Dag 148 16 Junie 2011 - Geskiedenis

Dag 148 16 Junie 2011 - Geskiedenis

12:00 kom die PRESIDENT en die VICE PRESIDENT bymekaar vir 'n middagete Privaat eetkamer

13:30 besoek die PRESIDENT die Walter Reed Army Medical Center Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

15:30 vergader die PRESIDENT met die tesourie -sekretaris, Geithner Oval Office

16:45 DIE PRESIDENT groet jong verkose leiers by die groot voorportaal van die Withuis


PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP)

Beyond Meat navigeer 'n verskuiwing in die kleinhandelstrategie en het onlangs 'n groot opgradering gekry. Is BYND -aandele 'n koop?

Hoe om verlief te raak op 'n nuwe taal?

Ons het hierdie program getoets om te sien of u binne 7 dae 'n taal kan leer.

Hoogtepunte van die Zacks Industry Outlook: Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Keurig Dr Pepper en Fomento Economico Mexicano

Hoogtepunte van die Zacks Industry Outlook: Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Keurig Dr Pepper en Fomento Economico Mexicano

PepsiCo (PEP) winste maar agterstand: wat u moet weet

PepsiCo (PEP) het die mees onlangse verhandelingsdag op $ 146,56 gesluit, +0,78% vergeleke met die vorige handelsessie.

10 beste aandele om te koop volgens Billionaire Cliff Asness

In hierdie artikel kyk ons ​​na die tien beste dividendaandele wat volgens die miljardêr Cliff Asness gekoop kan word. U kan ons gedetailleerde ontleding van die geskiedenis van Asness, beleggingsfilosofie en verskansingsfondsprestasies oorslaan, en direk na 5 beste dividendaandele gaan om te koop volgens Billionaire Cliff Asness. Cliff Asness, verskansingsfonds […]

4 aandele om na te kyk hoe gesondheidsbewustheid die mark vir koeldrank dryf

Toenemende gesondheidsbewustheid en smaaklike en natuurlike drankies en die vraag na x27 sal die koeldrankbedryf dryf. Coca-Cola (KO), PepsiCo (PEP), Keurig Dr Pepper (KDP) en FEMSA (FMX) is aandele om na te kyk.


Argief

Terwyl hy in 1982 in België gewoon het, het ds. Ron is deur die Kanadese koerant "Western Catholic Reporter ”" uitgenooi om 'n funksiekolom te skryf. Met die rubriek “In ballingskap”, het ds. Ron word gereeld gevra wat die betekenis agter die titel is.

'Oppervlakkig woon ek in die buiteland en was jonk genoeg en vol jeugdigheid om van die gevoel van buitestaander te hou. As jy jonk is, kan dit romanties, selfs edel lyk, die een wat van die huis af weg is, vermis deur jou geliefdes, skynbaar op 'n heldhaftige reis. U probeer natuurlik net 'n universiteitsgraad behaal, amper nie heroïese reise nie, maar dit was voor onmiddellike kommunikasie en die internet, toe u nie elke vakansie oor die Atlantiese Oseaan vlieg nie. Dit was die eerste keer dat ek 'n hele ent weg van die huis was, ek was jonk, alleen, rusteloos, en dit was lekker om 'n bietjie te verlustig in die eensaamheid.

Om baie meer belangrike redes het ek hierdie titel gekies omdat ons almal op 'n regte manier in ballingskap leef. Soos Paulus dit stel, sien ons dit as 'deur 'n glas, donker', deur 'n raaisel, altyd gedeeltelik van God en mekaar geskei. Ons ervaar 'n mate van liefde, 'n mate van gemeenskap, 'n mate van rustigheid, maar nooit hierdie in hul volheid nie. Karl Rahner het eenkeer gesê "in die pyniging van die ontoereikendheid van alles wat bereik kan word, leer ons dat hier in hierdie lewe geen voltooide simfonie is nie."


Dag 148 16 Junie 2011 - Geskiedenis

Die Posdiens se plan om diensstandaarde te verlaag, word nou hersien deur die Posregulerende Kommissie vir advies. Op Maandag, 21 Junie, het die Posdiens en verskeie van die ingrypers in die saak hul opsommings en standpunte ingedien. U kan die opsommings hier en die standpunte hier vind.

Hier is my opdrag. (Op verskeie punte verwys dit na getalle en kaarte in my getuienis, wat hier is.)

I. Verklaring van die saak

Op 21 April 2021 het die Posdiens 'n versoek ingedien vir 'n adviesadvies ingevolge 39 U.S.C. §3661 aangaande beplande veranderinge aan die diensstandaarde vir eersteklas pos en einde-tot-einde tydskrifte. [1] Die posdiens se plan is om 'n ekstra afleweringsdag by te voeg tot 'n persentasie pos wat tans onder 'n tweedaagse standaard is en een of twee ekstra dae by 'n persentasie pos wat tans onder 'n standaard van drie dae is. Die posdiens beweer dat so 'n verslapping van diensstandaarde dit moontlik maak om die afhanklikheid van lugvervoer te verminder en die algehele betroubaarheid van aflewering te verbeter.

II. Standpuntverklaring

Ek is gekant teen die plan van die posdiens omdat die voorgestelde diensstandaarde onnodige diskriminasie sal veroorsaak van gebruikers van die pos wat toevallig op plekke ver van die bevolkingsentrums woon. Die voorgestelde standaarde het 'n invloed op sommige gebiede van die land - veral die Stille Oseaan -state, maar ook die Westerse state en gedeeltes van Florida, Texas en Maine - meer as wat dit ander gebiede sal beïnvloed. Hierdie gebiede wat baie geraak word, sal meer van hul oorsprong-bestemmingspare en meer van hul volumes afgradeer, sowel as groter stygings in gemiddelde afleweringstyd, as wat ander dele van die land sal ondervind. Gevolglik sal die voorgestelde veranderinge in diensstandaarde lei tot onredelike en onbehoorlike diskriminasie onder gebruikers van die pos, in stryd met 39 Amerikaanse Code § 403 (c).

III. Bespreking

Soos in 39 U.S.C. 403 (c), "By die verskaffing van dienste en die bepaling van klassifikasies, tariewe en gelde onder hierdie titel, mag die posdiens, behalwe soos spesifiek gemagtig in hierdie titel, geen onbehoorlike of onredelike diskriminasie tussen gebruikers van die posse maak nie. dit gee enige sodanige gebruiker onnodige of onredelike voorkeure. ”

Diskriminasiegedinge behels tipies 'n raamwerk waarin eisers eers aantoon dat hulle onregverdig behandel is in vergelyking met ander wat in 'n soortgelyke situasie verkeer, en dan moet die verweerders aantoon dat daar 'n wettige rede vir hul optrede was. In bevel 718 oor die GameFly-klag gebruik die Kommissie dus 'n driepuntige toets om te evalueer of daar onbehoorlike diskriminasie plaasgevind het. [2] Eerstens moet vasgestel word dat 'n e -posadres of 'n groep e -posse "minder gunstige tariewe of voorwaardes gebied is as een of meer ander e -posse". Tweedens moet die posboodskap “aantoon dat dit dieselfde is as die ander posse of posse wat gunstiger tariewe of diensvoorwaardes gebied is”. En derdens, "moet dit aantoon dat die posdiens geen rasionele of legitieme basis het om die gunstiger tariewe of voorwaardes wat aan ander gebied word, te ontken nie." Die volgende bespreking sal toon dat die onbehoorlike diskriminasie ter sprake in Docket N2021-1 al drie hierdie toetse slaag. Lees meer

Poshistorikus vra die VRK om die posdiens terug te keer na 'n diensdiens

Hieronder is die posverklaring wat Rubio vandag aan die posregulerende kommissie ingedien het rakende die posdiens se plan om diensstandaarde op eersteklas pos en tydskrifte te verminder.

As u self kommentaar wil lewer, is die sperdatum op 18 Junie en 'n paar instruksies hier.

Ek het die pos twintig jaar lank in Colorado en Noord-Carolina van 1980-2000 gedra voordat ek teruggegaan het na die nagraadse skool-en het nou vir dieselfde aantal jare universiteitsgeskiedenis geleer. Ek het ook twee historiese boeke, verskeie akademiese artikels, geskrewe artikels gepubliseer en dosyne onderhoude gegee oor die poskantoor, poswerkers en posdiens. Vir my is die USPS persoonlik, polities en prakties.

Ek soek elke dag die pos en dink my bure, vriende en familielede doen dieselfde. My tipiese posroete was meer as 500 haltes, so ek kon voel hoe honderde paar oë kyk na my daaglikse aankoms met die pos wat hulle vertrou, betyds afgelewer sou word. Teen daardie tyd was hulle gewoond daaraan dat pos vinniger as ooit tevore beweeg het danksy verbeterings in posverwerkingstegnologie.

Dit is beslis vinniger afgelewer as wat dit beweeg het, sê op 12 Augustus 1970. Dit was die dag van die ondertekeningseremonie van die Wet op Reorganisasie van die Pos, waar president Richard Nixon 'n grap gemaak het dat sy mees onlangse brief aan sy posmeester -generaal nog steeds iewers in die pos was in die land se hoofstad. (Maar hy het gesê dat hy groot verwagtinge het vir toekomstige verbeterde diens, wat miljoene dollars aan kapitaaltoerusting insluit - baie daarvan word nou deur huidige posmeester -generaal Louis DeJoy geskrap.)

Een van die vele "ontasbare dinge" wat in die posdiens ingebed is, is die aandag van die vervoerder en die kleinhandelaar op klagtes van klante (as draers het ons dit nooit "kliënte" genoem nie). 'Waar is my tjek? Dit was veronderstel om vandag afgelewer te word - hulle het gesê dat dit Maandag gestuur is! ” “ Sal hierdie kaart Saterdag na die Weskus kom? ” “ nog? ”

Dit was voor die skanderingstegnologie, maar die aandag van die draer het net die formaat verander. Namate die internet normatief geword het, word pos in die volksmond as 'slakkepos' beskou, aangesien daar nie tred gehou word met e -pos, webwerwe of sms'e in terme van spoed nie. Nietemin het opnames deurgaans opgemerk dat die publiek die waardering van die bestendige snelheid en betroubaarheid van die USPS met harde kopie -kommunikasie waardeer.

Tog is wydverspreide berigte oor toenemende wantroue van verbruikers teenoor die USPS kommerwekkend. Die vertroue kan net verder erodeer, en dit sal waarskynlik moeilik wees om terug te wen. (Op 'n persoonlike noot: die parkeergedeelte van my universiteit het geweier om hierdie jaar my parkeerkaart in die pos te stuur weens die voortgesette USPS -kwessies, en het my gevra om dit eerder te kom haal.)

Ek het in my boeke, artikels en onderhoude aangevoer dat die agteruitgang van die posdiens in Amerika in die een-en-twintigste eeu DeJoy voorafgegaan het. Maar onder DeJoy was die afname die skerpste. Deur die tyd wat dit neem om eersteklas pos af te lewer, te vergroot, na oppervlaktevervoer te gaan en lugvervoer te skrap, neem ons agteruit, nie vorentoe nie.

Posmeester-generaal Frank Hitchcock, 'n Republikein wat in die kantoor van 1909-1913 gedien het, het die eerste lugposdiens in 1911 gemagtig. DeJoy is nou van voorneme om die gebruik van lug vir die vervoer van eersteklas pos te verminder.

Hitchcock was ook die voorsitter van die inhuldiging van pakkiepos- en posbankdienste - gesien as moderne hervormings vir Amerikaanse verbruikers. Dit is slegs die hibriede formaat van die huidige USPS wat die illusie skep dat dit 'n korporatiewe entiteit is wat 'soos 'n onderneming moet werk' en 'wins moet maak'. Dit is steeds basies 'n regeringsagentskap, soos titel 39 ons herinner.

Afwysing van DeJoy se voorgestelde diensstandaardbesnoeiings deur die Posregulasiekommissie kan die begin wees om die rigting van die USPS terug te verander na een wie se missie diens is. Dankie vir jou tyd.

Die uwe,
Philip F. Rubio
Professor in geskiedenis, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University

(Fotokrediet: Natalie M. Anderson)

Posadvokaat getuig teen die vermindering van USPS -diensstandaarde

Redakteur se opmerking: die posdiens se plan om diensstandaarde te verlaag, word nou hersien deur die posregulerende kommissie vir 'n adviesadvies. Die posdiens het vyf getuies voorgelê om sy saak te maak. Verlede week het vier getuies weerleggingsgetuienis ingedien. Hieronder is die weerleggingsgetuienis van die jare lange posadvokaat Douglas Carlson, die registrateur en assistent-visekanselier vir studente-inligting aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Francisco.

Op Woensdag 9 Junie om 10 uur sal mnr. Carlson kruisondervraging doen van drie van die USPS-getuies. U kan 'n lewendige stroom van die verhoor op You-Tube kyk op https://youtu.be/RZl6CzkutRg.

U kan al die getuienisse sowel as die res van die Volksrepubliek hier en op ons N2021-1-paneelbord vind.

Biografiese skets

Ek is sedert 2004 werksaam as registrateur en assistent -visekanselier vir studente -inligting aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Francisco. Voorheen was ek werksaam by die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Santa Cruz en die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley. Ek het 'n baccalaureusgraad in ekonomie aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley, in 1990 en 'n regsgraad aan die UC Berkeley School of Law in 1994 ontvang. Ek woon in San Francisco, Kalifornië.

Ek het getuienis gelewer aan die posregulerende kommissie oor posdiens in posnommer MC96-3. In dossier nr. R97-1 het ek getuienis gelewer oor die tarief en fooi vir gestempelde kaarte, probleme met die ontvangsdiens en probleme met die poskantoor. In dossier C2001-1 het ek getuienis gelewer oor probleme met insamelingsdienste op vakansiedae en vakansiedae. Laastens, in Dossier C2001-3, het ek getuienis gelewer oor veranderinge in eersteklas posdiensstandaarde wat die Posdiens in 2000 en 2001 geïmplementeer het.

Ek lewer hierdie getuienis in my rol in hierdie proses as 'n individuele burger. Alhoewel ek soms na my werk by UC San Francisco kan verwys, weerspieël my getuienis slegs my eie persoonlike siening, hetsy met betrekking tot my werk of andersins. My getuienis weerspieël al dan nie die standpunte van my werkgewer, en my getuienis moet nie die standpunte van my werkgewer verteenwoordig nie.

Doel van getuienis

Volgens 39 U.S.C. § 403 (a), "Die posdiens beplan, ontwikkel, bevorder en lewer voldoende en doeltreffende posdienste teen billike en redelike tariewe en fooie." Gedurende my lewe was ek, saam met die meeste ander Amerikaanse burgers en besighede, afhanklik van die posdiens om hierdie statutêre missie te vervul. As daar probleme met die diens bestaan, verwag die posdiens dat die posdiens dit regstel, nie dat die diensvlakke verlaag word nie en verklaar dat die verminderde diens beter is as die vorige diens. Deur die voorstel in hierdie dossier in te dien, is die posdiens strydig met die statuut van plan, en beplan en ontwikkel posdienste wat nie voldoende om aan die behoeftes van hedendaagse kliënte te voldoen.

My getuienis sal toon dat die posdiens se voorstel in hierdie dossier nie aan die behoeftes van kliënte voldoen nie. My getuienis bevraagteken ook of die posdiens die effek op die volume van die veranderinge in diensstandaarde wat die voorstel sou veroorsaak, behoorlik bereken. En my getuienis bevraagteken of die posdiens die voorkeure van kliënte behoorlik verteenwoordig.

Oorsig

As agtergrond plaas ek sedert einde 2012 Intelligente pos-strepieskodes op byna al my uitgaande e-posse van eerste klas, beide persoonlik en besigheid, en gebruik ek die gratis diens van die posdiens vir ingeligte sigbaarheid (en die voorganger Mail Tracking en Verslagdoening) om posverwerking en waarskynlike afleweringstye van hierdie pos te monitor. Briewe bestaan ​​uit die oorgrote meerderheid van my uitgaande pos, maar ek stuur ook poskaarte en woonstelle. Alhoewel ek die diensstandaarde vir eersteklas pos al dekades lank ken, het Informed Sigibility my in staat gestel om die werklike diensprestasie te verstaan ​​en te ontleed. My waarneming van my ingeligte sigbaarheidsdata het grootliks die neigings in die prestasiedata wat die posdiens aan die publiek rapporteer, opgespoor, insluitend die afname in tydige aflewering van drie dae pos nadat die posdiens oornag aflewering vir enkelstukke uitgeskakel het. Class Mail in Januarie 2015 en die swak diensprestasie sedert die COVID-19-pandemie begin het. Sedert ek met my moniteringsprojek vir ingeligte sigbaarheid begin het, het ek die diensprestasie van meer as 42 000 posse waargeneem.

In 2019, 'n tipiese jaar, het ek toesig gehou oor die pos van ongeveer 4,500 stukke eersteklas pos. Alhoewel hierdie getal in die posbedryf klein lyk, is my insigte 'n perspektief wat die posdiens nie voldoende oorweeg het om die voorstel in hierdie dokument te ontwikkel nie. Byna elke pos bied 'n diens aan die sender en die ontvanger. Die diensveranderinge wat die posdiens voorstel, sal bykans die hele bevolking van die Verenigde State beïnvloed. Ek stuur en monitor persoonlik afleweringstye vir baie meer pos as wat die meeste individue in die Verenigde State doen. Boonop is baie van die pos wat ek stuur, ten minste 'n bietjie belangrik, indien nie baie belangrik nie, vir afzenders en ontvangers. My jaarlikse posse verteenwoordig ongeveer 9 000 klante -ervarings - miskien klein in die posbedryf, maar meer as wat die posdiens in hierdie dossier verteenwoordig het. Lees meer

Is die beëindiging van lugpos onregverdig? Getuienis vir die PRC se adviesadvies oor veranderende diensstandaarde

Die posdiens beëindig lugpos op 1 Mei 1977 as 'n aparte klas Amerikaanse pos, byna sestig jaar nadat dit gestig is. Teen 1974 gebruik die posdiens vliegtuie om byna 30 persent van die eerste klas pos te vervoer - meer as 15 miljard stukke - en daar was nie veel verskil tussen die twee klasse nie, behalwe dat lugpos drie sent meer gekos het.

Vandag sluit die posdiens kontrakte met lugvervoerders, hoofsaaklik FedEx, in om ongeveer 21 persent van die eerste klas pos te lewer - meer as 10 miljard stukke. Hierdie pos is in wese lugpos, maar sonder die spesiale seël en ekstra fooi.

Die posdiens stel nou voor om die lugvervoer vir die vasteland van die VSA tot ongeveer 12 persent van die eerste klas volumes te verminder, en dit moontlik uiteindelik heeltemal te beëindig. Die agentskap sê dat die verskuiwing van lug na oppervlakte van vervoer die netto inkomste met $ 175 miljoen per jaar sou verbeter en die afhanklikheid van lugrederye sou vermy, wat soms onvoorspelbaar kan wees om die USPS -tydraamwerke te bereik.

Die posdiens benodig lugvervoer om aan die diensstandaard van drie dae te voldoen vir nie -plaaslike pos, wat van toepassing is op die hele aangrensende 48 state. Die gebruik van vragmotors in plaas van vliegtuie beteken dat dit een of twee ekstra dae sal neem om die pos af te lewer, dus het die Posdiens voorgestelde afgradering van diensstandaarde voorgestel. In plaas van twee of drie dae, sal die nuwe standaard twee tot vyf dae wees. Die posdiens sê dat dit konsekwent aan hierdie laer standaarde kan voldoen, sodat posaflewering, terwyl dit stadiger is, meer 'betroubaar' en 'voorspelbaar' is.

Die plan om diensstandaarde te verlaag, word nou hersien deur die Postal Regulatory Commission vir 'n adviesadvies. Die posdiens het vyf getuies voorgelê om sy saak te maak. U kan hierdie getuienisse sowel as die res van die PRC-dokumente hier en op ons N2021-1-dashboard sien.

Gister het vier getuies weerleggingsgetuienis ingedien, twee van hulle namens die APWU, plus die langdurige poswagter Douglas Carlson en ek.

Carlson is die registrateur en assistent -visekanselier vir studente -inligting aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Francisco, en sy getuienis fokus op hoe die universiteit deur stadiger pos beïnvloed kan word. Stephen DeMatteo is uitvoerende assistent van die president van die APWU, sy getuienis hersien meer as 77 000 opmerkings wat ingedien is oor die diensstandaardveranderinge wat in die Federale Register gepubliseer is. Anita Morrison is die stigter van die vennote vir ekonomiese oplossings, haar getuienis ondersoek die gevolge van die voorgestelde veranderings in geografiese terme, en dit bevat verskeie kaarte soortgelyk aan dié in my getuienis.

Hier is my getuienis soos dit gister voorgelê is (sonder die outobiografiese skets). Die getuienis bevat ook 'n Excel -dokument wat op die PRC -webwerf gevind kan word en vir maklike toegang tot Google Drive.

DOEL VAN DIE GETUIENIS

Die doel van my getuienis is om die Kommissie visuele voorstellings te gee van hoe die voorgestelde diensstandaarde op individuele vlak en op 'n geaggregeerde nasionale vlak sou lyk. Die Posdiens bied kaarte van diensstandaarde vir SCF's op sy PostalPro -webwerf, en dit is baie nuttig, nie net vir posseerders nie, maar ook vir die publiek. Ek het gereeld joernaliste na hierdie kaarte verwys om te help verduidelik hoe diensstandaarde in die praktyk lyk.

Toe ek die posdiens se tegniese beskrywing van die voorgestelde diensstandaarde nagaan, met al die besonderhede oor reistye, afstande en posbedrywighede, het dit duidelik geword dat kaarte die voorstel kon visualiseer. Toe ek begin om kaarte te maak van die standaarde vir spesifieke SCF's, het ek gesien dat daar 'n aansienlike mate van variasie was. Byvoorbeeld, vir SCF's wat in die middel van die land geleë is, is die gebied wat onder 'n diensstandaard van 5 dae val, veel kleiner as wat die geval was met SCF's langs die kus.

Dit het 'n vraag laat ontstaan ​​wat my nie voorheen opgekom het nie: sou die diensstandaarde vir sommige mense onregverdig wees net vanweë die woonplek? Met die vraag in gedagte, het ek 'n paar ekstra kaarte gemaak wat ek glo lig op die kwessie kan gee. Lees meer

Hoe die poshervormingsrekening die posdiens kan help om die pos te vertraag

In Augustus 1970 het Titel 39, oftewel die Wet op Reorganisasie van die Pos, die posdiens geskep. Die eerste afdeling, 39 U.S. Code § 101, het die titel 'Posbeleid'. Dit is net meer as 400 woorde lank, maar dit is waarskynlik die gedeelte wat die meeste in die geskiedenis van poswetgewing aangehaal word. Dit word dikwels aangehaal in geskille, akademiese artikels en die kaste van die Posregulerende Kommissie.

In sommige opsigte is artikel 101 soos die aanhef tot die Grondwet. Dit bevat die basiese beginsels waarop die posdiens gevestig is:

(a) Die posdiens van die Verenigde State word bedryf as 'n basiese en fundamentele diens wat deur die regering van die Verenigde State aan die mense gelewer word, gemagtig deur die Grondwet, geskep deur die Congress of Act en ondersteun deur die mense. Die posdiens het as sy basiese funksie die plig om posdienste te lewer om die nasie saam te bind deur persoonlike, opvoedkundige, literêre en sakekorrespondensie van die mense. Dit bied vinnige, betroubare en doeltreffende dienste aan beskermhere op alle gebiede en lewer posdienste aan alle gemeenskappe. Die koste van die oprigting en instandhouding van die posdiens word nie toegedeel om die algehele waarde van sodanige diens aan die mense te benadeel nie.

Artikel 101 beskerm ook klein landelike poskantore deur hierdie dikwels aangehaalde gedeelte in te sluit:

(b) Die posdiens bied 'n maksimum mate van effektiewe en gereelde posdienste aan landelike gebiede, gemeenskappe en klein dorpies waar poskantore nie selfonderhoudend is nie. Geen klein poskantoor mag uitsluitlik gesluit word om teen 'n tekort te werk nie, aangesien dit spesifiek die bedoeling van die kongres is dat effektiewe posdienste aan inwoners van stedelike en landelike gemeenskappe verseker word.

In 2008 het die Kongres Afdeling 101 oor “ Postbeleid ” gewysig om 'n deel van 'n sin in subdeel (f) te verwyder wat vereis dat die Posdiens ''n regverdige en regverdige verspreiding van posbesigheid aan vervoerders maak wat soortgelyke vervoerdienste aan die Posdiens." Die gedeelte is onder Pub geskrap. L. 110–405, die Wet op die vervoer van internasionale pos, wat verander het hoe die posdiens lugvervoerkontrakte aangegaan het, wat die lyn blykbaar onnodig gemaak het.

Afgesien van hierdie klein verandering, is daar geen ander hersienings van artikel 101 nie. Dit lees vandag soos in 1970.

Tog, om een ​​of ander rede, diep begrawe in die wetsontwerp op poshervorming wat tans in die kongres strek - HR 3076, en#8220 Wet op hervorming van posdiens van 2021 ” - is 'n afdeling wat 39 USC 101 sou wysig. (Die teks van die Senaatweergawe posthervorming, S.1720, is nog nie beskikbaar nie, maar NALC sê dat dit 'n soortgelyke gedeelte bevat.)

Die voorgestelde wysigings in die bewoording van die teks mag klein lyk, maar dit het groot implikasies. Hier is hoe deel (f) nou lees: Lees meer

'N Gesprek met die stigter van die “Save the Post Office ” webwerf

Die administrateur en stigter van die “Save the Post Office ” webwerf, Steve Hutkins, sluit by Bob Levi aan op NAPS Chat om die doel en impak van die webwerf te bespreek. Bob en Steve praat ook oor die tydelike prestasieprobleme van die posdiens en die plan om diensstandaarde af te gradeer, wat nou deur die PRC hersien word vir 'n adviesadvies. Luister op GooglePodcast, Spotify en Apple Podcasts.

Die kartering van die veranderinge in USPS -diensstandaarde

Die posdiens het 'n advies van die posregulasiekommissie aangevra oor sy plan om diensstandaarde op eersteklas pos en tydskrifte te verslap. Baie van die pos wat nou na verwagting binne 2 dae afgelewer sal word, verander na 'n standaard van 3 dae, en baie posse van 3 dae verander na 'n standaard van 4 of 5 dae. Die hoofrede vir hierdie veranderinge is om toe te laat dat meer pos per pos vervoer word eerder as met die lug, wat nog 'n dag of twee neem, en om die posdiens te help om hoër en meer voorspelbare tydige prestasietellings te behaal. ('N Paneelbord met meer besonderhede, dokumente en kaarte kan hier gevind word.)

Dit is nie die eerste keer dat die posdiens 'n advies vra oor verslapende diensstandaarde nie. In 1989 het die posdiens voorgestel dat sommige bestemmings herklassifiseer word van oornag- tot tweedaagse diens, en ander van 2-dae tot 3-dae. Die rede hiervoor was dat marknavorsing daarop dui dat klante verkies om 'konsekwentheid' en '8220snelheid' te verseker. 'N Stadiger standaard sou, volgens die posdiens, sy afhanklikheid van lugvervoer verminder, wat 'n onopvallende fout gehad het. 8221

In sy adviesadvies het die Postal Rate Commission bevind dat die posdiens se marknavorsing, wat die belangrikste regverdiging vir die voorstel was, nie die voorkeure van kliënte akkuraat gemeet het nie. ” Plus, het die kommissie gesê het nie skattings van die kostebesparing vir homself of koste -effekte op sy kliënte voorgehou nie. ”

In Desember 2011 stel die posdiens weer verslawende diensstandaarde voor, hierdie keer om meer as 200 posverwerkingsaanlegte te konsolideer. Die PRC se adviesadvies was skepties oor die USPS -kostebesparingsberaming en het ook alternatiewe aanbeveel wat diensvlakke sou behou. Die posdiens het in elk geval met die plan voortgegaan.

In Julie 2012 het dit die eerste fase van die plan geïmplementeer, en die “interim ” diensstandaarde het ongeveer 20 persent van die pos oornag uitgeskakel en 'n dag bygevoeg tot ongeveer twee dae pos. In Januarie 2015 is die “finale ” standaarde geïmplementeer en is aflewering per e-pos afgehandel. Saam het die twee fases 'n ekstra afleweringstyd bygevoeg tot meer as 'n derde, miskien die helfte, van die eerste klas pos.

Die erosie van standaarde

Aangesien die eerste klas posvolumes sedert 2006 geleidelik afgeneem het, sou u dink dat dit makliker sou gewees het om die pos betyds af te lewer. Trouens, die gemiddelde tyd wat dit neem om die pos te stuur, het net so geleidelik toegeneem as die volumes gedaal het.

Die gemiddelde afleweringstyd vir eerste klas pos in die vroeë 1990's was ongeveer 1,6 dae. As gevolg van die veranderinge in standaarde in 2011 en 2015, het dit toegeneem tot 2,5 dae. Onder die jongste voorstel sal die gemiddelde afleweringstyd met 18 % styg tot byna 3 dae.

Hierdie afleweringsgetalle is effens anders as die data wat deur die USPS -getuie Thomas Thress aangemeld is vir die adviesopinie. Grafieke in sy getuienis dui aan dat die huidige gemiddelde 2,5 dae per pos is en 2,4 dae vir presort. Dit sou ongeveer 2,43 dae vir die eerste klas in die algemeen 'n toename van 18 persent tot gemiddeld 2,87 dae lei. Die nommers in die grafiek hierbo is afgelei van die volgende grafiek, wat die persentasie posvolumes toon wat onderhewig is aan die verskillende standaarde. Die bronne vir hierdie grafiek is N89-1 Advisory Opinion (p. 1) 2014 Feiteblad 9/21/11 Federal Register-kennisgewing en USPS Delivering For America 10-jaarplan.

Met elke verandering in diensstandaarde, was die doel om koste te besnoei en die “ betroubaarheid ” en “ voorspelbaarheid ” van afleweringstye te verhoog. Maar die besparingsberamings is deurgaans betwis omdat dit nie duidelik is hoeveel laer standaarde sake weggedryf het en elektroniese afleiding versnel het nie. Bedryfsveranderinge het ook oor die algemeen nie daarin geslaag om koste te verminder nie, ten minste soveel as wat voorspel is. En die probleem met snelheid teenoor betroubaarheid is lastig, want dit hang alles af van hoe u die e-posse aan die pos stuur, en buitendien wil hulle nie dieselfde ding hê nie.

Maar wat duidelik is, is dat die plan wat tans deur die Kommissie hersien word, nog 'n stadium is in die voortdurende erosie van diensstandaarde en afleweringstye.

Maak kaarte

Die versoek om advies, die getuies van die USPS -getuienis en verskeie biblioteekverwysings verduidelik die plan in besonderhede, maar die materiaal gee nie 'n baie duidelike beeld van hoe die veranderinge in terme van aardrykskunde sal lyk nie. 'N Paar kaarte wat ontbreek. Lees meer

Nuwe paneelbord oor die PRC -advies oor die verandering in diensstandaarde

Die posdiens het 'n advies van die posregulasiekommissie aangevra oor sy plan om diensstandaarde op eersteklas pos en tydskrifte te verslap. Ons het 'n nuwe webwerf begin wat maklike toegang tot die PRC se dossier (N2021-1) bied, asook 'n paar kaarte, tabelle en blogposte oor die voorstel. U kan die bladsy hier vind, dit is ook 'n oortjie, N2021-1, in die hoofkieslys hierbo.


Die onsigbareOorlog teen die brein

Breintrauma van ontploffingsmag is die kenmerkende besering van die veldtogte in Irak en Afghanistan, wat honderde duisende Amerikaanse gevegspersoneel teister. Alhoewel dit nie gesien is nie, tref die skade diep in 'n soldaat se siel en siel.

Mariene Kpl. Burness Britt wag om uit Afghanistan weggevoer te word na 'n IED -staking in Junie 2011. Anja Niedringhaus, AP Images

Binne die beskermende bunker het ek saam met die plofstofspan gewag, met vingers vas in my ore. Buite is skoot nommer 52, met 'n lengte van 20 voet geel-en-groen-gestreepte ontploffingskoord, stewig teen die muur van 'n laaghoutgebou met 'n staaldeur vasgemaak. Daar was 'n aftelling van vyf, 'n lae "pow", en 'n dowwe stamp in die middel van my bors. Die stamp is die kenmerk van ontploffing. 'U voel die stamp', het een spanlid vir my gesê. 'Ek was in ontploffingsgeleenthede waar ons eintlik honderde of selfs duisende voet weg is, en ek voel nog steeds die knal.'

Die raaisel van wat die dons doen, het my na 'n bombardement van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebring, ongeveer 40 kilometer suidoos van Denver. Destyds is dit gebruik om 'n halfton-munisipaliteit te toets, en dit bestudeer nou gekontroleerde plofstof wat deur soldate gebruik word om gate deur mure en deure in gevegsgebiede te blaas-standaard in moderne oorlogvoering. Die uiteindelike doel van hierdie toetse is om te ontdek wat daardie ontploffing aan die menslike brein doen.

Volgens die Amerikaanse departement van verdediging is tussen 2001 en 2014 geïdentifiseer dat ongeveer 230 000 soldate en veterane aan sogenaamde ligte traumatiese breinbesering (TBI) ly, meestal as gevolg van blootstelling aan ontploffings. Die verskeidenheid simptome wat verband hou met die toestand- hoofpyn, aanvalle, motoriese versteurings, slaapstoornisse, duiseligheid, gesigstoornisse, ringe in die ore, gemoedsveranderinge en kognitiewe, geheue- en spraakprobleme- die feit dat dit lyk na simptome van post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the fact that exposure to blast events often was not logged in the early years of the campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq make it impossible to pin down casualty figures.

Despite the prevalence of the condition, the most fundamental questions about it remain unanswered. Not only is there no secure means of diagnosis, but there are also no known ways to prevent it and no cure. Above all, there is no consensus within the medical community about the nature of blast-induced injury or by what mechanism blast force damages the brain.

BOOM: In the field a single blast event represents a virtually simultaneous amalgam of distinct components, each uniquely damaging. Ignition sparks a chemical reaction, an instantaneous expansion of gases that pushes out a spherical wall of gas and air faster than the speed of sound. This shock wave envelops any object it encounters in a balloon of static pressure. During this fleeting stage—the primary blast effect—the individual does not move. An abrupt fall in pressure follows, creating a vacuum. Then comes the secondary blast effect, a rush of supersonic wind that floods the vacuum, hurling and fragmenting objects it encounters, weaponizing debris as high-speed, penetrating projectiles.

Marines on patrol in Afghanistan in 2009 noticed a motorcyclist pass by, and moments later an IED exploded. “It’s like being kicked by a horse, a horse with a foot that could cover your entire body,” said one survivor of an IED attack. Peter van Agtmael, Magnum Photos

The wind itself causes the tertiary blast effects, lifting human beings or even 15-ton armored vehicles in the air, slamming them against walls, rocks, dusty roadsides. The quaternary blast effects are everything else—fire that burns, chemicals that sear, dust that asphyxiates.

The mystery lies in the effects of the primary blast. Theories range wildly: Is it the shock wave’s entry to the brain through cranial orifices—eyes, nose, ears, mouth—that causes injury, and if so, how? Or is external shock pressure on the chest channeled inside vasculature up through the neck and into the brain? Does the transmission of complex wave activity by the skull into the semiliquid brain cause an embolism? Does pressure deform the skull, causing it to squeeze the brain? Is the explosive noise damaging? The flash of light? The majority of soldiers diagnosed with blast-induced neurotrauma have also been hurled or rattled by blast wind. Is military neurotrauma, then, simply an exotic form of concussion?

The tests in Colorado arose from a landmark 2008 study by the military of breachers, those soldiers whose job is to set explosives and who for years had been reported to suffer a high incidence of neurological symptoms. The study, conducted by the U.S. Marine Corps Weapons Training Battalion Dynamic Entry School, followed instructors and students over a two-week explosives training course. It turned out that for days after the larger explosions, breachers reported dull aches in the chest and back “like someone had punched them,” as well as headaches that “started with shooting pains in the forehead, progressed down the temples, behind the ears, and up through the jaw line.”

Studies show that the key mechanical factors associated with brain injury are an increase in intracranial pressure and the brain’s motion relative to the skull. The blast wave, or overpressure, affects the brain immediately upon impact with the skull. Pressure in the brain returns to normal after only a few milliseconds, but brain motion can occur for hundreds of milliseconds after impact.

Jason Treat, NGM STaff. Source: Andrew Merkle, Johns hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

More significantly, neurobehavioral tests administered before and after the course showed a “slight indication of declining performance among the instructors,” who typically are exposed to more blast events than students are. This suggested that repetitive exposure even to low-level blasts—even over just a two-week period—could be damaging.

The breacher study went some way toward bringing blast-induced neurotrauma into focus. As Lee Ann Young, one of the study’s leaders, noted, it motivated six follow-on research initiatives that continue today. Previously, many in the military and medical communities had found it difficult to believe that a low-energy blast could inflict significant injury. “Our most recent experience was with Gulf War syndrome, where despite many efforts to find consistent threads, we came up mostly dry on specific causes,” Col. Christian Macedonia (Ret.), the former medical sciences adviser to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told me. “So there were insane shouting matches in the Pentagon, strange as it may sound now, as to whether blast-related TBI actually existed.” In a paper published as recently as 2008, researchers at the Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, concluded that the troubling symptoms were strongly associated with PTSD and that “theoretical concern” about the neurological effects of blast exposure was essentially unfounded.

But today some researchers are floating a different theory: that mild TBI may increase vulnerability to certain psychological disorders, possibly accounting for the high rate of such disorders and even suicide among veterans. Many neurologists now advocate more precise terminology for this signature injury of the recent wars, such as “blast-induced traumatic brain injury” or “blast-induced neurotrauma”—and all I spoke with objected to the qualifier “mild.”

In the bunker we waited for the smoke to clear, then ventured into still-singed air. The building’s door had been blown off, the opposite wall was in splinters, the struts were broken, and much of the frame was askew. Pressure gauges at head and chest level had recorded the back-blast as it bounced off corners and walls. The explosion itself had been preserved on video, which replayed events, at two to three frames a second, that had flashed by at a speed of 14,000 frames a second—the ignited fuse glowing red-gold in a long, snaking, elegant stem of light, then the gold-black bloom of the explosion: BOOM.

Diffusion tensor imaging tractography dramatically reveals the breakdown of neural connections in the brain of a civilian victim of severe traumatic brain injury (bottom), compared with a healthy brain (top). Researchers in the Military Brain Injury Studies Program at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences plan to similarly map the brains of deceased veterans of recent campaigns to assess blast effects. Slides of delicate brain tissue (below) hold crucial clues. “I think I know what blast force does to the human brain,” says program director Daniel Perl. Images (top) courtesy Brian l. Edlow, Massachusetts General Hospital Reproduced with permission from the Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

Shot 52 was one of a series intended to cast light on the phenomenon of back-blast, the reflection of blast pressure off a surface. Other studies are examining the length of blast exposure and the frequency and type of blast. On site to lead the analysis was Charles Needham, a world authority on blast physics. Studying a computer-generated graph, he traced the spikes and dips of pressure that oscillated through five cycles before flattening out. The entire sequence lasted some 65 milliseconds. One hundred milliseconds is the minimum time it takes for a human to react to any stimulus—it had taken less than five milliseconds for the shock wave to hit the gauges on the walls. As Needham pointed out, “Anywhere in that room—it’s on you.”

Fatherly in manner, with white hair and a full white beard, Needham had been described to me by a colleague as a “cross between Santa Claus and Eeyore,” an impression that belied his stature as a high wizard in the black art of explosives. With degrees in physics and astrophysics, he is an authority on modeling all variety of blast events and the dynamics of blast reflection, and he spoke with wistful nostalgia of the big “rumble booms” of high-ordnance tests of years past. A glance at his résumé calls attention to the diversity and sheer spookiness of blast-related issues: “modifications to fireball behavior,” “high explosive simulation of nuclear effects,” and “Shock and Vibration symposia.”

Needham’s objective was to provide breachers with maps that would show which areas of a given type of structure are safest from reflected pressure. How a blast is reflected is determined not only by whether a space is square or rectangular, and the ceiling high or low, but also by where the wall studs lie, the number and placement of doors and windows, whether there are gaps or holes in the enclosure, whether there is furniture in the room. A shock wave bouncing off a rigid surface, whether of thin plaster or of steel, can be more powerful than the original wave. (Notoriously, the back-blast reflected off the ground at Hiroshima was more powerful than the actual explosion.) The corners of a room, where one might instinctively seek shelter, are particularly dangerous—as is being the third man in a line of breachers carrying protective shields, which, as it turns out, also reflect shock waves. A blast even reflects from within a soldier’s helmet to his head. Every feature in a landscape, every gesture a person makes, shapes a blast event.

A terse conclusion of the original 2008 breacher injury study cited “clear evidence” that recommended safe standoff distances required revision. “We … found errors of more than a factor of two in some of those training manuals,” Needham said, referring to breacher instructions: As a result, the manuals were modified in 2012. Encompassing a multitude of variables, calculations about blast events are elaborately difficult, and only in recent years has it been possible to make the kind of models Needham is now devising. “These are large calculations and take a lot of computer time,” he said. Or, as another blast authority put it, “Until very recently, the dominant force that caused all this damage was basically magic.”

Keen interest in blast effects began in World War I, when the signature mechanism of injury was—as in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan—blast force, mostly in the form of exploding artillery shells. The term “shell shock” first appeared in February 1915 in an article in the Lancet that examined the case studies of three British soldiers exposed to blast events who complained of sleeplessness, reduced visual field, and loss of taste, hearing, and memory. Initially their affliction was believed to be a “commotional disorder,” referring to agitation of the brain caused by a blast shock wave. A leading theory was that the shock wave traveled to the brain through spinal fluid.

The shock wave from a distant explosion “felt like it lifted my innards and put them back down.”

But as the war continued, the condition was attributed to weakness of nerves, given the fact that many men appeared to be otherwise uninjured. The term “shell shock,” implying that the shell burst itself was the cause of the damage, fell out of favor. The revision of diagnosis had profound consequences. In the following decades the shell-shocked soldier came to symbolize the emotional damage that is the cost of war, and medical research ceased to investigate the possibility that blast-force injury might be physical. “When I was in medical school, we were told about shell shock in World War I, that people then believed the brain could be damaged by blast waves from exploding shells,” Colonel Macedonia said. “It was told as a story about how ignorant the medical profession was a hundred years ago.”

The shell-shocked soldiers of that war can be tracked through British Ministry of Pension files into the 1920s, ’30s, ’40s, and beyond. Case reports give details of veterans sunk in lethargy or melancholy, “muddled” in thought, shaking convulsively on street corners, or going “around the bend” and exploding in paranoid acts of anger. Growing up in England, my parents knew of men whom they were told had “been ‘funny’ since the war.” These reports represent the best data available on the long-term fate of the shell-shocked veteran.

After World War II, in 1951, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission created the Blast Biology Program to test on various animals very large explosions that simulated the effects of nuclear events. Oxen, sheep, pigs, goats, dogs, cats, monkeys, rats, hamsters, rabbits, mice, and guinea pigs were subjected to live blasts or placed in shock tubes. (A shock tube is a long tube fitted with an internal membrane through which pressurized air bursts. This lab simulation, stripped of heat, debris, chemical fallout, and back-blast variables, creates a “pure” blast shock wave.) In the early 1980s the focus of research shifted from nuclear blasts to the low-level explosives characteristic of today’s war theaters.

“Most of our medical research on blast injuries was either on fragmentation wounds or what happens in gas-filled organs—everyone was always concerned in a thermonuclear explosion what happened to your lungs and your gastrointestinal tract,” Lt. Col. Kevin “Kit” Parker, the Tarr Family Professor of Bioengineering and Applied Physics at Harvard, told me. “We completely overlooked the brain. Today the enemy has developed a weapon system that is targeted toward our scientific weak spot.”

Parker, a towering figure with a shaved head and booming voice, is also a former U.S. Army infantry officer who served two tours in Afghanistan, where he saw and felt the effects of blast force. “There was a flash in the sky, and I turned back toward the mountains where the fighting was,” Parker said, recalling the day in January 2003 when, in the hills of Kandahar, the shock wave from a distant explosion passed through his body. “It just felt like it lifted my innards and put them back down.”

Mostly he was made aware of the range of damage blast inflicted. “When bombs are going off, it’s easier to forget about the guy who’s been a little out of sorts than the guy who’s sitting near him and got both his legs blown off,” Parker said. “But the guy who’s going to have the more serious long-term issues probably is going to be the guy who had the brain injury.”

In 2005 Parker, who was then involved in cardiac tissue engineering, turned his attention to blast-induced neurotrauma. He began by reviewing the science for a class of proteins—integrins—that transmit mechanical forces into cells. Using specially designed magnetic tweezers and a device resembling a miniature jackhammer to simulate the abrupt stretching and high-velocity compression of blast effects, Parker and a small team of students subjected engineered tissues of rat neurons, or nerve cells, to blastlike assault. The integrins on the cell surface initiated a cascade of effects culminating in a dramatic retraction of axons, the long tendrils that serve as a neuron’s signaling mechanism.

By working at the cellular level, Parker’s team sidestepped two central difficulties of any blast research—namely, that one cannot expose humans to blast events and that animals are poor substitutes for humans. On the other hand, results from cells in a petri dish cannot be extrapolated to a human being.

The array of theories neurologists are actively pursuing stands as eloquent testimony to how wide open blast-induced neurotrauma research is. Lee Goldstein, of Boston University School of Medicine, has taken a very different approach. “People focus on the pressure wave,” Goldstein told me. “What’s behind it is the wind.” Goldstein’s range of expertise can be read in his full title: associate professor of psychiatry, neurology, ophthalmology, pathology and laboratory medicine, and biomedical, computer, and electrical engineering. At 52, he has the lean build, long dark hair and beard, and intensity of purpose of a desert prophet.

In May 2012 he published the results of studies that examined a possible association between blast-induced neurotrauma and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease that he and his team discovered in the autopsied brains of four military veterans with blast exposure. Goldstein’s co-author, Ann McKee, of VA Boston, had been studying CTE in the autopsied brains of football players and other athletes. First reported as a “punch drunk” syndrome in boxers in 1928, CTE is associated with athletes who sustain repetitive head trauma. An incurable and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease, CTE leads to cognitive disability and dementia. The disease can be detected only at autopsy and is revealed by abnormal tangles of a protein called tau.

To test the theory that blast exposure may have triggered CTE pathology, Goldstein’s team exposed mice to a single shock-tube blast that simulated the effects of a moderate-size explosive. High-speed cameras captured the results—a rapid bobble-head effect, as the heads of the mice shook back and forth in reaction to the force. In 30 milliseconds, far less than the blink of an eye, the oscillating wind had spiked and dipped nine times. “In one blast you’re really getting multiple hits,” Goldstein said. “So it’s like you’re packing a whole bunch of hits into a very short time.”

Two weeks after exposure to the blast, the mice brains showed an accumulation of chemically modified tau protein and other damage. Critics of the study, however, point out that three of the four human cases that inspired the shock-tube experiments had experienced additional trauma unrelated to blast and that tests on mannequin models indicated that the bobble-head effect was not usual in the field.

Some researchers believe that it’s a mistake to focus only on the head. “The whole body is exposed to huge kinetic energy,” said Ibolja Cernak, describing the impact of a blast event. “Athletes do not have this kind of whole body exposure.” The chair of Canadian military and veterans’ clinical rehabilitation research at the University of Alberta, Cernak began her research on the battlefields of Kosovo, when she noticed that some soldiers and civilians exposed to blast exhibited symptoms reminiscent of certain neurodegenerative diseases. The blast pressure wave hits the chest and abdomen “like a huge fist,” Cernak says, transferring its kinetic energy to the body. “That kinetic energy generates oscillating pressure waves in the blood, which serves as a perfect medium to further transfer that kinetic energy to all organs, including the brain.”

Experiments she conducted on mice revealed that inflammation occurred in the brain whether the head had been protected from blast or not—inflammation, she argues, that starts a process of damage comparable to that seen in Alzheimer’s disease. By contrast, protection of the thorax significantly reduced inflammation in the brain, suggesting that the blast-body interaction has a crucial role in blast-induced brain injury.

As of now, the only wholly reliable method of directly examining the biological effects of blast force on the human brain is autopsy. In 2013 the Department of Defense established a brain tissue repository to advance the study of blast-induced neurotrauma in service members. Overseen by Daniel Perl, professor of pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, in Bethesda, Maryland, the repository has been receiving brains donated by service members’ families. This has allowed researchers, Perl says, to get “to the tissue level to really see what’s going on.” As he points out, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the living brain has a resolution a thousand times less than what can be seen when the brain is examined under a microscope.

Perl’s expertise extends from work on CTE, Alzheimer’s, and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases to research on a unique complex of neurological disorders in a small population in Guam (a mystery described in Oliver Sacks’s popular book The Island of the Colorblind). Perl has also written of shell shock and its relationship to modern blast-induced brain injuries, noting that despite a hundred years’ use of explosive force in warfare, there have been “no detailed neuropathology studies . in the human brain after blast exposure.”

Now, 18 months into the brain tissue study, Perl said he’s seeing revelatory results. “We believe we’re getting close to identifying unique changes in the brains of blast-exposed soldiers that are not seen in brain injuries of civilians,” he said, referring to common blunt-force trauma such as athletes sustain. “What we’re seeing appears to be unique to blast. This is an injury that appears to be unique to military experience.”

If he’s correct, the findings will have major implications not only for treatment but also for diagnosis and prevention. “I think we’ll have to sit down with the helmet-design people and the body-armor people,” he predicted. “A lot of designs were based on very different assumptions.”

For living soldiers, meanwhile, reliable methods of diagnosis remain tragically elusive. In June 2011 the New England Journal of Medicine published the results of a study that for the first time succeeded in detecting structural abnormalities in the brains of blast-exposed soldiers by using an advanced form of MRI. Although hailed as a landmark in an accompanying editorial, the paper was weakened by the fact that every participant had also experienced other traumas, such as being struck by a blunt object or being in a motor vehicle crash.


Day 148 June 16, 2011 - History

An Overview of the United States National Debt

The Current Outstanding Public Debt of the United States is:

Last Updated: Wednesday, June 23rd, 2021

Every man, woman and child in the United States currently owes $84,099 for their share of the U.S. public debt

Total U.S. National Debt: $27,752,835,868,445.35


Question: Who owns the public debt?

Answer: Mutual funds, pension funds, foreign governments, foreign investors, American investors, etc.

Which Foreign governments own the most U.S. debt?

Answer: Here is the Top 10 (as of Sep/2019)

1. Japan, $1145.8 billion dollars
2. China, Mainland, $1102.4 billion dollars
3. All Other, $484.8 billion dollars
4. United Kingdom, $346.2 billion dollars
5. Brazil, $301.2 billion dollars
6. Ireland, $274.1 billion dollars
7. Luxembourg, $252.5 billion dollars
8. Cayman Islands, $238.7 billion dollars
9. Switzerland, $231.3 billion dollars
10. Hong Kong, $224.2 billion dollars

*Includes oil exporting countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran

**includes countries such as Bermuda and the Cayman Islands

Of the $5.1 trillion dollars of US debt that is owned by foreign governments, China and Japan own nearly half, as evidenced by this chart:


Growth of US Debt Over Past 50 Years

Current: $27,752,835,868,445.35
2010: $13,178,317,356,215.73
2004: $7,379,052,696,330.32
1999: $5,656,270,901,615.43
1994: $4,692,749,910,013.32
1989: $2,857,430,960,187.32
1984: $1,572,266,000,000.00
1979: $826,519,000,000.00
1974: $475,059,815,731.55
1969: $353,720,253,841.41
1964: $311,712,899,257.30
1959: $284,705,907,078.22


  • Date: Jun 16, 2022
  • National
  • Also Called: National Youth Day
  • Vieringe: Musical Concerts, Youth awareness programs
ek Image Credit: wikiPedia

Youth Day in South Africa commemorates the Soweto Uprising in the country. The day is celebrated on June 16 every year. The day is celebrated in order to recognize the role of youth in the liberation of South Africa from the Apartheid regime.

The grounds of the movement lay in a 1974 official order which made Afrikaans compulsory in schools. The order stated that Afrikaans be used in conjunction with English for teaching in schools. Certain subjects like social studies, mathematics and algebra were required to be taught in Afrikaans while others like home science and general science were required to be taught in English. The use of local languages was prohibited was these subjects citing a provision in constitution which laid down Afrikaans and English as the official languages of the country.

Afrikaans was largely seen by people as the "language of the oppressor" and it resulted in growing resentment in teachers as well as students. It was on April 30, 1976 when the resentment crossed all thresholds and the students of Orlando West Junior High School refused to go to school. On the morning of June 16, 1976, thousands of black students went on a protest rally from their schools to Orlando Stadium.

Although the rally was intended to be a peace protest, things soon got out of control and riots were seen all over the place. Hundreds of students were killed during the protest. Although this youth revolution did not see the taking back of the language order immediately, it did see a turning point in South Africa's liberation campaign which ultimately saw the downfall of the apartheid government there.

The Youth Day in South Africa is celebrated in memory of all the youngsters who lost their lives during the protest, especially the death of Hector Pieterson, a 12 year old student who was killed during the uprising. The day is celebrated with musical concerts around the country in order to celebrate the energy of youth. The day also sees various educational discussions being organized by school and college students around the country. Various youth oriented non- profit organizations also organize awareness campaigns on this day to make the youth of the country aware of the challenges in the current environment of the country. It was the Soweto Uprising which laid the grounds for the release of Nelson Mandela and the end of the Apartheid regime in the country.


Experience the Action

TVG.com Haskell tickets are on sale now at www.seatgeek.com/monmouth!

Monmouth Park's sweetest weekend of the season is back June 26-27. Just $20 for unlimited wine samples. Purchase your tickets today at seatgeek.com/monmouth,

Open Every Live Race Day!
Fridays: Seating begins at 3pm. Buffet open 4-7pm.
Weekends: Seating begins at 11am. Buffet open 12-4pm

Available every Saturday & Sunday from 12-4pm. Weather permitting.

Horse Power Happy Hour! Every Friday night from 4-7pm at the Shipwreck Bar in the picnic area. Weather permitting. Offering a $2 featured beer and $4 White Claws.
Featured Beer Schedule:
June 18- $2 Coors Light
June 25- $5 Screamin’ Hill
July 2- $2 Miller Lite
July 9- $2 Leinenkugel
July 16- $2 Coors Light
July 23- $5 Kane
July 30- $2 Miller Lite
August 6- $2 Leinenkugel
August 13- $2 Coors Light
August 20- $5 Carton
August 27- $2 Miller Lite
September 3- $2 Leinenkugel

$4 16-oz Miller High Life and PBR drafts plus $2 hot dogs, every race day. Weather permitting. Special offer available at the Shipwreck bar located in the picnic area.

Seatgeek is Monmouth Park's NEW, exclusive ticketing partner. Purchase tickets in advance at seatgeek.com/monmouth

Live racing Fridays first race 5pm and weekends 12:15pm. FREE parking and admission all season long.

These luxury boxes offer a magnificent aerial view of the entire racetrack. Luxury box seats up to 8. Suite seats up to 16.

Bet the win-early pick 5 every Saturday & Sunday races 1-5.

Go to www.bluegrassminigolf.com for hours, rates and more information.

Monmouth Park is open 7 days a week for sports betting and simulcasting.

- Monday to Thursday - 10am-12am
- Friday 10am-1am
- Saturday 9am-1am
- Sunday 9am-12am

New mobile customers who sign up and deposit in their William Hill NJ Sports app will receive a RISK-FREE Bet up to $500. Must use code MPRF.

Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday
Bar 12pm-7pm
Abbreviated Bar Menu Available

Thursday & Friday
Bar 12pm-9pm
Kitchen 1:30pm-9pm
(Abbreviated Bar Menu from 12pm-1:30pm)

Saturday & Sunday
11am-9pm
Kitchen 11am-7pm
(Abbreviated Bar Menu from 7pm-9pm)

Not a 4NJBets member? Sign-up today to wager. Go to www.4njbets.com or download the 4NJBets App.

Blu Grotto Ristorante is now offering casual fine dining Wednesday/Thursday 5-9pm, Friday 5-10pm, Saturday, 4-10pm and Sunday 3-9pm. Reservations are highly recommended by calling 732-571-7900 or via Open Table. Takeout and catering remains available Thursday-Sunday from 3-8pm.


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Sport can enrich the lives of people forced to flee their homes. It can boost mental health and help refugees gain confidence, forge new friendships and feel welcome. In our work to protect refugees, we use sport to create safe and protective environments where everyone can discover their potential.

What is World Refugee Day?

World Refugee Day is an international day designated by the United Nations to honour refugees around the globe. It falls each year on June 20 and celebrates the strength and courage of people who have been forced to flee their home country to escape conflict or persecution. World Refugee Day is an occasion to build empathy and understanding for their plight and to recognize their resilience in rebuilding their lives.

Why is World Refugee Day important?

World Refugee Day shines a light on the rights, needs and dreams of refugees, helping to mobilize political will and resources so refugees can not only survive but also thrive. While it is important to protect and improve the lives of refugees every single day, international days like World Refugee Day help to focus global attention on the plight of those fleeing conflict or persecution. Many activities held on World Refugee Day create opportunities to support refugees.

When is World Refugee Day? When did World Refugee Day start?

World Refugee Day falls each year on June 20 and is dedicated to refugees around the globe. World Refugee Day was held globally for the first time on June 20, 2001, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. It was originally known as Africa Refugee Day, before the United Nations General Assembly officially designated it as an international day in December 2000.

What happens on World Refugee Day?

Each year, World Refugee Day is marked by a variety of events in many countries around the globe in support of refugees. These activities are led by or involve refugees themselves, government officials, host communities, companies, celebrities, school children and the general public, among others.


Kyk die video: Битва за Москву: Агрессия. Серия 1 FullHD, военный, реж. Юрий Озеров, 1985 г.