2 Januarie 1941
Royal Navy en Royal Air Force bombardeer Bardia (vanaf 1 Januarie)
Llandaff -katedraal word erg beskadig tydens die ergste Duitse bombardement van die Cardiff Blitz 2 Januarie 1941
'N Foto van die ernstige skade aan die skip van die Llandaff -katedraal.
Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Cardiff Docks een van die grootste steenkoolhawe ter wêreld. Die stad was dus 'n aanloklike teiken vir die Duitse Luftwaffe tydens sy bombardement op Brittanje. Vanaf 1940 en tot 1943 het die Duitsers Cardiff herhaaldelik gebombardeer in wat onthou word as die Cardiff Blitz. Die ergste nag van bombardemente het egter op 2 Januarie 1941 plaasgevind.
Daardie noodlottige nag het 165 mense gesterf terwyl 427 beseer is. Ongeveer 350 huise is vernietig of moes gesloop word. Een van die mees ikoniese geboue wat daardie nag skade gely het, was die Llandaff -katedraal, 'n konstruksie uit die 12de eeu. Tydens die bombardement is 'n valskermmyn naby genoeg aan die katedraal laat val om die dak van die skip, suidelike gang en hoofstuk af te skeur. Die toring en orrel van die katedraal het ook skade opgedoen wat herstel moes word.
'N Beeld van die Llandaff -katedraal na die herstel daarvan.
’N Ooggetuie beskryf die ontploffing wat die Llandaff -katedraal só beskadig het:“ ’n Groot krater het tussen die ou grafte op die kerkhof uitgebars en grafstene is soos ou missiele meer as’ n kilometer ver weggegooi. ” Weens die erns van die bombardement het die Llandaff -katedraal die tweede grootste skade onder die Britse katedrale gely, en slegs die Coventry -katedraal het meer skade gely.
'N Volledige herstel van die katedraal het in 1949 begin onder leiding van argitek George Pace. Die herstel is eers in 1958 voltooi, toe die katedraal vir volle gebruik heropen is.
2 Januarie 1941 - Geskiedenis
ROYAL, DOMINION en INDIAN NAVY SHIPS, JANUARIE 1941 (Deel 2 van 2)
(Vir meer inligting oor die skip, gaan na die Naval History -tuisblad en tik die naam in Site Search)
Sommige oorlogskepe word met hul eie eenheid gelys en weer wanneer hulle aan 'n ander een losgemaak word
NOORD -ATLANTIESE OPDRAG
Onderadm. Sir G Frederick B Edward-Collins KCB, KCVO
Basisskip, Gibraltar - KORMORANT
Slagskip - BESLUIT (Capt A R Halfhide CBE) arr Gibraltar 16 Des van Freetown.
Swaar kruiser - BERWICK (Kapt G L Warren) arr Gibraltar 31 Des
13de Destroyer Flotilla
25ste Afdeling - DUNCAN (Capt A D B James Actg, Lt Cdr A N Rowell vanaf 13 Feb) dep Gibraltar 31 Des, ENCOUNTER (Lt Cdr E V St J Morgan) arr Freetown 31 Dec, ISIS (Cdr C S B Swinley DSC) arr Freetown 31 Dec
26th Division - VIDETTE (Lt EN Walmsley) dep Gibraltar 31 Dec, VELOX (Lt Cdr EG Roper DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 Dec, WISHART (Cdr ET Cooper) arr Gibraltar 29 Dec, WRESTLER (Lt EL Jones DSC) at Portsmouth repair to comp 30 Jan.
8ste duikbootflotilla - walstigting PIGMY (Cdr G B H Fawkes) by Gibraltar, duikbote OLYMPUS (Lt Cdr H G Dymott) arr Gibraltar 29 Des, OTUS (Lt Cdr E C F Nicolay) arr Gibraltar 4 Jan, PANDORA (Lt Cdr J W Linton) arr Gibraltar 14 Jan.
7de Anti -Submarine Group - anti-duikboot treilers ARCTIC RANGER (SO, Cdr JH Young Rtd), ERIN (Actg Cdr JO Davies RNR), HAARLEM (Ty Lt LB Merrick RNVR), KINGSTON CHRYSOLITE (Ty Lt RL Green, RVR) dep 29 Dec for Liverpool, LEYLAND (Lt Cdr A Wilkinson RNR), HERE HOTHAM (Sk JW Morris RNR), alles in of uit Gibraltar
92ste Mynveegroep - mynevee -treilers CLYNE CASTLE (Lt T Fraser RNR), HONJU (Ch Sk J Bowie RNR), albei op Gibraltar
Smokkelbeheerdiens - gewapende instapvaartuie ACHROITE (Sk GWH Mortlock RNR), ALOUETTE (Lt Lord Churston RNVR), ANGLIA (Lt R McCready RNR), CHARLES McIVER (Lt BTR Russell RNR), GEMAKLIK (Sk CC Findlay RNR), IMPERIALIST (Pbty Ty Lt PE Kitto RNR), KINGSTON JACINTH (Lt Cdr A Ayre Rtd) dep 29 Dec for Liverpool, KINGSTON TOPAZ (Cdr WL Smith RNR), KINGSTON TURQUOISE (Lt LA White RNR) dep 29 Dec for Liverpool, LOCH OSKAIG (Lt Cdr S Darling RANR ), LORNA (Actg Lt R Atkinson RNR), ROSABELLE (Lt HH Brown RNR), SAYONARA (Cdr H Hamilton Rtd), SKOTS (Cdr SA Brooks OBE Rtd), TIERCEL (Lt RRL Rosoman RNR Rtd) by Greenock, andersins of na Gibraltar
Sleepbote - ST DAY (Lt Cdr J Sharples RNR Rtd), ST OMAR (geen CO gelys nie), beide in Gibraltar
Onderadm. Sir James F Somerville KCB, DSO
Slagkruiser - RENOWN (Flag, Somerville, Capt C E B Simeon, Capt R R McGrigor from 23 Jan) arr Gibraltar 30 Dec
Slagskip - MALAYA (Capt A F E Palliser DSC) arr Gibraltar 24 Des
Vliegtuigvervoerder - ARK ROYAL (Capt C S Holland) op Gibraltar op agt uur kennisgewing.
Ligte kruiser - SHEFFIELD (Capt C A A Larcom) arr Gibraltar 30 Des
8ste Destroyer Flotilla (Capt AF de Salis) - FAULKNOR (de Salis) arr Gibraltar 30 Dec, FEARLESS (Cdr AF Pugsley) Troon, FIREDRAKE (Lt Cdr SH Norris DSO, DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 Dec, FORESIGHT (Lt Cdr GT Lambert, Cdr JSC Salter vanaf 14 Jan) in Liverpool, FORESTER (Lt Cdr EB Tancock DSC) arr Gibraltar 31 Des, FORTUNE (Lt Cdr EN Sinclair) arr Gibraltar 29 Des, FOXHOUND (Lt Cdr GH Peters DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 Des, FURY (Lt Cdr TC Robinson) arr Gibraltar 31 Des
Viseadministrateur sir Andrew B Cunningham KCB, DSO op WARSPITE,
bevorder tot admiraal 3 Jan 1941
Basisskip - NIL (Rear Adm F Elliott OBE Rtd, Actg Rear Adm G H Creswell DSO, DSC from 5 Feb)
1ste Slag eskader (Rear Adm H B Rawlings OBE on BARHAM) - slagskepe BARHAM (Capt G C Cooke), VALIANT (Capt C E Morgan DSO) arr 24 Dec, WARSPITE (Capt D B Fisher CBE) arr 24 Dec, all arr or at Alexandria
Vliegtuigdraers (Rear Adm A L St G Lyster CB, CVO, DSO on ILLUSTRIOUS) - EAGLE (Capt A R M Bridge CBE) at Alexandria, ILLUSTRIOUS (Capt D W Boyd CBE, DSC) arr Alexandria 24 Dec
3de Cruiser -eskader (Rear Adm R de F Renouf DSO) - swaar cruiser YORK (Capt R H Portal DSC) dep Sudabaai 30 Desember, ligte kruisers GLASGOW (Capt J W Cuthbert Actg) in Alexandria ondergaan tydelike herstelwerk. GLOUCESTER (Flag, Capt H A Rowley) van Sudabaai 30 Des
7de Cruiser -eskader (Rear Adm Light Forces, Rear Adm HD Pridham -Wippell CB, CVO, bevorder tot vise -admir op 3 Jan 1941) - ligte kruisers AJAX (Capt EDB McCarthy) arr Sudabaai 1 Jan, LIVERPOOL (Capt AL Poland DSO, DSC) te Alexandria ondergaan tydelike herstelwerk, ORION (Flag, Capt GRB Back) arr Alexandria 23 Dec, Australian PERTH (Capt Sir Philip W Bowyer-Smith Bt) arr Suda Bay 1 Jan, SYDNEY (Capt JA Collins CB RAN) at Malta
Aangeslote kruiser - light cruiser SOUTHAMPTON (Capt B C B Brooke) dep Aden on 25 Dec, arr Alexandria 30 Dec
Vliegtuigskepe - vliegtuigkruiser CALCUTTA (Capt D M Lees DSO) dep Sudabaai 30 Des, COVENTRY (Capt D Gilmour) te Alexandria, beskadig, herstelwerk comp 20 Jan, destroyer WRYNECK (Lt Cdr R H D Lane) arr Alexandria 23 Dec
2de Destroyer Flotilla (Capt H St L Nicolson DSO) - HASTY (Lt Cdr LRK Tyrwhitt) arr Gibraltar 24 Dec, HAVOCK (Cdr RE Courage DSO, DSC) at Malta, HEREWARD (Cdr CW Greening) dep Gibraltar 25 Dec, HERO (Cdr HW Biggs DSO ) dep Gibraltar 31 Dec, HOTSPUR (Cdr HFH Layman DSO) at Malta, ILEX (Nicolson) arr Alexandria 24 Dec, IMPERIAL (Lt Cdr CA De W Kitcat) at Malta
10de Destroyer Flotilla (Capt H M L Waller DSO)
Afdeling 19 - Australiese vernietigers STUART (Capt Waller RAN) op Malta om 31 Desember, VAMPIRE (tydelik Waller terwyl STUART herstel, Cdr JA Walsh RAN) arr Alexandria 20 Dec, VENDETTA (Lt Cdr R Rhoades RAN) dep Alexandria 23 Dec, VOYAGER arr. (Cdr JC Morrow DSO RAN) arr Alexandria 22 Des met WATERHEN, WATERHEN (Lt Cdr JH Swain) arr Alexandria 1 Jan beskadig
Division 20 - DAINTY (Cdr M S Thomas DSO) dep Alexandria 31 Dec, DECOY (Cdr E G McGregor DSO) at Malta, DEFENDER (Lt Cdr G L Farnfield) dep Suda Bay 24 Dec, DIAMOND (Lt Cdr P A Cartwright) arr Alexandria 31 Dec
14de Destroyer Flotilla (Kapt P J Mack DSO)
Afdeling 27 - JANUS (Cdr JAW Tothill) arr Alexandria 24 Des, JERVIS (Mack) arr Alexandria 30 Des, JUNO (Cdr St JRJ Tyrwhitt) arr Alexandria 24 Des, MOHAWK (Cdr JWM Eaton) arr Alexandria 1 Jan, begeleide WATERHEN, NUBIAN (Cdr RW Ravenhill) arr Alexandria 30 Des met MOHAWK
Afdeling 28 - GALLANT (Lt Cdr C P F Brown DSC) dep Port Said 31 Des, GREYHOUND (Cdr W R Marshall A'Deane DSC) arr Alexandria 30 Des, GRIFFIN (Lt Cdr J Lee -Barber DSO) dep Sudabaai 30 Des
1ste duikbootflotilla (Capt SM Raw) - depotskip MEDWAY (Raw) in Alexandria, duikbote OSIRIS (Lt Cdr JRG Harvey) dep Alexandria 22 Des vir Gibraltar, arr Malta 29 Des, OTUS (Lt Cdr ECF Nicolay) dep Alexandria 21 Des vir Gibraltar, arr Malta 29 Des, PANDORA (Lt Cdr JW Linton) arr Alexandria 28 Des, PARTHIAN (Cdr MG Rimington DSO) dep Malta 29 Des, PERSEUS (Lt Cdr PJH Bartlett) te Malta herstel na komp 18 Mar, REGENT (Lt Cdr HC Browne) arr Malta 25 dec, RORQUAL (Cdr RH Dewhurst DSO) arr Alexandria 17 Dec, ROVER (Lt Cdr HAL Marsham) arr Alexandria 22 Dec, TETRARCH (Lt Cdr RMT Peacock) dep Malta 28 Dec, TRIUMPH (Lt Cdr WJW Woods) dep Gibraltar 27 Des, TRUANT (Lt Cdr HAV Haggard) dep Malta 28 Des, UNIEK (Lt AF Collett) dep Gibraltar 27 Des op patrollie, UPHOLDER (Lt MD Wanklyn) dep Gibraltar 27 Des op patrollie, arr Malta 14 Jan, UPRIGHT (Lt ED Norman) arr Malta 24 Dec, URSULA (Lt AJ MacKenzie) at Gibraltar repair to comp 16 Jan, USK (Lt PR Ward) arr Gibraltar 23 Dec, UTMOST (Lt Cdr JH Eaden DSC, Lt R D Cayley on 31 Jan) at Malta repair to comp 2 Feb
Op 8 Januarie het Cdr G W G Simpson op Malta aangekom om die U-klas duikbote te beveel, wat op 1 September die 10de duikbootflotilla aangewys is en gebaseer is op Malta
Korvette - GLOXINIA (Lt Cdr A J C Pomeroy RNVR) op Malta herstel, HYACINTH (Actg Lt Cdr F C Hopkins RNR), PEONY (Lt Cdr M B Sherwood DSO Rtd), SALVIA (Lt Cdr J I Miller DSO RNR), almal behalwe een arr. Alexandria 31 Des.
4de Anti -Submarine Group - trawlers teen duikbote BERYL (Cdr J C Bird Rtd), CORAL (Mid F H Walton RNR), JADE (Btswn J Hughes), almal op Malta
5de Anti -Submarine Group - anti-duikboot treilers BANDOLERO (SO, Lt Cdr FMW Harris RNR) verloor 30 Des, LOCH MELFORT (Pbty Ty Lt F Graham-Browne RNR) dep Haifa 17 Des, LYDIARD (Lt DM Gibb RNR) arr Alexandria 25 Des, SINDONIS (Ch Sk G Rawding RNR) by Alexandria, VICTORIAN (Ch Sk MA Smith RNR) arr Suez 21 Des
16de Anti -Submarine Group - walvisjagters teen duikboot KOS.19 (Lt IH Davis RNR), KOS.21 (Ty Lt Cdr IFH Wilson RNVR), KOS.22 (Lt HD Foxon RNR), KOS.23 (Lt Cdr JJ Reid RNVR), SYVERN (Lt. Cdr RE Clarke RNR), almal by Durban pas ASDICs
28ste Anti -Submarine Group - anti-duikboot treilers KINGSTON CORAL (Sk W Kirman RNR) arr Alexandria 27 Nov van Sudabaai, KINGSTON CRYSTAL (Lt Cdr GHP James RNR) dep Alexandria 14 Des, KINGSTON CYANITE (Sk FA Yeomans RNR) arr Alexandria 6 Nov, WOLBOROUGH (SO , Lt FAW Ramsey Rtd) dep Alexandria op 20 Des
Mynvee -flotilla - mynveërs ABINGDON (Lt GA Simmers RNR) op Malta, BAGSHOT (Lt Cdr JFB Cage RNVR) dep Alexandria 7 Des, DERBY (Lt FCV Brightman) arr Alexandria 19 Des, FAREHAM (SO, Lt WJP Kerk) te Piraeus, FERMOY (Lt Cdr JGD Wetherfield) op Malta, HUNTLEY (Lt Cdr HRA King RNR) arr Alexandria 27 Des, STOKE (Cdr CJP Hill Rtd) te Alexandria.
91ste Mynveegroep - mynevee -treilers ARTHUR CAVANAGH (Ty Sk T W Kirby RNR), MILFORD COUNTESS (Ty Sk E W Oxborough RNR), beide in Alexandria, MUROTO (Ty Sk J Willis RNR), RAGLAN CASTLE (Sk G Buchan RNR) beide by Port Said
109ste Mynveegroep - myneveegwalvisse SKUDD III (Lt AF Harkness RNR), SKUDD IV (Ty Lt (E) T Holm RNR), SKUDD V (S/Lt RAN Cox RNR), SWONA (Lt WF Duffy RCNVR) alle dep Freetown 21 Des vir Simonstown via St Helena
142ste Mynveegroep - mynevee -walvisjagters SARNA (Ty Sk W T Allen RNR), SOIKA (Ty Lt (E) L Olsen RNR), SOTRA (Actg Lt J M Davies RCNVR), SVANA (Ty Lt (E) T Olsen RNR) arr arr Durban 22 Dec
Mynvee -treilers - EMPYREAN (Pbty Ty Sk W F Salenius RNR), RETURNO (Ty Lt E R Crane RNVR), albei in Gibraltar
Mynvee -swerwers - GIRL MARGARET, PLOGSJONGEN (geen CO's gelys nie) beide op Malta
Hulpmyneveërs - BLUE DANUBE (Lt Cdr N D Watts-Russell Rtd) by Port Said, No.1 en No.2 (geen CO's gelys nie), albei in Haifa
Kanonbote (geadministreer deur Captain Submarines, Med) - APHIS (Lt Cdr JO Campbell DSO Rtd) dep Alexandria 31 Dec for Sollum, CRICKET (Lt Cdr EB Carnduff from 11 Jan) at Bombay, LADYBIRD (Lt Cdr JF Blackburn Rtd) dep Alexandria 31 Dec vir Sollum
Motor -duikbootbote - MA/SB.2 (Lt Cdr R M Prior DSC Emgcy) te Alexandria, MA/SB.3 (Lt J C LaPage) in Alexandria
Voorsieningsskip - RELIANT (Meester C H Noel) op Alexandria
Herstel skip - HULPBRON (kapt D B O'Connell Rtd) op Alexandria
Monitor - TERROR (Cdr H J Haynes DSC) dep Alexandria 22 Des
Beheerde mynlaag - MEDUSA (Btswn F Farmer) op Malta
Netlaag - PROTECTOR (Cdr R J Gardner) arr Alexandria 20 Des
Vlootdoeldiens - sleepbote MOY (Lt V G Palmer), OUSE (LR J E Grice), ST ISSEY (Lt J H W Howe RNR), almal in Alexandria
Swerwers - CRESCENT MOON (no CO listed) at Port Said, EDDY (Ch Sk J Carnie RNR) at Malta, FELLOWSHIP (Ty S/Lt S Barrie RNR) at Suda Bay, LANDFALL (Actg S/Lt MFB Williams RNVR) at Port Said, LANNER (Sk W Stewart RNR) te Sudabaai, SONSONDERGANG (Ch Sk R Cowie RNR) op Malta
Smokkelbeheerdiens gewapende instapvaartuie ARPHA (Cdr FM Smith RD RNR) in Port Said, CHAKLA (Cdr LC Bach RD RNR) dep Alexandria 21 Des, FIONA (Lt JB Shillitoe RNR) arr Alexandria 24 Des, ROSAURA (Capt R Spencer RD RNR) arr Suda Bay 16 Dec, SURF (Ty Lt DC Wilson RNVR) by Port Said
Sleepbote - EMILY, WEST COCKER (geen CO's gelys) beide op Malta
Boom verdediging vaartuie - BARBETTE (Ty Lt EJP Webster RNR) dep Colombo 26 Des vir Port Said, BURGONET (Ty Lt CT Grantley RNR) arr Port Said 22 Des, MAGNET (Ty Boom Sk JW Hogarth RNR) te Alexandria, WESTGATE (Ty Boom Sk A Stewart RNR ) in Malta
Aanbodskepe - BRECONSHIRE (Capt C A G Hutchenson Rtd) arr Alexandria 23 Dec, KNIGHT OF MALTA, arr Alexandria 22 Dec, ULSTER PRINCE (Cdr F A Bond RD RNR Rtd) dep Piraeus 24 Dec
Rear Adm A J L Murray DSO, OBE
Depot skip - LUCIA (Flag, Cdr C R de B L Townsend Actg, Rtd)
Ligte kruisers - CALEDON (Capt C P Clarke) dep Aden 29 Dec, LEANDER (Capt R H Bevan) dep Bombay 27 Dec
Vliegtuigkruiser - CARLISLE (Capt G M B Langley OBE, Capt TC Hampton in Jan) arr Aden 29 Des
Vernietigers (Cdr W G A Robson) - KANDAHAR (SO, Robson) arr Suez 28 Des, KIMBERLEY (Lt Cdr J S M Richardson) arr Aden 29 Des, KINGSTON (Lt Cdr P Somerville DSO) dep Aden 30 Des vir Bombay.
Sloepe - AUCKLAND (Cdr JG Hewitt DSO) dep Aden 29 Dec, FLAMINGO (Cdr JH Huntley) arr Aden 26 Dec, GRIMSBY (Cdr KJ D'Arcy) arr Suez 25 Dec, SHOREHAM (Cdr GP Claridge) dep Aden 29 Dec, Australian PARRAMATTA ( Lt Cdr JH Walker MVO RAN) dep Aden 30 Dec, YARRA (Lt Cdr WH Harrington RAN) arr Port Sudan 27 Dec, Indian CLIVE (Cdr HR Inigo-Jones RIN) dep Port Sudan 27 Dec, Indian HINDUSTAN (Cdr IBW Heanly RIN) arr Aden 30 Des, Indiese INDUS (Cdr EGG Hunt RIN) dep Aden 29 Des
Indiese anti -duikbootvaartuie - NETRAVATI (Lt G P Ranson RIN) dep 20 Des vir Aden, PARVATI (Pbty S/Lt H A Romer RINVR) dep 31 Des, RATNAGIRI (Lt H M Clark RIN) dep 24 Des, alle dep Bombay
SUID -ATLANTIESE OPDRAG
Onderadm. R H T Raikes CB, CVO, DSO
Basis- en verblyfskip - EDINBURGH CASTLE (Capt E M Palmer OBE Rtd) op Freetown
Rear Adm W F Wake-Walker CB, OBE
Vliegtuigdraer - FORMIDABLE (Capt A W La T Bisset) dep Scapa Flow 18 Des
Swaar kruisers - DORSETSHIRE (Capt B C S Martin) dep Freetown 27 Dec, NORFOLK (Flag, Wake-Walker, Capt A J L Phillips) dep Scapa Flow 18 Dec
Vliegtuigvervoerder - HERMES (kapt R F J Onslow MVO, DSC) dep Freetown op patrollie 3 Des
Ligte kruiser - DRAGON (Capt R J Shaw MBE) dep Freetown 3 Des op patrollie.
Watervliegtuigvervoerder - ALBATROSS (Actg Capt W G Britain) op Freetown
Cruisers wat aangeheg is - heavy cruisers CORNWALL (Capt PCW Manwaring) arr Simonstown 28 Dec for refitting, comp 22 Feb, dep 28 Feb, CUMBERLAND (Capt Hon. CHE Russell) dep Freetown 1 Dec, DEVONSHIRE (Capt RD Oliver DSC) arr Simonstown 26 Dec, cruiser HAWKINS (Capt HPK Oram) arr Freetown 30 Dec, light cruisers DELHI (Capt AS Russell) dep Lagos 23 Dec for Manoca, DUNEDIN (Capt RS Lovatt) dep Gibraltar 29 Dec, ENTERPRISE (Capt JC Annesley DSO) dep Montevideo 15 Dec, NEPTUNE ( Capt RC O'Conor) dep Freetown 28 Des, NEWCASTLE (Capt EA Aylmer DSC) dep Freetown 10 Des
Sloepe - BRIDGEWATER (Cdr H F C Leftwich Rtd) arr Freetown 28 Dec, MILFORD (Capt S K Smyth Rtd) arr Freetown 20 Dec, French sloop SAVORGNAN DE BRAZZA (CC Roux) at Durban refitting to comp 17 Jan, French patrol boat PRESIDENT HOUDUCE at Duala
Korvette - ASPHODEL (Lt Cdr KW Stewart Rtd) dep Freetown 29 Des, CALENDULA (Lt Cdr AD Bruford RNVR) at Freetown repairing, CLEMATIS (Cdr YM Cleeves DSO, DSC, RD RNR), CYCLAMEN (Lt HN Lawson RNR), GERANIUM ( A Foxall RNR Actg), JONQUIL (Lt Cdr REH Partington RNR), laaste vier dep Ponta Delgada 29 Des.
Gewapende handelskruisers - ALCANTARA (Capt J G P Ingham DSO Rtd) at Southampton repairing, ASTURIAS (Capt H Ardill Rtd) dep Capetown 13 Dec, QUEEN OF BERMUDA (Capt G A B Hawkins MVO, DSC, Capt A T G C Peachey from 1 Feb) arr Montevideo 18 Dec
Freetown Convoy Escort Force gewapende handelskruisers ARAWA (Actg Capt GR Deverell Rtd) te Belfast herstel na 3 Jan, BULOLO (Capt RL Hamer DSO Rtd) arr Freetown 28 Des, CANTON (Capt CP Frend) te Freetown, CARNARVON CASTLE (Capt HNM Hardy DSO Rtd) arr Capetown 20 Des, CATHAY (Capt C McC Merewether Rtd) dep Freetown 16 Des vir Clyde, CORFU (Capt JP Landon Rtd) te Freetown in beskadigde toestand, ESPERANCE BAY (Capt GS Holder Rtd) dep Freetown 22 Dec, MOOLtAN (Capt CG Sutclif Rtd) by Tyne repairing, MORETON BAY (Actg Capt EM Haes, Capt CC Bell Rtd vanaf 5 Jan) te Tyne repairing to comp einde Februarie, PRETORIA CASTLE (Capt EJ Shelley Rtd) dep Simonstown 14 Dec
Gratis Franse patrollievaartuie - VIKINGS dep Freetown 29 Des vir Duala, VAILLANT arr Clyde 29 Nov (Franse bemanning)
6de Anti -Submarine Group - anti-duikboot-treilers BENGALI (Ty Sk EE Barnes RNVR) herstel, KELT (Sk W Mc K Smith RNR), PICT (Lt Cdr WNM Faichney RNR), SPANIARD (Lt Cdr FJ Webster RNR), TURCOMAN (Ty S/Lt WT Hodson RNVR) alles op Freetown
Noorse walvisjagters teen duikboot - FALK, HEKTOR VI, KLO, THORBRYN, THORGRIM, TORDONN (geen CO's gelys nie), alles in Capetown
93ste Mynveegroep - myneveegsloepe COMMANDANT DUBOC (Franse bemanning) by Duala, COMMANDANT DOMINE (Franse bemanning) by Lagos, myneveegtreilers GENERAL BIRDWOOD (Sk WJ Taylor RNR) te Freetown, MAPLE (Ty Lt ES Phillips RNR) by Freetown repairing, REDWOOD (REDWOOD Sk) RNR) by Freetown, ST MINVER (Ch Sk J Duthie RNR) by Freetown
154ste Mynveegroep - mynevee -treiler POLAR V (Ty Lt K Hendriksen RNR), SKUDD VI (Ty Lt (E) O M Amundsen RNR), beide arr Ponta Delgada 31 Des.
Beheerde mynlaag - SKAKELIK (Lt O H Pullman RNR) op Freetown
Mynvee -treiler - WILLIAM SCORESBY (Cdr H Petit-Dann Rtd) by Port Stanley
Mynvee -swerwer (tender aan HAWKINS) - ROYDUR (Ty F R Jakeman RNVR) by Port Stanley
Hulpmyne -vaartuie - ARUM, NERINE, sleepboot NGUVU, almal op Kaapstad
Basis herstel skip - VINDICTIVE (Actg Capt J B Heath) arr Freetown 31 Des
Boom verdediging vaartuie - BARBROOK (Ty Lt S Wardell RNR), BARCASTLE (Actg Ty Warrant Mech A Burchell RNR), QUANNET (Ty Lt W P Jones RNR), alles in Freetown
AMERIKA EN WES -INDIESE STASIE
Basis skepe - BUZZARD (Cdr (A) J F W C Hawkins) op Jamaika, GOSHAWK (Capt (A) R de H Burton) by Trinidad, MALABAR (vise-adm. Charles E Kennedy-Purvis KCB) op Bermuda, PURSUIVANT (Cdr R B Martin Rtd) op Port Stanley
8ste Cruiser -eskader - ligte kruisers CARADOC (Capt JS Bethell) arr Bermuda 27 Des, DESPATCH (Capt CE Douglas-Pennant DSC, Cdre 2/c) arr Nassau 30 Dec, DIOMEDE (Capt JW Farquhar) dep Kingston 20 Dec, DUNEDIN (Capt RS Lovatt) det na South Atlantic Command (qv)
Duikboot - PORPOISE (Lt Cdr J G Hopkins) dep Halifax 26 Des
Aangeslote Nederlandse sloep - VAN KINSBERGEN (Nederlandse bemanning) dep Nassau 9 Des
Inboordvaartuig by die see - DAME SOMERS (Cdr G L Dunbar RNR) pas Quebec aan
Depot skip - treiler SEABORN (Rear Adm S S Bonham-Carter CB, CVO, DSO) by Halifax
Slagskepe - REVENGE (Capt E R Archer) arr 26 Des, ROYAL SOVEREIGN (Capt H B Jacomb) arr 28 Dec, beide arr Halifax
Kanadese vernietigers - ASSINIBOINE (Capt G C Jones, Cdre 2/c RCN), RESTIGOUCHE (Cdr H N Lay RCN), albei arr Halifax 26 Des
Nederlandse duikboot O.15 (Lt H M L F E van Oostrom Soede) by Halifax
Gewapende handelskruisers - ALAUNIA (Capt HJ Woodward DSO Rtd) dep Halifax 26 Dec, ASCANIA (Capt CH Ringrose-Wharton Rtd) arr Halifax 12 Dec, AURANIA (Actg Capt LW Whiteborn) arr Bermuda 21 Dec, AUSONIA (Capt GH Freyberg CBE Rtd) dep Halifax 10 Des, CORMORIN (Capt JL Hallett Rtd) arr Halifax 24 Dec, LACONIA (Capt GGP Hewett Rtd) dep Halifax 1 Jan, MALOJA (Actg Capt V Hammersley-Heenan Rtd) dep Halifax 23 Dec, MONTCLARE (Capt HM Spreckley Rtd) dep Bermuda 31 Des, RAJPUTANA (Capt FH Taylor DSC Rtd) dep Halifax 30 Des RANPURA (Actg Capt HTW Pawsey) arr Halifax 31 Dec, VOLtAIRE (Actg Capt JAP Blackburn Rtd) dep Bermuda 21 Dec
Basisskip, Ceylon - LANKA
Swaar kruiser - SHROPSHIRE (kapt J H Edelsten) arr Mombasa 31 Des
Ligte kruisers - CAPETOWN (Capt P H G James) dep Colombo 29 Dec, CERES (Capt E G Abbott AM, Capt D M L Neame DSO from Feb) dep Mombasa 2 Jan, COLOMBO (Capt C A E Stanfield) dep Mombasa 2 Jan.
Gewapende handelskruisers - ANTENOR (Capt DI McGillewie Rtd) arr Colombo on 29 Dec, CARTHAGE (Capt HLI Kirkpatrick OBE Rtd) arr Colombo 2 Jan and Bombay on 6 Jan, HECTOR (Capt F Howard DSC Rtd) at Colombo refitting to comp 6 Jan, KANIMBLA (Capt FE Getting) dep Mauritius 26 Dec, RANCHI (Capt CTA Bunbury OBE Rtd) dep Durban 31 Dec
Sloepe - FALMOUTH (Cdr C C Hardy, Cdr U H R James vanaf 15 Jan) op patrollie in Straits van Hormuz, Indiese sloepe CORNWALLIS (Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN) te Khor Kuwai, Oman, LAWRENCE (Lt A T J Cole RIN) dep Karachi 21 Des.
Duikboot - X.2 (gevang Italiaanse GALILEO GALILEI, Lt Cdr P E H Heathfield Rtd) by Suez
Kanonbote - COCKCHAFER (Lt Cdr A F Roberton-Aikman) te Basra, GNAT (Lt Cdr S R H Davenport) arr Alexandria 28 Des, TARANTULA (Cdr R C Creer RAN Rtd te Colombo
Anti -duikboot treilers - AMBER (Actg S/Lt P Le M Andrews RNR) te Aden, MOONSTONE (Lt Cdr P G Britten RNR Rtd) te Bombay wat weer op 10 Jan.
Mynveërs Minesweeper WIDNES (Lt Cdr R B Chandler), Mynvee -treiler OVERDALE WYKE (Ty Lt N M Waldman RNR), beide by Colombo
Vaartuie vir smokkelbeheer CHAKDINA (Lt Cdr W R Hickey RNR) arr Aden 24 Dec, CHANTALA (Lt Cdr C E I Gibbs Rtd) dep Aden 18 Dec, PERRONELLE (no CO listed) at Aden, SAGITTA (Cdr J O Dunn RD RNR) arr Aden 24 Dec
Boom Defense Vessels - BARNET (Sk W Thompson RNR) dep Colombo 30 Des, PLANET (Ty Boom Sk D Cowie RNR) te Aden, SANDGATE, SOUTHGATE (geen CO's gelys), beide te Trincomalee
Boom Defense Tender - MAJESTIC (geen CO gelys nie) by Trincomalee
Boom draer - LAOMEDON (Cdr J J E Barclay RD RNR) by Aden
Viseadministrateur sir Geoffrey Layton
Basis skepe - SULTAN (Rear Adm T B Drew OBE), TAMAR (Cdre AC Collinson)
5de Cruiser -eskader - ligte kruisers DANAE (Capt F J Butler MBE Actg) by herstelwerk in Hong Kong, DAUNTLESS (Capt G D Moore RAN) arr Penang 21 Des, DURBAN (Capt J A S Eccles) in Singapore
Vernietigers - SCOUT (Lt Cdr DH Harper Rtd, Lt Cdr H Lambton van Feb) in Hong Kong, STRONGHOLD (Lt Cdr R Alexander, Lt Cdr GR Pretor-Pinney Rtd van 18 Mar), TENEDOS (Lt Cdr J O'B Milner Barry), beide in Singapoer, THANET (Lt. Cdr J Mowlam), THRACIAN (Cdr AL Pears Rtd), albei in Hong Kong
Yangzte kanonbote (Geadministreer deur Commodore Hong Kong) - GANNET (Cdr AF St. G Orphen) by Chungking gelê, FALCON (Lt Cdr RS Abram) te Wushan, MANTIS, te Shanghai in afwagting van sloop, PETEREL (SNO Shanghai, Actg Cdr HV Creer RAN Rtd ) in Shanghai, SANDPIPER (Pbty Ty S/Lt JH Taylor RNVR) by Changsha gelê, SCARAB (Lt Cdr JA Agnew) in Singapore, SCORPION (Ty Lt Cdr LJ Hegarty DSC RNR) in Singapore, TERN (Lt Cdr MHR Crichton) in Hong Kong
West River geweerbote (onder bevel van Commodore Hong Kong) - CICALA (Lt Cdr G H Gandy Rtd), MOTH (Ty Lt J Douglas RNR), beide in Hong Kong, SEAMEW (Lt Cdr N R Murch) in Canton
Kanonbote - DRAGONFLY (Lt A H Diack), GRASSHOPPER (Cdr J S Hoffman Rtd), albei in Singapoer
Hulp -onderzeeervaartuie - KEDAH (Lt Cdr E Neville) in Singapoer, SHU KWANG (Cdr A D Thomson DSC RNR Rtd), TIEN KWANG (Ty Lt W G Briggs RNR), beide by Trengganu
2de motor -torpedobootflotilla - MTB.7 (Lt RRW Ashby HgKgNVF), MTB.8 (Lt LD Kilbee HgKgNVF), MTB.9 (Actg S/Lt A Kennedy RNVR), MTB.10 (SO, Lt Cdr JC Boldero DSC Rtd), MTB.11 (Lt CJ Collingwood), MTB.12 (S/Lt WE Richards RNVR), MTB.26 (Lt MJ de C Carey), MTB.27 (S/Lt TM Parsons HgKgNVF), alles in Hong Kong
Mynveërs - ABERDARE (Lt Cdr G Nelson Rtd) herstel, HARROW (Lt G C Hocart Rtd), albei in Singapoer
Opmetings skepe - ENDEAVOUR (geen CO gelys nie), HERALD (Pbty Ty E R Maples RNR), albei in Singapoer
Beheerde mynlaag - REDSTART (Lt Cdr H C S C Selby Rtd) in Hong Kong
Boom verdediging vaartuie - ALDGATE (Ch Sk JH Cowling DSM RNR), BARLANE (Ch Sk F Bremner RNR) BARLIGHT (Ty Lt A w. Skelly RNR), almal in Hong Kong, BARRICADE (Ty Lt HW Clouston RNR), BARRIER (Ch Sk RE Souter RNR) ), DOWGATE (Ty Boom Eng RPW Tonkin RNR), FASTNET (Ch Sk R Thompson RNR), LUDGATE (geen CO genoteer nie), almal in Singapoer, WATERGATE (Ch Sk JW Cowling RNR) in Hong Kong
3. DOMINION en INDIESE VLOTTE
ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY
Slegs Australiese eenhede wat in Australian Home Waters ontplooi is, word hier gelys,
Oorsese implementerings word in hul onderskeie opdragte getoon
Swaar kruiser - CANBERRA (Flag, Capt H B Farncomb MVO RAN) dep Sydney 30 Dec
Ligte kruisers - ADELAIDE (Capt H A Showers RAN) arr Noumea 29 Dec, HOBART (Capt H L Howden OBE RAN) dep Fremantle 29 Dec for Sydney.
Gewapende handelskruisers - MANOORA (Actg Capt A H Spurgeon RAN) dep Samarai 29 Dec for Ocean Island, WESTRALIA (Capt H V Hudson OBE Emgcy RAN) dep Colombo 23 Dec
20ste Mynvee Flotilla - sloep SWAN (Lt Cdr A J Travis RAN), mynvee -vaartuig ORARA (Lt J G S Fyfe RANR), beide arr Port Phillipbaai 26 Des.
Sloop - WARREGO (Cdr R V Wheatley RAN) arr Port Phillipbaai 26 Des
Anti -duikboot patrollie skepe - BINGERA (Lt Cdr E W Livingstone RANR (S) te Fremantle, BONTHORPE (Lt Cdr F W Blaydon, RANR) ligging nie gegee nie, MORESBY (Cdr W H Martin RAN) arr Cairns 22 Des
Hulp -onderzeeervaartuie - BATHURST (Lt Cdr AV Bunyan RANR (S) in Port Phillip Bay, BERYL II (Ty WO JD Lawrie RANR (S) by Victoria, COOLEBAR (Lt Cdr RA Nettlefold RANR) in Sydney, GOOLGWAI (Lt Cdr JP Tonkin Emgcy RAN) by Sydney, GUNBAR (Lt NH Muzzell RANR (S) in Wes -Australië, HEROS (Ty Lt CH Brown RANR (S) in Sydney, KOROWA (Ty Comm Officer van WO rang JH Reynolds DSC RANR (S) in Wes -Australië, KYBRA (Lt. Cdr GL Cant) in Sydney, OLIVE CAM (Ty Comm Officer van WO rang S Armstrong RANR (S) in Wes -Australië, ST GILES (Ty Lt HA Litchfiled RANR (S) in Sydney, TAMBAR (Lt JHP Dixon RANR) in Wes -Australië) , TOLGA (Lt Cdr JH Malley Emgcy RAN) te Sydney, TONGKOL (Ty WO WJ Edmonds RANR (S) in Sydney, WYRALLAH (Lt Cdr GD Tancred RAN) te Fremantle, YANDRA (Lt JA Tapin RANR (S) by Fremantle
Hulpmynevee -treilers - ALFIE CAM (Lt Cdr N J Trace RANR), DURAWEEN (Lt Cdr C W J Patterson RANR), GOONAMBEE (Lt Cdr E W Andrewartha RANR), SAMUEL BENBOW (Lt Cdr K M Levy RANR), geen plekke gegee nie
Boom verdediging vaartuie - KANGAROO (Pbty Ty Lt L C Parnell RANR (S), KOALA (Btswn E D Wilder RAN), albei in Sydney, KOOKABURRA (Lt H R Gaskill RANVR) by Darwin
Basis skepe - NADEN (Capt V G Brodeur RCN) by Esquimalt, STADACONA (Capt H E Reid RCN) by Halifax
Gewapende handelskruisers - PRINCE DAVID (Ty Cdr W B Armit RD RCNR) by Halifax refitting, PRINCE HENRY (Capt J C I Edwards RCN) fit, PRINCE ROBERT (Ty Cdr F G Hart RCN) dep Callao 15 Des
Vernietigers - ANNAPOLIS (Cdr C D Donald RCN), COLUMBIA (Lt Cdr S W Davis Rtd) dep 26 Dec, ST CROIX (Cdr H Kingsley RCN), ST FRANCIS (A/Cdr H F Pullen RCN) arr 25 Dec, all arr, at or dep Halifax
Hulp -onderzeeervaartuie - ACADIA (Lt Cdr H G Shadforth RCNR), FRANS (Lt J W Bonner RCNR), SANS PEUR (Actg Lt Cdr W C Halliday RCNR), almal by Halifax, WOLF (Lt G A Gow RCNR) by Esquimalt
Mynvee -treilers - ARMENTIERES (Lt T MacDuff RCNR) by Esquimalt, COMOX (Lt RR Kenney RCNR), FUNDY (Actg Lt Cdr AG Stanley RCNR), GASPE (Actg Lt Cdr HD Mackay RCNR), NOOTKA (Lt Cdr WJ Fricker RCN), almal behalwe een in Halifax
Gewapende seiljagte - ELK (Lt Cdr N V Clark RCNR), HUSKY (Lt H Freeland RCNR), beide arr Bermuda 23 Des, REINDEER (Lt Cdr E G Skinner RCNR), SKY (geen CO gelys nie), beide by Halifax
Patrollievaartuig - LAURIER (Lt R A S MacNeil RCNR) by Halifax
Boom verdediging vaartuie - FESTUBERT by Halifax
Sien ook Rooi See -mag en Oos -Indiese Kommando vir operasionele oorlogskepe
Depot skip - DALHOUSIE (Cdr A R Rattray RIN) by Bombay
Opleidingsskip - DUFFERIN (geen CO gelys nie) te Bombay
Opmetingsskip - ONDERSOEKER (Lt.ldr W J C Hughes RIN, Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN vanaf 11 Jan) te Bombay
Treiler - MADRAS (S/Lt R Williams RIN)
ROYAL NEW NEW ZEALAND NAVY
Slegs Nieu -Seelandse eenhede wat in New Zealand Home Waters ontplooi is, word hier gelys,
Oorsese implementerings word in hul onderskeie opdragte getoon
Depot en opleidingsskip - PHILOMEL (Capt E Rotherham) in Auckland
Ligte kruiser - ACHILLES (Capt H M Barnes) dep Sydney 29 Dec for Auckland.
Gewapende handelskruiser - MONOWAI (Actg Capt H V P McClintock) dep Auckland 31 Des
25ste mynvee -flotilla - mynevee -treilers GALE, MATAI (SO), MURITAI (Ty S/Lt R Matheson NZRNVR), PURIRI, RATA (slegs een CO gelys), alles in Auckland
Groep I - DUCHESS (geen CO gelys nie), HUMPHREY (Ty Lt J Holt NZRNVR), WAKAKURA (Actg Cdr A D Holden NZRNVR) alles in Auckland
Groep II - FUTURIST, SUID -SEE (geen CO's gelys nie), beide in Wellington
Groep III - JAMES COSGROVE (Lt Cdr H H Jones NZRNR), THOMAS CURREL (Ty Lt A G Nilsson NZRNVR), beide by Lyttelton
REGIE VAN DIE UNIE VAN SUID -AFRIKA
Hulptreilers teen duikbote - BLOOMVLEI (Sk S B Petzer SARNVR), MOOIVLEI (Sk H A Crons SARNVR), RONDEVLEI (Lt R P Dryden Dymond RNVR (SA), SMALVLEI (Lt J Leask SDF) alles op Simonstown
Anti -duikboot treilers - SUIDELIKE VLOE (Ty Lt JEJ Lewis SARNVR), SUIDELIKE EILAND (Ty Lt AC Matson SARNVR), SUIDMEESTER (SO, Ty Lt Cdr AF Trew SARNVR), SUIDELIKE SEE (Ty Lt A Thomas SARNVR), alles af Durban 15 Des vir Alexandria .
2 Januarie 1941 - Geskiedenis
Die nuwe jaar het begin met 'n aanval op Cardiff deur 100 Duitse bomwerpers op die aand van 2 Januarie, dit is die volgende aand gevolg deur 'n aanval op Bristol met 170 vliegtuie. Die volgende week, 10 Januarie, was Portsmouth blitsig, en verdwaalde bomme het oor Surrey, Berkshire en dele van Buckinghamshire geval.
Eton College wat Manor Farm aangeskaf het, het die huurkontrak aangebied aan James Kinross Snr., Wat 'n jarelange huurderboer van die kollege was sonder 'n plaashuis, het die plaas in besit geneem. Tot dan was die plaasbasis 'n dubbele Nederlandse Rooi skuur op die Slough - Etonweg. Hierdie skuur was ook bekend as die ‘Tramps Hotel ’ en het 'n stewige aanleg gehad vir al die plaas se dryfkrag, wat destyds twaalf perde was. Die ingeslote gedeelte van die skuur is deur 'n regeringsdepartement opgeneem vir die berging van voorrade wat op verskillende tye items soos uie en suikergoed insluit, wat nie 'n goeie idee was nie, gegewe die knaagdierpopulasie. Militêre winkels bestaan uit dinge soos lugmagblou hemde en voetpoeier, 'n medisinale talk vir voete, soldate vir die gebruik van.
Clothes rationing made the shirts a desirable item on the Black Market and a temptation to thieves. One night, shortly after the end of the war in Europe, using a lorry, thieves smashed through the barn doors and made off with a quantity of shirts. The shirts, all one size, bore the size mark 22. German P.O.W.'s arriving for work the following morning at Manor farm espied the shirts lying around and proceeded to kit themselves out. Although Manor Farm must be over a mile from one end to the other, the news that Police CID and Military SIB had arrived at the scene of the crime spread like a forest fire. The P.O.W.'s aware of the consequences if caught in possession of stolen property, immediately set about disposing of their loot putting shirts down the toilet, into buckets and in any other suitable place. One German prisoner working out in the field had no alternative but to bury his shirt and carry on working stripped to the waist on a very chilly day. When questioned by the investigating officers, everyone swore that Willie never wore a shirt or coat when working.
Having learnt to drive one of the new-fangled Fordson tractors, James Kinross Jnr. set about ploughing up the hallowed turf of Agars Plough, Eton. Other recreational areas were ploughed and prepared for cereals including the recreation ground at Eton Wick. By September 1943 the Bucks War Agriculture Executive had designated many acres of grass land around the district including 150 acres of the Dorney common for cereal and vegetable cultivation.
Doris Bentley, Barbara Trimmings and Margaret McIntosh, to name three capable members of the Womens Land Army, worked at Manor Farm and Barbara became very skilled at driving the Fordson tractor. On cold mornings the tractor could be difficult to start, the engine needing to be cranked overusing a starting handle this operation require a certain amount of strength and knack, both of which Barbara had acquired. Petrol used for starting was contained in a small section of the fuel tank, the larger section containing the vaporising oil on which the engine ran when suitably warmed up. Once her precaution of covering the engine with sacking against frost and damp almost ended in disaster a leak having developed in the petrol section of the tank dripped onto the sacking during the night. When endeavouring to start the beast the sacking ignited, and a jet of flame shot up those around beating a hasty retreat whilst Barbara coolly extinguished the fire.
Many P.O.W,s were sent to work on local farms and were available on a daily basis from the prisoner of war camp at Maidenhead, being generally allocated at the farmers request in gangs of eight. Max Schattke, a German prisoner of war came to the Manor farm during the summer of 1946. He was an aerial photographer in the Luftwaffe who had been shot down over Caen in 1945 and captured by the Americans. Having been in captivity for some time on the continent Max arrived in England in late January 1946, going into the large POW camp at Reading from whence he transferred to the camp at Ascot commencing work at Manor farm. Upon being discharged from his POW status in January 1948 he voluntarily stayed and worked on the farm for another year as a free man. During his stay Max was encouraged to converse in English with help from Mrs Kinross Senior and after having spent some time exploring England Max returned to Germany in 1951.
“My daughter and I visited Mr and Mrs Kinross at Manor Farm in 1998 and have memories of Doris Bentley who left in late 1945 to marry a Canadian Police Officer, Barbara who left the farm in 1946, and Margaret McIntosh who married Peter French”.
For the first weeks of January there was no enemy activity in the sky over Slough - Windsor to disturb local residents but the Cities of Cardiff, Bristol and Portsmouth suffered from attacks by the Luftwaffe. This respite did not last, for on the morning of February 3rd., a dismal morning with snow falling, a German aircraft dropped bombs on Upton and Ditton Park, Slough. The sound of machine gun fire sent Eton Wick village school children to seek shelter under their desks and although the. damage was slight but the blast from the exploding bombs caused two panes of glass to crack at the school.
2 January 1941 - History
by Don Kindell
GERMAN NAVY SHIPS, JANUARY 1941 (Part 1 of 2)
(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)
GERMAN SURFACE SHIPS and U-BOATS to U.150 (all built or building)
Includes destroyers, torpedo boats and submarines completed by the end of war even if construction did not begin in 1941.
The commanding officer shown for units under construction is the CO on completion
BISMARCK (KptzS Ernst Lindemann) at Hamburg completing
TIRPITZ (KptzS Karl Topp from Feb 41) at Wilhelmshaven bldg to comp 25 Feb 41
GNEISENAU (KptzS Otto Fein) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, damaged by weather, ret to Kiel 2 Jan
SCHARNHORST (KptzS Curt Caesar Hoffman) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, ret to Kiel with damaged GNEISENAU
ARMOURED SHIPS/POCKET BATTLESHIPS
ADMIRAL SCHEER (KptzS Theodor Krancke), operating in South Atlantic
L TZOW (KptzS Leo Kreish from Mar 41, no Captain attached from late Apr 40 to Mar 41) at Kiel repairing to comp Jun 41
ADMIRAL HIPPER (KptzS Wilhelm Meisel) arr at Brest on 27 Dec from operations
PRINZ EUGEN (KptzS Helmuth Brinkman) at Kiel completing
EMDEN (KptzS Hans Mirow) refitting
K LN (KptzS Ernst Kratzenberg, KptzS Freidrich Huffmeier from May 41) operational
LEIPZIG (KptzS Werner Stichling) at Danzig working up after repairs
N RNBERG (KptzS Leo Kreisch, KptzS Ernst v Studnitz from 20 Mar 41) operational
BRUNO HEINEMANN (Z.8, KKpt Hermann Alberts) 6th Fl
ERICH STEINBRINCK (Z.15, KKpt Rolf Johannesson) 5th Fl
FRIEDRICH ECKHOLDT (Z.16, KKpt Alfred Schemmel) 5th Fl
FRIEDRICH IHN (Z.14, KKpt Gunther Wachmuth) 5th Fl
HANS LODY (Z.10, KKpt Werner Pfeiffer) 6th Fl
HERMANN SCHOEMANN (Z.7, KKpt Heinrich Wittig) 6th Fl
KARL GALSTER (Z.20, KKpt Theodor Freiherr von Bechtolsheim) 6th Fl
PAUL JACOBI (Z.5, KKpt Hans G. Zimmer, FKpt Hermann Schlieper from Apr 41) 6th Fl
RICHARD BEITZEN (Z.4, KKpt Hans von Davidson) 5th Fl
THEODOR RIEDEL (Z.6, KKpt Walter Riede) 6th Fl
Z.23 (KKpt Friedrich Bohme) 8th Fl
Z.24 (KKpt Martin Saltzwedel) 8th Fl
Z.25 (KKpt Heinrich Gerlach) 8th Fl
building at Bremen
Z.26 (KKpt Georg Ritter von Berger) to comp 11 Jan 41, to join 8th Fl
Z.27 (KKpt Karl Smidt) to comp 26 Feb 41, to join 8th Fl
Z.28 (FKpt Hans Erdmenger) to comp 9 Aug 41, to join 8th Fl
Z.29 (FKpt Kurt Rechel) to comp 9 Jul 41, to join 8th Fl
Z.30 (KKpt Heinrich Kaiser) to comp 15 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl
Z.31 (FKpt Hermann Alberts) to comp 11 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl
Z.32 (FKpt Georg Ritter und Elder Herr von Berger) to comp 15 Sep 42, to join 4th Fl
Z.33 (KptzS Erich Holtorf) to comp 28 Jan 43, to join 4th Fl
Z.34 (FKpt Karl Hetz) to comp 5 Jun 43, to join 4th Fl
Z.35 (KKpt Niels Batge) to comp 22 Sep 43, to join 4th Fl
Z.36 (KKpt Lothar Frhr von Hausen) to comp 19 Feb 44, to join 4th Fl
building at Kiel
Z.37 (FKpt Georg Langheld) to comp 5 May 42, to join 4th Fl
Z.38 (KKpt Gerfried Brutzer) to comp 29 Mar 43, to join 4th Fl
Z.39 (KKpt Konrad Loerke) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 4th Fl
Z.40-Z.42 work suspended 1942, broken up 1943
building at Bremen
Z.43 (KptzS Arthur Wenninger) to comp 24 Mar 44, to join 6th Fl
FALKE (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbar) 5th TBF
GREIF (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman) 5th TBF
ILTIS (Kptlt Walter Jacobsen) 6th TBF
JAGUAR (Kptlt Werner Hartenstein, Kptlt Friedrich Karl Paul from Mar 41) 6th TBF
KONDOR (Kptlt Freiherr Wilhelm Nickolaus von Lyncker) 5th TBF
M WE, damaged, assigned to Torpedo School, to comp repairs 1 Oct 40, but did not rejoin 5th TBF until Apr 1942
SEEADLER (Kptlt Franz Kohlauf) 6th TBF
WOLF (OzS Broder Peters) 6th TBF
T.1 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) 1st TBF
T.2 (Kptlt Heinrich Godecke) 1st TBF
T.3 (Kptlt Heinrich Bruns) 1st TBF
T.4 (Kptlt Erwin Hesse, OzS Konrad Sommerlatt from Oct 41) 1st TBF
T.5 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) 2nd TBF
T.7 (Kptlt Wolfgang Erhardt, Kptlt Hans Quaet-Faslem from Apr 41) 2nd TBF
T.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Erdmann, Kptlt Thilo-Leberecht v Trotha from Apr 41) 2nd TBF
T.9 (Kptlt Hans Blose) 1st TBF
T.10 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) 1st TBF
T.11 (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman, Kptlt Georg Grund from Jun 41) 2nd TBF
T.12 (Kptlt Viktor Mellin) 2nd TBF
building at Elbing
T.13 (Kptlt Werner Gotzmann) to comp 31 May 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.14 (Kptlt Herbert Juttner) to comp 14 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.15 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius, Kptlt Joachim Quedenfeldt from Jul 41) to comp 26 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.16 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius) to comp 24 Jul 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.17 (Kptlt Hans Blose) to comp 28 Aug 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.18 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) to comp 22 Nov 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.19 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 18 Dec 41, to join 3rd TBF
T.20 (Kptlt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 5 Jun 42, to join 3rd TBF
T.21 (Kptlt Hans Temming) to comp 11 Jul 42, to join 3rd TBF
T.22 (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbaar) to comp 28 Feb 42, to join 5th TBF
T.23 (Kptlt Friedrich-Karl Paul) to comp 14 Jun 42, to join 4th TBF
T.24 (KKpt Heinrich Hoffmann) to comp 17 Oct 42, to join 4th TBF
T.25 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) to comp 12 Nov 42, to join 4th TBF
T.26 (Kptlt Wilhelm-Nikolaus Frhr von Lyncker) to comp 27 Feb 43, to join 4th TBF
T.27 (KKpt Wilhelm Verlohr) to comp 17 Apr 43, to join 4th TBF
T.28 (KKpt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 19 Jun 43, to join 5th TBF
T.29 (Kptlt Georg Grund) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 5th TBF
T.30 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 24 Oct 43, to join 6th TBF
T.31 (Kptlt Heinrich Peter-Pirkham) to comp 5 Feb 44, to join 6th TBF
T.32 (Kptlt Hans Dehnert) to comp 8 May 44, to join 6th TBF
T.33 (Kptlt Bogislav Priebe) to comp 16 Jun 44, to join 6th TBF
T.34 (Kptlt Horst Frhr von Luttitz) to comp 12 Aug 44, to join 5th TBF
T.35 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 7 Oct 44, to join 5th TBF
T.36 (Kptlt Robert Hering) to comp 9 Dec 44, to join 5th TBF
LEOPARD (ex-BALDER, Kptlt Konrad Sommerlatt, Kptlt Bethge from Oct) 7th TBF
L WE (ex-GYLLER, Kptlt Georg Grund, OzS Gerhard Kellerstrass from May) 7th TBF
PANTHER (ex-ODIN, OzS Walther Jahrmarker, Kptlt Friedrich Meier from Jun) 7th TBF
TIGER (ex-TOR, Kptlt Herbert Juttner, Ozs. Friedrich Nose from Jun) 7th TBF
U.2 (Kptlt George v Wilmowitz-Moellendorf, LzS Karl Kolzer from Oct 41) 21st Fl
U.3 (Kptlt Otto Bulow, OzS Hans Trojer from Jul 41) 21st Fl
U.4 (OzS Hansjurgen Zetzsche, OzS Hinrich-Oscar Bernbeck from Feb 41, OzS Wolfgang Leimkuhler from Dec 41) 21st Fl
U.5 (OzS Friedrich Bothe) 21st Fl
U.6 (OzS Johannes Liebe, Kptlt Eberhard Bopst from Mar 41, LzS Herbert Bruninghaus from Oct 41) 21st Fl
U.7 (OzS Gunther Reeder, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Jan 41, OzS Gunther Reeder from Feb 41, OzS Hans-Gunther Kuhlmann from Mar 41, OzS Heinrich Schmid from May 41) 21st Fl
U.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Heinsohn, Kptlt Ulrich Borcherdt in May 41, OzS Rolf Steinhaus from Jun 41, OzS Horst Deckert from Aug 41) 22nd Fl
U.9 (Kptlt Joachim Deecke, Kptlt Hans-Joachim Schmidt-Weichert from Jul 41) 21st Fl
U.10 (Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau, OzS Kurt Ruwiedel from Jun 41, OzS Hans Karpf from Nov 41) 21st Fl
U.11 (Kptlt Georg Peters) 21st Fl
U.14 (Kptlt Jurgen Konenkamp, OzS Hubertus Przikling from May 41) 22nd Fl
U.17 (Kptlt Wolfgang Schultze, OzS Ernst Heydemann from Oct 41), U-boat Training School
U.18 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang, OzS Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski from May 41) 22nd Fl
U.19 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel, OzS Gerhard Litterscheid from Jun 41) 22nd Fl
U.20 (Kptlt Herbert Schauenburg, OzS Wolfgang Strater from May 41, OzS Kurt Nolke from Dec 41) 21st Fl
U.21 (Kptlt Bernhard Lohse, OzS Karl-Heinz Herbschleb from May 41) 21st Fl
U.23 (OzS Karl Reichenbach-Klinke, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Mar 41, OzS Ulrich Graf from Sep 41) 21st Fl
U.24 (OzS Dietrich Borchert, OzS Helmut Henning from Mar 41, OzS Hardo Rodler von Roithberg from Aug 41) 21st Fl
U.28 (OzS Friedrich Guggenberger, OzS Heinrich Ratsch from Feb 41, OzS Hermann Eckhardt from Jun 41) 24th Fl
U.29 (Kptlt Otto Schuhart, OzS Georg Lassen from Jan 41, OzS Heinrich Hasenschar from Sep 41) 24th Fl
U.30 (KKpt Robert Prutzmann, OzS Paul-Karl Loeser in Apr 41, OzS Kurt Baberg from Apr 41) 24th Fl
U.34 (Ozs Fritz Meyer, OzS Karl-Otto Schultz from May 41, OzS Gerhard Remus from Dec 41) 24th Fl
U.37 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen, OzS Ulrich Folkers from Apr 41, OzS Gustav-Adolf Janssen from Nov 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 26th Fl in Apr 41
U.38 (Kptlt Heinrich Liebe, KKpt Heinrich Schuch from Jul 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 24th Fl in Dec 41
U.43 (Kptlt Wolfgang Luth) 2nd Fl
U.46 (Kptlt Engelbert Endrass, OzS Peter Ottmar Grau from Sep 41, OzS Konstantin von Puttkamer in Nov 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Apr 41
U.47 (KKpt Gunther Prien) 7th Fl
U.48 (Kptlt Herbert Schultze, OzS Siegfried Atzinger from Aug 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jul 41
U.52 (Kptlt Otto Salman, Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau from Jun 41, OzS Walter Frhr von Freyberg-Eisenberg-Allmendingen from Jul 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jun 41
U.56 (Kptlt Werner Pfeifer, OzS Wolfgang Romer from Apr 41) 24th Fl
U.57 (OzS Wilhelm Eisele) 22nd Fl
U.58 (Kptlt Hans-Jaochim Rahmlow, OzS Horst Hamm from Apr 41, OzS Bruno Barber from Oct 41) 22nd Fl
U.59 (Kptlt Siegfried Frhr von Forstner to Apr 41, OzS Gunter Gretschel from Nov 41) 22nd Fl
U.60 (OzS Georg Wallas, OzS Kurt Pressel from Sep 41) 21st Fl
U.61 (OzS Willy Mattke, OzS Hans Lange from May 41) 21st Fl
U.62 (OzS Ludwig Forster, OzS Max Wintermeyer from Sep 41, Kptlt Waldemar Mehl in Nov 41, OzS Horst Schunemann from Nov 41) 21st Fl
U.65 (KKpt Hans Gerrit von Stockhausen, Kptlt Joachim Hoppe from Mar 41) 2nd Fl
U.66 (KKpt Richard Zapp) to comp 2 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.67 (Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt, OzS Gunther Pfeffer in Jun 41, Kptlt Gunther Muller- Stockheim from Jun 41) to comp 22 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.68 (KKpt Karl Friedrich Merten) to comp 11 Feb 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.69 (Kptlt Jost Metzler, Kptlt Wilhelm Zahn from Aug 41) working up after comp 2 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl
U.70 (Kptlt Joachim Matz) working up after comp 23 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl
U.71 (Kptlt Walter Flachsenberg) working up after comp 14 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl
U.72 (KKpt Hans Werner Newmann, Ozs. Helmut Koster from Aug 41, OzS Waldemar Mehl from Dec 41) to comp 4 Jan 41, to join 21st Fl
U.73 (Kptlt Helmut Rosenbaum) working up after comp 30 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl
U.74 (Kptlt Eitel Friedrich Kentrat) working up after comp 31 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl
U.75 (Kptlt Helmuth Ringelmann) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl
U.76 (Kptlt Friedrich von Hippel) working up after comp 3 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl
building at Vegesack
U.77 (Kptlt Heinrich Schonder) to comp 18 Jan 41, to join 7th Fl
U.78 (Kptlt Adolf Dumrese, OzS Kurt Makowski from Jul 41) to comp 15 Feb 41, to join 22nd Fl
U.79 (Kptlt Wolfgang Kaufmann) to comp 13 Mar 41, to join 1st Fl
U.80 (OzS Georg Staats, OzS Hans Benker from Oct 41) to comp 8 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in May 41
U.81 (Kptlt Friedrich Guggenberger) to comp 26 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl
U.82 (Kptlt Siegfried Rollman) to comp 14 May 41, to join 3rd Fl
building at L beck
U.83 (Kptlt Hans Werner Kraus) to comp 8 Feb 41, to join 1st Fl
U.84 (Kptlt Horst Uphoff) to comp 29 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl
U.85 (OzS Eberhard Greger) to comp 7 Jun 41, to join 3rd Fl
U.86 (Kptlt Walter Schug) to comp 8 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl
U.87 (Kptlt Joachim Berger) to comp 19 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl
U.88 (Kptlt Heino Bohmann) to comp 15 Oct 41, to join 8th Fl
U.89 (KKpt Dietrich Lohmann) to comp 19 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl
U.90 (Kptlt Hans-Jurgen Oldorp) to comp 20 Dec 41, to join 8th Fl
U.91 (Kptlt Heinz Walkerling) to comp 28 Jan 42, to join 5th Fl
U.92 (Kptlt Adolf Oelrich) to comp 3 Mar 42, to join 5th Fl
U.93 (Kptlt Claus Korth, Kptlt Ralph Kaptizky from Aug 41, OzS Horst Elfe from Sep 41) 7th Fl
U.94 (Kptlt Herbert Kuppisch, OzS Otto Ites from Sep 41) 7th Fl
U.95 (Kptlt Gerd Schreiber) 7th Fl
U.96 (Kptlt Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock) 7th Fl
U.97 (Kptlt Udo Heilmann) working up after comp 28 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl
U.98 (Kptlt Robert Gysae) working up after comp 12 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl
U.99 (KKpt Otto Kreschmer) 7th Fl
U.100 (Kptlt Joachim Schepke) 7th Fl
U.101 (Kptlt Ernst Mergersen) 7th Fl
U.103 (KKpt Victor Schutze, Kptlt Werner Winter from Aug 41) 2nd Fl
U.105 (Kptlt Georg Schewe) 2nd Fl
U.106 (Kptlt Jurgen Oesten, Kptlt Herman Rasch from Oct 41) working up after comp 24 Sep 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.107 (KKpt Gunter Hessler, Kptlt Harald Gelhaus from Nov 41) working up after comp 8 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.108 (KKpt Klaus Scholtz) working up after comp 22 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.109 (KKpt Hans Georg Fischer, Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt from Jun 41) working up after comp 5 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.110 (Kptlt Fritz Julius Lemp) working up after comp 21 Nov 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.111 (Kptlt Wilhelm Kleinschmidt) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl
U.112 - U.115 projected only
building at Keil
U.116 (KKpt Werner von Schmidt) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.117 (KKpt Hans-Werner Neumann) to comp 25 Oct 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.118 (KKpt Werner Czygan) to comp 6 Dec 41, to join 4th Fl
U.119 (Kptlt Alois Zech) to comp 2 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl
U.120 (OzS Wolfgang Heyda, OzS Willy-Roderich Korner from May 41) 21st Fl
U.121 (Kptlt Karl Ernst Schroeter, Kptlt Egon Reiner Frhr v Schlippenbach from Mar 41, Kptlt Gert Hetschko from Jul 41) 21st Fl
U.123 (Kptlt Karl Heinz Moehle, Kptlt Reinhard Hardegan from May 41) 2nd Fl
U.124 (Kptlt Wilhelm Schulz, Kptlt Johann Mohr from Sep 41)
U.125 (Kptlt Gunter Kuhnke), to join 2nd Fl
U.126 (Kptlt Ernst Bauer) working up after comp 22 Mar 41, to join 2nd Fl
building at Bremen
U.127 (Kptlt Bruno Hansman) to comp 24 Apr 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.128 (Kptlt Ulrich Heyse) to comp 12 May 41, to join 2nd Fl
U.129 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen) to comp 21 May 41, to join 4th Fl
U.130 (KKpt Ernst Kals) to comp 11 Jun 41, to join 4th Fl
U.131 (KKpt Arend Baumann) to comp 1 Jul 41, to join 4th Fl
U.132 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang) to comp 29 May 41, to join 3rd Fl
U.133 (Kptlt Hermann Hesse) to comp 5 Jul 41, to join 7th Fl
U.134 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl
U.135 (Kptlt Friedrich Hermann Praetorius) to comp 16 Aug 41, to join 5th Fl
U.136 (Kptlt Heinrich Zimmermann) to comp 30 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl
U.137 (OzS Hanns-Ferdinand Massmann) 22nd Fl
U.138 (Kptlt Franz Gramitsky) 22nd Fl
building at Kiel
U.139 (OzS Horst Elfe, OzS Heiko Fenn from Oct 41) to comp 24 Jul 40, to join 21st Fl
U.140 (OzS Hans Peter Hinsch, OzS Hans-Jurgen Hellriegel from Apr 41) 22nd Fl
U.141 (OzS Heinz Otto Schultze, OzS Philipp Schuler from Mar 41, OzS Kruger from Nov 41) 21st Fl
U.142 (Kptlt Paul-Hugo Kettern, OzS Siegfried Lindke from Oct 41) 24th Fl
U.143 (OzS Helmut Mohlmann, OzS Jurgen Rosenstiel from Mar 41, OzS Harald Gelhaus from May 41, OzS Helmut Manseck from Nov 41) 22nd Fl
U.144 (Kptlt Gert von Mittelstaedt) 22nd Fl
U.145 (Kptlt Rudolf Franzius, OzS Heinz Schomburg from Oct 41) 22nd Fl
U.146 (Kptlt Eberhard Hoffman, OzS Rudolf Ites from Apr 41, Kptlt Ewald Hulsenbeck from Aug 41, LzS Wilhelm Grimme from Oct 41) 22nd Fl
U.147 (Kptlt Reinhard Hardegen, OzS Eberhard Wetjen from May 41) working up after comp 11 Dec 40) 22nd Fl
U.148 (OzS Hans Jurgen Radke, OzS Eberhard Mohr from Sep 41) working up after comp 28 Dec 40, to join 24th Fl
U.149 (Kptlt Horst Holtring, Kptlt Rolf Borchers from Nov 41) working up after comp 13 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl
U.150 (OzS Hinrich Kelling) working up after comp 27 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl
For remaining U-boats, go to Part 2 of 2 , U-boats from U.151 (all building or to be built)
one was building for foreign Navy, the rest captured
U.A (KKpt Hans Eckermann) 7th Fl, on patrol in the Atlantic
U.B (ex-British SEAL, FKpt Bruno Mahn)1st Fl
UC.1 (ex-Norwegian B.5, Kptlt Wilhelm Kiesewetter, Kptlt Georg Lange from Jun) U-boat Training School
UC.2 (ex-Norwegian B.6, no commanding officer assigned until Nov 41, OzS Otto Wollschlager from Nov) U-Boat Training School
UD.1 (ex-Dutch O.8, KKpt Hermann Rigele, Kptlt Freidrich Schafer from May, Kptlt Franz Venier from Nov) U-Boat Training School
UD.3 (ex-Dutch O.25, KKpt Hermann Rigele from Jun, KKpt Walther Kolle from Jul) to join 3rd Fl
UD.4 (ex-Dutch O.26, KKpt Helmut Brummer-Patzig, KKpt Rudolf Singule from Nov) repairing to comp 28 Jan 41, to join U-boat Command
The Axis Conquers the Philippines: January 1942-July 1942
The Axis continued to smash forward in World War II during the first half of 1942. On February 15, 1942, the British Empire suffered one of its most humiliating defeats. At 6:15 p.m., in a makeshift conference room in the Ford Motor Company factory in Singapore, General Arthur Percival surrendered the island to Lieutenant General Yamashita Tomoyuki.
The Japanese made the island the headquarters of the Southern Army, which conquered Southeast Asia, and renamed Singapore "Shonan," meaning "Light of the South." Of the 50,000 white troops captured, 18,000 would die of disease and/or mistreatment before war's end.
The Japanese armed forces aimed to capture a broad area in the south. They would defend the perimeter while the rich resources of the region were incorporated into the Japanese war effort.
Resistance was limited. In the Dutch East Indies, the 140,000-man colonial army was overwhelmed. The northern Philippines, with a mixed native and American force, was quickly overrun except for the Bataan Peninsula, where 100,000 soldiers and refugees were bottled up. The Japanese captured the peninsula in April.
The American headquarters in the fortress of Corregidor, in Manila Bay, fell on May 6, 1942, after a fierce defense. By early June, nearly all American forces in the Philippines had surrendered.
Further west, a Japanese force overran Burma and entered the capital, Rangoon, on March 8. A Japanese aircraft carrier raided the northern Australian port of Darwin on February 19, and in April Japanese aircraft sank British shipping on the Indian coast.
This was the limit of Japanese expansion, though the assault had been so successful and rapid that senior commanders sought to capitalize on their advantage with further advances. In early May, a naval force sailed south to seize the southern peninsula of New Guinea while Admiral Yamamoto planned a mid-Pacific offensive. This was designed to destroy what was left of U.S. naval power in the ocean and cut off American aid to the South Pacific.
The prelude to the final Japanese assault was the seizure of Port Moresby in southern New Guinea. The task force that was dispatched south in early May was attacked by a small Allied force in the Coral Sea. The battle was a strategic setback for Yamamoto, who was obliged to abandon his plan to seize Port Moresby and isolate Australia. This was the first hint that Japanese expansion was nearing its limit.
A month later, Yamamoto dispatched a huge task force to Midway Island, hoping to lure what was left of the U.S. Pacific Fleet to battle and then annihilate it. With a small force of carriers and sufficient secret intelligence on Japanese intentions, the Pacific Fleet commander, Admiral Chester Nimitz, planned a daring interception.
As the Japanese carrier fleet neared Midway, it was attacked by American dive-bombers. Only a few of their bombs struck, but they sank all four fleet carriers. Yamamoto ordered a return to Japan. His plans had been frustrated by America's intelligence successes, astute leadership, combat skills, and luck.
Elsewhere, the global war remained balanced on a knife edge. China's long, drawn-out conflict with Japan had become a formal state of war on December 9, 1941, following Pearl Harbor. Although the Japanese army controlled much of eastern and northern China, Chinese hit-and-run tactics made it difficult for Japan to pacify and control even those areas under occupation.
In May 1942, Japanese commanders embarked on a ruthless policy of pacification -- "kill all, steal all, burn all" -- to try to deter further Chinese resistance. Roughly 250,000 Chinese were killed in 1942.
In North Africa, British Empire forces based in Egypt had moved forward successfully across Libya against weak Italian resistance. But in January 1942, against an Axis force strengthened by a Nazi German corps under General Erwin Rommel, the British Empire Forces began a long retreat back to Egypt. Tobruk fell to the Axis on June 21, and by the end of June Axis forces were a few miles from El Alamein, Egypt, within striking distance of the Suez Canal.
The British position at sea -- in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic -- remained precarious. In 1942 they lost 7.8 million tons of shipping. Britain was able to import only one-third of what it took in before the war. The Allies' persistent bombing of Nazi German naval installations and submarine building sites achieved almost nothing.
The most dangerous situation lay in the Soviet theater. With the successful defense of Moscow in December 1941, the Soviets launched further offensives, trying to find weak spots in the Nazi German line. In the south, the Red Army created a large salient in Nazi German defensive lines south of Kharkov.
But when Joseph Stalin ordered the Red Army to capture the city in May 1942, the Nazi German front absorbed the attack and then encircled and annihilated the attackers. In the Crimea, the Nazi Germans repulsed a Soviet counteroffensive on the Kerch Peninsula. In July, they captured Sevastopol after an assault with the world's largest artillery piece: "Big Dora."
Nazi Germany's central ambition was the final defeat of the Soviet Union in 1942. Adolf Hitler planned to attack the less well-defended southern front toward the Volga River and the Caucasus oil fields. Their capture would give his forces huge new oil supplies and deny them to the enemy.
On June 28, Nazi Germany launched "Operation Blue" with substantial success. The Soviet southern front retreated. So successful was the assault that Adolf Hitler divided the force in two. He sent the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich Paulus, to seize Stalingrad and cut the Soviet Union off from the resources of the south. By August, Nazi German forces had reached the oil city of Maikop and were advancing toward the rich oil fields around Grozny.
In midsummer 1942, the war was poised in the balance. The strategic dream of the Axis powers was to link up in the Middle East. They would seize the Suez Canal and the oil that lay beyond it from one side, and they would sweep down from the Caucasus on the other side.
With Japan threatening India and the United States not yet fully armed, the ambition seemed less fantastic at the time than it now appears. Yet the summer of 1942 saw the high watermark of Axis aggrandizement. Over the next year, the Allies would find not just greater resources but also more effective ways of fighting. They were poised to reverse the long series of defeats that had until then littered their war effort.
Let's take a closer look at these events, beginning with a timeline of early January 1942 on the next page.
1941 scenario (world) (january)
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Java is a small mod i thought of 2 years ago but ended up cancelling it but today i will be starting to make it, this will also be my first mod i ever created. The mod as what the title says will be focusing on the island of Java and Bali, anyways here's what i will be featuring :
A map of the island of Java and Bali (Modern district borders, unfortunately) Including Regions, Cities, and District Names for the Provinces Various historical scenarios New Civilizations New Soundtracks Including Leaders and their flags New UI? (Will probably use 'Conquerors AOC2/EU4' UI instead) Maybe some modifications to the game? ( Maybe changes to the mechanism of the game if i can ) I don't think im going to make the mod for Android too
Download PC : Soon after it's done obviously
bekasi do be looking kinda sus
7:00 PM 19/06/21, UPDATES :
Banten is done and West Java is almost done.
West Java is done, and Central Java is almost dooonnee..
7:00 AM 20/06/21
Banten, West Java, Central Java is done. (100 Provinces!) East Java and Bali left!
it's all done! though there are some errors while making the provinces so it'll take abit more of time to finish the map.
Age of Conflict is a mod based on the modern era (1900-present), in which it will be tried to be as exact as possible to the various years in which the mod is based. From completely renewed scenarios of the First World War and the modern world, to completely new scenarios of the Cold War or the interwar period.
This "Mod" I wanted to do a long time ago, I even published a post in the forum, but due to lack of time I had to delete it . Now I have a little time to create it, so this time I will not delete it.
The idea of the mod is completely inspired by Nova Aurora, my goal is to make something as cool as the previously mentioned mod.
Also, if you have any suggestions for any scenario or if you want to help with the mod (either looking for information or things like that) you just have to tell me
Discord Server: Coming Soon
What I plan to add:
Many new scenarios ranging from 1900 to 2021 Rarely seen new civilizations, from very unknown African tribes to rare vassal states in scenarios New formable nations, mostly fictitious, but there will also be historical. Events in all scenarios New music Correct leaders for each scenario, (European, American and the most important countries of Asia, Africa and Oceania) There are more things that I would like to add, such as a new fund or new provinces, but they are things that I do not think I will add due to lack of time.
1900 1910 Great War || 1914 1916 Interwar Period || 1919/1920/1921 (Not decided yet) 1930 Chaco War || 1932 World War II || 1936 1940 1942 1945 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Yugoslav Wars || 1991 2000 Modern World || 2021 (Scenarios such as the Second Sino-Japanese War or the Russian Revolution will not be included separately, as they will be included in the annual scenarios)
Screenshots: Coming Soon
Helo thare! I started to make a map in AoH2 called alavida. Don't forget to follow and share your thoughts in the comments!
I'll be also adding a lot of scenarios, that's a thing! Don't forget to follow to never miss an update!
Support me on patreon please (click here)
SCENARIOS: Test Scenario 2021 2013 Venostanian Civil War Mauritovanian Civil War 1518 Stanovia First Alavidian War 1946 Poprattian Civil War
Update 6/18/21 (DoH 20)
Happy 20th day of history! To celebrate this, I've made the first alavidian war scenario which you can check below! It's a bigger scenario that took me a lot of time and considering it's only the first part it is making me redecision everything lol also the poprattian war scenario is broken somehow, when you open it it crashes the game not sure why
Update 6/11/21 (DoH 19)
Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhh what a great day to be alive! lol I updated the test scenario (Testing purposes) and made new nations - stanovian countries and started with the scenario. I did not have much time so I did not finish it, I hope next week will be better lol
Update 6/4/21 (DoH 18)
UwU scenarios are here! 2021 scenario is the one with nations i posted a lot time ago, 2013 is before mass independence and 1518 is some history one. Yes, I know there is french empire that got to exist 200 years later, ignore that pls lol
Civil war scenarios are less interesting but whatever
I plan to add 2 alavidian wars (1946-1947, 1979-1988) but don't have the nations yet lol
Well enjoy this info, i may release this "mod" after summer holiday ^^
Hello Everyone, today i want to introduce my first mod ever, It's called "In The Name Of The Kaiser".
In The Name Of The Kaiser (AKA Kaiserreich discount version) is an Age of History 2 mod which is inspired from Kaiserreich, A mod about the world where the German Empire won the First World War for a game called Hearts of Iron 4, the reason i didn't name this mod Kaiserreich because of the Rules say no.
Okay enough chit chat, this is what the Mod offers to you :
New Ideologies. Scripted Events & Peace Deals. Scripted Coring Lands. Reworked World Map Borders. Reworked Population Grow. Removed Diplomacy Points ( I know this confuse you, but i will explain this more soon ). Removed Rebels ( To prevent border gore ). A Lot of new countries. ETC. Here's the world map in this mod
Credits (List might expanded soon) :
-Kaiserreich & Kaiserredux, For the Content, Flags, & Ideas.
-Lipark Japanese Modder, For the Map Background
-Clemendive, For the Qing Empire flag design
Today in World War II History—January 14, 1941
80 Years Ago—Jan. 14, 1941: Off Antarctica, German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin captures 14 Norwegian whaling ships without firing a single shot or causing a single casualty.
Die "V for Victory” is suggested by former Belgian Minister of Justice Victor de Lavelaye, in a BBC broadcast from London to Nazi-occupied Belgium, Holland, and France.
Norwegian whaling factory ship Pelagos, 1931, captured by Pinguin 14 January 1941 (public domain via Vestfold Fylkesmuseum Digitalt bildearkiv and Wikipedia)
The Lend-Lease Act
In 1941 Congress passed a bill allowing the president to provide assistance to nations whose defense was considered vital to the security of the United States. Known as the Lend-Lease Act, it became the principal means for providing U.S. aid to key Americans allies, especially Great Britain, during World War II. The act permitted the president to “loan” war materiel such as ammunition, tanks, and airplanes to allies without expectation of repayment. Though the United States would not declare war until December 8, 1941, the Lend-Lease Act effectively ended U.S. neutrality.
[This bill] will make Uncle Sam the best and biggest Santa Claus the world has ever seen. . . . [it is] the worst kind of blank-check appropriation.
Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, Die New York Times, January 26, 1941
Our West Coast Correspondent
Van Arbeidsaksie, Vol. 5 No. 3, 20 January 1941, p.ك.
Getranskribeer en amp gemerk deur Einde O ’ Callaghan vir die Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism Online (ETOL).
Speaking before an audience of 100 Negroes recently on the burning issue of Negroes in aircraft, we summed up the whole situation in one phrase: jim-crowism.
And that’s about the size of it. A royal run-around, a kicking around, and an endless merry-go-round is all that Negroes have been getting when seeking employment in the aircraft industry.
There are a total of 8 Negroes employed in production, out of over 60.000 workers in this area. They work at Douglas. The company put them on after a pressure campaign by Negro organizations. This bread crumb is supposed to prove that Douglas doesn’t discriminate. But everyone is wise to that one.
Before we discuss what has happened to Negroes seeking work in aircraft, let us point out that they expect to get jobs just like anyone else for the very good reason that they have the same rights to work and live as anyone else. Besides, they know they’ll be called on to die during war, and they feel a country isn’t worth dying for unless they can live like men in it beforehand. The large Negro population in Los Angeles, numbering over 75,000, is very bitter about jim-crowism in general and even more so about the exclusion of Negroes from war industries. And they are most bitter about aircraft because of the lousy deal they get.
When They Go For A Job
When young Negroes go to an aircraft plant, the management tells them that they would be very glad to hire them but they are inexperienced. “We don’t discriminate, but of course we must have trained men,” is the story.
So the Negroes go to the trade schools and apply for training in various aircraft jobs. At the schools they are told,
“We’d be very glad to teach you, but the aircraft companies don’t hire any Negroes so it would be a waste of time. We feel that under the circumstances we should not admit you to school.”
That’s what the more astute and polite bosses stooges tell the Negroes. Others tell them point blank, “You got to be a white man to handle that kind of work. You’re not smart enough.” And similar insults.
The Negroes have experienced so much of this that they had a hard time believing that a white man, myself, was willing to aid them in a campaign to place Negroes in aircraft. The chairman of the meeting carefully explained that I was not running for office or getting paid, but that I was just as hot and bothered about the injustice as they, because I believed in class solidarity as a step towards building socialism.
Union Takes Courageous Stand
Not the least ticklish problem in connection with this situation is the attitude of the union movement.
Only one aircraft union has dared to face the issue, has had the courage lo lake a stand on it. This is the Vultee CIO union.
The Vultee union took a stand on the question of Negroes in aircraft, after a disgraceful incident at the Vultee strike victory dance. Some Negro unionists came to attend the dance and were asked to leave. Hulle moes vertrek.
A resolution was introduced at the next union meeting at which speeches were given by militants and Stalinists explaining the disgrace this was to the best traditions of the CIO and showing the need for class solidarity.
The resolution, which called for an apology, passed. It also put the union on record against racial discrimination, affirmed the Negro’s right to work in aircraft, and pledged the union to assist in this struggle. The resolution passed by a substantial majority, not unanimously. As a matter of fact, its passage, to put the truth bluntly, hurt the CIO temporarily in the drive to organize aircraft, because so many of the aircraft workers are while chauvinists at present.
The white workers are easily duped by the bosses and their stooges who tell them that if Negroes are hired, white men will lose their jobs. The CIO is doing a good job of exposing this lie. Aircraft industry is still hiring hundreds of men weekly. New jobs are always being created. And Negroes should have their share of them.
One of the Negro organizations here which has taken up the struggle is the militant American Advancement League. The National Negro Congress, a CP controlled outfit, has also raised the issue.
Groups of Negroes are demanding training at least at their own trade school, which the NYC has set up. And they intend to go to the plants and demand jobs or else picket the employment office, we’ve been informed. This is going to be a long and hard struggle. It will first be necessary to teach the union movement why the white workers must unite with the Negroes in this fight. It won’t be a picnic to force the NYA to give classes to the applicants. Nor are the companies going to be convinced easily.
But, as we told the audience
“You know you never got a thing in life unless you fought bitterly for it. You have nothing lo lose. Your lives can’t become more miserable no matter how this thing ends up.”
“Soon we’ll have to fight and die for nothing in another phoney war to save democracy which we don’t have. Surely its better to fight and die for something worthwhile.”
The response was such that we have confidence in the future. Fighting jim-crowism in aircraft isn’t the only fight these splendid people are going to make.