described one of his characters, Mr. Dombey, as "slightly turning his head in his cravat as if it were a socket."

George "Beau" Brummel, British fashion guru of the early 1800s, was a cravat innovator who starched his neckwear, developed intricate, innovative knots and could take as long as an hour to tie a proper knot. You had to get the knot right the first time or the starched tie would have to be discarded. Beau Brummel was said to pile the floor with ties not perfectly knotted.

Neckwear took on an inflated importance, as even novelist Honore de Balzac wrote in 1818 that a cravat was protection against "colds, stiff necks, inflammations, toothache," which also "enables us to know more about the person who is wearing it."

By contrast, poet Lord Byron, who usually didn't wear cravats, inadvertently inspired a less formal, disdainful style -- a loose knot four inches wide starting at the neck and ending in two long points.

To one German fashion observer, this casual style, which became known as "Cravate a la Byron," demonstrated the poet's genius for freeing his imagination and his blood vessels at the same time: "Who can say to what degree a more or less stiffly starched and tightly bound neckcloth can restrain the springs of fantasy or throttle thought?"

During the 17th and 18th centuries, neckwear usually was black for daytime wear and white for formal occasions. By the mid-19th century, white was considered traditional and black revolutionary. Then black won out again until the end of the century when colors began to proliferate.

Pale blues, lavenders and grays came into use as did varieties of fabrics: silks, satins and other textures.

Specialty cravats abounded in the mid-19th century, including the "Cravate a l'Americaine," which used a whalebone to give it a stiffened look, and the "Cravate a la Gastronome," which could be loosened in case of indigestion, apoplexy or fainting.

As the century progressed, cravats shrank into smaller bows. Worn initially with upturned collars and then with turned-down styles, they are familiar in portraits of President Abraham Lincoln and other Civil War figures.

When Dickens toured the United States in 1867, he created a fashion sensation at his lectures when he wore a turned-down collar with a loose, unknotted cravat held by a seal ring. Dickens' style was an ancestor of the "four-in-hand," progenitor of the modern tie.

Appearing in the 1860s, the four-in-hand was named after coachmen who singlehandedly drove teams of four horses and slip-knotted their cravats to prevent them from blowing in the wind. Ready-made cravats and hooked-on bow ties, with varied fabrics and patterns, were popular for a time. But eventually, all gave way to the four-in-hand.

The growth of a large clerical work force toward the end of the century played a decisive part in dominance of the four-in-hand. Those counterparts of today's office workers needed a tie simple to knot, comfortable and long-lasting.

With the coming of the new business office culture, women, too, began wearing ties, as often depicted in the "Gibson Girl" look made hugely popular by artist Charles Dana Gibson in the early 1900s. In fact, women who did not want to be tied down by traditional views of femininity, had worn ties and even men's clothing for years.

Perhaps the most notorious was Amandine Dupin, the 19th-century French novelist who took the pen name George Sand. In the early 20th century, feminists, suffragettes and other "liberated" women wore ties, a fashion that has reappeared sporadically since.

By mid-century, America was setting international neckwear fashion, which has varied drastically over the last 50 years [see box].

After a run of more than three centuries, will neckties as we know them last through the 21st century? Some fashion experts have doubts.

Blackman of the Fashion Institute sees the broad range of acceptable tie styles today as characteristic of an age in which dress codes no longer are clearly defined. In the past, ties were virtually the only accessory available for men to make a personal statement in their appearance.

Today, young men have countless outlets for individual expression -- varieties of haircuts, different facial hairstyles, earrings, tattoos and dress, ranging from three-button suits in traditional businesses to jeans and T-shirts in the high-tech world. So ties are less necessary for a male to assert himself.

Although ties may not survive the new century, they may have "an incarnation into something else," Blackman says.

Meanwhile, whether males like it or not, a tie is still likely to be under the tree for the last Christmas of the 1900s.

After World War II, the olive drab of the military years gave way in the late 1940s and 1950s to the euphoria of peacetime prosperity reflected in an explosion of tie colors, ranging from Hawaiian prints to garish hand-painted scenes of bathing beauties on desert islands.

By the late 1950s and early 1960s, however, mainstream culture favored quiet conformity. The conservative gray flannel suit predominated, with its narrow shoulders, thin lapel and skinny dark ties like those worn by President John F. Kennedy. Or by the Beatles when they first came to the United States just 10 weeks after Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963.

In the late 1960s, again reflecting a cultural shift, ties widened and brightened into flower patterns, exotic motifs, peace symbols and messages of love -- the commercialization of the youth culture. Many men in that turbulent time of student protests and urban riots permanently discarded ties, rejecting them as symbols of uptightness and conformity.

Sales slumped for a time in the 1970s with the advent of more casual dress styles, notably including the "leisure suit," a snug-fitting jacket and pants combination worn with an open-neck shirt.

Narrower neckties made a comeback in the 1980s with traditional patterns and Windsor knots, inspired in part by the conservative political era and style of President Ronald Reagan. The 1990s saw a widening resurgence to 4.5 inches with new variations -- cartoon ties, ties with advertising, ties with messages, ties with complicated computer-age designs.

As the century creeps to a close, store counters are stocked with a mix of styles for Christmas buying, which accounts for 20 percent of annual tie sales. This year, darker, deeper colors predominate, and solid-color ties and subdued patterns to match and blend with dark shirts are designed to produce the "minimalist" look.

The current trend toward somber colors represents to Gerald Andersen, executive director of the Neckwear Association of America, the industry trade group, "a reaction to the exuberance of the Nineties and the search for a different look."

John Mathews, a former NBC News producer and editor/reporter for the Washington Star newspaper, lives in Cabin John.

CAPTION: Evolving Tie Styles

(This graphic was not available)

CAPTION: Ties through the ages, from far left: Marquis de la Tour (c. 1750), George Washington (1795), King Edward VII of England (in 1876 while Prince of Wales), Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (1891), the Beatles (c. 1960s).

CAPTION: Ties from the turn of the century to present day, at the Smithsonian's collection.


The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul

The value of the consulship lay in the lucrative provincial governorship to which it would normally lead. On the eve of the consular elections for 59 bce , the Senate sought to allot to the two future consuls for 59 bce , as their proconsular provinces, the unprofitable supervision of forests and cattle trails in Italy. The Senate also secured by massive bribery the election of an anti-Caesarean, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. But they failed to prevent Caesar’s election as the other consul.

Caesar now succeeded in organizing an irresistible coalition of political bosses. Pompey had carried out his mission to put the East in order with notable success, but after his return to Italy and his disbandment of his army in 62 bce , the Senate had thwarted him—particularly by preventing him from securing land allotments for his veterans. Caesar, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey’s friendship, now entered into a secret pact with him. Caesar’s master stroke was to persuade Crassus to join the partnership, the so-called first triumvirate. Crassus—like Pompey, a former lieutenant of Sulla—had been one of the most active of Pompey’s obstructors so far. Only Caesar, on good terms with both, was in a position to reconcile them. Early in 59 bce , Pompey sealed his alliance with Caesar by marrying Caesar’s only child, Julia. Caesar married Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Piso, who became consul in 58 bce .

As consul, Caesar introduced a bill for the allotment of Roman public lands in Italy, on which the first charge was to be a provision for Pompey’s soldiers. The bill was vetoed by three tribunes of the plebs, and Caesar’s colleague Bibulus announced his intention of preventing the transaction of public business by watching the skies for portents whenever the public assembly was convened. Caesar then cowed the opposition by employing some of Pompey’s veterans to make a riot, and the distribution was carried out. Pompey’s settlement of the East was ratified en blok by an act negotiated by an agent of Caesar, the tribune of the plebs Publius Vatinius. Caesar himself initiated a noncontroversial and much-needed act for punishing misconduct by governors of provinces.

Another act negotiated by Vatinius gave Caesar Cisalpine Gaul (between the Alps, the Apennines, and the Adriatic) and Illyricum. His tenure was to last until February 28, 54 bce . When the governor-designate of Transalpine Gaul suddenly died, this province, also, was assigned to Caesar at Pompey’s instance. Cisalpine Gaul gave Caesar a military recruiting ground Transalpine Gaul gave him a springboard for conquests beyond Rome’s northwest frontier.

Between 58 and 50 bce , Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul up to the left bank of the Rhine and subjugated it so effectively that it remained passive under Roman rule throughout the Roman civil wars between 49 and 31 bce . This achievement was all the more amazing in light of the fact that the Romans did not possess any great superiority in military equipment over the north European barbarians. Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman. Rome’s military superiority lay in its mastery of strategy, tactics, discipline, and military engineering. In Gaul, Rome also had the advantage of being able to deal separately with dozens of relatively small, independent, and uncooperative states. Caesar conquered these piecemeal, and the concerted attempt made by a number of them in 52 bce to shake off the Roman yoke came too late.

Great though this achievement was, its relative importance in Caesar’s career and in Roman history has been overestimated in Western tradition (as have his brief raids on Britain). In Caesar’s mind his conquest of Gaul was probably carried out only as a means to his ultimate end. He was acquiring the military manpower, the plunder, and the prestige that he needed to secure a free hand for the prosecution of the task of reorganizing the Roman state and the rest of the Greco-Roman world. This final achievement of Caesar’s looms much larger than his conquest of Gaul, when it is viewed in the wider setting of world history and not just in the narrower setting of the Greco-Roman civilization’s present daughter civilization in the West.

In 58 bce Rome’s northwestern frontier, established in 125 bce , ran from the Alps down the left bank of the upper Rhône River to the Pyrenees, skirting the southeastern foot of the Cévennes and including the upper basin of the Garonne River without reaching the Gallic shore of the Atlantic. In 58 bce Caesar intervened beyond this line, first to drive back the Helvetii, who had been migrating westward from their home in what is now central Switzerland. He then crushed Ariovistus, a German soldier of fortune from beyond the Rhine. In 57 bce Caesar subdued the distant and warlike Belgic group of Gallic peoples in the north, while his lieutenant Publius Licinius Crassus subdued what are now the regions of Normandy and Brittany.

In 56 bce the Veneti, in what is now southern Brittany, started a revolt in the northwest that was supported by the still unconquered Morini on the Gallic coast of the Strait of Dover and the Menapii along the south bank of the lower Rhine. Caesar reconquered the Veneti with some difficulty and treated them barbarously. He could not finish off the conquest of the Morini and Menapii before the end of the campaigning season of 56 bce and in the winter of 56–55 bce the Menapii were temporarily expelled from their home by two immigrant German peoples, the Usipetes and Tencteri. These peoples were exterminated by Caesar in 55 bce . In the same year he bridged the Rhine just below Koblenz to raid Germany on the other side of the river, and then crossed the Channel to raid Britain. In 54 bce he raided Britain again and subdued a serious revolt in northeastern Gaul. In 53 bce he subdued further revolts in Gaul and bridged the Rhine again for a second raid.

The crisis of Caesar’s Gallic war came in 52 bce . The peoples of central Gaul found a national leader in the Arvernian Vercingetorix. They planned to cut off the Roman forces from Caesar, who had been wintering on the other side of the Alps. They even attempted to invade the western end of the old Roman province of Gallia Transalpina. Vercingetorix wanted to avoid pitched battles and sieges and to defeat the Romans by cutting off their supplies—partly by cavalry operations and partly by “scorched earth”—but he could not persuade his countrymen to adopt this painful policy wholeheartedly.

The Bituriges insisted on standing siege in their town Avaricum (Bourges), and Vercingetorix was unable to save it from being taken by storm within one month. Caesar then besieged Vercingetorix in Gergovia near modern Clermont-Ferrand. A Roman attempt to storm Gergovia was repulsed and resulted in heavy Roman losses—the first outright defeat that Caesar had suffered in Gaul. Caesar then defeated an attack on the Roman army on the march and was thus able to besiege Vercingetorix in Alesia, to the northwest of Dijon. Alesia, like Gergovia, was a position of great natural strength, and a large Gallic army came to relieve it but this army was repulsed and dispersed by Caesar, and Vercingetorix then capitulated.

During the winter of 52–51 bce and the campaigning season of 51 bce , Caesar crushed a number of sporadic further revolts. The most determined of these rebels were the Bellovaci, between the Rivers Seine and Somme, around Beauvais. Another rebel force stood siege in the south in the natural fortress of Uxellodunum (perhaps the Puy d’Issolu on the Dordogne) until its water supply gave out. Caesar had the survivors’ hands cut off. He spent the year 50 bce in organizing the newly conquered territory. After that, he was ready to settle his accounts with his opponents at home.


Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd

  • Physical Map of Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa (641K) [p.2-3] [1926 ed.]
  • Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 B.C. (344K) [p.4] [1926 ed.] Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta.
  • The Assyrian Empire and the Region about the Eastern Mediterranean, 750-625 B.C. (294K) [p.5] [1926 ed.]
  • Reference Map of Ancient Palestine (785K) [p.6-7] [1926 ed.] Insets: Plan of Jerusalem. Dominions of David and Solomon (1025-953 B.C.). Palestine under the later Kings (953-722 B.C.). Palestine under Joshua and the Judges (1250-1125 B.C.).
  • The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C. (146K) [p.8] [1923 ed.]
  • The Persian Empire about 500 B.C. (134K) [p.8] [1923 ed.]
  • The Beginnings of Historic Greece 700 B.C.-600 B.C. (177K) [p.8] [1923 ed.]
  • Vicinity of Troy. The Shores of the Propontis. Plan of Olympia. (214K) [p.9] [1926 ed.]
  • Reference Map of Ancient Greece. Northern Part. (980K) [p.10-11] [1926 ed.]
  • Greek and Phoenician Settlements in the Mediterranean Basin, about 550 B.C. (350K) [p.12] [1926 ed.]
  • Greece at the Time of the War with Persia, 500-479 B.C. (267K) [p.13] [1926 ed.]
  • The Athenian Empire at its Height (about 450 B.C.). (268K) [p.13] [1926 ed.]
  • Reference Map of Ancient Greece. Southern Part. (709K) [p.14-15] [1926 ed.] Inset: Crete.
  • Reference Map of Attica. Plan of Thermopylae, 480 B.C. (500K) [p.16] [1923 ed.] Inset: Harbors of Athens
  • Greece at the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.). (307K) [p.17] [1926 ed.]
  • Greece under Theban Headship (362 B.C.). (175K) [p.17] [1926 ed.]
  • The Macedonian Empire, 336-323 B.C. (560K) [p.18-19] [1926 ed.] Insets: The Aetolian and Achaian Leagues. Plan of Tyre.
  • Kingdoms of the Diadochi (300K) [p.18-19] [1926 ed.] After the Battle of Ipsus (301 B.C.). At the Beginning of the Struggle with Rome (about 200 B.C.).
  • Reference Map of Asia Minor under the Greeks and Romans (360K) [p.20] [1923 ed.]
  • Plan of Imperial Rome (991K) [p.22-23] [1926 ed.]
  • Plan of Athens (991K) [p.23] [1926 ed.] Inset: Plan of the Acropolis of Athens.
  • Plan of Republican Rome (991K) [p.23] [1926 ed.]
  • Plan of the Roman Forum and its Vicinity at the Time of the Republic (208K) [p.24] [1923 ed.]
  • Plan of the Imperial Forums and their Vicinity (240K) [p.24] [1923 ed.]
  • Reference Map of Ancient Italy. Northern Part. (850K) [p.26-27] [1926 ed.]
  • The Growth of Roman Power in Italy (243K) [p.29] [1926 ed.]
  • Reference Map of Ancient Italy. Southern Part (617K) [p.30-31] [1926 ed.] Insets: Vicinity of Naples. Plan of Syracuse.
  • Rome and Carthage at the Beginning of the Second Punic War, 218 B.C. (199K) [p.32] [1926 ed.]
  • The Growth of Roman Power in Asia Minor (337K) [p.33] [1926 ed.] I, after the Treaty of Apamea, 188 B.C. II, before the outbreak of the Mithradatic Wars, 90 B.C. III, as organized by Pompey, 63 B.C.
  • Territorial Expansion of Rome (768K) [p.34-35] [1926 ed.] Insets: Plan of Carthage. Vicinity of Rome. Plan of Alexandria.
  • Reference Map of the European Provinces of the Roman Empire (850K) [p.38-39] [1926 ed.] Insets: Gaul in the Time of Caesar. The Rhine Country in Roman Times. Country about the Lower Danube in Roman Times.
  • Germanic Migrations and Conquests, 150-1066 (411K) [p.45] [1926 ed.]
  • Development of Christianity to 1300 (676K) [p.46-47] [1926 ed.]
  • The Roman and Hunnic Empires about 450 (312K) [p.48] [1926 ed.]
  • Physical Map of the British Isles (296K) [p.49] [1926 ed.]
  • The Germanic Kingdoms and the East Roman Empire in 486 (859K) [p.50] [1923 ed.]
  • Roman Britain About 410. (452K) [p.51] [1923 ed.]
  • Settlements of Angles, Saxons and Jutes in Britain about 600 (323K) [p.51] [1923 ed.]
  • The Germanic Kingdoms and the East Roman Empire in 526 (221K) [p.52] [1926 ed.]
  • Europe and the East Roman Empire, 533-600 (243K) [p.52] [1926 ed.]
  • The Califate in 750 (293K) [p.53] [1926 ed.]
  • Growth of Frankish Power, 481-814 (196K) [p.53] [1926 ed.]
  • The Carolingian and Byzantine Empires and the Califate about 814 (673K) [p.54-55] [1926 ed.] Inset: Northern Austrasia about 814.
  • Disruption of the Carolingian Empire, 843-888 (340K) [p.56] [1926 ed.]
  • The Peoples of Europe about 900 (333K) [p.57] [1926 ed.]
  • Europe and the Byzantine Empire about 1000 (641K) [p.58-59] [1926 ed.]
  • The British Isles about 802 (363K) [p.60] [1926 ed.]
  • England after 886 (99K) [p.60] [1926 ed.]
  • The Shires of England in the Tenth Century (99K) [p.60] [1926 ed.]
  • France about 1035 (304K) [p.61] [1926 ed.]
  • Central Europe, 919-1125 (740K) [p.62-63] [1926 ed.]
  • Italy about 1050 (247K) [p.64] [1926 ed.] Inset: The Patrimony of St. Peter.
  • Dominions of Cnut, 1014-1035 (129K) [p.64] [1926 ed.]
  • Dominions of William the Conqueror about 1087 (249K) [p.65] [1926 ed.]
  • Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1097 (725K) [p.66-67] [1926 ed.] Inset: Europe and the Mediterranean Lands by Religions about 1097.
  • Asia Minor and the States of the Crusaders in Syria, about 1140 (329K) [p.68] [1926 ed.] Insets: Palestine. Plan of Jerusalem about 1187.
  • France, 1154-1184 (433K) [p.69] [1926 ed.] Inset: Domain, Fiefs and Suzerains of the Count of Champagne in the Twelfth Century.
  • Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1190 (667K) [p.70-71] [1926 ed.] Inset: Guelf, Hohenstaufen and Ascanian Domains in Germany about 1176.
  • The Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufen, 1138-1254 (458K) [p.72] [1926 ed.]
  • The Mediterranean Lands after 1204 (340K) [p.73] [1926 ed.]
  • The British Isles about 1300 (363K) [p.74] [1926 ed.]
  • Plan of London about 1300 (237K) [p.75] [1926 ed.]
  • Vicinity of London, 1200-1600 (248K) [p.75] [1926 ed.]
  • France in 1328 (414K) [p.76] [1926 ed.] Inset: The Chief Wool-raising Districts of England and Wool-manufacturing Towns of Flanders, Artois and Brabant.
  • Europe in 1360 (316K) [p.77] [1926 ed.]
  • Central Europe in 1378 (884K) [p.78-79] [1926 ed.] Inset: Dominions of Ottocar of Bohemia.
  • Spread of German Settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400 (269K) [p.80] [1926 ed.] Inset: The March of Lusatia.
  • The Great Schism, 1378-1417 (351K) [p.81] [1926 ed.]
  • France in 1453 (516K) [p.81] [1923 ed.]
  • Spain, 910-1492 (819K) [p.82-83] [1926 ed.] Spain in 910. Spain in 1037. Spain in 1150. Spain 1212-1492.
  • England and France, 1455-1494 (373K) [p.84] [1926 ed.]
  • Decline of the March of Brandenburg under the Houses of Wittelsbach and Luxemburg, 1320-1415 (181K) [p.85] [1926 ed.]
  • The Wettin Lands, 1221-1485 (208K) [p.85] [1926 ed.] Inset: Temporary break-up of the Wettin Lands about 1300.
  • Central Europe about 1477 (827K) [p.86-87] [1926 ed.]
  • Decline of German Power in the Baltic Region, 1380-1560 (285K) [p.88] [1926 ed.]
  • The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (205K) [p.89] [1926 ed.] The Byzantine Empire, 1265-1355. The Byzantine Empire in 1265.
  • The Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Turks in 1355 (233K) [p.89] [1926 ed.] The Byzantine Empire, 1265-1355. The Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Turks in 1355.
  • Italy about 1494 (774K) [p.90] [1923 ed.] Insets: The Milanese under the Visconti, 1339-1402. The Republic of Florence, 1300-1494.
  • The Swiss Confederation, 1291-1513 (710K) [p.91] [1923 ed.]
  • The Mongol Dominions, 1300-1405 (410K) [p.92] [1923 ed.]
  • The Ottoman Empire, 1451-1481. Constantinople (671K) [p.93] [1923 ed.]
  • Ecclesiastical Map of Western Europe in the Middle Ages (950K) [p.94-95] [1926 ed.] Inset: Vicinity of Naples.
  • Plan of Rome in the Middle Ages (452K) [p.96] [1923 ed.]
  • The Roman Suburbicarian (Cardinal) Bishoprics about the 12th Century (323K) [p.96] [1923 ed.]
  • Ecclesiastical Map of the British Isles in the Middle Ages (645K) [p.97] [1923 ed.]
  • Mediaeval Commerce (Europe) (846K) [p.98-99] [1926 ed.] Insets: England. Hanseatic League in Northern Germany.
  • Mediaeval Universities (452K) [p.100] [1923 ed.]
  • Rural Deaneries (387K) [p.100] [1923 ed.] Part of the bishopric of Winchester showing rural deaneries and religious houses during the Middle Ages.
  • Ground Plan of a Monastery (St.Gall, Switzerland) (516K) [p.101] [1923 ed.]
  • Mediaeval Commerce (Asia) (769K) [p.102-103] [1926 ed.] Inset: India.
  • Plan of a Mediaeval Manor (710K) [p.104] [1923 ed.]
  • The West Indies and Central America, 1492-1525 (316K) [p.105] [1926 ed.] Inset: Watling's Island.
  • The Conquest of Mexico, 1519 - 1521 (350K) [p.106] [1923 ed.]
  • The Age of discovery 1340-1600 (903K) [p.107-108] [1923 ed.]
  • The Conquest of Peru, 1531 - 1533 (431K) [p.111] [1923 ed.]
  • The Portuguese Colonial Dominions in India and the Malay Archipelago, 1498-1580 (295K) [p.112] [1926 ed.]
  • The Imperial Circles about 1512 (245K) [p.113] [1926 ed.]
  • Central Europe about 1547 (845K) [p.114-115] [1926 ed.] Insets: Principality of Orange. Wettin Lands, 1485-1554.
  • The Religious Situation in Europe about 1560 (438K) [p.116] [1926 ed.] The Religious Situation in Central Europe about 1560. The Religious Situation in Europe about 1560.
  • The Netherlands 1559-1609 (645K) [p.117] [1923 ed.]
  • Europe about 1560 (854K) [p.118-119] [1926 ed.]
  • The Religious Situation in Central Europe about 1618 (581K) [p.120] [1923 ed.]
  • Sweden about 1658 (387K) [p.120] [1923 ed.]
  • Principal Seats of War in Europe, I. 1618-1660 (581K) [p.121] [1923 ed.]
  • Treaty of the Pyrenees 1659 (194K) [p.121] [1923 ed.] Treaty Adjustments, 1648-1660. Treaty of Pyrenees, 1659 Peace of Roeskilde-Oliva, 1658, 1660
  • Treaty of Westphalia 1648 (258K) [p.121] [1923 ed.] Treaty Adjustments, 1648-1660. Treaty of Westphalia 1648.
  • Central Europe about 1648 (926K) [p.122-123] [1926 ed.]
  • The Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 (581K) [p.124] [1923 ed.]
  • Principal Seats of War in Europe, II. 1672-1699 (276K) [p.125] [1926 ed.]
  • Treaty Adjustments, 1668-1699 (122K) [p.125] [1926 ed.] Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle, Nimwegen, St. Germain, Ryswick, Carlowitz.
  • Extension of the French Frontiers, 1601-1766 (477K) [p.126] [1926 ed.]
  • The British Isles, 1603-1688 (481K) [p.127] [1926 ed.]
  • The Spread of Colonization, 1600-1700 (516K) [p.128] [1923 ed.] Insets:Partition of Guiana and the West Indies. Indië. The Establishment of Dutch Power in the Malay Archipelago, 1602-1641. Guinea Coast.
  • Principal Seats of War in Europe, III. 1700-1721 (333K) [p.129] [1926 ed.]
  • Europe about 1740 (786K) [p.130-131] [1926 ed.] Inset: The Growth of Savoy, 1418-1748.
  • Principal Seats of War, IV. 1740-1763 (329K) [p.132] [1926 ed.] Insets: Spain. West Africa. West Indies. Canada. Indië.
  • Treaty Adjustments, 1713-1763 (321K) [p.133] [1926 ed.] Treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, Baden, Stockholm, Frederiksborg, Nystad, Passarowitz, Vienna, Belgrade, Breslau, Dresden, Aix-la-Chapelle, Paris, Hubertusburg. Insets: Acadia and Newfoundland. Eastern North America.
  • Central Europe about 1786 (829K) [p.134-135] [1926 ed.]
  • The Struggle for Colonial Dominion, 1700-1763 (431K) [p.136] [1926 ed.] Insets: The West Indies, 1700-1763. Cook's Voyages in the Southern Pacific.
  • India, 1700-1792 (645K) [p.137] [1923 ed.]
  • The Growth of Russia in Europe, 1300-1796 (872K) [p.138-139] [1926 ed.]
  • Typical German States Before and since the French Revolution: I. Baden (598K) [p.142] [1923 ed.] Insets: The County of Sponheim. Lordship of Gravenstein. Baden since 1801.
  • Typical German States Before and since the French Revolution: II. Wurtemberg (698K) [p.143] [1923 ed.] Insets: County of Horburg and Lordship of Reichenweier. Principality-County of Montbeliard. Wurtemberg since 1495.
  • France in 1789: The "Gouvernements"(275K) The Generalities or Intendancies (269K) The Salt Tax(299K) Laws and Courts(291K) [p.146-147] [1926 ed.]
  • Ecclesiastical Map of France, 1789 and 1802 (292K) [p.148] [1926 ed.]
  • France in 1791 (301K) [p.148] [1926 ed.]
  • Plans of Paris (251K) and Versailles (262K) [p.149] [1926 ed.]
  • Napoleon's Campaign in Egypt, 1798 (241K) [p.150] [1926 ed.]
  • Northern Italy, 1796 (for the campaigns of 1796-1805) (389K) [p.150] [1926 ed.]
  • Germany and Italy in 1803 (423K) [p.151] [1926 ed.]
  • Germany and Italy in 1806 (424K) [p.151] [1926 ed.]
  • Treaty Adjustments, 1801-1812 (314K) [p.152] [1926 ed.] Insets: India. Cape Colony.
  • Principal Seats of War, V. 1788-1815 (405K) [p.153] [1926 ed.] Insets: India. Egypt. Napoleon's Campaign in Russia, 1812.
  • Central Europe in 1812 (728K) [p.154-155] [1926 ed.] Inset: Europe in 1812.
  • Plan of the Battle of Waterloo (581K) [p.156] [1923 ed.]
  • Plan of the Waterloo Campaign, June 16-18, 1815 (516K) [p.156] [1923 ed.]
  • Treaty adjustments, 1814,1815 (516K) [p.157] [1923 ed.] Inset: Fortresses along the French Frontier.
  • Central Europe, 1815-1866 (798K) [p.158-159] [1926 ed.]
  • The Unification of Germany, 1815-1871 (285K) [p.160] [1926 ed.] I. Rise of the German "Zollverein" (Customs-Union) up to 1834. II. The German "Zollverein" (Customs-Union) after 1834.
  • The Unification of Germany, 1815-1871 (178K) [p.161] [1926 ed.] III. The North German Federation and the German Empire 1866-1871.
  • The Unification of Italy, 1815-1870 (266K) [p.161] [1926 ed.]
  • Industrial England since 1750 (359K) [p.162] [1926 ed.]
  • England and Wales in 1832 (422K) [p.163] [1926 ed.]
  • Dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire since 1683 (387K) [p.164] [1923 ed.] Insets: Southwestern Crimea, 1854. Plan of Sevastopol, 1854-1855.
  • Distibution of Races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor (387K) [p.165] [1923 ed.]
  • Europe, 1871-1914 (605K) [p.166-167] [1926 ed.]
  • Distribution of Races in Former Austria-Hungary (390K) [p.168] [1926 ed.]
  • Europe in 1924 (640K) [p.168B-168C] [1926 ed.]
  • The Growth of European and Japanese Dominions in Asia since 1801 (839K) [p.170-171] [1923 ed.] Inset: Vicinity of Peking.
  • Australia and New Zealand, 1788-1911 (645K) [p.172] [1923 ed.]
  • The Partition of Africa (725K) [p.174-175] [1926 ed.] Insets: The Suez Canal and Lower Egypt. The Boer Republics till 1902.
  • Distribution of the Principal European Languages in 1914 (452K) [p.176] [1923 ed.]
  • Distribution of Europeans, Chinese, Japanese and Negroes (249K) [p.177] [1926 ed.]
  • Colonies, Dependencies and Trade Routes (892K) [p.179-182] [1926 ed.]
  • Localities in Western Europe connected with American History (519K) [p.184] [1923 ed.]
  • Localities in England connected with American History (273K) [p.185] [1926 ed.]
  • Physical Map of North America (561K) [p.186-187] [1926 ed.]
  • The Indians in the United States (645K) [p.188] [1923 ed.]
  • Reference Map of the New England Colonies, 1607-1760 (399K) [p.189] [1926 ed.] Insets: Rhode Island. Vicinity of Boston. Vicinity of New York.
  • European Exploration and Settlement in the United States, 1513-1776 (704K) [p.190-191] [1926 ed.] Inset: Principal English Grants, 1606-1665.
  • Reference Map of the Middle Colonies, 1607-1760 (301K) [p.192] [1926 ed.] Inset: Settlements on the Delaware River.
  • Reference Map of the Southern Colonies, 1607-1760 (358K) [p.193] [1926 ed.] Insets: Settlements on the James River. The Georgian Coast.
  • The British Colonies in North America, 1763-1775 (581K) [p.194] [1923 ed.] Inset: Middle Colonies.
  • Campaigns of the American Revolution, 1775-1781 (645K) [p.195] [1923 ed.] Inset:The West and South, 1778-1781.
  • The United States, 1783-1803 (581K) [p.196] [1923 ed.] Insets: The State of Franklin, 1784-1788. Early distribution of the Public Lands (Ohio).
  • Territorial Expansion of the United States since 1803 (616K) [p.198-199] [1926 ed.] Insets: Alaska. Hawaii. Guam. Samoa Islands. Wake Island. Midway Island. Porto Rico. The Philippine Islands.
  • Campaigns of the War of 1812 (331K) [p.200] [1926 ed.] Campaigns of the War of 1812. The Southwest. Vicinity of Washington in 1814.
  • Campaigns of the Mexican War, 1846-1847 (262K) [p.201] [1926 ed.] Inset: Route from Vera Cruz to Mexico.
  • The Organization of Territories in the United States since 1803 (1MB) [p.202-203] [1923 ed.] I.1803-1810, II.1810-1835, III.1835-1855, IV.Since 1855.
  • Slavery and the Staple Agricultural Products in the Southern States, 1790-1860 (266K) [p.204] [1926 ed.]
  • Slavery and Emancipation in the United States, 1777-1865 (701K) [p.206-207] [1926 ed.] Inset: The Region South of the Great Lakes.
  • Seat of the Civil War, 1861-1865 (645K) [p.208] [1923 ed.] Inset: Vicinity of Gettysburg.
  • Westward Development of the United States (791K) [p.210-211] [1926 ed.]
  • Canada and Newfoundland (426K) [p.212] [1926 ed.] Inset: The Arbitration Boundary between Canada and Alaska.
  • Mexico, Central America and the West Indies (350K) [p.213] [1926 ed.] Inset: Central Mexico.
  • South America (691K) [p.214-215] [1926 ed.] Inset: South America about 1790.
  • The Panama Canal (757K) [p.216] [1923 ed.] The Canal Zone. Profile of the Canal.

Indeks

MAIN LIBRARY

Perry-Castañeda Library
101 East 21st St.
Austin, TX. 78713


The Southern Colonies

The first "official" American colony was formed in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. In 1587, a group of 115 English settlers arrived in Virginia. They arrived safely on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. By the middle of the year, the group realized they needed more supplies, and so they sent John White, governor of the colony, back to England. White arrived in the midst of a war between Spain and England, and his return was delayed.

When he finally made it back to Roanoke, there was no trace of the colony, his wife, his daughter, or his granddaughter. Instead, all he found was the word "Croatoan" carved into a post, which was the name of a small group of Indigenous people in the area. No one knew what had happened to the colony until 2015, when archaeologists discovered clues such as British-style pottery among Croatoan remains. This suggests that the people of the Roanoke colony may have become part of the Croatoan community.

By 1752, the colonies included North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia. The Southern Colonies focused most of their efforts on cash crops including tobacco and cotton. In order to make their plantations profitable, they used the unpaid labor and skills of enslaved Africans.