Skakels: Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Skakels: Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Skakels: Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Militêre geskiedenis ensiklopedie op die internet

Algemene webwerweBronneTank SitesIndividuele gevegteOorlog op seeBirmaOorlog teen Japan

Algemene webwerwe

Audio Burst: 'n Seleksie materiaal uit 'n reeks radiostasies, met baie interessante onderhoude en materiaal oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

UK Homefront: 'n Groep re-enactors toegewy aan die Britse tuisfront tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Combined Operations, 'n webwerf wat toegewy is aan geallieerde gekombineerde operasies tydens die tweede wêreldoorlog. 'N Indrukwekkende webwerf met goeie dekking.

Bletchley Park-poskantoor: Oorspronklik die poskamer by die boonste geheime kodebreeksentrum in Bletchley Park, nou 'n herskepping van 'n subposkantoor uit die veertigerjare en 'n gerespekteerde uitgewer van beperkte opgawe van eerste dagomslag. Tans (2007) betrokke by die 50ste bestaansjaarvieringe vir die Battle of Britain Flight.

Pillbox Study Group, toegewy aan die studie van verdediging van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

The Doomed Soldiers - 'n blik op die verskriklike lot wat baie lede van die Poolse verset en Huisleërs tydens en na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog getref het.

Coleshill House - Die plek waar die Britte hul hulp- en agterstandseenheidseenhede opgelei het om geaktiveer te word na 'n Duitse inval

Verbinding tussen die Tweede Wêreldoorlog -Ondertekende boeke en afdrukke van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Britse tuisfront: die geskiedenis lewendig maak

War Relics Forum: 'n webwerf vir versamelaars van militaria van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Wehrmacht-geskiedenis 1935 tot 1945: Die primêre fokus van Wehrmacht-geskiedenis is op alle vliegtuie, skepe en wapens van militêre voertuie van 1935 tot 1945 wat Heer (weermag), Luftwaffe (lugmag), Kriegsmarine (vloot), U-bote (duikbote) gebruik , Waffen SS (Hitler's Elite), en sekondêre leiers daar.

The Spirit of Normandy Trust - 'n Liefdadige trust om die geheue van diegene wat in 1944 geveg het om die vryheid te bewaar, te bestendig

WarArchives Youtube Channel: The British Pathé War Archives

Bronne

Gratis militêre handleidings: 'n goeie keuse van PDF's van Amerikaanse en Duitse handleidings, insluitend die Tiger en Panther -gebruikershandleidings.

Brief van Marine in 155ste artillerie, geskryf aan John T. Chiarella se ma deur haar eerste neef.

Tank Sites

Achtung Panzer, 'n goeie webwerf met massas inligting oor Duitse tenks vanaf hul eerste verskyning in 1917, tot prototipe tenks wat in 1945 op die tekenbord gestrand was.

Panzers Of The Reich Inligting oor die Duitse Panzer Tanks Of WWII ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis, gevegsdiens, tegniese data en foto's.

Individuele gevegte

Interaktiewe Duinkerke -ontruimingskaart - vervaardig deur die Open University

Arnhem

Arnhem

"Green On!", The Story of Arnhem Resupply. 'N Goed ontvangde boek oor die pogings om die Britse troepe uit Arnhem uit die lug te voorsien.

Birma

Die Kohima Museum - webwerf vir die museum in Imphal Barracks, Fulford Road, York

Speletjies

Call of War - Aanlyn strategiese multiplayer -oorlogspel wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog afspeel


Tweede wereld oorlog

Geen gebeurtenis in die moderne geskiedenis het soveel opskudding in Skotland veroorsaak as die Tweede Wêreldoorlog nie.

In die stryd teen Hitler was die Skotte weereens in die voorste linie van die geveg - slegs hierdie keer het burgerlikes tuis soveel gely as die soldate, matrose en vlieëniers wat die vyand direk gekonfronteer het.

Die oorlog het op groot skaal dood, ellende en vernietiging na Skotland gebring. Maar dit het ook gehelp om Skotte van alle klasse met mekaar skouers te laat skuur en die ekonomie 'n hupstoot te gee wat dit dringend nodig gehad het ná die donker jare van die depressie.

Toe die oorlog met Hitler in 1939 verklaar word, was daar in Skotland weinig entoesiasme vir die geveg, alhoewel daar 'n streng besluit was dat Nazi-isme 'n euwel is wat teengewerk moet word.

In die eerste paar maande van die geveg het daar feitlik niks gebeur nie. Dit was die sogenaamde Phoney-oorlog, hoewel daar teen die einde van 1939 'n groot uitsondering was toe 'n Duitse U-boot die HMS Royal Oak by Scapa Flow by Orkney getorpedeer het, waar die Duitse vloot ironies genoeg doelbewus afgekap is nadat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

Altesaam 800 mans sterf toe die Royal Oak tot onder gaan, baie van hulle tot vandag toe in die wrak begrawe.

Die grootste ontwrigting wat die meeste mense opgedoen het, kom in hul gewone daaglikse lewens. Kinders en moeders met jongmense is uit die stede ontruim na die veiligheid van die platteland. Dit was 'n groot logistieke taak, wat die skeiding van gesinne vereis en baie trauma veroorsaak. Binne maande het 'n paar jongmense teruggedryf huis toe.

Rantsoenering is ook ingestel met die doel om te verseker dat 'n minimum lewenstandaard en basiese voorrade soos tee, kaas, konfyt, botter en suiker vir almal beskikbaar is. In die praktyk was daar egter 'n lewendige swart mark, en die beter mense kon feitlik alles koop wat hulle wil, teen 'n prys.

Net soos in die Groot Oorlog is diensplig ook ingestel. Mans is opgeroep om nie net in die voorste linie te veg nie, maar ook om te dien in noodsaaklike bedrywe soos mynbou en landbou. Legendariese oorlogstydverhale soos die London Blitz en die Slag om Brittanje, wat hoofsaaklik in die lug gevoer is, dui daarop dat Skotland 'n byrol speel in die oorlogspoging.

Dit is totaal onwaar. Die Skotte was 'n groot bydraer tot die stryd teen Hitler. Die Clyde het byvoorbeeld die belangrikste hawe van Brittanje geword, met meer as 52 miljoen ton ammunisie en voorrade wat daar geland het. Meer as 100,000 mans het ook eindeloos geswoeg in die skeepswerwe om vaartuie soos die vliegdekskip Indefatigable en die oorlogskepe Howe en die hertog van York te bou.

Rolls Royce -werkers in Skotland het die beroemde Merlin -enjin gebou wat gebruik is om Spitfires aan te dryf terwyl die munisipale fabriek in Bishopton in Renfrewshire plofstof vervaardig het.

Die afstand en posisie van Skotland het dit ook ideaal gemaak vir ander oorlogstake, soos om oorlogsgevangenes te huisves. In 1941, toe die Italiaanse weermag in Noord -Afrika verslaan is, is byna 20 000 PoW's hierheen gebring en aan die werk op die plase en aan die bou van die beroemde Churchill Barriers in Orkney, wat ontwerp is om verdere duikbootaanvalle op Scapa Flow te voorkom.

Een van die minder hartlike aspekte van die oorlog was die afronding van Italianers wat in Skotland woon, nadat Mussolini by die konflik in 1940 aangesluit het. Die openbare oproer was so dat hulle uiteindelik vrygelaat is.

Beton-tenkversperrings is langs die ooskus gebou om 'n inval te voorkom. In die Hooglande is groot stukke grond in 'n gewapende kamp verander en vir kommando -opleidingsdoeleindes gebruik. Die gebied is feitlik afgesluit, en almal wat noord of wes van die Great Glen wou gaan, het slegs toegang met 'n spesiale pas.

Ironies genoeg was dit in een van die mees afgeleë dele van Skotland - Orkney - waar die eerste Britse burger dood is tydens 'n lugaanval van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. James Isbister, 'n arbeider in die afgeleë eiland gehuggie Bridge of Waith, naby Stenness, is getref toe 'n Duitse bomwerper sy plofstof neergegooi het na 'n aborsiewe aanval op Scapa Flow.

Daar was egter veel erger wat kom. Op 13 Maart 1941 het die Duitsers 'n massiewe aanval op Clydebank geloods. Meer as twee nagte van intense bombardemente het altesaam 500 vliegtuie 500 ton hoë -plofbare en aansteeklike bomme laat val, wat tot meer as 1200 mense se dood gelei het.

Die verwoesting was geweldig. Die brandweerdienste was heeltemal oorweldig en hulp moes uit ander dele van die land ontbied word. Daar was 'n soortgelyke verskrikking toe 'n paar weke later bomme op Greenock reën.

By hierdie geleentheid het die sentrale regering egter beheer oorgeneem, en die Skotse kantoor het vinnig beweeg om die verskrikte en woedende bevolking te ontruim. Daar was 'n algemene oortuiging dat opvolgaanvalle soortgelyke verwoesting sou veroorsaak.

Hierdie aanvalle het egter nooit gekom nie. Hitler het besluit om 'n aanval op Rusland te begin en die Luftwaffe is herontplooi om voor te berei op aanvalle op die Sowjetunie. Die omskakeling was 'n seën, want dit is te betwyfel hoe lank Sentraal -Skotland sulke hewige aanvalle sou kon deurstaan.

Terselfdertyd terwyl die bomwerpers ooswaarts draai, het die merkwaardigste gebeurtenis van die hele oorlog egter op Skotse bodem plaasgevind. Hitler se adjunk, Rudolf Hess, het sy vliegtuig neergestort in 'n veld naby die dorp Eaglesham aan die buitewyke van Glasgow, terwyl hy klaarblyklik probeer het om 'n vredesooreenkoms met die hertog van Hamilton te bekom.

Dit was 'n bisarre gebeurtenis. Hess is gevind, steeds met sy valskerm, in 'n veld deur 'n plaaslike ploegman, David Maclean, wat hom na sy huis genooi het en hom 'n koppie tee aangebied het. Hy is later deur die owerhede weggeneem vir ondervraging en vir die res van die oorlog aangehou. Die hele aangeleentheid is nog steeds omring deur 'n raaisel en daar bly baie onbeantwoorde vrae oor waarom Hess die reis probeer onderneem het.

In Februarie 1941 het Churchill Thomas Johnston as minister van buitelandse sake vir Skotland aangestel. Johnston was 'n Arbeidspolitiek wat een van die briljantste regeringsministers in die Skotse geskiedenis sou word.

Nadat hy die aanstelling in die koalisieregering aangebied is, was Johnston se belangrikste voorwaarde dat hy toegelaat sou word om 'n komitee te vorm wat bestaan ​​uit al die huidige lewende staatsekretarisse. Die Eerste Minister het geredelik ingestem en Johnston effektief 'n vrye hand aangebied.

Hy was so doeltreffend dat Churchill hom die koning van Skotland genoem het. Johnston, wat 'n Rooi Clydesider was, het nie toegelaat dat ideologie sy politieke pragmatisme ondermyn nie. Hy was so bly om saam met Tories te werk as met politici van die Arbeid as dit in Skotland se belang was.

Een van sy grootste prestasies was dat hy visioenêr genoeg was om nie net Skotland tydens die oorlog te bestuur nie, maar ook om die planne op te stel wat nodig was vir die toekomstige vrede.

Hy het die Skotse Raad vir Nywerheid gestig - 'n soort vroeë weergawe van Scottish Enterprise - wat die regering en sakeondernemings bymekaar gebring het vir die algemene belang. Hy het dit aangekla dat hy beleggings en werkgeleenthede noord van die grens gebring het, sodat Skotte nie na Engeland kon wegdryf op soek na werk nie.

Hy het ook die Clyde Basin -hospitaalskema opgestel - 'n voorloper van die National Health Service.

Nuwe hospitale is in die dertigerjare gebou in die oortuiging dat die oorlog groot burgerlike slagoffers sou beteken. Maar die beserings het nooit gekom nie, en hoewel die geboue beman was, was dit feitlik leeg. Johnston het dit eerder gebruik om Skotte -werkers in ammunisie -fabrieke te behandel. Dit was 'n briljante idee - die plan is vinnig uitgebrei na die hele Skotland en het 'n waglys van 34 000 pasiënte uitgewis voordat die oorlog geëindig het.

Hy erken die belangrikheid van toerisme as 'n vredestydse Skotland, en stig die Scottish Tourist Board in 1945. Hy voorsien ook die Forth Road Bridge - uiteindelik geopen in 1964 - en die belangrikheid van die ontwikkeling van die Prestwick -lughawe vir internasionale vlugte.

Sy belangrikste bydrae was waarskynlik die vorming van die Noord -Skotland -hidrobestuur. In is in 1943 van stapel gestuur om elektrisiteit aan die Hooglande en Eilande te verskaf, en leef vandag in privaat vorm as een van Brittanje se suksesvolste kragondernemings - Skotse en Suider -energie.

Teen die einde van die oorlog in 1945 het meer as 57 000 Skotte gesterf. Die dodetal was minder as die helfte van die van die Groot Oorlog, maar die geveg was net so traumaties.

Slegs weke voordat die gevegte afgehandel was, was daar egter 'n interessante ontwikkeling in die Britse politiek. 'N Parlementêre tussenverkiesing in Motherwell is gewen deur 'n kandidaat wat vir 'n nuwe organisasie staan ​​- die Scottish National Party.

Dit was die eerste keer dat 'n party wat aan onafhanklikheid toegewy is, sukses behaal het in Westminster - en dit sou ver van die laaste wees.

VOLGENDE WEEK: Die opkoms van nasionalisme en die opneem van die Steen van Bestemming

Diensplig begin in Brittanje

"Gone with the Wind" word vrygestel

"Citizen Kane", Orson Welles se eerste film, word vrygestel

Rudolf Hess, Hitler se adjunk, land in Skotland

Churchill en Roosevelt onderteken die Atlantiese Handves

'N Duitse U-boot gaan die Scapa Flow binne en sink die slagskip, The Royal Oak

Die SS -politikus word in die Sound of Eriskay verniel met 'n vrag whisky - en inspireer Compton MacKenzie's, "Whiskey Galore"


Na -oorlog

In November 1949 is sy aan Egipte verkoop en herdoop El Malek Farouq. In 1954 is sy herdoop Tariq. [1]

'N Bewaringspoging wat in 2006 [2] begin is, het ten doel gehad om haar na Canning Dock Liverpool te bring as 'n gedenkteken vir diegene wat op die Atlantiese konvooie gesterf het. Op 26 Maart 2008 is 'n gedenkplaat ter viering van die skip aan die burgemeester van Sefton oorhandig. John Livingston, president van die Liverpool -tak van die Whimbrel Project, het gesê: 'Sy sou 'n wonderlike toevoeging tot ons waterfront wees en 'n herinnering aan die opoffering van ons seelui'. Die burgemeester van Sefton, Cllr Richard Hands, het gesê: "HMS Whimbrel vorm 'n unieke deel van ons sosiale en maritieme geskiedenis en ek ondersteun die veldtog om haar terug te bring na Liverpool ten volle". [3] Die poging het gestop toe dit nie moontlik was om 'n prys met die Egiptiese regering in te stem nie. Toe, in 2016, is in die parlement berig dat die Egiptiese vloot haar te koop aangebied het aan die National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth vir 163725,000, en dat die museum 'n belangstelling getoon het in die behuising van HMS Whimbrel en ondersoek na die moontlikheid om dit na die Verenigde Koninkryk terug te bring. [4]


RAF Radio Inleiding Tak [wysig | wysig bron]

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 'n organisasie bekend as die Postontwerpdienste (PDS) is gestig by die Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE), Malvern, Worcestershire, om 'n direkte skakel te bied tussen die ontwerpers van elektroniese toerusting in die laboratoriums en die diensgebruikers in die veld. Die organisasie is beman deur burgerlike wetenskaplikes ("boffins") en dienende beamptes en werk hoofsaaklik op die gebied van lugradar en grondbeheerde onderskep (GCI). In 1946 is PDS ontbind en 'n opvolgerorganisasie, die Radio Inleiding Tak (RIB), gestig by RAF Medmenham. Ε ] In 1952 is die RIB herdoop as Radio Inleidingseenheid (RIU) en het verantwoordelik geword vir die inwerkingstelling van alle lug- en grondradiostelsels. Die eenheid het 'n aanvulling van tien beamptes wat te doen het met vliegveldaanvalshulpmiddels, waarskuwing in die lug, Doppler -navigasie, wapengerig en onderskeping in die lug vir vliegtuie soos die Javelin, Brigand, Valetta, Venom en Meteor. Die eenheid verhuis in 1977 na RAF Benson.


Boekbesonderhede
Titel: Geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog
Skrywer:Bh Liddell Hart
ISBN: 9780333582626
Uitgawe: Nuwe uitgawe
Bindend: Sagteband
Kategorie: GESKIEDENIS-KULTUUR-TRUECRIME-BOEKE,
Verkoper:seller-12 Ander verkopers vanaf R 3219
Toestand:GEBRUIK-GOED (wat is GEBRUIK-GOED?)

LET WEL: Aanvullings soos CD's is nie ingesluit nie

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Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Met die staking van vyandelikhede in Europa in Mei 1945, het sommige afdelings feitlik onmiddellik gesluit, terwyl ander aan take vir die Beheerkommissie in Duitsland gewerk het. Die verskillende weermagafdelings van die CIU is in September 1946 opgeneem om die Army Photographic Interpretation Centre (VK) (APIC (VK)).

Die CIU is onder die beheer geplaas van die nuutgestigte Central Photographic Establishment van RAF Coastal Command wat die ontbinde 106 -groep en die Gesamentlike fotografiese verkenningskomitee (JPRC). In Augustus 1947 is die eenheid se naam weer verander, hierdie keer na die Joint Air Photographic Intelligence Center (VK) (JAPIES (VK)). In Oktober 1947 is APIC (VK) hernoem tot die Army Photographic Interpretation Unit (VK), (APIU (UK)) en, hoewel dit steeds in JAPIC (UK) werk, het dit spesiale verantwoordelikhede teenoor die direkteur van militêre intelligensie gehad. Die Officer Commanding APIU (UK) was ook onderkommandant van JAPIC (UK).

In Desember 1953 kry die eenheid die titel van die Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Center (Verenigde Koninkryk), (JARIC (UK)). [3] Die personeel van APIU (VK) is opgeneem in die oprigting van die gesamentlike dienseenheid en die weermag het steeds 'n aantal PI's en ondersteunende personeel in die JARIC -onderneming voorsien. JARIC verhuis in 1957 van sy basis in RAF Nuneham Park, naby Oxford, na RAF Brampton. In 2012 is JARIC herdoop na Defense Geospatial Intelligence Fusion Center (DGIFC) en verhuis in 2013 na die ander kant van Huntingdon na RAF Wyton.

Die Gesamentlike Skool vir Fotografiese Interpretasie (JSPI) by RAF Chicksands - waar PI's vir al drie Britse dienste nou opgelei word - is onlangs herdoop tot 'Medmenham Training Wing' ter ere van die erfenis van die eenheid met Medmenham. [6]

In 1952 verhuis 591 Seineenheid na RAF Medmenham vanaf RAF Wythall en bly tot 1955 toe dit verhuis na RAF Digby, sy huidige ligging. Dit was tydens sy verblyf in Medmenham dat die helmteken van die eenheid 'n koningvisser was wat oor die rivier (Teems) kyk, wat die eenheid se waak oor die integriteit en veiligheid van RAF -kommunikasie verteenwoordig.

Op 3 November 1958 het RAF Signals Command (leuse: Aetherem Vincere - "To Conquer the Aether") is in Medmenham gestig deur nommer 90-groep RAF tot kommandostatus te verhoog onder die ondervister Marshal Leslie Dalton-Morris. Dit was 'n relatief kortstondige bevel, wat slegs tot 1 Januarie 1969 geduur het, toe dit deur Strike Command opgeneem en tot groepstatus teruggesit is. Dit het vyf lugbeamptes tydens sy bestaan ​​gehad.


Skakels: Tweede Wêreldoorlog - Geskiedenis

Allen, korporaal John Maybin, 7012090, 1st Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, sterf as gevolg van 'n motorfiets in Birmingham op 24 Julie 1941 en hy word begrawe in Gravesend Cemetery, Kent. Hierdie dood het plaasgevind voordat die bataljon tot 'n eenheid in die lug verklaar is.

Allen, korporaal Samuel, 521623, Royal Air Force, is op 9 November 1942 oorlede en hy word herdenk op die gedenkteken van Singapoer, kolom 426. Na bewering was hy 28 jaar oud en sy naasbestaandes was Samuel en Annie Allen, Cullybackey Road, Ballymena.
Soldaat Samuel Allen, Clandeboye Camp en seun van boer WJ Allen, trou op 4 September 1915 met Annie Taylor, Fenagh, in Wellington Street Presbyterian Church, Ballymena, en hul seun, met die naam Johnston, totdat hy op 8 November 1916 die naam van Samuel gekry het. Fenagh op 13 November 1915.

Allen, Thompson McWhirter, Merchant Marine, was 31 jaar oud en derde ingenieurbeampte aan boord van M.V. Eulima (Londen) toe sy skip met alle hande gesink is op 22 Februarie 1943. Hy is gebore op 3 Oktober 1911 in Crumkill, Kells en hy was die seun van Samuel James Allen en Hannah Jane Allen, gebore McCartney, van Tullynamullen, Kells , Ballymena, Co Antrim. Die boeregpaar is getroud in die 1ste Ballymena Presbyterian Church op 21 Desember 1910. Hy word onthou op paneel 48 van Tower Hill Memorial.
Die 'MV Eulima' was 'n brandstoftenkwa wat deur Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co besit en bedryf word. Sy het in ballast van Liverpool na New York gevaar as deel van die konvooi ON166 toe sy omstreeks 0700 op 23 Februarie 1943 deur U-186 getorpedeer is, onder bevel van Kapitan Leutnant Siegfried Hesemann. In dieselfde aanval het die duikboot 'n vragskip gesink.
'Eulima' sak nie onmiddellik nie en is omstreeks 10.30 dieselfde oggend omstreeks 10.30 afgesluit deur 'n tweede torpedo van U-186. Sy het noord-wes van die Azore afgegaan. Al die 54 bemanning en nege kanonniers het verlore gegaan.
U-186, wat in Julie 1942 in gebruik geneem is, is self op 12 Mei 1943, noord van die Azore, met die hele 53 hande deur die RN-vernietiger HMS 'Hesperus' gesink.

Allen, 14358464 Gunner William, Royal Artillery en verbonde aan die 301ste Field Regiment, East African Artillery, het op 12 Februarie 1944 op see verlore gegaan terwyl hy diens gedoen het op die SS Khedive-Ismail (Londen) Hy was 30 jaar oud. Sy naasbestaandes en vrou was Fanny Jane Allen.
Hy is gebore op 16 Julie 1913 in Kildrum, Kells en hy was die seun Samuel, oorspronklik Tullynamullan, Kells, en Elizabeth Allen, gebore Witherspoon en uit Kildrum, Kells, later van Shankbridge, Ballymena. Hy word herdenk op kolom 4 van die East Africa Memorial, Nairobi.
SS Khedive Isma'il was 'n stoomskip wat deur 'n Japannese duikboot gesink is en daar was groot lewensverlies. Die vaartuig is in 1922 deur Scotts of Greenock as 'Aconcagua' gelanseer, maar het in 1935 in Egiptiese besit oorgegaan en is vernoem na Isma'il Pasha, 'n voormalige Khedive van Egipte. Sy is in 1940 deur die Ministerie van Oorlogsvervoer as 'n Britse troepeskip aangevra.
Op 6 Februarie 1944 vaar Konvooi KR-8 van vyf troepetransport vanaf Kilindini-hawe in Mombasa, Kenia, na Colombo, Ceylon. Dit het 'n vlootbegeleiding onder leiding van die swaar vaartuig HMS Hawkins. Vroegmiddag van Saterdag 12 Februarie 1944 val die Japannese duikboot I-27, onder bevel van luitenant-generaal Toshiaki Fukumura, die konvooi suidwes van die Maledive aan. Khedive Ismail is getref deur twee van die vier torpedo's wat gelanseer is, sy het in twee gebreek, en dit het twee of drie minute geneem voordat sy amper nie onder die dekke kon sink nie.
Die skip het 1 511 personeel vervoer, waaronder 178 bemanning, 996 offisiere en mans van die 301ste veldregiment van die Oos -Afrikaanse artillerie, 271 personeel van die Royal Navy en 'n afdeling van 19 Wrens. Aan boord was ook 53 verpleegsusters vergesel deur een matrone en 9 lede van die First Aid Nursing Yeomanry. Slegs 208 mans en 6 vroue het oorleef. 1 297 mense, waaronder 77 vroue, het hul lewens verloor.
Die insinking was die derde ergste geallieerde skeepsramp van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die grootste verlies van vroulike dienspersoneel.
Dit blyk dat I-27 na die aanval probeer wegkruip het vir die begeleier van die slagoffer deur onder die oorlewendes te bly. Terwyl HMS Paladin bote laat sak het om oorlewendes te red, het HMS Petard dieptekoste vrygelaat wat op vlak water moes ontplof, en dit was ongelukkig dodelik vir oorlewendes, maar die vernietiging van 'n gevaarlike duikboot het voorrang bo hul lewens gehad. I-27 onder bevelvoerder Fukumura het 'n geskiedenis van sukses gehad en van masjiengewere wat oorleef het van skepe.
Op Petard se derde lopie dwing haar diepte-lading weer I-27 na die oppervlak, en toe sy haar nie met 'n dopvuur kon laat sak nie, het Paladin die duikboot gestamp en aansienlike skade aan haar eie romp aangerig. 'N Torpedo van Petard, die sewende wat sy afgevuur het, het I-27 vernietig.
Percival Crabb was onderoffisier, Stoker op die SS Khedive Ismail:
Ek was in die PO's -gemors met sewe ander onderoffisiere toe die troepeskip tussen 1400 en 1500 getorpeer is. Ek glo twee blikkiesvisse, een in die motorkamer en een agter onder die toonbank, het destyds geslaap. Onmiddellik het sy 'n lys van almal gemaak, maar 'n streep na die metgesel, behalwe die uwe, en PO Harper, wat ons albei gemaak het vir die twee oop gate.
Ek onthou hoe ek deur die skip skarrel en langs die skip afstorm, oor die rolstap trap en in die see duik, teen die tyd dat ek opdaag, was die skip weg. Ek het na 'n groen rookhouer geswem, ongeveer dertig meter verder, terwyl ek daaraan vasgekyk het; daar was verskeie oorlewendes wat swem of hang aan wat ook al dryf.
Die konvooi het teen hierdie tyd versprei en dit het gelyk asof ons op ons eie gelaat was, ongeveer 200 meter verder, twee reddingsbote van die skip af, een onderstebo, en oorlewendes was besig om vir hulle te sorg, en ek het besluit om dieselfde te doen.
Ek is amper seker dat die duikboot onder my verbygegaan het, want daar was nogal 'n onstuimigheid van water en 'n wakker agterbly. Dit was die toneel toe die vernietigers Petard en Paladin met 'n hoë spoed aankom, die duikboot moes op hul asdics opgetel gewees het, want hulle het 'n diepte van ongeveer 300 meter verder begin laai. Ek onthou duidelik een aanklag van die gooi wat net bokant die oppervlak van die see ontplof het. Dit was 'n baie vreemde ervaring om die skokgolwe deur die water en die almagtige stamp in die maag te voel voel. Gelukkig het ek nog aan die rookvlot gehang, wat die meeste harsingskudding opgedoen het.
Paladin het 'n motorboot en 'n seeboot afgelaai om oorlewendes te gaan haal. Uiteindelik kom ek by die reddingsboot van die troepeskip en klim aan boord. Ons het daarin geslaag om die boot na Paladin te ry, wat ons stadig omring, terwyl Petard nog verder diepte laai. Ons kom langs Paladin en jaag vinnig aan boord, onder ons was drie verpleegsusters, twee wrings en een Suid -Afrikaanse WTS, dit was al wat van hul kontingente oorgebly het. Ek onthou hoe 'n seeman vir my 'n paar sandale gegooi het, want ek was kaalvoet, want die staaldekke van die vernietiger was baie warm.
Op daardie oomblik kom 'n groot Japannese duikboot na die oppervlak en albei skepe het losgebrand en toe het Paladin spoed begin toeneem, sy wou inramp. Ons is aangesê om vas te hou aan iets solieds, terwyl die skip die duikboot teen 'n hoë snelheid sluit, die duikboot afwyk en Paladin haar 'n blik slaan, die duikboot se watervliegtuie 'n gat skeur van die voorste ketelkamer regs agter na die motorkamer, om die skip buite werking te stel en die ketel- en enjinkamers oorstroom.
Oorlewendes en bemanning het op die skip gegaan en alles wat oor die kant was, gegooi om haar te verlig. Ek het talle 4-duim-skulpe uit klerekaste gegooi. Beide stelle viervoudige torpedobuise is met die hand na buite gedraai en afgevuur om die skip ligter te maak. Aan boord van Petard is ses torpedo's op die Japannese duikboot afgevuur, maar hulle het almal gemis, die sewende is deur die plaaslike beheer afgevuur en het die truuk gedoen. Dit blaas die duikboot in die helfte. Ek kyk hoe die twee helftes opwaarts en sak sonder oorlewendes.
Die volgende taak was om almal behalwe noodsaaklike personeel van Paladin na Petard te verwyder, 'n moeilike maneuver, maar suksesvol uitgevoer en nou die taak van alle werk, om Paladin op sleeptou te neem en terug te keer na veiligheid. Na 36 uur se sleep het ons by die Addu Atoll aangekom waar die kruiser Hawkins met alles van pompe, botsingsmatjies, stutte en personeel gewag het om Paladin seewaardig te kry vir die lang reis na Suid -Afrika vir noodsaaklike herstelwerk.

Anderson, 192396 senior bevelvoerder Marjorie Wilson, sterf 41 jaar oud op 15 November 1943. Haar ouers was Samuel Wilson Anderson, voorsitter van die Braidwater Spinning Co. Ltd., en Edith Maude Monroe Anderson MBE, JP, Coleraine.
Die egpaar is getroud in St John's Parish Church, Malone, Belfast op 2 Desember 1896. Samuel van Ballee House, Ballymena is beskryf as 'n heer, en die ouers van die bruid, Edith Maude Munroe Alderdice van Alston, Malone en bruidegom is beskryf as handelaars. Marjorie Wilson Anderson is op 12 Maart 1902 gebore in Ballee House, Ballymena, waarna haar vader 'n tollenaar is.
Senior bevelvoerder Marjorie Wilson Anderson het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die vrouevervoerdiens gedien, was lid van die First Aid Nursing Yeomanry en senior bevelvoerder van 'n Auxiliary Territorial Service Camp in Ballymena, Antrim. Sy was bekend in die omgewing en was assistent-kommissaris van die plaaslike Girl Guides.
Juffrou Anderson is op 15 November 1943 omstreeks 1930 in die Waveney -hospitaal in Ballymena, Antrim, oorlede, ondanks behandeling deur dr. John Armstrong. Op die aand van 14 November het Marjorie Anderson die aand saam met die junior bevelvoerder Evelyn Knox Hird gekuier. Die twee het 'n kursus in Engeland bygewoon en eers die Sondagaand teruggekeer.
Die twee dames het omstreeks 2330 gaan slaap, en Hird het gedink sy hoor juffrou Anderson op die trap struikel en merk ook op dat sy haar sigarethouer laat val het. Juffrou Hird het die saak na Anderson se kamer gebring.
ATS -privaat Betty Russell is op Maandag 15 November om 0800 na juffrou Anderson se kamer, het geen reaksie op 'n klop gekry nie, en Subaltern FG Mayne en junior bevelvoerder Ann Caroline D Hind het daarna senior bevelvoerder Anderson gevind wat in die slaapklere aangetrek was. Private Russell glo dat sy siek is en bel kaptein Eileen Gibson, bevelvoerder van die ATS -ontvangstasie. Sy was gevestig in die nabygeleë Adair Arms Hotel. Juffrou Anderson was egter eintlik dood en mid-Antrim Coroner, mnr. George B Carruth, het bevestig dat die oorsaak van sy dood selfmoord was.
Sy word begrawe in die Ballymena New Cemetery, Cushendall Road. Die grafsteen lui soos volg: ATS. Senior bevelvoerder M W Anderson Aux. Territorial Service 15 November 1943 age 41. In immer liefdevolle herinnering.
Marjorie Wilson Anderson woon in Ballee House, County Antrim, eenmalige huis van Thomas Casement, JP (1799-1874), hoë balju van County Antrim.

Angus, 2718810 Lance Serjeant George, 1st Battalion Irish Guards, sterf op 21 November 1941 aan onbekende oorsake. Hy was die seun van Robert en Agnes Angus, van Shankbridge, Kells, ook Lisnawhiggle, Kells. Robert, van Craigs, Cullybackey, is op 15 Maart 1905 getroud met Agnes Orr, Lisnagarron, Portglenone in 2de Portglenone Presbyterian Church. Hulle seun George is gebore op 11 Oktober 1913 in Lisnawhiggle. George was die man van Ivy Violet Angus. Hy word begrawe in die Broughshane First Presbyterian Churchyard, hoewel sy naam nie op een van die verskeie Angus -grafstene verskyn nie.

Armstrong, 134072 Loodsbeampte (Navigator) Thomas, 57 Squadron RAF Volunteer Reserve, sterf op 5 Mei 1943. Sy ouers was mnr en mev R. H. Armstrong van Lisnafillan, Ballymena. Hy word begrawe in Plot: 15, ry F, graf 15, Reichswald Forest War Cemetery, Duitsland.
Op Dinsdag, 4 Mei 1943, is die vliegtuie van die 57 eskader, wat na Dortmund, Duitsland vertrek het, van RAF Scampton, hul basis van September 1942 tot Augustus 1943, en Avro Lancaster III, met seriële ED390 en kode DX-V, Armstrong se vliegtuig, een van hierdie.
Daardie aand het Bomber Command sy grootste aanval nog gedoen, afgesien van die duisend bomaanvalle wat in 1942 ook opleidingsvliegtuie ingesluit het. Dortmund, 'n staal- en ingenieursentrum in die Ruhr, is aangeval deur 596 vliegtuie, 255 Lancasters, 141 Halifaxes, 110 Wellingtons, 80 Stirlings, 10 Mosquitos.
Die aanvanklike merk van Pathfinder was akkuraat, maar sommige van die rugsteunmerke het te kort geskiet. 'N Vuurterrein het ook baie bomme gelok, maar die helfte van die groot mag het binne drie kilometer van die mikpunt gebombardeer (dit was' presisiebom 'in 1943) en erge skade is aangerig in die sentrale en noordelike dele van Dortmund, meer as 1200 geboue in the industrial centre of the city being damaged or destroyed.
Thirty-one aircraft - 12 Halifaxes, 7 Stirlings, 6 Lancasters, 6 Wellingtons were lost, 5.2 per cent of the attacking force a further seven aircraft crashed in bad weather at their bomber bases on return. Armstrong’s aircraft went down at Brandlecht, east of Nordhorn and all seven of the crew perished. They were, in addition to 134072 Pilot Officer Thomas Armstrong, 158305 Pilot Officer Victor Douglas Farmer, 1178891 Sergeant/Flight Engineer Albert W James, Airgunners 1600961 Sergeant Leonard H Leaney, 988528 Sergeant Norman Long, and 1319816 Sergeant Lawrence A W Sanders, and 751507 Flight Sergeant (Wireless Operator/Gunner) John T Taylor.

Baxter, 7019617 Rifleman William , was 22 when he died on the 13 November 1940 while serving with the 7th Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles. He was the son of James and Sarah Baxter, of Glenravel. His headstone in Newtowncrommelin Presbyterian Churchyard reads: ‘Quis Separabit, 7019617 Rifleman W. Baxter, The Royal Ulster Rifles, 13th November 1940, age 22. In God's keeping. "Till we meet again."’

Bell, 140727 Lieutenant David Dunwoody , 148th (The Bedfordshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, died on the 15 December 1942, and was the son of Henry Edward and Mary Bell, of Gracehill, Ballymena. He was one of the poor unfortunates who died in Japanese POW camps along the Burma Siam Railway. He had been educated at Ballymena Academy and Trinity College, Dublin. The building of the notorious Burma-Siam railway, some 424 kilometres long and completed by December 1943, claimed the lives of about 13,000 prisoners of war and an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 civilians. The remains of those who died during the construction and maintenance of the Burma-Siam railway were transferred into three cemeteries at Chungkai and Kanchanaburi in Thailand and Thanbyuzayat in Myanmar. Lieutenant Bell is now buried in Chungkai War Cemetery.

Bell, 1463074 Gunner Henry , 9th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, died aged 29 on the 4 April 1944. His wife was Martha Bell of Harryville, Ballymena, his parents William McNiece Bell and Hannah Grace Louisa Bell. He is interred in Ballymena Cemetery, Cushendall Road.

Blacker, 7684102 Corporal David , 508 Provost Company, Corps of Military Police, died aged 27 on the 12 December 1943 and he is buried in Ramleh War Cemetery. He was the son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Blacker, Ballymena, Co. Antrim.

Boal, 37713 Wing Commander Samuel McCaughey, DFC , 217 Squadron, Royal Air Force and the unit’s Commanding Officer after February 1942, died on the 1 April 1942. He was killed whilst flying in Beaufort 1, designation AW196, which plunged into the sea during an attack on shipping in the Skaggerak.
He was the son of Hugh Boal, a farmer of Slatt, Ballymena and Ann (Annie) McCay, daughter of Dr. John McCay, Larchfield, Clough, Co. Antrim, and the husband of Joy Boal, of Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. The couple married in Clough Presbyterian Church on the 14th September 1904, and their son Samuel was born on the 2nd October 1916.
Annie’s family had long been associated with Larchfield, Clough. The McCay family headstone reads:
In loving memory of Doctor Frederick William McCay, late medical officer Northern Nigeria, who died at the residence of his father Dr J McCay, Larchfield, Clough 30th March 1916 aged 38 years. Doctor John McCay, J.P., Medical Officer of Clough Dispensary for 55 years, born 5th August 1845 died 27th February 1927 Louisa McCay wife of the above-named Dr John McCay J.P. who died 9th December 1937 aged 97 years …
Samuel McCaughey Boal is remembered on the Runnymede Memorial.

Bonar, B/82613 Private Samuel , 62 General Transport Company, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, died aged 39 on the 16 March 1942, and he is buried in Ballymena New Cemetery, Cushendall Road, Ballymena. He was the son of James Boyd Bonar and his wife Jeanie McConnell, of 6, Salisbury Square, Ballymena, and he was the husband of Kathleen Bonar, Toronto, Canada. Samuel Bonar had been born at Henry Street, Ballymena on the 17 April 1902.


Second U-Boat Flotilla (2003)

While the First U-Boat Flotilla was inspired by having microfilm of the flotilla’s War Diaries, this book came about purely as a logical next step. While the First Flotilla began the war with Type II boats and then graduated to Type VIIs, the Second began the war with Type VIIs and then moved onto the larger ocean-going Type Ix boats. The wars experienced by the two units were similar and yet so very different. Also the flotillas’ histories ended completely differently the First was disbanded as Brest fell after weeks of savage predominantly urban fighting, while remnants of the Second fought on in the shattered defensive pocket that had been formed at Lorient, only surrendering upon Germany’s capitulation.

Somewhat curiously, the history of this unit also features some of the most successful attacks mounted by the Kriegsmarine U-boats and also some of their most stunning defeats. Fritz-Julius Lemp was sadly at the helm for two of them the sinking of the Athenia and the loss of U110’s Enigma machine.

In 1942 when German U-boats struck with devastating force for the first time against distant targets in the waters of the North and South Atlantic, the large cruiser submarines of the Second U-Boat Flotilla were at the spearhead of each assault.

The Second U-Boat Flotilla ‘Saltzwedel’ was formed in 1936 an survived nine long years to the day of Nazi Germany’s final surrender. During the Spanish Civil War it had been a Saltzwedel boat that made the only successful submarine sinking of an ‘enemy’ warship. Three years later Fritz-Julius Lemp’s tragic destruction of the Athenia in another Saltzwedel boat triggered Germany’s U-boat war against England. Leading the attack, legendary commanders such as Albrecht Achilles, Werner Hartenstein and Reinhard Hardegen littered the Atlantic and Indian Oceans with the twisted steel of sunken ships. However, while the Second U-Boat Flotilla mounted the most shattering submarine offensives of the Second World War, it was the intact capture of two of its boats, complete with their Enigma code machines, that would ultimately spell doom for Germanys undersea warriors.

The flotilla fought from the first day of World War Two to the last as the remains of the unit battled on either at sea or within the besieged port of Lorient one of the occupied French citadels that remained in German hands until the war’s end.

Available from the Pen & Sword website and other book outlets.

First published by Leo Cooper, an imprint of Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2003.
ISBN 0 85052 917 4
274 pages
34 Photos


During the research for this book I once again met many veterans of the Kriegsmarine who were unfailingly helpful and friendly. Among them was one of Lemp’s radio operators from U30 and U110, Georg Högel. A fascinating man and most engaging character he was also a gifted artist. I spent some time in his Munich studio where he let me read and photograph some of his wartime diaries and pictures he had painted and drawn. Sadly, he passed away in 2014.

Georg Högel (centre) aboard U30, January 1940. Lemp’s dog Schnürzel. Schnürzel was a familiar sight at the naval docks and was sadly missing in action after jumping aboard a departing destroyer that was subsequently sunk. Högel was the first man to paint an insignia on his boat’s conning tower an image of Schnürzel that adorned U30 (Lemp posing above it) Högel’s sketch of his skipper Fritz-Julius Lemp, for whom he always had the highest regard. Högel’s wartime diaries…. Writing about the loss of the Graf Spee. Whenever he turned a page with Swastikas on it, Högel would shrug and say ‘those were the times I suppose…’ The U-Boot Lied His sketch of Karl Dönitz following the latter’s release from prison and signed by him. Högel’s studio Georg Högel in Munich My autographed copy: Georg Högel and Ludwig Stoll.

My autographed copy: Jürgen Oesten My autographed copy: Wolfgang Pohl (Fähnrich zur See aboard U581) Dr Wolfgang Pohl reading the book at a meeting of the Munich U-Bootkameradschaft.

Herr Fischer (veteran of the 1st SS and 12th SS Panzer Divisions) and Dr Pohl Munich.


Links: Second World War - History

Kennedy, 403012 Flight Sergeant (Wireless Operator/Air Gunner) Isaac , Royal New Zealand Air Force, attached 142 Squadron, Royal Air Force, was killed on the 9 November 1942. He was aged about 23. He was the son of farmers Robert Kennedy, Limnaharry, Ahoghill and his wife and Margaret Anne McNeilly, of Castletown, Ahoghill, Co. Antrim. The couple married in 1st Ahoghill Presbyterian Church on the 29 July 1901. They went on to have a large family, among them: Jeanne 1902 Ethel, 22 Aug 1904 Agnes, 1 Nov 1905 Sarah, 30 Sept 1907 Isabella, 21 Aug 1909 Clara, 16 Aug 1912 John, 29 June 1915 Margaret, 31 Mar 1917 Isaac, circa 1921 and William, circa 1924.
Kennedy had trained extensively in Canada before joining 142 Squadron, his record showing him at 2 Wireless School, Calgary, and at 2 Bombing and Gunnery School, Mossbank, Saskatchewan. He also held the Distinguished Flying Medal (DFM).
Vickers Wellington bomber, serial number BJ711, code QT-Z 142 Squadron with Issac Kennedy aboard, took off from RAF Grimsby, near the village of Waltham, Lincolnshire. The target was Hamburg. Anti-aircraft flak probably brought the plane down on 10th November 1942, though no-one knew for sure. However, the only twin engine bomber claimed on the date by German night fighters was shot down over Holland.
One month after the loss, on the 9th December 1942, NZ newspaper The Evening Post reported the reclassification of Kennedy’s status: ‘ Previously reported missing, now reclassified missing believed killed ’. The Auckland Star carried the same notice next day, as did other official lists. He was later declared to have died.
Kennedy and the rest of the crew are buried in Hamburg Cemetery. His colleagues were 995657 Sergeant (Wireless Operator/Air Gunner) Archibald Sinclair, 109082 P/O (Air Gunner) George David Ronald Thompson, 143198 P/O (Navigator) Aubrey Arthur Sergeant (Pilot) John Bradley. Smith, J/15845 P/O (Pilot) William Thomas Bent, DFM, RCAF, and 1199393. The cemetery also holds the resting places of men from Lancaster W4247 and other crews of 57, 44, 7, 76 and 420 Squadrons brought down on the same night, a total of twenty-nine men killed other surviving crew became POWs.

Kennedy, 5382483 Private William Thomas , 2nd Btn. King’s (Liverpool) Regiment died aged 24 years on the 8th November 1944. He was the husband of Elizabeth Jane Kennedy of Broughshane. His parents were William and Minnie Kennedy of Moat Terrace, Ballymena. He is buried in Forli War Cemetery, Italy.

Kernohan, 1796515 Sergeant George , 159th Squadron RAFVR, died on the 6 October 1944. He was aged 22 and was the foster son of parents at Castletown, Ahoghill.
Kernohan’s No. 159 Squadron, reformed at RAF Molesworth on 2 July 1942, was posted, without aircraft, to the Middle East on 12 February 1942 and then to India on 18 May 1942. It was equipped with B-24 Liberators, and was posted to Palestine in July 1942. It bombed targets in North Africa, Italy and Greece, then flew to India on 30 September 1942. It commenced operations against the Japanese on 17 November 1942, and during the rest of the war, the squadron flew mine-laying, bombing, and reconnaissance missions over Burma, Siam, Malaya, Indo-China and the Dutch East Indies.
After the war, No.159 converted to transport and survey duties before disbanding on 1 June 1946.
One report of the raid on the 6 October 1944 put Kernohan on Liberator BZ978 but this appears to be an error, as the following sworn statement by a crew member and survivor makes clear:
I am Ex-F/L CAN. (Flight Lieutenant, Canada) J12276 David McDonald Bruce, permanently residing at 445-3rd St. Kenora, Ontario.…. I was born on October 25, 1912, at Old Meldrum, Aberdeen, Scotland. I enlisted in the R.C.A.F. on March 4, 1941, and was discharged at No. 5 Release Centre, Winnipeg, on January 8, 1946
On October 6, 1944, I was attached to No. 159 Squadron, RAF Group 231, operating from Digri, Bengal. We were flying Liberators.
At 0001 hours that date we took off to do a low-level attack on railways in Northern Siam. The crew as composed of myself as navigator and bomb aimer Warrant Officer Barr as first pilot (RNZAF) Flying Officer Hocking, RAAF, as mid-upper gunner Sergeant Derrick, RAF, as wireless operator Sergeant Rutter, RAF, as flight engineer Sergeant Kernohan, RAF, as rear gunner [listed as Ball Gunner in 159 records] Sergeant Richards [error, should be Kenneth Prichard, per 159 Squadron records and CWGC database] , RAF, second pilot and two other members of the crew whose names I cannot presently recall. [They were Sergeant John Ratcliffe and Sergeant Patrick Hogan.]
At approximately 0615 hours ground fire from the defence of Ban Dara Bridge ignited our aircraft and the skipper gained height to about 800 feet and five of us were able to bale out and landed safely. The other four members either died in the aircraft or in the resultant crash.
The five of us who landed safely were Barr, Hocking, Derrick, Rutter and myself. On landing I immediately hid …. However, within approximately 2 1/2 hours the villagers had tracked me down and I was taken prisoner by native Siamese. The others fared approximately the same way with the exception of Barr who was not captured until the following day. ….
This sworn statement about what happened was signed twice, first by D. M. Bruce at Kenora, Ontario on the 12th March, 1945. [1946?], and then by B. C. Andrew, Wing Commander, No. 2 Air Command Headquarters, RCAF, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The full crew of BZ992 whose fate Bruce was describing were 417002 Warrant Officer (Pilot) Leo Arthur Barr, RNZAF 1324322 Sergeant (Co-Pilot) Kenneth Gordon Prichard, RAF J.12276 Flying Officer (Navigator) David McDonald Bruce, RCAF 1318896 Flight Sergeant (Wireless Operator) Ronald W. Derrick, RAF 1894746 Flight Sergeant (Nose Gunner) John Squire Ratcliffe, RAF 407291 F/O (Mid Upper Gunner) Reginal Thomas Hocking, DFC, RAAF 1796515 Sergeant (Ball Gunner) George Kernohan, RAF 1522977 Sergeant (Tail Gunner) Patrick Hogan, RAF, and 1803261 Sergeant (Flight Engineer) T. W. Rutter, RAF.
On 5-6 October 1944 sixteen aircraft had left from Digri for a low-level daylight attack on the Bangkok Chieng Mai railway, the crews instructed to bomb locomotives and any other targets of opportunity there. They flew out shortly before midnight and expected to return late in the following afternoon.
The attack was intercepted by enemy fighters. Aircraft "E" captained by Warrant Officer L A Barr, was not to return. Barr and his crew members, Pilot Officer R.T. Hocking, Sergeant. K G Pritchard, Flight Lieutenant D.M. Bruce, Flight Sergeant R W Derrick, Sergeant. T W Rutter, Flight Sergeant J S Ratcliffe, Sergeant G. Kernohan, and Sergeant P. Hogan, were posted as missing. It was only thirty-eight days later, on 13 November, that the Squadron learned that some of the missing crew members were held as prisoners. Kernohan, Prichard, Ratcliffe and Hogan had been killed. These are, having no known grave, commemorated on the Singapore Memorial.

Lamont, 6977978 Serjeant John , 2nd Bn. Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, died age 22 years on the 19 September 1939.
According to the Ballymena Observer, September 29, 1939, he was 'probably the first Ulster soldier to lay down his life for his country in the present conflict '. It reported that Sergeant. Lamont, in the army for almost five years, was accidentally killed on September 19th. It further said that two years previously he had returned to England after a spell of duty in Palestine, and that before joining the army he had been employed in Mr. R. White's scutch mill at Kenbally, Broughshane. The newspaper noted that on Friday, the day after his parents had been notified of his death, that a letter came a letter from him and in he stated that he was going to France. He said that if it was the will of God that he should lose his life he hoped to meet his father and mother in heaven.
The 2nd Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers had arrived in Cherbourg aboard the Royal Sovereign, a former passenger ferry, on the 16th September 1939. The short interval between his arrival and death would suggest he was killed in the scramble to unload equipment at the port other units were also there doing the same.

Laverty, 3779794 Private William , 7th Bn. Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry, then part of the 167th Infantry Brigade of 10th Corps, died age 32, born 9th July 1912, on the 20th September 1944. As the newspaper says, he enlisted early in the war and took part in the fighting in North Africa and in Italy. Two brothers had served in the First World War and one was killed – See Virtual Memorial – and the other became a Quarter Master Sergeant and won a Military Medal. Yet another brother served in the RAF in WW2.
Laverty was killed on Italy’s east coast. On 3 September 1943 the Allies had invaded the Italian mainland, and the Italians had entered the war on the Allied side. Following the fall of Rome to the Allies in June 1944, the Germans made successive stands on a series of defensive lines. In the northern Apennine mountains the last defence, the Gothic Line, was breached during the autumn and the front crept forward as far as Ravenna in the Adriatic sector. However, with divisions transferred to support the offensive in France, and the Germans dug in, the advance stalled.
Coriano Ridge was the last important ridge to be taken before winter in the Adriatic sector in the autumn of 1944. Its capture was the key to Rimini and eventually to the River Po. German parachute and panzer troops, aided by bad weather and topography, resisted all attacks between 4 and 12 September 1944.
On the night of 12 September the Eighth Army reopened its attack on the Ridge, the 1st British and 5th Canadian Armoured Divisions participating. This attack was successful in taking the Ridge, but it marked the beginning of a period of the heaviest fighting experienced since Monte Cassino in May, with daily losses for the Eighth Army of some 150 killed. Laverty was killed at the end of the operation on the 20th September.
He was the son of Alexander and his second wife Agnes, nee Dempsey, of Cullybackey, Co. Antrim. She was born at Tullygarley and he at the Dreen, Cullybackey, and the couple had wed in Craigs Parish Church, Cullybackey on the 20th April 1908.

Law, 7014291 Fusilier James , 1st Btn. Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers died on the 7 April 1943 aged 22 years. He has no known grave and is commemorated on the Rangoon Memorial, Burma.
7014291 Fusilier James Law, 1st Btn. Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers died on the 7 April 1943 aged 22
The 1st Battalion was a Regular Army unit stationed in British India in 1939, and it stayed in the east during the entire war.
In 1942 the battalion, part of weak and ill-equipped force, was flown to Burma to help stem the Japanese advance. They were heavily involved in the dreadful retreat of 1942, and they eventually reached Assam after months of fighting and marching, an exhausted remnant of a once powerful battalion. Their spirit was, however, unbroken and within months they had absorbed drafts and were willing to play a leading part in the Arakan with the 47th Indian Infantry Brigade, part of the 14th Indian Infantry Division, which was sent to garrison Chittagong on the frontier with Burma. The division's establishment included only two infantry brigades instead of the usual three, though in July 1942, the division absorbed the 55th Indian Infantry Brigade as a third brigade, and also the 88th Indian Infantry Brigade for the static defence of Chittagong. The main body of the division held a line around Cox's Bazar, on the frontier with Burma.
In late 1942, the division advanced into the Burmese coastal province of Arakan (First Campaign), intending ultimately to recapture Akyab Island, vital for its airfields. Well-built Japanese defences on the Mayu peninsula, very close to the target island, compelled the sending of reinforcements, and a temporary headquarters, "Mayforce", was created to oversee operations in the Mayu River valley, separated from the main body of the division by a rugged hill range.
Several frontal attacks mounted on the impenetrable Japanese positions failed. Heavy losses led on 29 February 1943 to Lieutenant General Noel Irwin taking personal command. However, strong Japanese reinforcements, amounting to an understrength division, arrived from Central Burma. Crossing rivers and mountain ranges which the Allies had assumed to be impassable, they hit 14th Division's exposed left flank on 3 April 1943 and overran several units, forcing the remainder to make a disorderly withdrawal. The various units split up into small groups to fight their way north through the jungle. For the second time, a much reduced 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusilier battalion and others re-assembled in India, and the flat rice growing area, which gave British artillery an advantage, and heavy rain forced the Japanese to halt their pursuit. It was during this bitter fighting retreat that Fusilier James Law was killed. He is one of 74 men, most from the Royal Inniskillings, who are named on the memorial and said to have died that day and who have no known grave.
The 1st Bn. Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers took no further part in active operations in Burma, remaining in India on internal security duties until 1947, when they were one of the last British units to depart.

Lorimer, 7014075 Rifleman William , 1st Btn. London Irish Rifles (formerly Royal Ulster Rifles), died aged 23 on the 10 October 1941. His parents were William and Hannah Lorimer of 2, Alexander Street, Ballymena. He is buried in Ballymena Cemetery.

Lynas, 2872731 Lance Corporal Mark , 2nd Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, died age 32 on the 18 May 1940. He was the son of Joseph Lynas and his wife Margaret McNeill, of Ballymena, Co. Antrim. He was the husband of Margaret Hawke Lynas (nee Power), of Harryville, Ballymena. He is buried in Halle Communal Cemetery.
His wife’s name indicates that she was a daughter of 308879 Joyce Power, Leading Stoker on HMS Hawke. His ship was sunk by U-Boat on the 15th October 1914. He was aged 33, born 10 March 1881 at Ahoghill, and was the son of Mr. and Mrs. William and Maria Power, nee Allison, Ahoghill. He was the husband of Maggie Power, nee Marcus, Waring Street, Ballymena. The couple, then of Craigywarren and Eglish respectively, had married in Cloughwater Presbyterian Church on the 6 August 1912.

Marshall, D/LX 31320 Steward Matthew Herbison, (Herbie) , H.M.S. Mourne, Royal Navy, died off the beaches of Normandy and aged 19 on the 15th June 1944. He was only 19 when he died in June 1944. He was the son of H. and Jeannie Marshall, of Ballymena, Co. Antrim. He is remembered on Plymouth Naval Memorial.
At 13.45 hours on 15 June 1944, HMS Mourne (K 261) (River class frigate commanded by Lt Cdr R.S. Holland, RD, RNR) was hit and sunk by a torpedo fired from U-767. The ship was south-southeast of Wolf Rock, and together with other warships was on patrol off the western entrance of the English Channel, their role being to screen Operation Neptune, the Allied landings in the Normandy. The unfortunate frigate had just turned towards the U-boat after making Asdic contact when the torpedo struck her bow and she disappeared in an explosion caused by the ignition of the forward magazine. The powerful blast killed the commander, seven officers and 102 crewmen another rating later died of wounds.
The River class was a then relatively new type of British-designed frigate. One hundred and fifty-one such frigates were constructed, and these were operated by seven different nations during the war. HMS Mourne, commissioned on 30 April 1943, was built by the Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees. Two others of the type, HMS Itchen and HMS Tweed, were also lost while serving with the Royal Navy, and a number were damaged and had to be declared totally lost.

Millar, 1002787 LAC Andrew , RAF Volunteer Reserve, 34th Maintenance Unit, died from wounds on the 1 May 1948. He was 26 years old. He was the son of William and Sarah Ann Millar of Kells his wife was Mary Millar of Kells. He is buried in Connor New Cemetery, Kells.

Millar, 1449826 Gunner George , 9th Heavy AA Regiment, Royal Artillery, died aged 20 on the 26th August 1940. His parents were Alexander and Annie Millar of 31 Garfield Place, Ballymena. He is buried in Alexandria (Chatby) Military and War Memorial Cemetery, Egypt.
Londonderry’s largest contribution of manpower to the Allied war effort was 9th (Londonderry) Heavy Anti-Aircraft (HAA) Regiment of the Royal Artillery. This regiment was part of the Supplementary Reserve and therefore was assigned to the field army rather than to home defence. This meant that the regiment would serve overseas, and it was believed that it would join the British Expeditionary Force in France in late 1939.
At first the regiment had four batteries. Three of these were heavy batteries and were numbered 24, 25 and 26, while the fourth was a light battery this was 6 LAA Battery. Of the heavy batteries, two were based in Londonderry while the third was based in Ballymena.
In November 1939 the Regiment was posted to Egypt to protect HMS Nile, the Royal Navy base at Alexandria. During the following summer, 25 Battery was sent to the Western Desert, serving with 7th Armoured Division (the Desert Rats) and then Port Sudan which it defended against numerous air raids by the Italian air force.
Meanwhile 24 and 26 HAA Batteries remained in Alexandria where they provided the backbone of the anti-aircraft defence for the harbour and would do so until mid-1942. During that time not a single Italian or German bomb hit a ship in Alexandria harbour. At Port Sudan 25 Battery had achieved a similar distinction. It was during this time, however, that Gunner George Miller was killed.
25 Battery returned to Alexandria on Easter Day 1941 but were almost immediately ordered to the Western Desert. There they spent six months defending front-line landing strips and were often strafed by enemy aircraft. In October they re-joined the Regiment in the Alexandria area. In spring 1942 the Regiment moved to the Suez Canal Zone before being deployed to join Ninth Army in Palestine in the summer, their role to defend against a possible German attack. They spent much time in intensive training before the threat from the Caucasus evaporated. Following the Battle of El Alamein the Regiment was ordered to join Eighth Army’s advance and deployed in the defence of Tripoli from late January 1943. The Royal Navy had demanded that the Regiment should be part of the Tripoli defences.
From North Africa the Regiment took part in the invasion of Italy, landing at Salerno in September 1943 on D-Day + 6. For a time they served as infantry in the beachhead before returning to their usual role. They also served as field artillery. Before leaving Italy for Britain in September 1944 the Regiment had also supported American forces along the Arno river and earned much praise for the accuracy and effectiveness of their shooting at ground targets.
9th HAA’s final operational role was in Britain where the Regiment was part of the defences of Derby before moving to the east coast in early 1945 as part of the ‘Diver’ defences this was the codename for the guns deployed to engage the V1 flying bombs, known as doodlebugs, some of which were launched from aircraft over the North Sea.
Although the Regiment saw no V1s to fire at their guns did engage German aircraft in the Luftwaffe’s final operations over Britain in March 1945.

Millar, Robert, 2nd Engineering Officer , SS Glen Head (Belfast), Merchant Navy, died aged 54 on the 6 June 1941. His wife was the late Josephine Millar. She had died aged 35 years at 24, Kingswood Street, Belfast on the 19th March 1913. Robert, recorded as a sailor, was at her bedside.
SS Glen Head was a British Cargo Steamer of 2,011 tons built in 1909 by Clyde Shipbuilding Company, Port Glasgow as the SS Neva for the Stott Line (W H Stott), Liverpool. She was owned by various companies and sailed under various names before she was acquired in 1937 by Ulster SS Co. and renamed SS Glen Head.
While part of Convoy OG-63 she was bombed by a Focke-Wulf Fw200 aircraft on 6th June 1941 and sank south-west of Cape Vincent. Twenty-seven crewmen were lost. The Glen Head had been in the sixth of seven convoy columns, and as the plane flew directly over the columns, it dropped three bombs two bombs were near misses but the third hit the ship’s No 5 hatch.
The 39 ships, some say more, of convoy OG-63 had sailed from Liverpool on the 25th May and had arrived at Gibraltar on the 7th June. Three of the vessels, of which Glen Head was one, were lost.
OG-63 had been first sighted on the 5th June by an Italian vessel, submarine Velella, which directed submarine Marconi (Lt Cdr Pollina) to the target. During night 5/6th Marconi claimed four hits and submarine Velella two hits. British ship Baron Lovat and Swedish vessel Taberg were, however, the only ships torpedoed and sunk off Cape St. Vincent on the 6th June 1941. Both are credited to submarine Guglielmo Marconi.
Guglielmo Marconi did not long survive the action. She disappeared in 1941 with her 62 crew, probably sunk by depth charges from the destroyer HMS Duncan on 28 October.
Pandias, another ship in the convoy, was sunk after the dispersal of the vessels. She was struck 450 miles south of the Cape Verde islands by a torpedo fired from the German U-107. The torpedo struck her amidships on her starboard side and she went down with the loss of 11 of her 34 crew. Other crew, given water and food by the submarine, travelled by lifeboat to French Guinea and were interned. At least one sailor died in captivity.
Robert Millar’s name appears on the Tower Hill Memorial.

Montgomery, 1119211 Sergeant (Air Gunner) David , 78th Squadron, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, died on the 12 June 1943. His father was Mr. Joseph Montgomery, Patrick Place, Ballymena.
A big effort was being made by Bomber Command on the 11/12 June 1943, one part of which saw 783 aircraft - 326 Lancasters, 202 Halifaxes, 143 Wellingtons, 99 Stirlings, 13 Mosquitos - sent to Dusseldorf. The Pathfinder plan worked well until an Oboe-equipped Mosquito unintentionally released a load of target indicators 14 miles north-east of the actual target and this caused some crews to waste its bombs on open country. However, the main bombing caused extensive damage in the centre of Düsseldorf, where 130 acres were claimed as destroyed, and this proved to be the most damaging raid of the war for this city. 38 aircraft - 14 Lancasters, 12 Halifaxes, 10 Wellingtons, 2 Stirlings - lost, 4.9 per cent of the force. One of the Halifax II aircraft lost was Montgomery’s plane, that designated W7932.
On Friday, 11 June 1943, Halifax II, serial number W7932, code EY- , left RAF Linton on Ouse at 22:23. Somewhere near Sambeek, south of Boxmeer, Noord-Brabant, Holland it was shot down by night fighter pilot flown by Major Werner Streib. That night Streib, together with radio operator Helmut Fischer, flew the prototype version He 219 V9, and claimed five aerial victories. Halifax II, serial number W7932 was fourth kill and the plane was shot down at 02:22hrs in location west of Sambeek. This "ace-in-a-day" achievement took his total to 55 nocturnal aerial victories.
All the crew on the plane perished. They were Pilot, 1334168 Warrant Officer F. Hemmings, RAF Flight engineer 982053 Sergeant. J. Muir, RAF Navigator 993803 Sergeant. J. Stone, RAF Bomb aimer Pilot Officer 145699 W.C.R. Foale, RAF Wireless Operator/Air Gunner 1127874 Sergeant. A. Shaw RAF Air Gunner 1315951 Sergeant T.W.R. Daniel and Air Gunner 1119211 Sergeant D. Montgomery, RAF. All are buried in Eindhoven (Woensel) General Cemetery, Holland.

Montgomery, 1358070 Sergeant Robert , Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, died on the 1st November 1942. He was aged 21 years. His parents were Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Montgomery, Patrick Place, Ballymena.
Sergeant Robert Montgomery was one of a six-man crew aboard a Wellington II type aircraft, serial number Z8418, which belonged to OADU, the Overseas Air Delivery Unit, and which was lost on a fight from Gibraltar to Bathurst, now Banjul, Gambia. What caused its disappearance is unknown. All the crew were lost. They were, in addition to 1358070 Sergeant Robert Montgomery, as follows: 650471 Sergeant Arthur Baden, RAF 131813 Sergeant Philip John Davis, RAFVR 964314 Sergeant Douglas Hugh de Gruchy, RAFVR 1078799 Sergeant Jeffrey Ogden, RAFVR and R/85449 Warrant Officer (Class 2) Walter Keogh Martin, RCAF.
They are all commemorated on the Alamein Memorial, Egypt.


Inhoud

On 7 October 1944 she and the destroyer Termagant sank the German torpedo boat TA37, the subchaser UJ210 and the harbour patrol boat GK32. [1]

Between 1946 and 1952 Tuscan was held as part of the reserve fleet in Portsmouth. In 1949 and 1950 she had a refit at Cammell Laird in Birkenhead. Between May 1952 and September 1953 she was converted into a Type 16 fast anti-submarine frigate by Mount Stuart Dry Docks, Cardiff and was allocated the new pennant number F156. [2]

In 1953 she was held as part of the Devonport Reserve, and in 1954 the Portsmouth Reserve. In 1960 she was part of the Chatham reserve and between 1961 and 1963 was part of the Portsmouth Operational Reserve. She was eventually sold to McLellan for scrap and arrived at Bo'ness for breaking up on 26 March 1966.

  1. ^Rohwer & Hümmelchen 1992, p. 305
  2. ^ Critchley, Mike (1982). British Warships Since 1945: Part 3: Destroyers. Liskeard, UK: Maritime Books. bl. 58. ISBN0-9506323-9-2 .
  • Colledge, J. J. Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN978-1-86176-281-8 .
  • Raven, Alan Roberts, John (1978). War Built Destroyers O to Z Classes. London: Bivouac Books. ISBN0-85680-010-4 .
  • Rohwer, Jürgen Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN1-85367-117-7 .
  • Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War 2. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN0-87021-326-1 .
  • "Italian torpedo boat class Ariete". Warshipsww2. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014 . Retrieved 7 October 2014 .

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