Kitty Bowler

Kitty Bowler

Kitty Bowler, die dogter van Robert Bonner Bowler en Charlotte Everett Miller, is gebore in Plymouth, Massachusetts, op 10 Februarie 1908. Sy was verwant aan Edward Everett, wat tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog as minister van buitelandse sake in die regering van Abraham Lincoln gedien het. .

Nadat sy Bryn Mawr College bygewoon het, waar sy ekonomie en politiek studeer het, het sy vrywillig saamgewerk met die League Against War and Fascism en die International Labour Defense. Sy het destyds geskryf: "Ek hou nie van fascisme nie. Liberalisme is net so verleidelik en onbetroubaar soos 'n meesteres. In hierdie onstuimige dae verkies ek 'n goeie, betroubare metgesel wat dik en dun by my sal bly. Ek wil iets hê wat werk . Dit sal dus een van die handelsmerke van sosialisme moet wees. "

In 1936 besoek sy die Sowjetunie, waar sy 'n verhouding begin met die joernalis Walter Durante, wat vir die New York Times. Later die jaar reis sy na Spanje. 'N Vriend beskryf haar as' 'n jong arrestasie van agt-en-twintig van minder as medium lengte, skraal, met groot bruin oë en 'n kort wimpel, nie soos Amelia Earhart nie '.

In Augustus 1936 reël Harry Pollitt dat Tom Wintringham tydens die Burgeroorlog na Spanje gaan om die Kommunistiese Party van Groot -Brittanje te verteenwoordig. Terwyl Bowler in September in Barcelona was, ontmoet Bowler Wintringham. Sy onthou later: "Ek het verlate en verlate na die kafee Rambla rondgeloop. Soos die storieboek waif, wat deur middel van ruitjies na die gelukkige gesinne wat om die vuur bymekaargekom het, kyk, kyk ek na die groepie na 'n hoektafel ... Alles leeg en koud kyk hulle na my soos net die Engelse kan. Toe raak 'n saggeaarde kaal man aan my arm: "You must join us." Kort daarna begin Bowler 'n verhouding met Wintringham.

Kenneth Sinclair Loutit, wat destyds by Tom Wintringham was, het later daarop gewys: 'Kitty was 'n netjiese, aktiewe, progressiewe, Amerikaanse meisie wat oorkant Frankryk gekom het om te sien wat aangaan en miskien 'n naam te maak. " Wintringham se biograaf, Hugh Purcell, het in Last English Revolutionary (2004) geskryf: "Terwyl Tom en Kitty verlief geraak het, het hulle mekaar ook uitgebuit. Sy het hom gebruik om haar leerlingjoernalistiek te begelei; hy het haar as nie -amptelike sekretaris en boodskapper gebruik."

Kitty skryf aan Tom: "Jy het 'n ietwat ongerigte klein verlore dogtertjie geneem en 'n persoon van haar gemaak. Ek is lief vir jou, almal van jou, jou lang lang lyf, jou lieflike bestendige stem, jou brein en goeie verstand gemeng met goeie emosie. " Tom het geantwoord: "U weet baie daarvan om 'n man 'n goeie tyd te gee, en dan 'n bietjie! Die totale uitwerking op die moreel van my 24 uur verlof was A1 Magnificent. Ek is op die top van die wêreld."

Ralph Bates, 'n skrywer in Spanje, het 'n baie kritiese verslag aan Harry Pollitt gestuur oor Wintringham en sy verhouding met Kitty Bowler. "Almal hier was baie teleurgesteld oor kameraad Wintringham. Hy het ywerig getoon in die neem van 'n nie-party vrou in wie die PSUC of die CPGB kamerade geen vertroue het aan die front van Aragon nie. Ons verstaan ​​dat hierdie persoon mondelinge boodskappe aan die party toevertrou is. Ons word versoek om boodskappe na Wintringham deur hierdie persoon te stuur eerder as die party se hoofkwartier hier.

Kitty Bowler het teruggekeer in Londen met 'n boodskap van Wintringham. Kenneth Sinclair Loutit was destyds in die CPGB -kantore: "Sy het soos die dagbreek ingebars, so helder soos 'n nuwe dollar gelyk en 'n ongewone klomp Elizabeth Arden -geur deur die stowwerige ingang gebring." Bowler het vir Harry Pollitt gevra, maar hy was uit en is in plaas daarvan gesien deur Rajani Palme Dutt en John Campbell. Loutit het gesê: "Sy het Pollitt later gesien, maar die skade is aangerig. Tom het 'n burgerlike tert teruggestuur - 'n groot praatjie, sommige het gesê dat sy duidelik Trotsky -neigings het ... Dit moet nie vergeet word dat Tom 'n vrou met dodelike respek het nie. onberispelike marxistiese eerlikheid. ”

Kitty Bowler beweer dat sy Harry Pollitt gevra het om Wintringham huis toe te stuur. Hy het vir haar gesê: 'Sê vir hom om uit Barcelona te klim, na die voorste linie te gaan, hom dood te maak om ons 'n opskrif te gee .... die beweging benodig 'n Byroniese held.'

Toe sy na Spanje terugkeer, het sy by die PSUC Engelssprekende radiodiens in Barcelona aangesluit. In Desember 1936 het sy by die UGT aangesluit en aan haar ma geskryf: "Ek het by die redakteur van 'n Spaanse koerant ingekom en kry allerhande nuus en het in motors rondgejaag." Haar nuwe kontak het daartoe gelei dat sy 'n opdrag van Die Toronto Star.

In Januarie 1937 reis Kitty Bowler na Albacete waar sy aangehou en ondervra is deur André Marty. "Agter 'n tafelblad sit 'n ou met 'n eersteklas walrus snor. Hy was slaperig en geïrriteerd en het 'n jas oor sy pyjama aangetrek. Hy herinner my aan 'n klein Franse burokraat. Miskien was dit net so. Tot my verbasing my massa Spaanse papiere interesseer hom nie in die minste nie. Selfs my UGT -kaart en pas is minagtend in my gesig teruggegooi. Mac en Tom kom toe ... Aan die einde van 'n uur lees hy die aanklagte voor, en hulle het my uit my sekerheid geskok. 3) Stel u belang in die werking (slegte) van masjiengewere. 4) Besoek Italië en Duitsland in 1933. Daarom is u 'n spioen. "

Tom Wintringham het probeer om Kitty te beskerm deur met André Marty in verbinding te tree. Hy het toe vir haar gesê: 'U het Marty beïndruk as baie, baie sterk, baie slim, baie intelligent. Alhoewel dit as 'n verdagte punt teen u gesê is - vroulike joernaliste behoort swak en dom te wees - het ek trots geword op hierdie woorde. "Nadat Kitty drie dae en nagte lank ondervra is, is sy as spioen uit Spanje verdryf.

Op 13 Februarie 1937 is Tom Wintringham in die bobeen getref terwyl hy 'n bajonetvrag probeer organiseer. Fred Copeman het later gesê dat George Aitkin en homself Wintringham agter 'n olyfboom gevind het: "Wel, ons het geweet dat hy homself geskiet het." Dit word weerlê deur Aitkin wat bevestig het dat hy deur die vyand geskiet is.

Die Daily Mail beweer op 20 Februarie 1937 dat baie van die sogenaamde vrywilligers in die Britse bataljon vasgekeer is en dat by Madrigueras diegene wat nie wil veg nie, in 'n tou staan ​​en geskiet word; die res word soos beeste na die slag gedryf. .. onder bevel van 'n Engelsman met die naam Wintringham. " As gevolg van hierdie artikel het Wintringham later 'n lasteraksie teen die koerant gewen.

Kitty Bowler het hom in die Pasionaria Militêre Hospitaal besoek en ontdek dat hy aan tifus en 'n vorm van septisemie ly. Patricia Darton, 'n verpleegster van die Internasionale Brigades, het later gesê: 'Ek het met 'n skêr rondgesteek en gevind dat hy baie etter in sy wonde het wat te styf toegewerk is. En dit was dit; hy het baie beter geword vinnig."

Elizabeth Wintringham het aan Kitty geskryf om haar te bedank dat sy na Tom gekyk het. "Hoe perfek was jy! Is Tom enigsins verstandig, of dwaal hy die hele tyd? As dit moontlik is, gee hom my en Oliver se liefde. As hy geneig is om hom oor Millie en Lesley te bekommer, verseker hom dat daar na hulle gekyk word. Jy weet dalk wie hulle is. Ek hoop baie om u eendag te ontmoet.

Charlotte Everett Bowler was minder tevrede met haar dogter wat na Tom kyk. Sy het geskryf: "Dit is vir jou baie sjarmant en verruklik; jy verdien byna alles. Vir my dierbare kind is dit nogal tragies hoe jy daarna kyk. Ek is verontwaardig dat sy haar alles - haar verstand, liggaam en gees - so onveilig gee. Ek is uiteraard benoud. "

Tom het geantwoord: 'Ek is u lewe verskuldig aan u dogter, en baie meer as om net te bly lewe ... Maar daar is baie min wat ek kan sê om u gerus te stel, want sekuriteit bestaan ​​nie. Ek het dit gedoen; as ek kan, sal ek dit doen. Maar dit is beter in die toekoms, eerder as om haar aan 'n blinde of kreupel man vas te bind. "

Terwyl Tom Wintringham in die Pasionaria Militêre Hospitaal was, is hy besoek deur William Gallacher wat 'n bevel van die Kommunistiese Party van Groot -Brittanje gehad het: 'Die Party Order dat ek Kitty moet verlaat, is deur 'n baie verleë Bill Gallacher aan my afgelewer terwyl sy nog verpleeg het. het my deur die tyfus gesteek voordat ek sterk genoeg was om op te staan. "

Kitty is op 2 Julie 1937 deur die Comintern -polisie gearresteer en sy is uit Spanje geskors. Sy verhuis terug na die Verenigde State. Op 17 Julie 1937 skryf Tom: "My skat, die partytjie, ons party, die uwe en myne, is soms moeilik vir individue. Maar kyk na die werk wat dit in sy geheel doen, en daar is nog nooit so iets op aarde nie . "

Tom Wintringham sluit op 18 Augustus 1937 weer by die XV -brigade aan as personeelbeampte. Hy is onmiddellik na die Aragon -front gestuur en tydens die Slag van Belchite op 24 Augustus is hy in die skouer geskiet terwyl hy probeer het om Quinto te vang. Hy skryf aan Kitty: "'n Koeël deur die soldaat, wat 'n been of so kraak. Baie bloed verloor. Ek is lief vir jou. Om van jou af weg te wees, maak meer seer as dom koeëls."

Dr Alex Tudor-Hart, 'n lid van die CPGB wat mediese sorg aan die Britse bataljon verleen het, het aan hom gesê dat sy skouerbeen gesplinter het en dat dit tot by sy elmboog gestrek het. Dit het besmet geraak en na twee operasies in Spanje is hy huis toe gestuur na Engeland. Kitty het dadelik die Verenigde State verlaat en hulle twee het in 'n woonstel in Yorkstraat, Londen, gaan woon.

Tom se jonger suster, Margaret, het 'n brief aan Kitty geskryf: "Ek is bang ek dink dit is nogal jammer dat jy na Londen gekom het. Ek het Elizabeth liefgehad en bewonder - ek dink sy is 'n baie goeie mens ... Ek weet dat die party hom 'n geruime tyd gelede kwaad gemaak het en dat die situasie in Millie-Elizabeth 'n bron van verleentheid vir Harry Pollitt was. jy sien ek moet teen jou kant kies. ”

Tom se jonger suster, Margaret, het 'n brief aan Kitty geskryf: "Ek is bang ek dink dit is nogal jammer dat jy na Londen gekom het. So jy sien ek moet teen jou kant kies."

Margaret Wintringham het ook aan Tom Wintringham oor sy gedrag geskryf: "U kan eenvoudig nie wegkom van al hierdie onverantwoordelikheid nie. Toegegee dat u twee stelle gesinne moet laat vaar, kan u hulle ten minste geringe kommer spaar. U kan Elizabeth die klein vernedering spaar. om die hospitaal te bel en gevra te word of sy met mev Wintringham wil praat.

Tom het geweier om saam met Elizabeth Wintringham terug te gaan en het by Kitty Bowler by Arundel Square 30 in Londen gewoon. Hy het ook begin werk aan Engelse kaptein, 'n boek oor sy ervarings van die Spaanse burgeroorlog.

Tydens 'n vergadering van die Komintern in Maart 1938 het André Marty bevestig dat Bowler 'n 'Trotsky -spioen' was. Wintringham is gekontak en gesê dat as hy nie Bowler verlaat nie, hy uit die Kommunistiese Party van Groot -Brittanje geskors sou word. Volgens 'n Politburo -vergadering op 18 Mei 1938: "Hy (Wintringham) het geweier om dissipline te aanvaar met betrekking tot 'n persoonlike vraag wat nie in die belang van die party beskou word nie." Die saak is in die hande van Rajani Palme Dutt wat besluit het dat Wintringham beslis uit die CPGB geskors moet word. Die Daily Worker het die uitspraak op 7 Julie 1938 gedruk.

Wintringham het ondersteuning ontvang van mense soos Bob Stewart en Harry Pollitt, maar hulle was nie in staat om die gedagte te verander van Rajani Palme Dutt wat die bevele van Joseph Stalin en die Sowjet -regering uitgevoer het nie.

Aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het Kitty vir linkse koerante soos die People's Independent gewerk. In 1939 verlaat Elizabeth Wintringham en haar seun Oliver Londen om in Derbyshire te woon. Oliver het die Abbotsholme -skool bygewoon. Op 12 Februarie 1940 versoek Elizabeth om egskeiding.

Hul vriende gedurende hierdie tydperk was Storm Jameson, Naomi Mitchison, Stephen Swingler en Pearl Binder. Anne Swingler het egter daarop gewys: "Sy (Kitty) het beslis nie van mooi jong meisies gehou nie. Sy was maer, met donker hare en 'n ongemaklike manier. Ek het gedink sy was skraal, 'n eindelose praatjie, maar ook baas. Sy was baie besitlik van Tom. Mense het haar vermy. " Anne hou baie van Tom: "Hy het met sulke gesag gepraat, maar hy was ook saggeaard en sjarmant. Nogal 'n damesman! En hy het floreer in die geselskap van vroue."

Tom Wintringham trou op 25 Januarie 1941 met Kitty in die registerkantoor in Dorking. Kenneth Sinclair Loutit, 'n vriend sedert die Spaanse burgeroorlog, was die hoofgetuie.

J. B. Priestley en 'n groep vriende het die komitee van 1941 gestig. Een van sy lede, Tom Hopkinson, het later beweer dat die dryfveer agter die organisasie die oortuiging was dat 'n baie meer gekoördineerde poging nodig sou wees met strenger beplanning van die ekonomie en 'n groter gebruik van wetenskaplike kennis, veral op die gebied van oorlogsproduksie. " Kitty en Tom Wintringham het aangesluit en so ook Edward G. Hulton, Kingsley Martin, Richard Acland, Michael Foot, Peter Thorneycroft, Thomas Balogh, Richie Calder, Tom Wintringham, Vernon Bartlett, Violet Bonham Carter, Konni Zilliacus, Tom Driberg, Victor Gollancz, Storm Jameson, David Low, David Astor, Thomas Balogh, Richie Calder, Eva Hubback, Douglas Jay, Christopher Mayhew en Richard Titmuss.

In Desember 1941 publiseer die komitee 'n verslag waarin die openbare beheer van die spoorweë, myne en dokke en 'n nasionale loonbeleid gevra word. 'N Verdere verslag in Mei 1942 betoog vir werksrade en die publikasie van "naoorlogse planne vir die verskaffing van volledige en gratis onderwys, werk en 'n beskaafde lewensstandaard vir almal."

Later dieselfde jaar het Richard Acland en J. Priestley en ander lede van die 1941 -komitee die sosialistiese Common Wealth Party gestig. Die party bepleit die drie beginsels van gemeenskaplike eienaarskap, lewensbelangrike demokrasie en moraliteit in die politiek.

Kitty was in die National Committee of the Common Wealth Party (CWP) en het gedurende hierdie tydperk met Richard Acland in botsing gekom. Hy het haar daarvan beskuldig dat sy 'n "meer chaoties wanordelike brein het as enige iemand wat ek ooit ontmoet het ... jy is nie in staat om 'n georganiseerde rol in enige bespreking of argument te hê nie." Kitty het geantwoord dat die CWP "besig is om te ontbind as gevolg van pogings om dit in 'n outokratiese pseudo-godsdienstige liggaam met fascistiese neigings te verander."

Na die oorlog het Tom en Kitty in Pear Trees, in Brick End, Broxted, gewoon. Op 26 Januarie 1947 het Kitty die lewe geskenk aan Benjamin Rhys Wintringham. In 1948 verhuis hulle na Edinburgh. Tom het voortgegaan om as joernalis te werk, en hul inkomste is aangevul deur 'n trustfonds wat deur Kitty se familie in New York gestig is. Tom skryf aan sy seun Oliver Wintringham: "Geluk, volgens my bygelowig, moet nooit genoem word in 'n wêreld soos hierdie wat jy erf nie. Dan kan dit soms op jou kruip sonder dat jy agterkom dat jy daar is; en as jy beleefd nie staar nie Daarby kan dit oor die plek bly. "

Tom Wintringham sterf terwyl hy help met die oes op sy suster se plaas in Searby Manor in Lincolnshire op 16 Augustus 1949. Die nadoodse ondersoek het getoon dat Tom aan 'n gebreekte aneurisme van die regter kransslagader gesterf het. Kitty het aan haar vriendin, Rhys Caparn, geskryf: "Toe hulle my uiteindelik toegelaat het om na die nadoodse ondersoek terug te gaan. Ek het sy hande gaan sien, hande sterf nie. En dan was dit die gesig wat so wonderlik was - nie my privaat Tom nie, maar al die sterkte van hom - die man wat kon en het - en so baie het geglo dat hy weer sou doen en hy was gereed om dit te doen - kan mense lei en inspireer. " Die begrafnis het drie dae later by die Leeds Crematorium plaasgevind.

In die vroeë vyftigerjare het Kitty haar seun saam met haar ma in Hawaii geneem. Sy voel egter ongemaklik in 'n land wat McCarthyisme verduur en keer terug na Engeland.

Kitty Wintringham het haarself in 1966 vermoor. Sy het in haar selfmoordbrief aan Oliver Wintringham geskryf dat die lewe sonder sy pa nie die moeite werd is nie.

Ek dwaal na die kafee Rambla en voel verlate en verlate. Soos die storieboek waif, wat deur middel van ruitjies loer na die gelukkige gesinne wat om die kaggel bymekaargekom het, kyk ek na die groepie na 'n hoektafel. Ek het 'n 'bewegende bos van kaal knieë' gesien. Net Engeland kon iets so ongelooflik lank en vars produseer soos die seuns. Skaam maar desperaat kom ek nader. Toe raak 'n saggeaarde kaal man aan my arm: "You must join us."

Ek het geleidelik ontspan en besef ek praat met 'n begaafde gespreksgenoot, gekultiveerd, intelligent, geestig. Ek hou van hierdie man se gedagtes en die amusante draai wat hy 'n frase gee. Maar ek was verbaas. Hierdie stil literêre individu was nie my idee van 'n militêre man nie. 'Dit is Tom Wintringham', het ek gesê, 'die skrywer van 'n boek oor die Marxistiese militêre strategie.

'N Paar dae later hang die eerste drup-droë katoen wat ons nog ooit gesien het in die Grañen-hospitaaltuin. Dit behoort aan 'n Amerikaanse vryskutjoernalis genaamd Kitty. Sy het slim en netjies aangetrek in praktiese "sportiewe" klere. Sy het na ons kom kyk, want Tom Wintringham het haar vertel dat daar 'n goeie storie wag om op die Huesca -front geskryf te word. Sy word later Kitty Wintringham; teen 1938 sou hulle bymekaar kom dat Tom uit die Britse Kommunistiese Party geskors word.

Tom se skuld was die handhawing van persoonlike betrekkinge met elemente wat deur die CPGB as ongewens beskou word, en dateer uit die week van my vuurdoop. Dit was die koms van Kitty wat dit gedoen het. Tom was net vyftien jaar ouer as ek, maar ek het baie wyd gelees en was in sommige opsigte ouer as my eie drie en twintig. Dit het beteken dat ons saam kon gesels op 'n vliegtuig wat ons albei gehelp het. Tom se gevolgtrekkings, na 'n paar weke van Spanje, was duidelik en duidelik. Amateurs kan in die oorlog, net soos in die boks, slegs 'n stryd teen professionele persone wen deur 'n uitklophou in 'n vroeë ronde te behaal. In die geval van Spanje was die amateurs nie voltyds besig om die vyand te beveg nie; hulle het tyd geneem om teen mekaar te veg. Die wedywering van PSUC en die FAI was verwoestend. Die buitelandse vrywilligers was tragies amateur. Wie kan dink dat die Duitsers van Thaelmann Centuria uit 'n groot militêre nasie kom? Hulle het 'n goeie moraal, hulle het hul lewens in gevaar gestel, maar hulle lyne was 'n krotbuurt en alle militêre inisiatief is aan die vyand oorgelaat. Tom het in September 1936 'n referaat geskryf wat daarop dui dat internasionale vrywilligers werklike militêre kundigheid moet toon. Om buitelandse vrywilligers te gebruik vir hul joernalistieke impak op die nie-Spaanse openbare mening, kan polities nuttig wees, maar sulke amateurs sal nie die militêre posisie verander nie. Hy wou hê dat die Sentrale Komitee van die Britse Kommunistiese Party 'n volwasse waardering moet kry vir die militêre posisie, omdat hy gedink het dat die werkersklasbeweging se huidige reaksie op die Burgeroorlog heeltemal in realisme ontbreek.

Vir Tom Winteringham behoort die Popular Front professionaliteit te toon in militêre aangeleenthede. Internasionale militêre hulp moet net so professioneel wees as die mediese hulp. Hy het gevra vir 'n internasionale brigade van oud-dienspligtiges. Hy het Kitty gekry om sy verslag terug te neem na King Street (die CPGB H/Q) waar sy dit direk in die hande van Harry Pollitt, die sekretaris -generaal van die Britse Kommunistiese Party, moes plaas. Die risiko om dit uit Spanje te stuur, was beslis te groot, maar die keuse van Kitty as koerier vir hierdie 'hoë sekuriteits' -traktaat was eintlik 'n taktiese fout. Kitty was 'n argetipe van 'n universiteitsmeisie - beenagtig met 'n swaaiende loop, onder in en uit, al het sy ook nie veel daarvan nie. Haar vinnige, duidelike, vurige Amerikaanse toespraak kom uit 'n netjies lipstiffie mond wat in 'n jong selfversekerde gesig sit. Ek veronderstel sy was toe net minder as 30 jaar oud. Kitty het toe teruggekeer Londen toe sy vroeg op 'n oggend by die Victoria -stasie aangekom het. Sy wou 'n goeie werk vir Tom doen. Haar agtergrond het vir haar gesê dat 'n meisie wat nie geslaan is nie 'n goeie gehoor het as een wat bo-op die wêreld kyk. Vir 'n goeie verhoor in Kingstraat in 1936 was dit verkeerd. Onder leiding van haar verkeerde intuïsie, het Kitty reguit van Victoria Station na die Bondstraat Elisabeth Arden gegaan en vir haar die werke gegee: sauna, vol gesig, haarstyl en sonder twyfel 'n skoon, droë, droë, rok.

Bo -op haar vorm neem sy Kingstraat met storm. Sy het almal beslis plat gelê, maar met die verkeerde emosies. 'N Maand of wat later het ek haar kant van die verhaal gehad; sy het gesê dat net een persoon in Kingstraat weet hoe om te glimlag, maar hy werk met 'n suurpoes. Hulle was bly om die verslag van Tom te kry, maar dit was asof hulle geen bespreking wou hê nie. Sy het ook die kans aangegryp om vir hulle te sê dat hulle beter finansiële reëlings vir Tom in Spanje moet tref, aangesien hy klaarblyklik tekort skiet.

'N Sekondêre bron het later vir my aangedui dat Tom se wettige getroude vrou, 'n permanente lid van die party, die oggend in Kingstraat was dat Tom gestuur is. Kitty se blote teenwoordigheid, om niks van haar Elisabeth Arden -aura te sê nie, moes seker al die vroeëre reisverhale bevestig het. In daardie dae word 'n sekere grysheid, 'n kwakerige nugterheid, 'n duidelike verloëning van die oorbodige, gereken by vroue met partybande. Arme Kitty moes 'n voorbeeld wees van die losbandigheid van die klasvyand, die bourgeoisie. Tom het Kitty beslis as koerier gekies omdat hy geweet het dat sy sonder versuim daar deur die hel of hoogwater sou kom. Wat hy nie kon sien nie, was dat haar voorkoms en haar openhartige drif die krag van sy versendings sou verswak. Hy het nog nie die Stalinistiese middelmatigheid onder die knie gekry nie; 'n kenmerk wat so goed deur O'Donnel gedemonstreer is.

Tom het 'n knapsak gedra en 'n slootjas aangehad; die soort goed wat Millets in hul oorskotwinkels in die weermag verkoop het. Hy lyk gehawend, maar hy het 'n goeie glimlag en 'n klein snor onder sy kop. Sy benadering tot my was kenmerkend, direk, vriendelik, pragmaties, opbouend. 'Hoe kan u teenwoordigheid verklaar word?' Ek het gevra. "Kyk," het Tom gesê, "die Party soos jy in Parys gesien het, is die brein, hart en ingewande van die Volksfront, en dit is nog meer so in Spanje. Tensy die eenheid reg is met die Party, is jy verlore." Hy het verder voorgestel dat sy partyverband nie verberg of geadverteer moet word nie ...

Hy (Wintringham) was behulpsaam en vriendelik in groot dinge en klein. Om saam met 'n hartlik menslike marxis te wees, wat ook 'n koel soldaat was, het my moontlik gemaak om die begin van die pad te vind en ek beskou hom as een van die beste vriende wat ek ooit gehad het. Ek het presies verstaan ​​wat Kitty in hom gesien het. Hy het nog steeds 'n paar van die hubris van daardie dapper generasie gedra wat die gewig van 1914-18 gedra het ....

Sy spring so vars soos die dagbreek in, lyk so helder soos 'n nuwe dollar en bring 'n ongewone klomp Elizabeth Arden -geur deur die stowwerige ingang. Sy vra vir Harry Pollitt. Hy was destyds uit, maar sy is deur Jack [J.R.] Campbell en Palme-Dutt ontvang. Sy het Pollitt later gesien, maar die skade is aangerig. Tom het 'n burgerlike tert teruggestuur - 'n groot prater, sommige het gesê dat sy duidelik Trotsky -neigings gehad het - Ernie Brown, wat ek 'n jaar later ontmoet het, het gesê: "Eeeh, wat verwag jy; ruik soos 'n hoer en lyk aangetrek vir die wedrenne! " Dit moet nie vergeet word dat Tom 'n vrou gehad het met dodelike respek en onberispelike marxistiese behendigheid wat met die refrein te werk gegaan het nie "ek huiwer om voorkoms te glo en ek wil nie glo dat Tom uitverkoop is nie".

Agter 'n roltafel sit 'n ou man met 'n eersteklas walrus snor. Daarom is jy 'n spioen.

Toe Kitty vrygelaat word, is sy sonder haar medewete gevonnis om uit Spanje geskors te word. Hierdie bevel is eers in die daaropvolgende Julie aan haar oorhandig, moontlik vanweë die gebrek aan bewyse teen haar, maar waarskynlik omdat sy destyds lid was van die buitelandse perskorps, hoe hardnekkig ook al. Waarom is sy as 'n spioen veroordeel toe sy duidelik in die ergste geval 'n dom en skelm jong vrou was? Albacete was in 'n toestand van spioenasiekoors. Marty was 'n paranoïese psigopaat en 'n vrouehater, vir wie volgens Tom 'n jong vrou wat sonder haar man reis, inderdaad niks baat nie. Marty vertrou nie die karakterbeoordelings van Spanjaarde of Duitsers (Jorge S.) wanneer dit kom by die uitreiking van pas nie, en volg nie die konsep van vermeende onskuld totdat hy skuldig bevind word nie. Maar wat dit vir Marty en Wintringham inderdaad moeiliker gemaak het, was dat nóg Wilfred McCartney nóg Peter Kerrigan bereid was om in te gryp. McCartney was besonder onsimpatiek en het beslis gemeen dat Tom se probleme 'skirt not line' was.

Dit was eers jare later dat Tom sy weergawe van wat gebeur het gegee het, omdat hy daaroor geswyg het, uit eerbied vir die party. Maar in 1941 het 'n manuskrip geskryf deur McCartney wat na die voorval verwys het, tesame met 'n opmerking wat McCartney tydens 'n ete in die teenwoordigheid van Kitty gemaak het - "ek sou nie omgegee het as sy geskiet is nie" - so ontstoke Tom dat hy sy kant van die storie. Trouens, hy het die uitgewer Victor Gollancz gedreig dat hy vir laster sou dagvaar as hy McCartney se manuskrip in 'n boek verander. Dit is teruggetrek.


Hello Kitty

Hello Kitty (Japannees: ハ ロ ー ・ キ テ ィ, Hepburn: Harō Kiti ), [6] ook bekend onder haar volle naam Kitty White (キ テ ィ ・ ホ ワ イ ト, Kiti Howaito), [5] is 'n fiktiewe karakter vervaardig deur die Japannese maatskappy Sanrio, [7] wat deur Yuko Shimizu geskep is en tans deur Yuko Yamaguchi ontwerp is. Sanrio beeld Hello Kitty uit as 'n jong wyfie gijinka (antropomorfisering) van 'n Japannese Bobtail -kat met 'n rooi strik en geen bek nie. [8] Volgens haar agtergrond is sy 'n ewige 3de graadstudent wat buite Londen woon. [9] Kitty en haar tweelingsuster, Mimi, vier hul verjaardag op 1 November 1974. [10] [11] Sedert die skepping van die tekenprentkarakter, het die Hello Kitty -mediaserie gegroei tot klere, bykomstighede, speelgoed, speletjies, boeke, manga-, anime -reekse en musiekalbums, saam met ander verskillende produklyne en mediaproduksies.

Kort na die oprigting van Hello Kitty in 1974, is die Hello Kitty -vinylmuntbeurs deur Sanrio op 5 Maart 1975 bekendgestel. Sanrio het die karakter in 1976 na die Verenigde State gebring. [12] [13] Teen 2010 het Sanrio Hello Kitty in 'n wêreldwye bemarkingsverskynsel, [14] ter waarde van $ 6 miljard per jaar. [15] Teen 2014, toe Hello Kitty 40 jaar oud was, was sy ongeveer $ 8 miljard per jaar werd. [16] Hello Kitty het een van die grootste franchises in die media ooit geword.

Hello Kitty is 'n stapelvoedsel van die kawaii deel van die Japannese populêre kultuur. [17] Hello Kitty se beeld, wat vir die eerste keer bemark is teenoor pre-tienermeisies, het kommersiële sukses gevind by nie net haar oorspronklike teikengehoor nie, maar ook adolessente en volwasse verbruikers. 'N Verskeidenheid produkte, van skoolbenodigdhede tot mode -bykomstighede tot motorolie [18], het die karakter deur die jare vertoon. 'N Aantal Hello Kitty -TV -reekse wat op kinders gerig is, is vervaardig, asook verskeie manga -strokiesprente en anime -films. Daar is Sanrio -temaparke gebaseer op Hello Kitty: Harmonyland in Hiji, Ōita, Japan [19] Sanrio Puroland in Tama New Town, Tokio, Japan en die voormalige Sanrio Hello Kitty Town in Iskandar Puteri, Johor, Maleisië. [20] [21]


Die groot wedstryd is hier. Vandag, 7 Februarie, is die dag. Dit is reg. Dit is Kitten Bowl VIII tyd. Vanjaar se epiese vertoning van katletiek begin om 14:00 PM bergtyd op die Hallmark -kanaal.

Tweedens net die oulikheid van die katjies, is die katons se name! Hier is 'n versameling van die beste in die Kitten Bowl se agt jaar sistory. (Waarskuwing: Maak gereed vir 'n vlaag van 'nkloulangdurig oor-die-top-kattekuns.)


Rolbal

Lawn Bowls is die verengelsde variant van 'n familie van sportsoorte waarin verskeie groter balle of bevooroordeelde bakke gerol of na 'n kleiner doelbal gegooi word. Sulke sportsoorte het oor die hele wêreld versprei en het verskillende vorme aangeneem: Bocce (Italiaans), Bolla (Saksies), Bolle (Deens), Boules of Petanque (Frans) en Ula Maika (Polinesies). Die oorspronklike Engelse weergawe van die spel het, soos baie ander speletjies, op 'n grasperk ontstaan, want dit pas by die klimaat in Engeland. In Frankryk en Italië, waar die warmer weer grasperke 'n skaars produk maak, speel hulle op gruis- of grondvelde.

Die tweede kenmerk van die Engelse rolbal is dat die balle gerol word eerder as gegooi word. En die laaste belangrike faktor is dat die balle gewoonlik glad nie balle is nie - dit is effens eksentriek, wat hulle 'n vooroordeel gee. Die belangrike en vaardige aspek van Lawn Bowls is dat bakke nie in 'n reguit lyn beweeg nie.

Geskiedenis

Sommige Bowls -historici glo dat die spel uit die Egiptenare ontwikkel is. Dit is afgelei op grond van sferiese artefakte wat in grafte van ongeveer 5000 vC gevind is, maar dit moet met 'n knippie sout geneem word - die bestaan ​​van balle impliseer niks oor die gebruik van die balle nie.

Die bekendste verhaal in grasperke is beslis met Sir Frances Drake en die Spaanse Armada. Op 18 Julie 1588 was Drake betrokke by 'n wedstryd by Plymouth Hoe toe hy in kennis gestel word dat die Spaanse Armada nader kom. Sy onsterflike reaksie was dat "ons nog tyd het om die wedstryd te voltooi en die Spanjaarde ook te verslaan." Daarna het hy die wedstryd wat hy verloor het, voltooi voordat hy die geveg met die Armada wat hy gewen het, begin het. Of hierdie beroemde verhaal werklik plaasgevind het, is sterk bespreek.

Koning Henry VIII was ook 'n grasbouler. Hy het die spel egter verbied vir diegene wat nie ryk was of 'goed doen' nie, omdat 'Bowyers, Fletchers, Stringers en Arrowhead -makers' meer tyd aan ontspanningsgeleenthede soos rolbal spandeer as om hul vak te beoefen. Henry VIII versoek dat iemand wat 'n green wil behou 'n fooi van 100 pond betaal. Die setperk kon egter slegs vir privaat speel gebruik word en hy het enigiemand verbied om "uit sy eie tuin of boord in 'n oop ruimte te speel.

King James I het 'n publikasie uitgegee met die naam "The Book of Sports" en hoewel hy sokker (gholf) en gholf veroordeel het, het hy rolbal aangemoedig. In 1845 is die verbod opgehef, en kon mense weer rolbal en ander vaardigheidspeletjies speel.

Die vroegste gedokumenteerde gebruik van die woord 'Jack' in 'n Bowls -konteks is deur William Shakespeare van Cymbeline (vermoedelik in 1609 geskryf) toe hy Cloten laat uitroep het: 'Was daar ooit 'n mens wat so 'n geluk gehad het! , op 'n up-cast om weg te slaan. "

Daar is mededingende teorieë oor die etimologiese oorsprong van die woord "Jack". John P Monro, Bowls Encyclopaedia (3rd ed.), gives that the name 'jack' is derived from the Latin word jactus, meaning a cast or a throw.

A sport played by young men called "casting the stone" is mentioned by William FitzStephen, a close friend of Thomas ?f?f. f?f. Becket, in the preface of his biography Vita Sancti Thomae written during the twelfth century. Casting of stones translates in Latin as "jactu lapidum" and was a game in which rounded stones were thrown at or bowled towards a target object and so a second related theory is that the modern word 'Jack' derives originally from this game name.

But the most straightforward theory and the one most favoured by this author is that it appears that Jack in some contexts meant a slightly smaller version of something. For example a jack-rabbit is a little rabbit. In this case a 'Jack-Bowl', was the little bowl, later shortened to 'Jack'. In 1697 R. Pierce wrote "He had not Strength to throw the Jack-Bowl half over the Green".

Old English Bowling

It is very difficult to trace back the origin of lawn bowls through English history from the medieval period onwards because the term 'bowling' used to mean two things. 'Bowling' was used for the game that this page is about but it just as often referred to the game of skittles or nine-pins. 'Bowling alleys' were a generic term to describe the area where one or other or sometimes both sports were played and so any writings that use the term usually, regrettably, cannot be said to prove anything.

The oldest Bowls green still played on is in Southampton, England where records show that the green has been in operation since 1299 A.D. There are other claims of greens being in use before that time, but these are, as yet, unsubstantiated

There is still a league in South East Hampshire that plays an what they claim is the old version of Lawn Bowls. The woods used are a minimum of Jaques No 6 Bias and have to end up within four feet of the jack to score. The clubs in the league are at Titchfield, Gosport (Alverstoke Old English Bowling Club), Portsmouth, Havant, Hayling Island, Emsworth and Bosham.

Lawn Bowls

The English Bowling Association was founded in 1903 and it is very well organised sport which hosts numerous competitions from the club to the national level. The sport is most popular in the South of England with thousands of devotees. Because success doesn't require physical fitness, it is particularly favoured by older folk but there are a lot of younger players, too. As with many English sports, Lawn Bowls spread to the the British colonies from the 1600s onwards.Lawn Bowls was first played in North America in the early 1600's in the United States. Records show that President George Washington played bowls on his estate. In Canada, the sport was introduced around 1730 at Port Royal in Nova Scotia. In Australia, bowls first was played in Sandy Bay, Tasmania in 1844. The game appeared in New Zealand sometime during the 30 years after that. The World Bowling Board (WBB) is responsible for the standardisation of rules across the world, and is charged with the task of encouraging the growth of the game world-wide

The pictures show the bowling green at the Warley Hospital Bowls Club, Brentwood in Essex. Each foursome is headed by a "Skip" and these are shown to the right examining the position of the bowls in order to determine which strategy to adopt. The "skips" begin by walking to the "head" end from where they shout encouragement and advice to the rest of their team. They then bowl the final woods themselves.

Lawn Bowls is usually played straight up and down a lawn. In "Singles", each player has four bowls called "woods" (although these days, 90% of bowls are made from a resin material) which are rolled alternately at a target ball called a Jack or Kitty. Other games are "Pairs" - four players in two teams, each player having four bowls, "Triples" - three players with three bowls each and "Rinks" or "Fours" - four players two bowls each. Each bowl is less rounded on one side which results in the bowl being "biased" in one direction due to the extra weight on one side. The bias of a correctly rolled bowl ensures that it follows a slightly curved path as it rolls which accentuates as the bowl comes to a halt. The Jack is a smaller white ball without a bias.

Curling

The sport of Lawn Bowls is the forerunner of Curling, a tremendously popular winter version played in northern countries (including Canada and Scotland) on ice. It isn't clear if the Scots or the Dutch invented the game the first written records on it are from the 1600's. At one time the stones that slide across the ice were pieces of granite weighing up to 56kg. Gradually they evolved into plump stone discs with a handle protruding from the top surface. The target is a circle 32 metres from the thrower and the game is played by 2 teams of 4 players, each player sliding 2 stones per go. The slightly bizarre final aspect of the game is that each player is equipped with a genuine broom which is used to scrub the ice just ahead of the stone as it slides towards the target. The scrubbing warms the ice which creates a film of water that the stone slides over speeding it slightly. Skilful work with the broom will successfully deviate the direction of the stone or lengthen the distance it travels in such a way that it eventually comes to rest nearer to the target.

Crown Green Bowls

Crown Green Bowls is a game of arguably greater interest since it features an additional dimension. A Crown Green is a square lawn slightly higher in the middle than at the edges and play is conducted all over the lawn in any direction making for a great deal more variety than the flat green game.

The game has always been associated more with pubs and taverns than Lawn Green bowls and although it does not have the enormous popularity of the flat green game, it thrives very happily within its home base of the North of England and the North West Midlands.

Play is almost always singles and each player bowls just two bowls each end. The winner of each turn can play the jack in any direction and at any reasonable distance within the lawn boundary which is a ditch. Some players are best at bowling across the hump, others along the sloping side, some prefer short distances, others long and so many additional tactical complexities are introduced by the unusual lawn. Watching the multiple games occurring in all directions at once across a crown green bowling lawn is an spectating experience worth seeking out. Somehow, the individual games manage to intersect and cross over each other without any adverse consequences!

The pictures show the Crown Green at Kings Heath, Birmingham. The match is The Kings Heath Bowling Club v. The Greville Arms team - a league game played on the 4th September 1999. In the picture on the right, the two players walking from left to right are from separate matches being played in parallel. Meanwhile, the chap on the right is playing a leg diagonally from right to left towards a jack that can be seen next to the player in blue's head. The fellow in blue is bowling straight over the hump intersecting all three of the other matches shown and probably a couple of others that can't be seen as well.

Crown Green Bowls is a well organised sport arranged on a county basis. Individual clubs, often affiliated to pubs form teams that compete in "midweek" leagues that are grassroots of the sport and, at the next strata up, counties hold their own competitions. Crown Green Inter-County bowls matches date back to 1893 when Yorkshire and the combined county of Lancashire & Cheshire began playing friendly matches and this tradition has carried on until the present day, with the British Crown Green Bowls Association taking over the organisation of the competition in 1908. A complete history of this and other competitions can be found on the BCGBA site. In the year 2000, 15 county teams entered the competition. As can be seen from the following list, not all of the teams are, in fact, single counties and one team actually represents a country.

N.Lancs & Fylde Warwick & Worcester Merseyside
NCumbria Greater Manchester Derbyshire
Wales Cheshire Staffordshire
South Yorkshire North Midlands Lancashire
Yorkshire Potteries & District (South Staffordshire) Shropshire

As well as Wales, the sport is played in Scotland, Ireland and the Isle of Man. The first officially organised international happened in 1995 between Wales and England and the following year, the inaugural International tournament was staged in the County Association of North Lancs & Fylde. This competition took the four teams from England, combined Scotland/Ireland, Wales and the Isle of Man. The first competition was won by England, while in the 1999 tournament, the combined Scottish/Irish team were victorious.

Indoor Bowls

When winter comes around, Bowls like many outdoor games, become less easy to play. So indoor variations of the game have come into existence. Indoor Bowls is simply the indoor incarnation of Lawn Bowls, played on strips of simulation green which are a similar length to Lawn Bowls rinks. There are subtle differences to the rules but ostensibly it's the same game.

However, Indoor Bowls has two rival formats for the affections of bowling enthusiasts wishing to avoid the elements - see the following sections on Short Mat Bowls and Carpet Bowls.

Short Mat Bowls

Very often, there is insufficient space for several full-size bowls strips indoors. For that reason, a second popular indoor variant called Short Mat Bowls, with characteristics all of its own, has become established with a really big following all over Britain and Ireland. Like many pub games, it is really a miniaturised version of the outdoor game to enable it to be played more easily indoors while keeping as many of the features as possible. It is played on a mat measuring 40-45 x 6 feet with full-size bowls, the mat being easily rolled up and put away for convenience. There is a ditch but this is simply an area marked at the end of the mat with white fenders and to compensate for the shorter distance an intimidating block is placed in the centre of the mat. This makes it impossible for a bowler to aim a fast straight bowl at the jack area - all bowls must use the bias to curl around the block o their target.

The short mat bowls game was first played in South Wales by two South Africans who came to work in the area. They had played bowls outdoors in South Africa and, perhaps due to the poor climate and the long close season in this country, they began to play a simulation of the outdoor game on a strip of carpet in a church hall. Some time later, they moved to Northern Ireland and took the new game with them. Rules and conditions of play were drawn up and the game soon became well established in the Province. It was introduced into England by Irish expatriates, but development was slow until the 1980's when its potential as a low cost sport for people of all ages was realised. The English Short Mat Bowling Association (ESMBA) was formed in 1984, and is now the governing body of the sport in England. Thanks to the Cornwall Cornwall County Short Mat Bowling Association for this information.

Here is a summary of the primary differences between the mother game and Short Mat Bowls:

  • Short Mat Bowls is, of course, played on a mat indoors. The mat is 12.2m min - 13.75m max long and 1.83m wide.
  • Short Mat Bowls has centre block which is 0.38m long which must not be touched by a bowl. This prevents high force shots being played.
  • In Short Mat, a bowl must pass over the "dead line" or else it is removed from play.
  • The Short Mat Jack is positioned on a central line. The Short Mat Jack is heavier than either a Lawn Bowls or an Indoor Bowls Jack.
  • The ditch of Lawn Bowls is simulated by wooden fenders that surround the rear of the mat.

Carpet Bowls

There is a yet a third indoor variant called Carpet Bowls which is something of the poor relative of the Bowls world and does not have the publicity it deserves, particularly in the South of England, although it is played at County and League level in East Anglia, the Midlands and the North. The term "carpet" is not helpful in this respect as many people upon hearing of the game assume it is a trivial indoor game for the home.

Carpet Bowls has seeded itself as far more of a community activity and is mainly played in local social centres such as village halls and other local community meeting places. It has in fact been the saving grace for many village halls, generating some much need revenue for the halls themselves as well as bringing local communities together. There is a formal English Carpet Bowls Association and although the ECBA is relatively small, the game itself is played in many village and school halls up and down the country. Around the turn of the century there were more than 1000 clubs.

In accordance with the village hall background, the bowls mat is significantly smaller at around 30 x 6 feet and the inventors clearly laid less emphasis upon trying to maintain all the rules of the mother game. For instance, Carpet Bowls dispenses with the notion of a 'ditch' and the various sometimes complex rules associated with it.

Bowls are delivered from an 18 inch wide space at the front of the carpet and must avoid an 18 inch circular block placed in the centre of the carpet. The Jack is 2.5 inches in diameter (the same as for Lawn/Indoor Bowls) and is placed on a centre line 3 - 6 feet from the end of the carpet. It does not need to be extra-heavy because, in another departure from the other lawn variants, the bowls used are smaller. Players rarely own their own set of bowls instead the village hall usually owns the bowls for their club members' use.

Afficionados of Carpet Bowls are keen to point out that, because a bowl must be delivered within the 18 inches delivery area whilst not standing on the carpet, it is rare for players to attempt to "break up the head" (attempt to spoil the end by delivering a forceful bowl that knocks the bowls and jack semi-randomly). Carpet Bowlers regard this as a point of superiority over Short Mat Bowls where a player standing on the carpet may deliver a bowl wide of the designated delivery area with some force to spoil the head.

Table Bowls

The most unusual version of Bowls is a miniaturised version of the game called Table Bowls that originally appeared as a pub game around the district of Carlisle. In this game a miniature set of bowls and jack are played on a standard 12 x 6 feet Billiards or Snooker table. The bowls and jack are rolled down a wooden chute which is placed slanting on the table edge with one end on the table. No impetus is allowed to be given to the bowls - it is purely the angle of the chute and how far up it the bowl starts that determines its final position.

The author hasn't found any definitive information as to the origin of Table Bowls but in his opinion it seems highly likely that the game was invented in the second half of the nineteenth century as part of a craze for all sorts of indoor games that overtook the Victorians. A whole number of parlour games were invented by games manufacturers of the time such as John Jaques and F. H. Ayres and these included a number of miniaturised outdoor games including such games as Parlour Croquet, Parlour Aunt Sally and Parlour Quoits. Table Bowls was probably just one more example.

The set to the left is an beautiful antique Table Bowls set made by Jaques of London. Age is estimated at 1890. The set includes the green beize cloth that the bowls are sitting on so the game can be put on any flat surface..

The author has also heard from players in Queensland, Australia where there are several locations playing Table Bowls - see the Pubs section below for further details. This game is more elaborate, requiring specially built tables, around 8 feet long, rather than borrowing a billiards table. In fact, they have a number of competitions including a "World Championship" although they are having second thoughts about the title having now learned of the English game!

The game is played by juniors and by people who are wheelchair bound. Many lawn green bowlers who can no longer play the outdoor game continue indoors at Table Bowls. It has built up quite a following.

Paul Eathorne of Ayr, Queensland kindly contributed this picture of an Australian Table Bowls league table. Notice that Australian Table Bowls is played on dedicated specially-made tables unlike the British version of the game.

Rolle Bolle

Rolle Bolle was developed by Belgians, around the time of the Reformation, somewhat a cross between horseshoes and bowlings. It is played on hard packed sand, with stakes set 30 feet apart. Teams try to roll the beveled, hard rubber Bolle so that it stays closest to the stake.

Where to Buy

Masters Traditional Games sells all the varieties of Bowls listed above including Table Bowls and Carpet Bowls. From Drakes Pride, the oldest and still the best quality manufacturer in the trade.


Hat Trick: the history of the iconic British bowler

Picture Winston Churchill, Charlie Chaplin, or the quintessential English gent on his way to work in the City. What are they wearing on their heads? The chances are you imagined them in that hard felt hat with a rounded crown and narrow brim known as the bowler or, in some circles, the Coke (pronounced “cook”).

The bowler has travelled widely since its beginnings in London in 1849. Appropriated by everyone from cowboys in the American West to Quechua women in Bolivia, who were introduced to the hat by British railway workers in the 1920s, the iconic piece of headwear began with two men called – perhaps unsurprisingly – Edward Coke and Thomas Bowler.

Coke, the younger brother of the 2nd Earl of Leicester, walked into the famous London hat-makers Lock & Co with a problem. The top hats worn by his gamekeepers on the Holkham Hall estate in Norfolk kept falling off but they needed to wear something to protect their heads from low-hanging branches and poacher attacks.

Bowler, Lock’s chief hat-maker, rose to the challenge and put together a prototype. To test the hat’s strength, the story goes that Coke threw it on the floor and jumped up and down on it. The resilient bowler passed with flying colours and Coke paid 12 shillings for it.

The bowler’s combination of practicality and style has made it appeal to a wide range of people throughout its history. Railway workers and American cowboys – think Butch Cassidy or Billy the Kid – adopted it as their own because it would not blow off easily when they were on horseback or hanging their heads from the windows of speeding trains.

Prince William sports a bowler on Cavalry Sunday. Credit: Marco Secchi/Alamy

Derby-goers also loved the bowler, as did those wishing to rise through the social ranks, and the hat became known as the Derby in the US.

In Britain, the bowler was first worn by the Victorian working classes but by the 1950s and 1960s it came to epitomise the “City gent” – along with a pinstripe suit and a black umbrella. When George Banks, the stern workaholic father in Mary Poppins, is sacked from his job at the bank, his bowler is ceremoniously punched in.

Today, cavalry officers still wear bowler hats and suits for their annual parade in Hyde Park on what is known as Cavalry Sunday in May – both Princes William and Harry have worn them for official purposes. The tradition stems from the fact the outfit was considered correct dress just before the First World War and officers are still expected to wear their City gent attire whenever they are in London on duty.

One of Britain’s most famous hat devotees, Winston Churchill is known to have favoured the Homburg, but he pulled off a bowler with aplomb. To this day, Lock & Co still sell thousands of Cokes each year to City workers and ex-military customers, while the Earl of Leicester continues to buy the hat to which his ancestor gave his name for his gamekeepers on the completion of one year’s service. ■


LOOKS AND MARKINGS CAN BE DECEIVING

This bowl came from my uncle's home in New York. Can you tell me about it?

--Pauline Laliberte, Attleboro, Mass.

You have an excellent looking bowl. As attractive as it is, though, looks can be deceiving. Because, as you know from the photos you included with your letter, the bowl is marked very clearly on the bottom. Around the upper curve of its perimeter, it says "R. Ransbottom," around the lower part, "Roseville OH." In the center, it says "U.S.A."

Though there are people in the general population who immediately will know what R. Ransbottom refers to, there are far more people who have heard of Roseville, and will assume anything marked with that Ohio city's name is from the Roseville Pottery Co.

Like Limoges in France, Roseville has become synonymous with a certain look, feel and quality of ceramic. People refer to a great deal of work as Roseville, when it may not be Roseville at all.

I'm not suggesting people are trying to pull the proverbial wool over anyone's eyes, just that not all pottery marked Roseville is really Roseville.

In other words, your bowl was made in Roseville, but not by the Roseville Pottery Co. Instead, it was made by Robinson-Ransbottom, a pottery in Roseville that was owned by Frank Ransbottom and his three brothers, Ed, Johnnie and Mort.

In 1900, the four Ransbottoms bought the Oval Ware and Brick Co., which they remodeled and rechristened the following year as Ransbottom Brothers Pottery. In 1920, it merged with Robinson Clay Products, and the company still exists today. You can read more about its history at its Web site, ransbottompottery.com. It is one of the few pottery manufacturers that still uses local "native" clays, which are mined within about 10 miles of the factory.

There isn't a huge secondary market for Ransbottom Pottery, though a quick look at the Internet auction site eBay revealed more than 100 sales of Ransbottom, with bids ranging from $3 for a small pitcher to $200 for a 40-year-old butter churn. Your bowl is worth about $25.

Recently, while going through some old family papers, my friend found what appears to be a promissory note for $1,000 from 1840 from The Bank of the United States. Kan u enige inligting verskaf?

--Judy E. Potts, Spring, Texas

From what I can tell from the photo you sent, I'm afraid this note, serial number 8894, is a very commonly found modern replica. The design and date are copied from the genuine note, but the paper is a brown parchment never used for genuine pieces. If this were an actual document, it could be worth hundreds of dollars. As it stands, modern copies are of little interest--and of no monetary value--to collectors.


6. Charles Blondin—“The Great Blondin”

Charles Blondin crossing Niagara Falls on a tightrope. (Credit: William England/Getty Images)

French daredevil Charles Blondin made his first circus appearance as a young boy, when he performed somersaults and wire dancing under the name “The Little Wonder.” He was a skilled acrobat and athlete—he once leapt over two lines of soldiers holding fixed bayonets𠅋ut he was most famous for his heart-pounding exploits as a tightrope walker. In June 1859, a 35-year-old Blondin made history when he strung a 1,300-foot hemp rope between the American and Canadian sides of Niagara Falls and strolled across the chasm, pausing along the way to enjoy a few swigs from a bottle of wine. He later repeated the stunt on multiple occasions, each time with a new and seemingly suicidal twist. He conquered the falls on stilts, with a sack over his head, wearing chains, pushing a wheelbarrow and even while carrying his terrified manager on his back. Most famous of all was the time he crossed with a cooking stove and stopped halfway to prepare an omelet𠅊ll while balancing on a 2-inch-wide rope suspended some 160 feet above the water. “The Great Blondin” would later make a fortune displaying his high wire heroics across the United States, Europe, Asia and Australia. He became world famous, so much so that several imposters and imitators used his name to get publicity for their own tightrope stunts.


What’s in a name? | Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

The name Kitty Hawk, of course, conjures up grainy black-and-white images of the Wright brothers in their bowler hats soaring from the high dunes – if only for a few important seconds – in their historic first flight.

Actually, that flight occurred in the next town over, in Kill Devil Hills, though the Wrights lived and based their aerial experiments in the village of Kitty Hawk.

The brothers from Ohio also telegraphed their father from the Kitty Hawk Weather Bureau Station with the news of their landmark flight on Dec. 17, 1903, walking there quickly from the nearby dunes of Kill Devil Hills.

Still, the question remains: Where did the name for this oceanfront village on North Carolina's Outer Banks come from?

The debate continues, but the version that is most widely accepted – and the one the town of Kitty Hawk embraces today – is that it originates from a Native Indian name for the area related to the hunting of geese, as in "Killy honker" or "Killy honk."

Historians note that the town first showed up on English maps in the early 1700s as "Chickehauk" and "Chickahawk." By the late 1700s, land deeds referred to settlements there as "Kitty huk," "Kitty hark," "KittyHawk," and finally "Kitty Hawk."

According to "The Outer Banks of North Carolina," a book by historian David Stick, another story traces the roots to the large number of mosquito hawks found in the area. So the nickname "Skeeter Hawk" could have morphed over time into "Kitty Hawk," Stick writes.

Stick also states that the term "kitty" once meant "wren," the little songbird commonly found in North Carolina. Thus, "kitty hawk" could have derived from the mosquito hawks seen on the Outer Banks that preyed on wrens for food.

Asked which tale he believes to be true, Kitty Hawk Mayor Clifton Perry said: "I don't know if anyone really knows."

An aircraft carrier, a B-2 stealth bomber and the Apollo 14 command module all were named after the town, and a monument to the temporary living quarters of Orville and Wilbur Wright from those pioneering days between 1900 and 1903 can be seen inside Town Hall.


The company was founded by Drew Bowler, who founded the company in 1985, after modifying a Land Rover Land Rover Series I to drive competitively. After seeing considerable success, he started taking orders from others for similar vehicles. [1] Bowler began his company with 8 people designing and building aftermarket parts and rally raid vehicles in the Bowler family farm in Derbyshire, United Kingdom. [2] Bowler originally designed and produced the Bowler Tomcat which was sold and then the development of the Bowler Wildcat began. In December 2007 the manufacturing rights to the Wildcat were sold by Bowler to Qt Services, to provide support to existing Wildcat owners while Bowler concentrated on production of their newer vehicle, the Bowler Nemesis. [3] In late 2009 the concept of the road version of the Bowler Nemesis was revealed.

Bowler has a long history of involvement with motorsports, with both company and private teams participating in the Dakar Rally, British Hill Climb Championship, French Baja, and many other extreme offroad events.

On 15 November 2016, all pages on Bowler's website were changed to a single page holding an official statement by the company, stating their founder, Drew Bowler, had suddenly died Monday, 14 November 2016. They said that his death "came as a huge shock to the company", but that they would "continue his vision". [4]

Jaguar Land Rover acquired Bowler Off Road in December 2019. [5] Bowler became part of Jaguar's Special Vehicle Operations division, and remains in operation in Belper, United Kingdom. [6] Bowler continues to produce aftermarket parts and rally raid vehicles, primarily based on Land Rover Defender 90 and Defender 110 platforms. In November 2020, Bowler announced a new addition to their lineup known by its project name, Project CSP 575, a new SUV based upon the design of the Land Rover Defender 110 station wagon, powered by the 5.0 liter Jaguar AJ-V8 from the Range Rover Sport SVR. [7]


So why did Amanda Blake leave 'Gunsmoke'?

Volgens die Chicago Tribune, Amanda had simply grown tired of having to travel to Hollywood. She lived in Phoenix, making her commute rather unbearably long. After 19 years of doing that commute, she decided enough was enough. But towards the end of her time on Gunsmoke, she faced a different problem: her declining health. Amanda was known to be a very heavy cigarette smoker and she unfortunately fell ill in 1977. 

According to KXRB, Amanda had surgery in 1977 for what they reported was oral cancer, and she was sick for some time. The actress passed away in 1989 at Mercy General Hospital in Sacramento, Calif., at the age of 60. There was a lot of speculation and confusion over the cause of death. 

Given she had reportedly fought cancer off several years earlier, some reports said Amanda passed away from cancer. However, other reports said she died of AIDS-related complications. 

An article published in Mense in 1989 reported, "There was no recurrence of cancer,” her physician, Dr. Lou Nishimura, said at the time. "Technically she died of liver failure brought on by viral hepatitis, which was AIDS-related.” 

The official cause of Amanda Blake&aposs death, as reported by KXRB, was "cardiopulmonary arrest due to liver failure and CMV hepatitis, which is AIDS-related."

Volgens Mense, her declining health was a secret to most. “Once she knew she had it, she decided to keep it to herself,” said Pat Derby, a close friend of Amanda. “She didn’t want to live in a goldfish bowl.”