Wampanoag Konfederasie

Wampanoag Konfederasie

Die Wampanoag-konfederasie was 'n koalisie van meer as 30 Algonquian-sprekende inheemse Amerikaanse stamme wat in die moderne hedendaagse New England gewoon het, spesifiek van Rhode Island af tot by Massachusetts en dele van Connecticut. Hulle is die bekendste in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis as die inboorlinge wat die pelgrims van Plymouth Colony gehelp het om in die Nuwe Wêreld te oorleef.

Die Wampanoag was ook bekend as die Massasoit (na hul bekendste leier) Philip's Indiane, Pokanoket en Wopanaak. Wampanoag vertaal as "People of the First Light", "Eastern People" of "People of the Dawn", aangesien hulle hulself as die eerste mense beskou het wat die son sien opkom. Die stamme het sedert c. 12,000-9,000 BCE as nomades tot c. 7000 vC, toe permanente nedersettings en seisoenale kampe opgerig is, en daarna 'n semi-nomadiese leefstyl voortgesit het.

Op 'n stadium voor c. 1600 nC het een stamhoof die ander onder sy leiding versamel om 'n konfederasie te vorm. Dit was heel waarskynlik in reaksie op die Iroquois -konfederasie, wat in die 12de eeu nC gestig is, wat kragtig geword het deur die vereniging van stamme wat voorheen met mekaar geveg het. Teen 1620 is die Wampanoag-konfederasie gelei deur Massasoit (ongeveer 1581-1661) van die Pokanoket-stam wat die pelgrims van Plymouth Colony begin het in 1621.

Europese handelaars en ontdekkingsreisigers het die streek New England sedert die laat 16de eeu nC besoek en die inheemse Amerikaanse bevolking reeds aansienlik verminder deur die bekendstelling van siektes teen wie die pelgrims in 1620 aangekom het. Engelse kolonisering van die grond, veral tussen 1630-1660, het die stamme verder die binneland ingedruk, wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die oorlog van koning Philip (1675-1678) tussen die stamme onder Massasoit se seun Metacom (ook bekend as koning Philip, l. 1638-1676) en die koloniste.

Die Engelse het die oorlog gewen nadat Metacom in 1676 vermoor is, en die stamme voorheen van die Wampanoag -konfederasie, sowel as ander wat tydens die konflik neutraal gebly het, is versprei, na voorbehoude oorgeplaas, in slawerny verkoop of vrywillig die streek verlaat. In die huidige tyd bly slegs die stamme Mashpee en Aquinnah op hul voorvaderlande voor en is pas onlangs amptelik erken deur die Amerikaanse regering.

Vroeë geskiedenis en konfederasie

Paleo-Indiërs het meer as 12 000 jaar gelede in die omgewing van die hedendaagse New England begin aankom as jagter-versamelaars na groot wild. Ongeveer 7000 vC het hulle begin om die waters aan die kus te oes en het hulle seisoenale kampe opgerig wat bestaan ​​uit klein huise (natmaak, wigwams) met meer permanente nedersettings in die binneland van langhuise. Hulle het geleef van wat hulle kon vang, voer of vind, en het stamgebiede begin vestig om hul hulpbronne te beskerm. Teen 2340 vC het hulle 'n begraafkultuur en godsdiens gehad, sosiale hiërargie (soos blyk uit grafgoed), vermoedelik 'n vorm van regering en handel oor lang afstande.

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Dit is onbekend wanneer die stamme tot 'n konfederasie gevorm is, maar dit is vermoedelik na die 12de eeu nC in reaksie op Iroquois se aggressie.

Dit is onbekend wanneer die stamme tot 'n konfederasie gevorm is, maar dit is vermoedelik na die 12de eeu nC in reaksie op Iroquois se aggressie na hul eie eenwording. Voor hierdie tyd het die stamme mekaar geveg om status, hulpbronne of om 'n belediging te wreek en persoonlike eer te behou; na die stigting van die konfederasie het verenigde stamme toegeslaan op die dorpe van diegene wat nie verbonde was nie. Oorloë is uitgevoer as guerilla -aanvalle op gemeenskappe waar krygers vinnig sou toeslaan en terugtrek. Die oorwonne sou dan hulde bring aan die oorwinnaars - as dit die doel van die aanval was - of alleen gelaat word. Oorwinningsoorloë was vir die inheemse Amerikaners onbekend, aangesien hulle geen idee gehad het van grondbesit wat vergelykbaar is met die Europese model nie.

Grondbesit en spiritualiteit

Vir die inheemse Amerikaanse stamme was die aarde 'n geskenk, 'n lening wat nie besit kon word nie. Die natuurlike hulpbronne wat die mense in staat gestel het om te lewe, is nie deur menslike optrede verdien nie, maar is vrylik gegee deur die skeppergod Kiehtan en onderhou deur sy assistent Hobbamock (na wie die beroemde Pokanoket -kryger Hobbamock, omstreeks 1643 nC, vernoem is ). Een stam kon nie die land van 'n ander verower nie, omdat die ander stam dit nie besit het nie. Stamme het gebiede gevorm op grond van hul verlede in daardie spesifieke gebied, en hierdie gebiede was dikwels vloeibaar namate die mense ondertrou of stamme saamsmelt. Geleerde James Wilson lewer kommentaar op die inheemse Amerikaanse konsep van grondregte en gebiede:

As u hierdie prentjie probeer begryp deur na 'n kaart te kyk, kan dit met die eerste oogopslag verwarrend lyk. Daar is nie een van die eenvoudige, reguit lyne wat ons van politieke verdeeldheid verwag nie: die name - veral langs die Atlantiese kus, wat die swaarste van [Europese] kontak gedra het - is 'n wilde warboel, almal saamgedruk of in vreemde hoeke gekantel om aan te pas ... As u hiervan besef, moet u besef dat wat u sien 'n momentopname is van 'n oomblik in 'n voortdurend veranderende situasie: dit is nie nasiestate nie, maar groepe van kultureel - en dikwels fisies - verwante mense wat binne grense beweeg wat gevorm word deur gewoonte en wedersydse begrip eerder as regsdefinisie. Maar die indruk van chaos - een van die belangrikste Europese opvattings van die Oos -Indiër - is 'n illusie: hoewel hulle hul verhouding met die land en met mekaar op 'n baie ander manier bestuur het, was hul wêreld minstens net so geordend soos die van die hedendaagse Europa. (47)

'N Deel van die bestelling wat Wilson verwys, is ingelig deur die geestelike oortuigings van die stamme, wat die konsep van' hede in die verlede 'insluit. Die verhale het die verlede in die hede lewendig gehou, maar hierdie 'huidige verlede' was nou verbind met die land waarop die gebeure plaasgevind het. Die mite van die groot reus Moshup, wie se enorme voete die valleie, waterweë en eilande van die streek gemaak het, het elders geen betekenis gehad nie. Geheue het geleef en die verlede net hede gemaak, solank as wat diegene onthou het waar gebeurtenisse plaasgevind het.

Die spiritualiteit van die stamme van die Wampanoag -konfederasie was gebaseer op die konsep van die Good Spirit Kiehtan wat die wêreld geskep het (hoewel dit in sommige verhale die Divine Giant Moshup is) en die geeste wat alles bewoon. Die hele aarde het gelewe met hierdie geeste, en alhoewel 'n mens 'n boom kan afkap om 'n kano te maak, bedank 'n mens die gees van die boom vir sy offer. Die praktyk van sny-en-brand-landbou, jag, visvang en ander lewensmiddele het dieselfde model gevolg. Aangesien Kiehtan gemoeid was met hemelse aangeleenthede en Moeder Aarde met die geboorte en wedergeboorte van lewende dinge, word Hobbamock beskou as die tussenganger tussen die mense en die Skepper-God, sowel as 'n probleemoplosser wanneer dinge skeefloop tussen die stamme en Moeder Aarde. Mense het hoofsaaklik tot Hobbamock gebid, mindere geeste, of hul voorouers wat hul versoeke aan die hoër entiteit oorgedra het.

Regering, landbou en daaglikse lewe

Op dieselfde manier was die Wampanoag -regering hiërargies met 'n groot kaptein aan die bokant, omring deur syne powwows (sjamane) en beraders, bekend as pniese, vergelykbaar met die Europese konsep van 'n edele ridder. Die pniese was beide elite -krygers en geestelike beskermers wat die hoof bewaar het teen fisiese en metafisiese bedreigings en raad gegee het toe hy gevra is. Elkeen van die stamme wat die Wampanoag -konfederasie uitgemaak het, is op dieselfde manier opgestel, maar was ondergeskik aan die Groothoof (aan wie hulle hulde gebring het), wat in die vroeë 17de eeu Massasoit was. Massasoit was die man se titel (wat Great Sachem = Great Chief beteken), sy voornaam was Ousamequin. Dit is onbekend wanneer Massasoit hoof geword het, maar hy het die stamme reeds teen die vroeë 17de eeu in 'n konfederasie georganiseer met 'n ekonomie gebaseer op landbou.

Die Wampanoag, en die ander stamme van die konfederasie, was matrilinaal en matrifokaal.

Hy sou deur 'n raad van vroulike ouderlinge gekies gewees het, aangesien die Wampanoag en die ander stamme van die konfederasie matrilineêr en matrifokaal was - wat beteken dat 'n mens se bloedlyn en status deur die vrou se kant van die gesin oorgedra is en dat vroue verantwoordelik was van die belangrikste besluite rakende die lewe van die stam, hoewel mans gewoonlik die hoogste posisies beklee en altyd verantwoordelik was vir oorlogvoering.

Vroue se pligte sluit in die plant, versorging en oes van gewasse asook die onderhandeling van handelsooreenkomste tussen stamme. Die belangrikste gewasse was mielies, boontjies en muurbal wat besproei is deur stroombeddings af te lei. Vroue het ook die langhuise van die permanente nedersettings sowel as die tydelike skuilings van die natmaak (enkelvoud, wetu) vir die manne op jagekspedisies of vir seisoenale nedersettings. 'N Wetu was 'n keëlvormige struktuur wat bestaan ​​uit boompies bedek met bas (dikwels berke) en matte van riet geweef. Langhuise was groter, gemaak van boompies wat U-vormig gebuig is en aan beide kante aan die aarde vasgemaak was, bedek met riet geweefde matte en bas, tot 200 voet lank of, in die geval van gemeenskaplike strukture, selfs langer. Met albei tipes beskutting het rook uit die vuur 'n gat in die dak toegelaat en die langhuis het 'n blafbedekking oor hierdie gat wat reën uitgehou het en aangepas kon word vir windrigting en weerveranderinge.

Daaglikse - of nagtelike - aktiwiteite vir vroue behels ook die vervaardiging van klere van velle van diere. Moccasins en buiteklere, soos mantels, is met vet gesmeer vir waterdigting. Vroue het ook gemaak wampumkrale en skulpe het styf aan mekaar vasgehou wat 'n verhaal vertel het en as 'n tipe geldeenheid gedien het, maar ook heilige voorwerpe van 'n stam kon wees - en was dikwels. Tabak is gekou of gerook as deel van godsdienstige rituele, in verseëlingskontrakte, as 'n stimulant (veral op jag), en as medisyne, maar nie ontspannend nie. Terwyl die vroue klere gemaak het, het die mans gereedskap en wapens gemaak, insluitend byle, boë, pyle, hamers, messe, spiese, tomahawke en oorlogsklubs, sowel as kano's gemaak van hout wat deur beheerde vure gehul is en die verbrande hout met skulpe geskraap het. of skerp klippe.

Die dag begin met dagbreek, wat met gebed en danksegging waargeneem is, en eindig in die donker. Meisies is grootgemaak om vroulike rolle en verantwoordelikhede te leer, en seuns moes die model van hul vaders volg. Seuns is aangemoedig om sport te beoefen, veral 'n soort voetbal wat met 'n klein leerbal gespeel word, wat handigheid, spoed, reaksietyd en algemene goeie gesondheid bevorder het. Van jongs af is seuns ook onderrig in boogskiet, kanovaart, jag en visvang. Vermaak het bestaan ​​uit liedjies, dans en veral verhale wat die mites van die verlede sowel as die dade van die voorouers lewendig gehou het.

Plymouth Colony en die Engelse

Wanneer die Mayflower In November 1620 aan die kus aangekom het Massasoit eers die geeste opgeroep om van hulle ontslae te raak, maar teen hierdie tyd het hy 'n aansienlike aantal mense verloor en was hy nie meer so sterk soos hy was nie. Hy was verplig om die Narragansett -huldeblyk te betaal toe hy tien jaar voordat hy hom betaal het. Nadat die Engelse die winter van 1620-1621 oorleef het, het dit gelyk asof hulle sou bly, en in 'n poging om sy mag te herstel, besluit hy om met hulle kontak te maak en 'n alliansie te sluit.

Hy stuur eers die hoof van Abenaki, Samoset (l. 1590-1653), 'n gevangene in sy dorp wat Engels praat, as 'n afsender, en Samoset, nadat hy vasgestel het dat die koloniste belangstel in vreedsame betrekkinge, het verdere interaksie aangemoedig. Massasoit stuur toe Squanto (ook bekend as Tisquantum, l. 1585-1622) om tussen die koloniste te gaan woon en hulle te leer hoe om te oorleef. Massasoit en John Carver (l. 1584-1621), die eerste goewerneur van Plymouth, onderteken op 22 Maart 1621 die Pilgrim-Wampanoag-vredesverdrag en belowe wedersydse ondersteuning, verdediging en vriendskap. Die groot opperhoof het toe Squanto onder die koloniste verlaat en 'n rukkie later sy regterhand, Hobbamock, gestuur om 'n oog te hou op Squanto, een van die laaste oorlewendes van die Patuxet-stam, wat, net soos Samoset, 'n gevangene was wat Massasoit vertrou het nie.

Die Plymouth -kolonie het slegs oorleef en later floreer deur die tussenkoms van Massasoit. Die tweede goewerneur van die kolonie, William Bradford (l. 1590-1657), het die verdrag nagekom en erken die groot skuld aan Squanto, Massasoit en die stamme van die Wampanoag-konfederasie. Alhoewel daar soms beweer word dat die sogenaamde Eerste danksegging van die herfs 1621 die pelgrims se manier was om die inheemse Amerikaners te bedank vir hul hulp, word dit nie deur die primêre dokumente ondersteun nie. Nie Bradford of die ander kroniekskrywer van Plymouth Colony, Edward Winslow (l. 1595-1655) maak hierdie bewering nie, en Winslow is in sy verslag duidelik dat Massasoit en sy krygers ongenooid by 'n fees aangekom het, heel waarskynlik in reaksie op die geluide van 'n feestelike muskietvuur, het hulle dit as 'n teken van hulp geïnterpreteer.

Immigrasie en verlies van grond

Massasoit se strategie werk, en die Wampanoag -konfederasie word weer die dominante mag van die streek, wat die Narragansett en ander stamme aan hul vorige status onderwerp. Die verdrag was wedersyds voordelig omdat dit Plymouth Colony as die eerste suksesvolle Engelse nedersetting in die streek gevestig het. Hierdie sukses het egter die aankoms van meer immigrante aangemoedig. Merrymount Colony (1624-1630) is kort daarna deur Thomas Morton (l. 1579-1647) gestig, maar het misluk met die aankoms van John Winthrop (l. 1588-1649) en sy 700 Puriteinse koloniste in 1630 wat van Morton se gedrag afkeur en gedeporteer het hom.

Winthrop het die Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 gestig, gevolg deur die Providence Colony in 1636, gestig deur Roger Williams (l. 1603-1683), 'n ballingskap uit Massachusetts Bay Colony wat deur Massasoit skuiling gekry het en van grond voorsien was. Connecticut Colony is dieselfde jaar gestig en New Haven Colony in 1638, beide deur ander ballinge uit Massachusettsbaai wat nie kon voldoen aan die rigiede visie van die Puriteinse landdroste van Boston nie.

Namate meer Engels aan die oewer van New England aangekom het, was meer grond nodig en het die voorvadergebiede van die stamme van die Wampanoag -konfederasie begin krimp. Sommige lande is verkry in transaksies wat volgens die Engelse regverdig was, maar hulle het 'n heeltemal ander begrip van eiendomsbesit as dié van die inboorlinge. Vir die inheemse mense was die waardevolle besittings wat hulle ontvang het, bedankings vir die toestemming om op Wampanoag -grond te jag en te boer, terwyl die transaksies vir die Engelse permanente oordrag van grondregte was.

Afsluiting

Die verdrag wat Massasoit en Carver in 1621 onderteken het, het die hele lewe van die hoofman gehou, maar na sy dood het die verhouding tussen die inheemse stamme en die immigrante begin ontrafel. Massasoit is opgevolg deur sy seun Wamsutta (ook bekend onder die naam Alexander Pokanoket, l. 1634-1662) wat deur die koloniste beskuldig is-ironies genoeg-van onregverdige grondooreenkomste en deur die assistent-goewerneur Josiah Winslow (l. 1628-1680). Kort na sy besoek aan die kolonie sterf Wamsutta, en sy broer, Metacom (koning Philip), beweer dat hy vergiftig is. Metacom het King Philip's War in 1675 geloods in 'n poging om die steeds toenemende landdiefstal deur die koloniste te stop, maar is dood, nadat hy deur sy eie verraai is, in 1676, waarna die oorlog deur die koloniste gewen is.

Selfs stamme wat neutraal gebly het, soos die Mashpee en Narragansett, is daarna vervolg, en meer grond is in vergelding geneem. Van die meer as 6 000 inheemse mense wat die streek in 1620 bewoon het, was slegs ongeveer 400 oor. Diegene wat nie as slawerny verkoop is nie of wat die streek nie op hul eie verlaat het nie, is op voorbehoude oorgeplaas en, aangesien die Engelse meer grond benodig het, het selfs hierdie voorbehoude gekrimp. In die huidige tyd behou slegs die stamme Aquinnah en Mashpee voorvaderlike gronde en word federaal erken, en dit is eers onlangs toegestaan. Baie ander stamme, wie se verlede intiem gebonde bly aan die land van hul voorouers, wag nog steeds op 'n behandeling en erkenning deur die Amerikaanse regering, wat, selfs al word dit toegestaan, nie stamgrond sal teruggee aan diegene wie se mense duisende jare lank daaraan gelewe en gesterf het nie. .


Wampanoag Indiese hoofmanne en leiers

'N Wampanoag -sachem, die hoofkaptein en raadgewer van Philip, wat onder die hoof van sy vader 'n reputasie verwerf het vir vaardigheid in oorloë met baie verskillende stamme. Toe koning Philip val, het Annawan die krygers byeengeroep en veilig uit die moeras verwyder waar hulle omring was. Daarna het hy deur die bos gestap en die setlaars van Swansea en Plymouth gehaas, totdat kaptein Benjamin Church 'n nuwe ekspedisie opgerig het om die Indiane te jag, solank daar een in die bos was. Sommige is gevange geneem deur kapt. Church ’ s Indiese verkenners, maar Anna het die agtervolging ontwyk en nooit twee keer op dieselfde plek kampeer nie. Nadat hy uit 'n gevangene geleer het waar die ou kaptein was, het Church saam met sy Indiese soldate en slegs een wit metgesel hom gevange geneem. Toe hy die terugtog bereik, 'n rotsagtige heuwel in die middel van 'n moeras, stuur hy die gevangenes vorentoe om die aandag van Annawan se mense af te lei. Church en sy verkenners het toe gesteel, die geraas wat hulle maak, word verdrink deur die geluid van 'n stamper waarmee 'n vrou mielies stamp, en spring na die plek waar die arms gestapel is. Anna wan en sy hoofberaders, dus verbaas en onkundig oor die geringheid van hul aanvallers, het hulself oorgegee en was vasgebind. Die vegtende manne, wat naby geleë was, het oorgegee toe hulle meegedeel is dat die plek omring is deur Engelse soldate. Annawan het die wampumgordels en ander versierings van koning Philip gebring, wat hy aan kaptein Church gegee het as sy oorwinnaar, wat nou die laaste geselskap wat teen die Engelse opgeval het, oorwin het. Annawan se gevangene tree in om sy lewe te spaar, maar die owerhede in Plymouth haal 'n bekentenis uit wat hy verskeie Engelse gevangenes doodgemaak het, sommige met marteling, het hom in 1676 onthoof terwyl kapt, Church afwesig was.

Hobomok

'N Hoof van die Wampanoag, die lewenslange vriend van die Engelse, sedert hy hulle in Plymouth in 1621 ontmoet het. Hy het gehelp om die vriendskap van Massasoit vir die koloniste te versterk, maar, anders as Massasoit, het hy 'n Christen geword, en sterf, voor 1642, as lid van die Engelse nedersetting in Plymouth. Hy was die Engelse van groot diens om hulle te waarsku oor Indiese sameswerings. Hy was teenwoordig by sommige van die gevegte waarin Standish dapper dade verrig het, maar was nie 'n aktiewe deelnemer nie. Die naam is identies aan Abbamocho, Hobbamoco, Habamouk, Hobbamock, Hobomoko, ens. Sien die volgende. (A. F. C.)

Hobomoko

Whittier, in die aantekeninge by sy gedigte 1, word die gesegde aangaande John Bonython aangehaal: Hier lê Bonython, die Sagamore van Saco, Hy leef 'n skelm en sterf as 'n knaller en gaan na Hobomoko. ” Deur vroeë skrywers genoem as 'n bose godheid van die Massachuset en naverwante Algonquiese stamme. (A. F. C.)

Massassoit

Massassoit (‘groot hoof ’ eienaam, Woosamequin [Wasainegin, Osamekin, ens.], ‘Geelveer ’). 'N Hoofhoof van die Wampanoag van die streek oor Bristol, Rhode Island, wat in 1621 deur Samoset aan die Puriteine ​​in Plymouth voorgestel is. Hy was by uitstek die vriend van die Engelse. Drake 2 sê oor hom: Hy was 'n opperhoof wat meer bekend was in vrede as oorlog, en was, solank hy geleef het, 'n vriend van die Engelse, ondanks die feit dat hulle herhaaldelike gebruik op sy lande en vryhede gepleeg het. ander Engelse reisigers ontmoet voor die koms van die Puriteine. Terwyl hy in 1623 siek was, is hy goed behandel deur die Engelse. In 1632 het hy 'n kort geskil met die Narraganset onder Canonicus gehad, en in 1649 verkoop hy die terrein van Duxbury aan die Engelse.

Sy dood het plaasgevind in 1662. Van sy seuns het een, Metacomet, bekend geword as koning Philip, die leidende gees in 'n lang stryd teen die Engelse. Sien Massassoit, hoof van die Wampanoago.

Koning Philip

Koning Philip, Metacom, tweede seun van Massasoit, sachem van die Wampanoag, wat self die amp beklee het deur die dood van sy vader en ouer broer in 1661-62, en vir die Engelse was beter bekend as Philip van Pokanoket, of koning Philip. Hy was die merkwaardigste van al die Indiane van New England. Na sy verheffing tot die opperhoof het hy 9 jaar lank, hoewel hy daarvan beskuldig word dat hy teen die koloniste geplant het, blykbaar sy kragte toegewy aan waarneming en voorbereiding eerder as aan openlike optrede van oorlogsugtige aard. Hy het selfs erken dat hy die koning se onderwerp is. Maar die oorlog met die Engelse tee is onvermydelik, en die stryd wat King Philip's War (1675-76) genoem word, het uitgebreek, wat gelei het tot die praktiese uitwissing van die Indiane nadat hulle die blankes groot verliese aangerig het.

Die vermoë van koning Philip word gesien in die planne wat hy gemaak het voordat die oorlog begin het, die konfederasie wat hy gevorm het en die verwoesting lê onder die wit nedersettings. Uit 90 dorpe is 52 aangeval en 12 is heeltemal vernietig. Die dapperheid van die Indiane was in baie gevalle merkwaardig. Slegs verraad onder die inboorlinge het die koloniste na alle waarskynlikheid gered van uitsterwing.

In die beslissende geveg, 'n nagaanval, op 'n moerasvesting in Rhode Island, 12 Augustus 1676, is die laaste mag van die Indiane met groot slagting verslaan, terwyl koning Phillip self onder die versneuweldes was. Sy liggaam was op daardie tydstip aan die verontwaardigings blootgestel, en daar word gesê dat sy kop vir 20 jaar in Plymouth blootgestel is. Sy vrou en seuntjie is as slawe in die Wes -Indiese Eilande verkoop. Wyd uiteenlopende ramings van die karakter en prestasies van koning Philip ’ is deur verskillende owerhede vermaak, maar hy kan nie anders as 'n man met 'n groot vermoë beskou word nie. Weeden 3 sê: “History het hom & King 82, ’, gedenk om die heldhaftigheid van sy lewe en dood te herdenk. Hy het homself byna 'n koning gemaak deur sy wonderlike energie en staatskaping wat onder die stamme van New England voorgehou is. As die opponerende mag 'n bietjie swakker was, sou hy moontlik 'n tydelike koninkryk op die as van die kolonies gestig het. ”

Koning Phillip was die onderwerp van verskeie gedigte, verhale en geskiedenis. Die literatuur sluit in:

  1. Kerk, geskiedenis van King Phillip ’s War, 1836
  2. Apes Eulogy on King Phillip, 1836
  3. Freeman, Civilization and Barbarism, 1878
  4. Markham, Narrative History of King Philip ’s War, 1883.

Squanto

'N Wampanoag 4 wat na bewering die enigste persoon in Patuxet was wat die pes van 1619 vrygespring het. Hy was 'n vriend van die Engelse en het baie diens verleen, behalwe dat hy as tolk en gids opgetree het, hoewel dit ook lyk asof hy saam was tyd die agent of spioen van Caunbitant, sachem van Mattapoisett. Hy sterf te Chatham in 1622. Die naam Squanto is van Tisquantum verkry.


Wampanoag Confederacy - Geskiedenis

Blinde Joe Amos

Die geordende Mashpee Wampanoag Indiese minister was 'n pastoor met aansienlike geloofsbriewe, 'n reputasie vir groot preke en 'n geneigdheid om te vroetel. In 1834 het Amos by William Apes, 'n Pequot -predikant, aangesluit en 'n opstand gelei dat blankes na Mashpee kom en die oorvloedige en waardevolle hout neem. Die staat Massachusetts noem die vreedsame verwydering van hout uit die karre 'n "oproer". Die Mashpee het die eerste fase van ware selfbeheer begin danksy Amos. Die verhouding met buitestaanders sou nooit heeltemal reg wees nie, maar die intelligente en wyse Amos het die tradisie begin om die ongevoeligheid te bevraagteken van diegene wat nie vertroud was met die maniere van die mense van die eerste lig nie.

Steven A. 'Happy' Peters

Steven Peters was 'n prominente Mashpee Wampanoag wie se politieke bekwaamheid as keurder van 1927-1954 gehelp het om nasionale bekendheid in die klein dorpie te bring. Peters se plan om Mashpee met elektrisiteit te moderniseer, was destyds baie omstrede. Peters druk in elk geval op en wen. As 'n Roosevelt -demokraat, en die vriend van goewerneurs, burgemeesters en Joe Kennedy, het hy beskerming gebring aan Mashpee wat die harde Republikeine oorreed het om demokrate te word. Tydens die verkiesing was die stem van Mashpee so klein en akkuraat dat dit die klokslag vir die res van die land geword het. Peters se opregte liefde vir sy mense word weerspieël in sy gewildheid. Maar sy invloed as ouer was sodanig dat sewe van sy agt kinders sy nalatenskap voortgesit het deur die Wampanoag, die land of die stad Mashpee as verkose of aangestelde amptenare te dien. Sy goedkeuring sou onderstreep word met: "My sterre!"

John A. Peters

John A. Peters het 'n winsgewende konstruksieonderneming verlaat om in die 70's die geestelike leier van die Wampanoag -nasie te word. Peters het medisyne geleer by Billy James, die oom van sy vrou, Barbara, en het 'n prominente inheemse Amerikaanse spiritualis en ambassadeur vir Amerikaanse Indiane oor die hele wêreld geword. 'Slow Turtle' was ook die eerste uitvoerende direkteur van die Massachusetts Commission of Indian Affairs. Ondanks die oorsprong van sy salaris, was Peters beroemd omdat hy sy werkgewers aan die ondergang van sy mense herinner het. Hy het die kongreswetgewing suksesvol begin om inheemse kinders te beskerm tydens die aannemingsproses en beskerm heilige Amerikaanse Indiese rituele. 'Slow Turtle' het 'n lewende simbool geword van die Mashpee Wampanoag -identiteit, en ondanks sy status as beroemdheid in die wêreld was hy 'n eerste Mashpee -geliefde, baie lief vir sy familie en stam. Toe hy in 1997 sterf, was die "Slow Turtle's" doodsberig te sien in Time Magazine en The New York Times. U kon sien hoe hy sy kop teruggooi en sê: 'Praat hulle van my?'

Vernon 'Silent Drum' Lopez

Die saggeaarde, beskeie leier het 'n stil besluit oor die stamagenda gebring. Soos baie Mashpeeians, was "Bunny" 'n bynaam wat 'n tante hom gegee het en die meeste het nooit sy voornaam geken nie. Die deurdagte hoof het gefokus op kwessies wat die toekoms van die stam beïnvloed het. Hy was deel van die leierskap wat ons deur die laaste fase van die proses van baie emosionele erkenning gelei het, en die lidmaatskap is dankbaar vir sy vaste hand. Hy sê onderwys en gesondheidsorg staan ​​sentraal in die lot van die Mashpee Wampanoag. Hy gaan voort om aandag te skenk aan die oorlewingskwessies.

Russell M. 'Fast Turtle' Peters

Die eerste stamvoorsitter gedurende die vroeë 70's en die langste diens, die skrander leier en 'n dosyn Mashpee Wampanoag het die beroemde grondgeding ingedien om grond wat onwettig en onwettig ontwikkel is, terug te eis. Peters het ook die soeke na erkenning begin wat in 2007 bereik is na sy dood in 2002. Soos baie Mashpee Wampanoag -manne, was Peters 'n oorlogsveteraan. Hy was 'n universiteitsopgeleide uitvoerende gesag en het 'n meestersgraad van Harvard ontvang. Hy is bekend en gerespekteer in die Indiese land en het talle boeke geskryf oor Old Mashpee en sy unieke tradisies. En soos al die leiers van die stamme, was hy passievol oor sy mense.

Guy 'Soaring Eagle' kontant

Tom Mingo

Dit was 'n seldsame gesig om Tom Mingo uit visvang- of jaguitrusting te sien. Die opvallende Indiër was een van die meester vissermanne en speelman in die stam. Mingo was lid van 'n prominente Wampanoag -familie. Hy was ook die Rivers-bewaarder van Camp Farley tussen 1920-1950 en Mingo het die skat van die Mashpee-rivier, die forel, bewaak. Boston -prokureur James Farley, 'n hooggeplaaste lid van die Roosevelt -administrasie, het 'n aansienlike deel van die rivier gehuur en Mingo is aangestel om daaroor te waak en stropers weg te hou. Mingo het baie bekende mans saam met sy vriend Farley op uitstappies geneem. Sy het baie middae met mede -Mashpee Wampanoag gedeel en stories oor speletjies en goeie tye uitgeruil. Tom Mingo, 'n stil man, was nietemin 'n Wampanoag -legende.

Mabel 'Nakoomis' Pocknett Avant

Een van die mees eerbiedige ouderlinge van die Mashpee Wampanoag, Mable Avant, was 'n moderne vrou Sachem wat jonk en oud geleer het oor stamrituele, voedsel, tradisies en die belangrikheid om die aarde te eer. Almal was lief daarvoor om saam met haar te gaan kamp. Juffrou Mable was ook nogal 'n digter wat baie geskryf het oor haar geliefde Mashpee. Altyd polities betrokke, sou die onafhanklike Avant luister na buitestaanders wat na die dorpsvergaderings kom met onseker plan om Mashpee op 'n manier te bedrieg. Sy sou die uitkoms van die plan bekend maak en die persoon vermaan terwyl die skuldige wegskarrel na die huilende vreugde van die Wampanoag -gehoor.

Gertrude 'Princess Evening Star' Haynes Aikens

Gert Aikens, 'n spinky en aggressiewe Wampanoag -vrou, het 'n ondernemingsgees wat nog nie ooreenstem nie. Sy het 'n baie geskenkwinkel in South Mashpee op haar opstal gehad en het einde Augustus gedurende die 50's en 60's 'Indiese programme' gehou. Haar berugte tee-pee begroet die nuuskieriges wat die klein kompleks besoek het, om haar te laat intrigeer deur haar artikulêre verhaal wat vertel van die "Groete van die pelgrims" en oor haar kleurvolle houding word nog steeds gepraat. Van 'n ander prominente Mashpee -familie, was Gertrude Haynes Aikens oral in New England byeenkomste as 'n konstante herinnering daaraan dat die Mashpee Wampanoag lewendig en gesond was.

Billy 'High Eagle' James

Billy James was 'n baie prominente Wampanoag -man. Sy groot kennis van kruie en spiritualiteit is deur sy ouderlinge aan hom oorgedra. Hy het op sy beurt sy kennis gedeel met die jongmanne van die stam wat in die veertigerjare en daarna dekades daarna wou studeer. Hy word erken dat hy gehelp het om die kultuur van die ou Wampanoag -stam te bewaar, en hy het Slow Turtle begelei, wat die beroemde man van die Wampanoag -nasie geword het.

Ferdinand en Emma Oakley Mills

The Mills 'was 'n prominente egpaar wat die stam 'n halwe eeu lank polities en tradisioneel beïnvloed het. Ferdinand was jare lank 'n uitverkorene en was 'n jag- en visgids wie se kundigheid bekend was. Baie binne en buite die stam het sy raad gevra oor die regte manier om vis en wild te berei en te bewaar. "Miss Emma" was meer as dertig jaar die stad se tollenaar en was baie aktief in die stadspolitiek. Sy was vasbeslote vir besonderhede, sang en was nie bang om alles wat sy dink verkeerd of onbehoorlik was, uit te daag nie. Terwyl die Mills 'en Peters' politieke teëstanders was, het hulle die pyn gedeel van die verlies van seuns Lincoln en Steven, Jr., tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Emma Mills en Clara Peters word dikwels saam voorgestel as Gold Star Mothers, simbole van die krag en liefde wat hulle vir hul krygers seuns gehad het.

Amanda Stella Gardner Hicks

"Miss Stella" het waarskynlik die uitgebreide gesin uitgevind omdat sy liefdevol oor Mashpee -kinders waak in die gees van "dit verg 'n dorp om 'n kind groot te maak." As skoolkomiteelid vir baie jare was sy 'n vaste deel in die onderwysproses. Soos baie Mashpee Wampanoag -vroue, het sy 'n groot gesin gehad, maar sy het tyd en belangstelling in die jeug van Mashpee geneem. As sy sien hoe hulle die skool oorskry, op die mure skryf of ander onheil, kan u 'n goeie skel oor die belangrikheid van skool bywoon. She usually ended with, "I won't tell your mother this time, so you'd better not do this again." She had a lovely singing voice and served as the church soloist. She sang at weddings, funerals, and parties. Her ever present smile was infectious, but more importantly she was loved by everyone.

Solomon Attaquin

A fascinating story of determination, Solomon Attaquin defied all stereotypes. Born in 1810, Attaquin was literate, an unusual accomplishment for Natives in the era. He was a sea cook at age 12 and a whaler when he turned 14. Attaquin lobbied the Massachusetts Legislature on behalf of Mashpee and was elected one of the districts first selectman. When Mashpee became a town, he was also the first postmaster. An entrepreneur as well, Attaquin built a hotel that was his namesake across from the Mill pond and that hosted many famous politicians, actors and sportsmen. The Attaquin was a proud fixture in Mashpee as was its owner and his family.

Ambrose Pells

Mr. Ambrose was what many called, the backbone of the Mashpee Tribe during his life. He was a fisherman, and natural Indian man, proud of his heritage. Always busy, caring for the Old Indian Church, with coats and white paint that probably was responsible for its survival since the 1600's. He made wood markers for graves of those in need and kept the grounds neat. Ambrose had a little black car which he kept running, skilled in the art of making do with what he had. Whenever a Mashpee family needed help, the little car would appear with something of substance to get us over the hard times. He was also very involved in the politics of Mashpee as a member of the elder men's council and deeply loved.

Eben Queppish

The handsome Wampanoag is credited with reviving tribal culture and the Confederacy in the 1920's along with Nelson Simon, a Carlisle Indian School graduate. Under his leadership, The People of the First Light returned to wearing regalia, participated in Pau Wau, and the use of herbs. Queppish brought renewed focus to the Indian Town of Mashpee in the New Bedford Times and the Boston Post. Queppish was used to the publicity after all, he was the original Native American in Bill Cody's "Wild West Show." When he died in 1933, hundreds of Wampanoag attended his funeral at the Old Indian Meeting House to pay final tribute to their leader.

Clara Louise 'Dancing Pony' Peters Keliinui

Young Clara would continue the tradition of drawing attention to the "Little Indian Town" on Cape Cod. Because she would be labeled a "first" in many political and athletic genres during the '50's and '60's, Clara would serve was the first woman selectman in Mashpee and Chief of Police, which were posts her father held. Sophisticated and fashionable, she was often featured in national magazines and periodicals. She was considered a professional golfer and beat most men she played. The Clara Louise Keliinui Memorial Golf Classic was established by her daughter Trish, in her memory as a testament to extraordinary talent, political prowess, and good old Mashpee savvy.

Earl 'Flying Eagle' Mills, Sr., Chief

A traditionalist but also a modern chief with a diverse background, the gregarious Mills brought education, and a variety of outside experiences to his leadership role. A historian and expert on "all things Wampanoag", Mills epitomized the vast diversity of the Mashpee Wampanoag whose survival skills required an adeptness and balance between walking in the outside world while protecting and preserving unique tribal traditions. A renowned chef of traditional foods, a teacher, and entrepreneur, Mills continues to educate tribal members and friends about the significance of Native tradition in today's world.

Curtis Frye

As long as there was a Police Department in Mashpee, it was run by Natives. In the "Old Indian Town", the inhabitants governed themselves. But when the Wampanoag lost political control in the mid 1970's, the Natives lost governing authority. That occurred everywhere but in the Mashpee Police Department where the former Deputy Chief, Curtis Frye took the reigns and held on from 1981-1994. In true Mashpee form, Curtis did not fit the mold. The Frye clan is known for being attractive, charming, and friendly. "The nicest guy in the world", as Curtis Frye is known, led to the town's last bastion of authority for the Mashpee Wampanoag. To this day when you see Curt, it"s hard to believe he was Mashpee's last Native Top Cop.

Vernon 'Sly Fox' Pocknett, Chief

Always at the center of the storm, Vernon Pocknett partnered with Tribal Chairman to keep the pressure on for the fledging Mashpee Wampanoag. Whether the land suit, fishing rights, or the quest for recognition, "Sly Fox" was in the mix. Outspoken and unabashed, Vernon was a sharp contrast to many Mashpee leaders who would sooner ignore you than confront you. He would set you straight in a hurry. A master fisherman and hunter in the Pocknett tradition, the Chief would take tribal children on camping trips and excursions to remind each generation of their unique heritage and valued place in the world.

Hazel 'Silver Fox' Peters Oakley

Hazel was a very accurate symbol of Mashpee Wampanoag women. A beauty that was self-depreciating, smart, and sassy, she possessed a very candid, dry humor that would repeatedly catch you off-guard. She was the Tribe's faithful diplomat. As one of the original land suit petitioners, Hazel Oakley fought hard for what belonged to her people. She continued the battle as the Tribe's historian in the quest for recognition. Respected in Indian Country, and loved by Mashpeeians, Hazel is smiling at us now, remarking in her Mashpee drawl, "Welllllllsah, it's about time!

Ellsworth Oakley, "Drifting Goose"Supreme Sachem of the Wampanoag Nation

Ellsworth Oakley Jr., holds the distinction of being the Wampanoag Nation's longest serving traditional leader as Supreme Sachem. "Drifting Goose" took the helm of leadership in 1975 and continues preside in that capacity today. Oakley has an intriguing life story. He served in the Army as a paratrooper and even joined the circus. But most importantly he was a traditionalist. Oakley engaged in the sweats used in ancient times and taught Tribal members these and other important rituals. On the modern front he was an active member of the American Indian Movement. He was the first President of the Boston Indian Council and a well known Indian activist who fought for Indian rights across the country. "Drifting Goose" is a Mashpee Wampanoag phenomenon and we are proud of his continued service to our people.


Great Warriors Path


The Wampanoag were one of the first tribes to make contact with Whites, even before the Pilgrims landed in 1620, and they were to suffer heavily for it.

Decades before the founding of the colony at Plymouth (Plimouth), fishermen from Europe had discovered the rich fishing beds of the North American coast, particularly the abundance of cod, herring and other fish that could be salted down, pickled or otherwise easily preserved for food. They often landed on the coast and traded or interacted with Natives whom they met, such as the Abenaki in a previous post, and the Wampanoag, who inhabited what is now Massachusetts and Rhode Island. This contact exposed the Natives to two dangers. Unscrupulous captains short on cash could capture them and sell them in the Caribbean or Spain as slaves, which happened to Squanto, whom we've also met. Or, Natives could catch diseases for which they had no natural immunity. The Wampanoag numbered in the thousands just prior to the Pilgrim landing. However, between 1615-1619, they fell victim to a disease once thought to be smallpox but now leptospirosis, a dangerous fever that is usually fatal without modern medical treatment. Whole tribes were wiped out, such as Squanto's Patuxet people, a member tribe of the greater Wampanoag Confederacy.

The Wampanoag whom the English encountered depended on agriculture to supplement hunting and gathering. Because of their rich farmlands, they were a prosperous tribe. The culture was matrilineal, with women controlling property, assets and inheritance. Women chose the Sachems and participated in major decisions of the tribe. Ousemaquin was Sachem of the Wampanoag and Massassoit or Great Sachem of the Wampanoag Confederacy. He was the Great Sachem with whom the Pilgrims and later Colonists most often dealt, and is known to history today by his title and not his personal name. At first, Massassoit was suspicious and cautious of these strangers, but did permit Squanto to interact with them and teach them to farm and hunt, though he later became suspicious of how close Squanto seem to be to them. Later, when Massassoit died, his sons, to whom he had allowed the Settlers to give English names, inherited his title and authority. As they sought to assert their dominance over their own people and prevent the Settlers from acquiring anymore land, relations soured with the Colonists. First King Alexander (Wamsutta) and King Phillip (Metacomet), both of whom met their death either at the hands of White people or through instigation of the Settlers. King Philip's War, begun in 1675, decimated the Wampanoag, particularly the aftermath, where men were sold into slavery in the Caribbean and women were enslaved in New England.

There are always survivors and, for centuries small pockets of Wampanoag survived in Massachusetts as bets they could, either assimilating with the local population, or keeping to themselves as best they could. Remnants of their language survived until nearly one hundred years ago, when it died out naturally. Wampanoag Natives in Massachusetts today are attempting to revive its use. They are represented by two federally-recognized tribes, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head, plus four state recognized bands.


Wampanoag Indian Tribe from Wampanoag Confederacy to First Light Casino

Recently, the Wampanoag Indians have been in the headlines because of casino projects in Massachusetts. This has drummed up some interest in these First Peoples – who are they? How many are left and living in the state? Where do they live? Do they have their own towns or are they spread out?

Since I was a child I was also interested in Anthropology and History, and Amerindians always fascinated me. They had a mystery about them that captivated my attention and interest. I devoured book after book, watched every documentary I could. This was an era before the information age, so I got most of my information from the local libraries and school teachers.


Map of the Wampanoag Indian territories late 16th to early 17th century. (Nikater)

With the advent of the information age, I had to no longer rely on the one sided versions written by Europeans and Americans in the history books, but could read about Amerindians by and from Amerindians – getting two sides of the “story” and bringing things more to the center.

Currently the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe –known as the “People of the First Light”– have been in talks with developers and investors about building a proposed gaming and entertainment venue on their tribal owned lands in Taunton. So, I thought it fitting to narrow down, what is a massive topic, to one specific tribe.

From Wampanoag Nation of 69 Tribes to Two Federally Recognized Tribes and 3 Bands
Many Wampanoag names are familiar to even those with a minimal knowledge of local history, Metacom[et] or King Phillip, Wamsutta, Squanto, Massasoit, the first man to be killed in the Revolutionary War, Crispus Attucks, are a few.

The Wampanoags, also called the Massasoit, were spread throughout southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island at the time of the arrival of the first Europeans in the 16th century and best estimates placed the Wampanoag Nation or Confederacy at 69 tribes consisting of approximately 65,000 people.

Between skirmishes with settlers, actual war, Yellow Fever and other diseases, the Nation began to suffer tremendous losses. Sadly, by the early 17th century they were said to number about 6,000 strong, but by the advent of King Phillip’s War in the late 1670s, there were barely 400 remaining. Fortunately, they began to bounce back and by a 2010 census there were counted 2,756. Many live near the Watuppa Wampanoag Reservation in Aquinnah (Gay Head) on Martha’s Vineyard.

While only the Aquinnah and Mashpee tribes are federally recognized, there are three “bands” that are recognized by the state: the Nemasket Band, the Pocassets, and an old praying town, the Herring Pond tribe. The Pocassets are formally recognized, but not federally.

The Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe formed in 1660
The Mashpees, were neutral throughout King Phillip’s war, so were spared the extreme losses from violence. Many were forced to settle into Praying Towns throughout Barnstable County with the Nauset tribes, or with the Sekkonets in Rhode Island.
Jon Eliot praying with the Wampanoag Indians. (baas.ac.uk) In 1660, colonists set aside 50 square miles in Mashpee, for the Wampanoags and that is how this particular tribe got its name. Within 5 years they were self-governing utilizing an English-style court of law and trials.

In 1763, the British Crown still had a grip on the nation and if colonists were not happy with the way they were being treated, one can only imagine how the Amerindians were mistreated. Disregarding the presence of the Wampanoags and that the Mashpee area was a reservation, the British Crown went ahead and designated Mashpee as a plantation and one within the Mashpee District, and thus, subjects of the crown and laws. This placed them at the whim of colonial settlers who would subsequently encroach on the land set aside for the Wampanoags.

This would have an adverse affect on their population in Mashpee – their numbers would dwindle as they would rather strike out on their own than live under such conditions – treated worse than second class citizens.

Things wouldn’t improve when the Americans won the Revolutionary war and took over. Adding insult to injury, the new government decided to revoke the tribe’s self-governance and place a committee made up of five Europeans. The tribe’s peaceful protest was met with the threat of military action.

By the 1830s the State Government had hoped that the Mashpee Wampanoag “problem” would go away through assimilation with the European locals. When that didn’t happen, or happen fast enough, over the course of the next decade, the state started taking the Mashpee’s land and parceling out 60 acres at a time to European farmers who were already gaming and fishing on the rich Indian lands, as well as harvesting trees.

Settlers and farmers would continue to drain the reservation’s resources and encroach on the land where the Wamponoags lived. They would deforest, trap, hunt, and even plant on land that they didn’t own. Three decades later, the state would deal a major blow to the tribe by incorporating Mashpee as a town, in 1870. This took all control and governance away from the Mashpees.

Mashpee Wampanoag from 1924 through today
In spite of centuries of poor treatment and disrespect, many Wampanoags did remain and retained as much as their customs and ways of life as possible. Since 1924 they have had an annual Powwow in July a gathering where there is eating, dancing, singing, music, and socializing among tribe members defined by any person who has lineage, is actively involved in the community and lives within 20 miles of Mashpee.


The future of the Wampanoag’s looks bright! (Mashpee Wampanoag Facebook)

In 1972, the tribe would establish a Council and designate Russell “Fast Turtle” Peters as its first president. This council was the first step in legitimizing the tribe in the eyes of the U.S. Government and begin the process of being federally recognized and begin to lay claim to the land that had been theirs for centuries.

In 1974, the Council would stand before the Bureau of Indian Affairs and apply to have the claim approved and the tribe recognized. They were denied, yet again. Showing their characteristic tenacity, doggedness, and patience they stuck together and continued to fight. Later that same year they decided to take serious action and tried to sue the town of Mashpee.

As would be expected, all claims by the Mashpee were denied by the state and they lost the case. They would then spend the next 30 years, never giving up and fighting for what they felt was rightfully theirs. The persistence paid off and the tribe was officially recognized by the federal government in 2007 while under the direction of chairman and controversial figure, Glenn Marshall.

When Marshall was arrested for a variety of crimes, he was replaced by council vice-chair Shawn Hendricks – a man who actively pursued gaming-related interests. In 2009, the tribe elected Cedric Cromwell to be council chair and president who continued to push the tribe into a gaming related direction. He is the Gaming Authority President today.

Originally the tribe wished to build a casino on land that they had purchased in Middleborough, but for reasons I couldn’t uncover, they moved their plans to Taunton in spite of the fact that the Pocasset Wampanoags challenged their territorial rights there.

First Light Resort & Casino
Financing for the casino comes from the Malaysian Genting Group and support came and comes from such high profile figures like Senator John Kerry, past Governor Deval Patrick, and former Congressman Bill Delahunt. In 2011, a law was passed by the Massachusetts legislature which allowed for three gaming resort sites within the state and one more location for a slots-based site.

It would be redundant to cover what happened here in New Bedford as a proposed site, since it was so recent in memory. On Tuesday, April 3rd, ground was broken on the 151 acre industrial park in Taunton and the $1 billion dollar Las Vegas style casino, hotel, entertainment complex, came one step closer to becoming a reality.


Artist’s sketch of the completed First Light Resort & Casino. (mashpeewampanoagtribe.com)

The First Light Resort & Casino is expected to open its doors in phases, with the first phase expected some time in 2017. This phase will encompass 150,000 sq.ft. 3,000 slots, 150 table games, and 40 poker tables. A food court containing 7-10 restaurants, including an international buffet, and a central bar will also be included along with just shy of a dozen retail outlets. A parking garage with approximately 3,000 spots and a lot with 2,000 spots will support this phase.

The 12 story 300 room, high-end hotel, more restaurants and gaming, spa, pool, roof terrace, and event rooms are planned for Phase 2 which is expected to take 2-2 1/2 years to complete. A more modest 300 room hotel and massive 24 hour cafe restaurant will complete Phase 3, taking 3-5 years. The final phase will include a 24,000 seat event arena, 25,000 sq.f.t indoor/outdoor water park with a 300 room hotel and more parking and expected to take at least 5 years.

The entire project is expected to create almost 1,000 well paying, union jobs for the state generating approximately $80 million dollars in salaries and $120 million in economic impact. Once up and running it will continue to generate tax revenue for the town and state, create jobs, and stimulate the region.

Ironic considering how much has been taken from the Wampanoag Indian’ through the centuries.

If you would like to find out more about the Mashpee Wampanoag or the First Light Resort & Casino project, including its environmental and economic impact, visit these sites:


Religious Conversions

After 1650, John Eliot and other Puritan missionaries sought to convert Indians to Christianity, and the converted Indians settled in 14 “praying towns” and were often referred to as the “Praying Indians.”

Eliot and his colleagues hoped that the Indians would adopt practices such as monogamous marriage, agriculture, and jurisprudence. The high levels of epidemics among the Indians may have motivated some conversions.

Salisbury suggested that the survivors suffered a type of spiritual crisis because their medical and religious leaders had been unable to prevent the epidemic losses.

By the latter half of the seventeenth century, alcoholism had become rampant among Indian men. Many turned for help to Christianity and Christian discipline systems.

Christianity also became a refuge for women from drunkenness, with its insistence upon temperance and systems of retribution for drunkenness.


'It's been there all the time'

The events that started with the English settlers' arrival 400 years ago aren't told in the story most people have heard over the years, but the true account isn't a bid to rewrite history books. It's an attempt to correct the record.

"It’s a shameful story," said Peters. "But who wants to look back at a period of time when there was such incredible intolerance for Indigenous people who were at least initially, nothing but kind of welcoming when those people came?"

When those people realized they'd been duped and fought for their lands and rights, she said, they were demonized.

Peters said although some people call the Wampanoag’s work to raise awareness of the true story revisionist history, "It’s been there the whole time." Recognizing what happens when a community was forced to sacrifice to benefit another community is important, she said.

There also is some movement from non-Native groups to support the Wampanoag’s efforts to raise awareness of the complete story of the interactions between them and the colonists, and later, the commonwealth of Massachusetts and the United States.

Michele Pecoraro, executive director of Plymouth 400, the nonprofit group that is organizing the Plymouth commemoration, said her board made it a priority to include the Native peoples in the event. Plymouth 400 has had a member of one of the Wampanoag tribes on the board since about 2009, she said. Peters was one of the Native people included on the board, Pecoraro said.

The group also created an advisory committee from representatives of the Wampanoag communities.

"Any question I have, I run by my board member and the Wampanoag and the advisory committee so that we're not doing the wrong thing," she said. "I find that sometimes there's differing opinions on what the right thing is, but we are having those conversations."

Plymouth 400 and its British counterpart, Plymouth 400 UK, also host an ongoing virtual exhibit called "'Our'" Story: 400 Years of Wampanoag History" which features both videos and live webcasts spotlighting the often turbulent history of the Wampanoag and the European nations that disrupted their nation.

On Thursday, one of the best-known Thanksgiving Day events will pay homage to the Wampanoag and other Indigenous peoples of the East Coast and New England.

Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade has invited representatives of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, along with Lenape, Métis, Tsalagi (Cherokee), Ojibwe, Oneida and Shinnecock tribal members, to offer a land acknowledgement with hand drum accompaniment, a blessing of thanks in the Wampanoag language, and a traditional rattle song during the first hour of the parade.

"We're blessed to have the show move forward, and we wanted to celebrate Indigenous voices this year," said Wesley Whatley, the parade's creative producer for performances. "With the history of Thanksgiving and given that the Wampanoag were the first people in contact with settlers, it felt right to program something that's authentic and honest and special for this parade."

In 1970, on the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims’ landing, Aquinnah Wampanoag elder Frank "Wamsutta" James was invited to speak at the commemoration. But when the organizers read James' speech, they canceled the invitation. James instead gave his speech on Cole's Hill in Plymouth on what is now an annual event called the "Day of Mourning" on Thanksgiving Day.

"What has happened cannot be changed, but today we must work towards a more humane America, a more Indian America, where men and nature once again are important," James said, "where the Indian values of honor, truth, and brotherhood prevail. You the white man are celebrating an anniversary. We the Wampanoags will help you celebrate in the concept of a beginning. It was the beginning of a new life for the Pilgrims. Now, 350 years later it is a beginning of a new determination for the original American: the American Indian."

Debra Krol covers issues related to Indigenous communities in Arizona and the intermountain West. Reach the reporter at [email protected] or at 602-444-8490. Follow her on Twitter at @debkrol.

Coverage of Indigenous issues at the intersection of climate, culture and commerce is supported by the Catena Foundation and the Water Funder Initiative.


Montaup: A Search for Common Ground in the Native Northeast

The Wampanoags were led by Massasoit. (Image: Logan Bush/Shutterstock)

The Wampanoag Confederacy

Montaup was a Pokanoket village located in the heart of the Wampanoag Confederacy in present-day Rhode Island.

The Wampanoags had constituted themselves as a loose confederacy, and were led by a Pokanoket man named Massasoit.

First Contact with the Pilgrims

By the time a small group of radical Puritan dissidents, known as Pilgrims, established a presence at Plymouth late in 1620, the Native peoples of New England had been hammered by epidemics that may have wiped out 90% of the population.

In 1621, Massasoit entered into a treaty of friendship, mutual defense, and economic interdependency with the Pilgrims. The Puritans gained protection, influence, and a vitally important trade partner. Meanwhile, the Wampanoags secured an ally against their rivals.

Massasoit and the Wampanoag Confederacy prospered in the years that followed. Driving its wealth was an influx of European trade items.

Dit is 'n transkripsie uit die video -reeks Native Peoples of North America. Watch it now, Wondrium.

A ‘Wampum Revolution’

Wampum beads were made from whelk and quahog shells. (Image: Pierre/ CC BY-SA/4.0/ /Public domain)

Perhaps, the most important trade item was wampum.

Indians along the Atlantic coast fashioned disc-shaped white and purple wampum beads from whelk and quahog shells. Before contact with Europe, this beaded artistry was highly prized throughout Northeastern America, and used in the context of trade, diplomacy, ceremony, and personal adornment.

After contact, the volume of trade increased the amount of wampum that was produced and circulated. The introduction of European tools also made it possible for Indian artisans to drill fine channels through the tubular beads, contributing to what historian Neal Salisbury refers to as a ‘wampum revolution’.

Although already deeply woven into the fabric of Native lives, wampum took on new meanings as a form of currency, eventually with European-defined exchange rate, no less.

The Natives as Evil

Massasoit expertly positioned his people as participants in the expanding colonial trade network. In combining trade with diplomacy, he maintained Wampanoag sovereignty as well.

However, to Massasoit and other Native people, the most challenging influence was the Pilgrims’ conception of God. Puritans believed that the world Native people lived in was evil—which, by extension, meant that Native people themselves were evil, too.

They also believed that it was their mission to redeem this fallen land by constructing what Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop called a city upon a hill. If world salvation required the dispossession and death of Indian people, so be it.

Massasoit probably understood that the Puritans defined Indians as a menace. But what was he to do?

The Pequot War and the Treaty of Hartford

The Pequot War, which erupted in the Connecticut River Valley in 1636 and quickly spread eastward, suggested how unenviable the situation had become.

Hundreds of Natives were killed and sold to slavery after the Pequot War. (Image: Library of Congress/Public domain)

The fighting climaxed in 1637, when the English—along with Mohegan and Narragansett allies—marched on a Pequot village along the Mystic River. Upon surrounding and setting fire to the palisaded village, the contest swiftly devolved into slaughter.

In the wake of the bloodbath, Pequot women and children were sold into slavery or dispersed to the victors. At the Treaty of Hartford the following year, the Europeans took from the Pequot not only their land and sovereignty but also the name Pequot, the use of which was outlawed.

Situation Worsens for Wampanoag Confederacy

By the time Massasoit’s son Wamsutta became sachem in 1661, the wampum revolution had run its course. As Wamsutta began selling land to pacify the colonists, rumors swirled that he intended to wage war. Plymouth authorities responded by sending an armed party to escort Wamsutta to a meeting to berate him. Two of Wamsutta’s sons were kept as prisoners, and he died suddenly on his return trip.

This brought to the fore a younger brother, Metacom. Amid continuing settler encroachment, Plymouth Colony authorized the purchase of additional lands from any individual Indian willing to sell.

At the same time, the English extended their legal authority over the Wampanoag. In 1671, Metacom was forced to relinquish some of his people’s guns, and was expected also to submit to colonial authority.

War Breaks Out in 1675

War broke out in the summer of 1675. It was triggered by a complicated series of events.

Over the previous winter, a Christian Indian named John Sassamon—who served as an aide to Metacom—seems to have conveyed to the colonial governors the Wampanoag sachem’s plan to launch an intertribal assault. Sassamon, in turn, was found dead shortly afterward. Colonial authorities apprehended three Wampanoags, charged them with murder, and executed them. And then all hell broke loose.

Metacom’s forces launched a devastating attack against 52 English towns. They killed as much as one-third of the English settler population—some 2,500 people.

In retaliation, the English and their Indian allies burned Wampanoag villages. These campaigns, and disease, claimed upwards of 5,000 lives. Ultimately, Metacom’s alliance fell apart.

Wampanoag Confederacy Falls Apart

In August 1676, a force consisting of colonists and their Indian allies captured Metacom in the woods near the Pokanoket village of Montaup. Reminding us once more of Puritan views of God and Indians, Increase Mather, a Puritan minister, wrote this of Metacom’s death in his history of the war published in 1676:

He was taken and destroyed, and there was he cut into four quarters, and is now hanged up as a monument of revenging Justice, his head being cut off and carried away to Plymouth, his Hands were brought to Boston. So let all thine Enemies perish, O Lord!

Metacom’s death effectively brought an end to military resistance in New England, and it dealt a tremendous blow to tribal sovereignty throughout the region.

The Native–English Clash Persists

While war was endemic in the Northeast during the 17th century, the views from Montaup and other regions suggest that it wasn’t inevitable.

The lives of the Native people tell stories of a search for common ground, of mutual incorporation and transformation. The Europeans attempted to do the same, but as it turned out, they were much less tolerant. There really wasn’t a future for Native people in the Puritans’ city upon a hill.

Common Questions about the European Arrival in Montaup

Montaup was located in the heart of the Wampanoag Confederacy in present-day Rhode Island.

Indians along the Atlantic coast fashioned white and purple discs from whelk and quahog shells which were called wampum beads.

The Pequot War erupted in the Connecticut River Valley in 1636 and climaxed in 1637, when the English—along with Mohegan and Narragansett allies—marched on a Pequot village along the Mystic River, devolving into slaughter.


Culture

Traditionally Wampanoag people have been semi-sedentary, with seasonal movements between fixed sites in present-day southern New England, although men often traveled far north and south along the Eastern seaboard for seasonal fishing expeditions, and sometimes stayed in those distant locations for weeks and months at a time. [4] The women cultivated varieties of the "three sisters," corn (maize), beans and squash as the staples of their diet, supplemented by fish and game caught by the men. Each community had authority over a well-defined territory from which the people derived their livelihood through a seasonal round of fishing, planting, harvesting, and hunting. Because southern New England was thickly populated, hunting grounds had strictly defined boundaries.

The Wampanoag, like many indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, have a matrilineal system, in which women controlled property (in this case, the home and its belongings, as well as some rights to plots within communal land), and hereditary status was passed through the maternal line. They were also matrifocal: when a young couple married, they lived with the woman's family. Women elders could approve selection of chiefs or sachems, although men had most of the political roles for relations with other bands and tribes, as well as warfare. Women with claims to specific plots of land used for farming or hunting passed those claims to their female descendants, regardless of their marital status. [5]

The work of making a living was organized on a family level. Families gathered together in spring to fish, in early winter to hunt, and in the summer they separated to cultivate individual planting fields. Boys were schooled in the way of the woods, where a man's skill at hunting and ability to survive under all conditions were vital to his family's well-being. Women were trained from their earliest years to work diligently in the fields and around the family wetu, a round or oval house that was designed to be easily dismantled and moved in just a few hours. They also learned to gather and process natural fruits and nuts and other produce from the habitat.

The production of food among the Wampanoag was similar to that of many Native American societies. Food habits were divided along gendered lines. Men and women had specific tasks. Native women played an active role in many of the stages of food production. Since the Wampanoag relied primarily on goods garnered from this kind of work, women had important socio-political, economic, and spiritual roles in their communities. [6] Wampanoag men were mainly responsible for hunting and fishing, while women took care of farming and the gathering of wild fruits, nuts, berries, shellfish, etc. [7] Women were responsible for up to seventy-five percent of all food production in Wampanoag societies. [8]

The Wampanoag were organized into a confederation, where a head sachem, or political leader, presided over a number of other sachems. The English often referred to the sachem as "king," a title that misled more than it clarified, since the position of a sachem differed in many ways from that of a king. Sachems were bound to consult not only their own councilors within their tribe but also any of the "petty sachems," or people of influence, in the region. [9] They were also responsible for arranging trade privileges as well as protecting their allies in exchange for material tribute. [10] Both women and men could hold the position of sachem, and women were sometimes chosen over close male relatives. [11] Two Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Wampanoag female sachems, Wunnatuckquannumou en Askamaboo, presided despite the competition of male contenders, including near relatives, for their power. These women gained power because their matrilineal clans held control over large plots of land and they had accrued enough status and power—not because they were the widows of former sachems.

Pre-marital sexual experimentation was accepted, although once couples opted to marry, the Wampanoag expected fidelity within unions. Roger Williams (1603–1683), stated that "single fornication they count no sin, but after Marriage, (which they solemnize by consent of Parents and publique approbation. ) then they count it heinous for either of them to be false." [12] In addition, polygamy was practiced among the Wampanoag, although monogamy was the norm. Although status was constituted within a matrilineal, matrifocal society, some elite men could take several wives for political or social reasons. Multiple wives were also a path to and symbol of wealth because women were the producers and distributors of corn and other food products. As within most Native American societies, marriage and conjugal unions were not as important as ties of clan and kinship. Marriages could be and were dissolved relatively easily, but family and clan relations were of extreme and lasting importance, constituting the ties that bound individuals to one another and their tribal territories as a whole. [13]


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Wampanoag Native American Facts

  • Wampanoag is pronounced as Wawm-pah-naw-ahg, which means Easterners or People of the Dawn. They were semi-sedentary people with fixed sites and seasonal movements. They spoke Wopanaak, that belongs to the Algonquian language.
  • In 16th century, Wampanoags had early contacts with the Europeans in terms of trading through fishing boats. In 1620, Protestant Separatists from England took the Mayflower voyage and established the first English settlement in New England known as the Plymouth.
  • Group of Saints and Strangers now known as Pilgrims were taught by the Wampanoags how to cultivate squash, beans, and corn.
  • In addition, the Wampanoag people guided the Pilgrims in how to catch and process fish and other seafood. These skills enabled the Pilgrims to survive their first winter.
  • After 1630, expansion of the Puritan population near Boston threatened the Pilgrims and local inhabitants. Unlike the Pilgrims, Puritans were less likely to cooperate and be friends with the Native Americans. Until the mid-1600s, the Indian population continued to decline due to epidemics and new infectious diseases brought by the colonists. Some of them hid in the swamps.
  • The Wampanoag people were part of a loose confederacy composed of several nations such as the Aquinnah (Gay Head), Mashpee, Nauset, Natick, Pokanoket, Chappaquiddick, Patuxet, and Nantuckets. All these groups shared a common language, history, and culture but their villages had autonomous governments.
  • They lived in small, round houses called wetus or wigwams. Wampanoag men were hunters, fishermen, and sometimes warriors. Women in the community managed the childcare, cooking, and farming. Only men could be chiefs.
  • Both Wampanoag men and women wore deerskin mantles during winter. Women wore knee-length skirts while men used breechcloths with leggings. Moccasins were worn as footwear for both sexes. Unlike the Sioux, they did not wear long headdresses, instead they used a beaded headband with a feather or two.
  • Cultural tattoos and face paint identified a warrior. Men usually wore their hair in a mohawk style or scalplock.
  • Dugout wooden canoes were used for transportation and sea fishing. Hunters were equipped with bows and arrows, and heavy wooden clubs. Nets and bone hooks were useful for fishermen.
  • Arts and crafts were important in Wampanoag cultural life. Their basket weaving, wood carving, and beadwork became famous. Crafting wampum (white and purple shell beads) were Wampanoag artists’ specialty. Wampum beads were traded as a form currency and an art material.
  • Using wampum beads, Wampanoags traded with other Native American nations such as the Mohicans, Mohegans, and the Delaware.
  • The Wampanoag nation has their own reservation in Martha’s Vineyard. They practice their own law, rules, government, and practices but they also obey American law since they are U.S. citizens.
  • Today, the Wampanoag community of Gay Head (Aquinnah) and Mashpee Wampanoag group are the two federally recognized nations.

Wampanoag Native Americans Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Wampanoag Native Americans across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Wampanoag Native Americans worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Wampanoag Native Americans who were the original inhabitants of the territory of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. They befriended the Pilgrims who established the settlement of Plymouth in New England. The first three-day thanksgiving feast was celebrated with them.

Volledige lys van ingesluit werkkaarte

  • Wampanoag Native American Facts
  • Mapping Native American Nations
  • Famous Wampanoag People
  • The Pilgrims and Thanksgiving
  • To Martha’s Vineyard
  • Wampanoag Nation
  • Die Drie Susters
  • Wampanoag Life
  • Gay Head and Mashpee Wampanoag
  • Wuneekeesuq!
  • Songs of Gratitude

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