Australiese wetenskaplikes ondersoek die mediese wonder van antieke maagterapie

Australiese wetenskaplikes ondersoek die mediese wonder van antieke maagterapie

Die 'volgende' knoppie is waarskynlik die beste opsie vir lesers van 'n preuts of skelm aard, aangesien dit 'n nuusverhaal is wat vertel van die vordering in die antieke mediese kunste van 'Maggot -terapie' en waarom hierdie ietwat belaglike behandeling 'n terugkeer maak in moderne terapeutiese toepassings in Australië.

Dr Frank Stadler van die Griffith -universiteit het onlangs internasionale erkenning gekry vir sy Maggot -terapieprojek wat "die gebruik van maaiers vir terapeutiese medisinale doeleindes in oorlogsgebiede en ander verswakte gesondheidsorginstellings bestudeer het." In September vanjaar word dr Stadler se navorsingsprojek aanbeveel vir 'n subsidie ​​van $ 250,000 deur Humanitarian Grand Challenge Canada en volgens 'n artikel op ABC.NET het hy gesê:

"Maaiers is fantasties ... Hulle verwyder dooie weefsel ... Steriliseer wonde ... Eet al die dooie en verrottende weefsel in die wond."

Die gebruik van maaiers in mediese behandelings is gedurende die afgelope 1000 jaar onafhanklik regoor die wêreld ontwikkel deur verskeie antieke kulture, byvoorbeeld: die Hill -mense van Noord -Myanmar (Birma) en die Maya -genesers van Sentraal -Amerika, en die inheemse Ngemba -stam van Nieu -Suid -Wallis in Australië. In 'n referaat gepubliseer op die US National Library of Medicine geskryf deur 'n span navorsers onder leiding van dr Iain S Whitaker, departement van brandwonde en plastiese chirurgie, Morriston -hospitaal, Swansea, UK, lui:

"Daar is sedert antieke tye aangemeld dat larwes verband hou met besmette wonde, aangesien die Ou Testament die oudste geskrewe stuk is wat die besmetting van 'n besmette wond van 'n man deur vlieglarwes (myiasis) noem."

Maggot debridement terapie op 'n wond aan 'n diabetiese voet. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

In Australië is die maai -medisyne van antieke inheemse gemeenskappe weer lewendig gemaak tydens die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorloë. 'Hulle verwyder bakterieë deur dit te eet en te verteer, en deur hul uitskeidings en afskeidings wat hulle in die wond plaas ... So het hulle antimikrobiese eienskappe ... Dit beheer die infeksie voldoende om die liggaam te genees,' het dr Stadler aan verslaggewers gesê. Hy het bygevoeg dat dit om hierdie redes was: "In die afgelope tyd, sedert die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, is maaieterapie in die moderne kliniese omgewings gebruik."

Die antieke genesingsvaardighede van mediese maaiers

Die maaiers kan hoogstens twee tot vier dae direk op wonde aangebring word, met 'n netverband soos 'n 'vliegskerm' om die maaiers op die aangetaste gebied te hou, of hulle kan in 'n teesakkie-agtige sak gesluit word en op die wond geplaas, wat beteken dat hulle saggies en nie-offensief kan toegedien word, ”volgens dr Stadler. 'Dit werk omdat maaiers nie koue monddele het nie, dit maak eers die dooie weefsel vloeibaar met uitskeidings en suig dan hul kos op,' het hy bygevoeg. As die dooie maatsous verwyder is, kan nuwe maaiers, indien nodig, weer toegedien word.

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Anders as ruspes, het maaiers nie 'n koubek nie. ( Ezume beelde /Adobe Stock)

Die navorsingspan meen dat hul werk nie net 'n werklike bydrae tot die lewe en ledemaatbesparende wondversorging in konflik kan lewer nie, maar dat die 'waarde van die nederige maai sal toeneem namate antibiotika-weerstandigheid in die gemeenskap toeneem'. Namate mense ontwikkel, ontwikkel ons 'n weerstand teen antibiotika, en volgens dr Stadler, terwyl "penisillien sy sterkte verloor", het Maggot -terapie bewys dat dit "doeltreffend is in antibiotika -weerstandige infeksies soos staph -infeksies."

Beteken dit dat as u gekap word deur voetbal te speel en u skenbeen af ​​te sny, u nou met 'n sak maaiers by die dokter kan ingaan terwyl u hom vra om dit tydens 'n behandeling toe te pas? Wel, ja, dit is eintlik so, maar u kan verwag dat u dokter eers weerstand sal toon. Dr Stadler het egter aan verslaggewers gesê dat:

'In baie gevalle vandag, wanneer mense in die hospitaal met wonde besmet is, moet die gesondheidswerkers erken dat die wonde perfek lyk, en dit lyk goed.'

Die maaiers wat in Dr Stadler se kliniese proewe gebruik word, is spesiaal gesteriliseer: 'Ons oes maaiers uit die natuur. Dan vestig ons 'n kolonie, 'n vliegkolonie, dan word die vliegkolonie gehandhaaf, eiers word op 'n steriele manier geoes, sodat die larwes wat uit die eiers kom, steriel is wanneer dit op wonde geplaas word wat behandeling benodig, 'het hy gesê. Tans is die Westmead -hospitaal in Sydney tans die enigste goedgekeurde verskaffer van gesteriliseerde mediese maaiers in Australië, en dit pas pasiënte met uiterste mediese gevalle om algemene behandelings te verbeter.

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Maaiers in mediese verpakking. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Maggot -terapie bied hoop aan diabete

Mediese behandelings met inheemse oorsprong behels dikwels die toediening en soms is die vertering van gekneusde insekte, kewers, diere en voëls en die toediening van sulke medisyne eenvoudig 'n 'nee nee' by 'n groot meerderheid van die publiek. Volgens dr Stadler word maagterapie "beskou as 'n laaste uitweg in Australië ... maar dit is ideaal vir vroeë ingrypings." Dr Stadler het 'n voorbeeld gegee van waar Maggot -terapie in die primêre stadiums van 'n behandeling kan help: "As iemand met 'n diabetiese ulkus voorkom, is maaieterapie fantasties om die ulkus te behandel en die wond op te stel vir genesing."

Peter Lazzarini, 'n vernaamste navorsingsgenoot by QUT en medevoorsitter van Diabetic Foot Australia, het aan verslaggewers by ABC.AU gesê dat ''n handjievol klein studies 'n maagterapie getoets het by pasiënte met diabetiese voetsweer met gemengde resultate.' Hy het bygevoeg: 'Die rede vir die gebruik van larvalterapie is belowend, maar ons benodig groter studies om te bewys of dit nog so effektief of doeltreffender is as ander vorme van debridement.'


Bruto medisyne: honderde jare gelede was maaiers en bloedsuiers 'n "medisynekas". Nou, oud is weer nuut: gereed om dit te probeer? (Lewenswetenskap: bloedsomloopstelsel).

'N Verdwaasde jong man het onlangs in Pensacola, Florida se Baptiste -hospitaal, gestroom en baie gebloei van 'n gapende gesigwond. 'Hy het 'n stuk van sy neus verloor,' sê plastiese chirurg dr. Ian Rogers. "Dit hang uit hierdie klein vleisvleis." Rogers het 'n delikate mikrochirurgie uitgevoer om die delikate senuwees, bloedvate en velweefsel van die pasiënt vas te maak (aanmekaar te steek)-om die neuspunt weer vas te maak.

Die operasie was 'n sukses, totdat die neus opgeswel en pers geword het soos 'n druif. Die probleem: Bloed vloei deur die vate wat arteries genoem word, na die vleis wat weer aangeheg is, maar die are vervoer nie bloed vinnig uit die gebied nie. Die toestand, bekend as veneuse kongestie, kom dikwels voor na rekonstruktiewe chirurgie, omdat beskadigde are dunwandig en moeilik herstelbaar is. Om die oorvol bloed op te ruim, het ek besluit dat ons 'n bloedsuier op sy neus moet sit, 'sê Rogers.

Is hy mal. Glad nie. As veneuse opeenhoping voorkom, moet 'n dokter die sirkulasie vinnig herstel, anders sterf weefsel. Voer bloedsuiers in, 'n soort bloedsuigende wurm. 'Ons hou altyd ongeveer 'n halfdosyn van die klein ouens byderhand in 'n yskas,' sê Rogers. 'As alles misluk, roep ons die wurms in.'

Dit kan u maag draai, maar opgedateerde dokters regoor die land kyk weer na die genesende krag van 'folk'-middels soos bloedsuiers en maaiers (ruspesagtige vlieglarwes). Hierdie creepy crawlies was eeue lank standaard mediese tariewe totdat wetenskaplike vooruitgang dit verdring het: aan die einde van die 19de eeu was die sepsisteorie dat genesing van wonde en instrumente bevry word. Twintigste-eeuse deurbrake-soos antibiotika of kiemdodende medisyne-het volkome geneesmiddels uit moderne hospitale behalwe verban.

Nou, "leer ons byna toevallig dat die medisyne van die natuur-wat dikwels" bruto "genoem word-soms die beste is," sê Michele Root-Bernstein, skrywer van Honey, Mud, Maggots and Other Medical Marvels.

Vandag, soos in die verlede, gebruik dokters maaiers om dooie weefsel te eet en besmette wonde skoon te maak. In die natuur lê sommige vlieë spesies eiers in dooie diere (karkasse). As die eiers in wurmagtige larwes uitbroei, maaiers genoem, skei hulle chemiese ensieme af wat groot molekules afbreek in kleiner, verteerbare.

Wetenskaplikes verstaan ​​nog nie hoe hierdie ensieme werk nie, maar die stowwe los vrot vleis op in 'n vloeistof wat maaiers soos sop opskort. "Die maaiers is versadig [vol] na 48 uur," sê dr. Ronald Sherman, maagterapie-kenner aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Irvine. As hulle vol is, kronkel die maaiers instinktief weg van die karkas en begrawe hulself in die grond om te pap, of word 'n papie. 'N Papie is die onaktiewe stadium in die metamorfose, of transformasie, van baie insekte, dit volg die larfstadium en gaan die volwasse stadium vooraf. Tydens die papiestadium verander larwes in volwasse vlieë in beskermende kokonne.

Tydens die Burgeroorlog en die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is vlieë natuurlik na die slagveldhospitale getrek en soms eiers in die verrottende vlees van soldate se wonde gelê. Verbaasde militêre dokters het opgemerk dat wonde wat met maaiers besmet is, geneig was om beter te genees as nie -aangetaste wonde. Maagterapie is gebore.

Vandag skryf dokters by 280 Amerikaanse mediese sentrums maaiers voor om besmette druksere (letsels), brandwonde, been- en voetsere, steekwonde en post-chirurgiese wonde wat nie genees nie, te behandel. "Maaiers werk vinniger as enige nie -chirurgiese metode vir die genesing van wonde en sal waarskynlik nie gesonde weefsel beseer nie," sê Sherman, wat medisinale maaiers by 'n 'insekdier' ​​grootmaak.

Daar waai blaasvlieë (Phaenicia sericata) tot 2 000 eiers op 'n slag op blare rou lewer. Tegnici was eiers in 'n ontsmettingsmiddel en plaas dit in 'n steriele houer (sonder mikrobes) sodat larwes in 'n omgewing sonder bakterieë uitbroei. In die natuur broei vlieëlarwes uit in verrottende diervleis vol bakterieë. Maar slegs maaiers wat met gesteriliseerde vleis in 'n laboratorium gevoer word, is skoon genoeg vir mediese gebruik.

As 'n pasiënt 'n groot beenwond het wat ondanks 'n operasie en maande-of jare-se behandeling met antibiotiese salf en skoonmaakmiddels nie genees nie, bly daar twee opsies: amputasie of maagterapie. Watter sou jy kies?

Behandeling begin wanneer 'n dokter steriele vlieglarwes-hoogstens 8 per vierkante sentimeter-direk in die wond plaas en dit bedek met 'n "hok" van nylon gaas om te voorkom dat maaiers wegwurm. Die dokter lê dan die absorberende gaas bo -op die hok om die larwes klam te hou en enige vloeibare dooie vleis te absorbeer. Maaiers tree op drie belangrike maniere op 'n wond op, sê Sherman: "Hulle ontbind [verwyder dooie, besmette weefsel], ontsmet en stimuleer gesonde weefselgroei."

Ongeveer 48 uur na toediening, haal 'n dokter die maaiers af met 'n klam gaasblokkie en gooi dit weg met ander aansteeklike mediese afval, wat gewoonlik verbrand (verbrand) word. In 'n onlangse studie het navorsers bevind dat die gemiddelde maagbehandelde been of voetwond binne drie weke 'n gesonde weefselgroei toon (sien grafiek, p. 9).

Laat die idee van maai -terapie die vel van die pasiënt kruip? 'Ek het nog nooit 'n skrik op die lyf gejaag nie-selfs nie diegene wat aanvanklik deur die idee gedink is nie,' sê plastiese chirurg Jane Petro by die Westchester County Medical Center in Valhalla, New York.

As die gedagte daaraan dat u maaiers op u liggaam wriemel, krimp, hoe gaan dit met bloedsuigende bloedsuiers? Eeue lank het dokters bloedsuiers (Hirudo medicinalis) toegedien vir bloedverlies, of flebotomie wat hulle verkeerdelik gedink het bloedverlies genees die liggaam deur onsuiwerhede en oortollige vloeistof te laat ontsnap.

Vandag, as dit kom by die herstel van die bloedsomloop na rekonstruktiewe chirurgie, is "bloedsuiers baie effektief", sê dr. Donald Mackay van Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Hoekom? Een slakagtige wurm kan tot vyf keer meer as sy eie liggaamsgewig in bloed klop! Die medisinale bloedsuiker, een van 650 bloedsoortspesies, is 'n 10 cm lange vleisetende (vlees- en bloedetende) wurm wat natuurlik in Europese moerasse en damme voorkom. 'N Bloedsuiger het 'n suier aan elke kant, die kleiner het honderde tande (sien diagram links). Dit is verbasend dat 'n bloedsuikerbyt nie seermaak nie. Dit is omdat die speeksel van die wurm 'n natuurlike narkose of pynstiller bevat.

Leech speeksel bevat ook hirudien, 'n stof wat voorkom dat bloed stol. Tydens 'n voer van 30 minute kan 'n bloedsuier 30 milliliter bloed aftrek-ongeveer 5 of 6 vingerhoedjies vol. Die bloedsuier val dan af om sy maaltyd te verteer. Maar, sê Ian Rogers, "danksy hirudien bly die byt bloei en bevorder die sirkulasie vir 12 tot 15 uur." Pleie produseer ook 'n vasodilatator, of stof wat bloedvate oopmaak. "Leeches is soos 'n mini-apteek," sê Anna Baldwin by die Biopharm Leech Center in Charleston, Suid-Carolina.

Wat van die geduld van die pasiënt? As 'n heraangeslote vinger met bloed geswel is weens veneuse opeenhoping, is die keuse eenvoudig, sê dr Jeffrey Friedman, 'n plastiese chirurg by Baylor College of Medicine in Houston: "Ons kan u vinger weer afsny of 'n bloedsuier gebruik." Donald Mackay voeg by: "Ek het nog nooit 'n pasiënt wat die behandeling weier nie. Een pasiënt het selfs die bloedsuiers name gegee!"

GENESENDE WONDE: MAGGOTS VS ANTIBIOTICS

In 'n studie van 103 pasiënte het wonde wat met maaiers behandel is, vinniger genees en in grootte gekrimp as wonde wat met antibiotika behandel is.

Nekrotiese (dooie) weefsel vul 'n pasiënt se velsere (links). Die oop sere reageer nie op IV (binneaarse) antibiotika nie. Drie maande na maai -terapie (regs) word nekrotiese weefsel vervang deur 'n gesonde nuwe vel.

In die natuur skuil die medisinale bloedsuiker in Europese damme, waar dit net een keer elke 18 maande van bloed voed.

LAAT DIT VLOEI: Wetenskaplikes onttrek die geneesmiddel orgelase uit bloedsuiker speeksel. Dit vergroot bloedvate, verhoog bloedvloei.

Nadat u die artikel gelees het, kies die regte antwoord op hierdie vrae:

BETER AS DIE WERKLIKE DING?

Baie dokters stem saam: Niks klop 'n bloedsuier om die bloedvloei in beskadigde weefsel te bevorder nie. Maar nie elke pasiënt geniet die idee nie, sê dr Gregory Hartig, chirurg van die Universiteit van Wisconsin. Daarom het Hartig, saam met Michael Conforti en Nadine Connor, 'n klein bloedsuigende uitrusting uitgevind wat 'n kronkelende bloedsuiker naboots. 'In die geval van bloedsuiker kan ons die natuur verbeter,' sê Connor. Het die bloedsuier sy meganiese pasmaat ontmoet?

Benewens sy slanke, kliniese ontwerp, word die meganiese bloedsuier nooit vol nie en val dit af, sodat dit baie meer bloed kan verwyder as die werklike ding. Hier is hoe dit werk:

'N Kegel met 'n teflonbedekking, of' suier ', word onder die vel van 'n pasiënt geplaas. Gate in die suigkegel stel 'n reinigingsoplossing vry.

B 'n Buis lewer 'n anti-kledingmiddel in die wond

C 'n Suigbuis trek bloed en oplossing om sirkulasie te bevorder.

D 'n Glasvakuumkamer behou suig.

Lewenswetenskap: Sirkulasiestelsel

* Navorsers by die Essen-Mitte-kliniek in Duitsland het onlangs bloedsuiers toegedien op 10 pasiënte wat kniepyn gehad het as gevolg van osteoartritis (degeneratiewe gewrigsiekte). Die behandeling het pyn en ontsteking verlig, maar Amerikaanse dokters sê dat verdere studie nodig is voordat hulle bloedterapie vir artritis sou bepleit.

* Mediese bloedsuiers, wat ongeveer $ 7,50 elk kos, kan maande lank in 'n verkoelde pot met soutoplossing oorleef.

* Maaiers skei 'n chemiese stof soos ammoniak af wat bakterieë in 'n wond doodmaak.

Geskiedenis: Laat studente navorsing doen oor ander ongewone medisinale oortuigings en praktyke in die Middeleeue.

Kritiese denke: slang- en byegif, wit klei, selfs heuning het huidige mediese gebruike. Kies een en ondersoek waarvoor dokters dit gebruik.


Aanvullende en alternatiewe gesondheidsorg: is dit op bewyse gebaseer?

Komplementêre en alternatiewe gesondheidsorg en mediese praktyke (CAM) is 'n groep uiteenlopende mediese en gesondheidsorgstelsels, praktyke en produkte wat tans nie as deel van konvensionele medisyne beskou word nie. Die lys praktyke wat as CAM beskou word, verander voortdurend namate CAM -praktyke en terapieë wat veilig en effektief bewys word, aanvaar word as die “mainstream ” gesondheidsorgpraktyke. Vandag kan CAM-praktyke in vyf hoofdomeine gegroepeer word: alternatiewe mediese stelsels, liggaam-ingrypings, biologies-gebaseerde behandelings, manipulerende en liggaamsgebaseerde metodes en energie-terapieë.

TCM is 'n genesingsisteem wat dateer uit 200 v.C. in geskrewe vorm. China, Korea, Japan, Indië en Viëtnam het almal hul eie unieke weergawes van tradisionele medisyne ontwikkel. Alternatiewe medisyne word algemeen saam met aanvullende medisyne ingedeel onder die sambreelterm ȁ aanvullende en alternatiewe medisyne ”. Aanvullende medisyne verwys na terapieë wat tradisionele westerse (of allopatiese) medisyne aanvul en saam met konvensionele medisyne gebruik word, en alternatiewe medisyne word in plaas van konvensionele medisyne gebruik. Alternatiewe medisyne verwys na terapeutiese benaderings in die plek van tradisionele medisyne wat gebruik word om siektes te behandel of te verbeter. Integratiewe medisyne verwys na die kombinasie van aanvullende behandelings met konvensionele sorg. Die basiese filosofie van komplementêre en alternatiewe medisyne sluit in holistiese sorg, wat fokus op die behandeling van 'n mens as 'n geheel.

Voorbeelde van komplementêre en alternatiewe genesingstelsels sluit in Ayurveda, wat meer as 5000 jaar gelede in Indië ontstaan ​​het, beklemtoon 'n unieke genesing volgens individuele omstandighede. Dit bevat behandelings, insluitend joga, meditasie, massering, dieet en kruie. Homeopatie gebruik klein dosisse van 'n stof wat veroorsaak dat simptome die liggaam se selfgenesende reaksie stimuleer. Naturopatie fokus op nie-indringende behandelings om u liggaam te help om sy eie genesing te doen. Antieke medisyne (komplementêre en alternatiewe medisyne) sluit in Chinese, Asiatiese, eilandbewoners, Amerikaanse Indiese en Tibetaanse praktyke.

Konvensionele medisyne maak staat op metodes wat bewys is dat dit veilig en effektief is met sorgvuldig ontwerpte proewe en navorsing. Maar baie komplementêre en alternatiewe behandelings het nie deeglike navorsing om goeie besluite te baseer nie. Die gevare en moontlike voordele van baie aanvullende en alternatiewe behandelings bly onbewys.

Alhoewel die hele mediese stelsels verskil in hul filosofiese benaderings tot die voorkoming en behandeling van siektes, deel hulle 'n aantal algemene elemente. Hierdie stelsels is gebaseer op die oortuiging dat 'n mens se liggaam die krag het om homself te genees. Genesing behels dikwels die samestelling van verskeie tegnieke wat die verstand, liggaam en gees betrek. Behandeling is dikwels individueel en afhanklik van die simptome wat voorkom.

Basiese beginsels van integrerende medisyne sluit in 'n vennootskap tussen die pasiënt en die praktisyn in die genesingsproses, die toepaslike gebruik van konvensionele en alternatiewe metodes om die aangebore genesingsreaksie van die liggaam te vergemaklik, die oorweging van alle faktore wat gesondheid, welstand en siekte beïnvloed, insluitend gees, gees en gemeenskap sowel as liggaam, 'n filosofie wat konvensionele medisyne nie verwerp nie of alternatiewe medisyne onkrities aanvaar, erkenning dat goeie medisyne gebaseer moet wees op goeie wetenskap, ondersoekend en oop vir nuwe paradigmas, die gebruik van natuurlike, minder indringende intervensies waar moontlik, die breër konsepte van die bevordering van gesondheid en die voorkoming van siektes sowel as die behandeling van siektes. Studies is aan die gang om die veiligheid en bruikbaarheid van baie CAM -praktyke te bepaal. Namate navorsing voortgaan, sal baie van die antwoorde oor die vraag of hierdie behandelings veilig of effektief is, duideliker word.

Dit lyk asof die gebruik van alternatiewe medisyne toeneem. 'N Studie van 1998 het getoon dat die gebruik van alternatiewe medisyne in die VSA gestyg het van 33,8% in 1990 tot 42,1% in 1997 [1]. Die mees algemene CAM -terapieë wat in 2002 in die VSA gebruik is, was gebed (45,2%), kruie (18,9%), asemhalingsmeditasie (11,6%), meditasie (7,6%), chiropraktiese medisyne (7,5%), joga (5,1%), liggaamswerk (5,0%), dieetgebaseerde terapie (3,5%), progressiewe ontspanning (3,0%), mega-vitamienterapie (2,8%) en visualisering (2,1%) [2, 3]. In die Verenigde Koninkryk blyk dit dat beperkte gegewens die idee ondersteun dat die gebruik van CAM in die Verenigde Koninkryk hoog is en toeneem.

Toenemende aantal mediese kolleges het kursusse in alternatiewe medisyne begin aanbied. Geakkrediteerde Naturopatiese kolleges en universiteite neem toe in getal en gewildheid in die VSA. Hulle bied die mees volledige mediese opleiding in komplimentêre medisyne wat vandag beskikbaar is [4, 5]. In Brittanje bied geen konvensionele mediese skole kursusse aan wat die kliniese praktyk van alternatiewe medisyne onderrig nie. Alternatiewe medisyne word egter in verskeie onkonvensionele skole aangebied as deel van hul kurrikulum. Onderrig is meestal gebaseer op teorie en begrip van alternatiewe medisyne, met die klem op die kommunikasie met spesialiste in alternatiewe medisyne.

Naturopatie (naturopatiese medisyne) is 'n hele mediese stelsel wat sy wortels in Duitsland het. Dit is verder ontwikkel in die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu in die Verenigde State, waar dit vandag deel uitmaak van CAM. Naturopatie het ten doel om die liggaam se vermoë om homself te genees, te ondersteun deur die gebruik van dieet- en lewenstylveranderinge saam met CAM -terapieë, soos kruie, massering en gewrigsmanipulasie. Naturopatie is 'n hele mediese stelsel. Dit beskou siekte as 'n manifestasie van veranderinge in die prosesse waardeur die liggaam homself natuurlik genees en beklemtoon die herstel van gesondheid eerder as die behandeling van siektes. Naturopatiese dokters gebruik 'n verskeidenheid genesingspraktyke, insluitend dieet en kliniese voeding, homeopatie, akupunktuur, kruie medisyne, hidroterapie, manipulasie van ruggraat en sagte weefsel, fisiese terapieë met elektriese strome, ultraklank en ligterapie, terapeutiese berading en farmakologie. Vandag word naturopatie in 'n aantal lande beoefen, waaronder die Verenigde State, Kanada, Groot -Brittanje, Australië en Nieu -Seeland.

Die akupunktuur word toegepas vir die verligting of voorkoming van pyn en vir verskeie ander gesondheidstoestande. Prekliniese studies het die gevolge van akupunktuur gedokumenteer, maar hulle kon nie volledig verduidelik hoe akupunktuur werk binne die raamwerk van die westerse medisyne nie.

Ayurveda, wat letterlik die wetenskap van die lewe beteken, is 'n natuurlike genesingstelsel wat in Indië ontwikkel is. Dit is 'n omvattende stelsel van medisyne wat gelyke klem plaas op die liggaam, gees en gees, en streef daarna om die aangebore harmonie van die individu te herstel. Sommige van die primêre Ayurvediese behandelings sluit in dieet, oefening, meditasie, kruie, massering, blootstelling aan sonlig en gekontroleerde asemhaling. Ayurvediese medisyne kan giftig wees. Die meeste Ayurvediese medisyne bestaan ​​uit kombinasies van kruie en ander medisyne, dus dit kan 'n uitdaging wees om te weet watter medisyne die effek het en waarom.

Ander tradisionele mediese stelsels is ontwikkel deur inheemse Amerikaanse, Aboriginale, Afrika-, Midde-Oosterse, Tibetaanse, Sentraal- en Suid-Amerikaanse kulture.

Homeopatie is 'n stelsel van mediese teorie en praktyk. Die stigter daarvan, die Duitse geneesheer Samuel Christian Hahnemann (1755 �), veronderstel dat 'n mens terapieë kan kies op grond van hoe nou die simptome wat deur 'n middel veroorsaak word, pas by die simptome van die pasiënt se siekte. Hy noem dit die ȁ -beginsel van ooreenkomste ”. Aangesien homeopatie in klein of moontlik nie-materiële dosisse toegedien word, heers daar in die wetenskaplike gemeenskap 'n a priori-skeptisisme oor die doeltreffendheid daarvan [6 𠄹].

Tradisionele oosterse medisyne beklemtoon die korrekte balans of versteurings van qi (uitgespreek chi), of lewensbelangrike energie, in gesondheid en siekte, onderskeidelik. Tradisionele oosterse medisyne bestaan ​​uit 'n groep tegnieke en metodes, insluitend akupunktuur, kruie medisyne, oosterse massering en qi gong ('n vorm van energieterapie wat meer volledig hieronder beskryf word).

Naturopatie (naturopatiese medisyne) is 'n hele mediese stelsel wat sy wortels in Duitsland het. Dit beïnvloed die liggaamlike funksie en simptome. Slegs 'n deelversameling van liggaam-ingrypings word as CAM beskou. Baie wat 'n goed gedokumenteerde teoretiese basis het, byvoorbeeld pasiëntopvoeding en kognitiewe gedragsbenaderings, word nou beskou as “mainstream ”. Aan die ander kant word meditasie, sekere gebruike van hipnose, dans, musiek en kunsterapie en gebed en geestelike genesing gekategoriseer as komplementêr en alternatief.

Bioterugvoer is 'n soort liggaam-en-liggaamsterapie. Deur terugvoer van verskillende moniteringsprosedures en -toerusting te gebruik, sal 'n bioterugvoer -spesialis u probeer leer om sekere onwillekeurige liggaamsreaksies te beheer, soos: breinaktiwiteit, bloeddruk, spierspanning en hartklop. Daar is bewys dat bioterugvoer nuttig is in die behandeling van verskeie mediese toestande, insluitend asma, Raynaud -siekte, prikkelbare dermsindroom, inkontinensie, hoofpyn, hartaritmie, hoë bloeddruk, epilepsie, ens.

Die term meditasie verwys na 'n verskeidenheid tegnieke of praktyke wat bedoel is om aandag te vestig of te beheer. Die meeste van hulle is gewortel in Oosterse godsdienstige of geestelike tradisies. Hierdie tegnieke word al duisende jare deur baie verskillende kulture regoor die wêreld gebruik.

Mense gebruik al duisende jare lank gebed en ander geestelike praktyke vir hul eie en ander gesondheidsorg. Wetenskaplike ondersoek na hierdie praktyke het egter onlangs begin om beter te verstaan ​​of dit wel die geval is, hoe en vir watter siektes/toestande en bevolkings. Baie Amerikaners gebruik gebed en ander geestelike praktyke. Gebed is die terapie wat die meeste gebruik word onder al die CAM -terapieë.

Manipulatiewe en liggaamsgebaseerde praktyke bevat metodes wat gebaseer is op manipulasie en/of die beweging van die liggaam. Chiropraktisyns fokus byvoorbeeld op die verhouding tussen struktuur (hoofsaaklik die ruggraat) en funksie, en hoe die verhouding die behoud en herstel van gesondheid beïnvloed, met behulp van manipulerende terapie as 'n integrale behandelingsinstrument. Masseerterapeute manipuleer die sagte weefsels van die liggaam om die weefsels te normaliseer.

Energieterapieë fokus óf op energievelde wat uit die liggaam kom (biovelde) óf dié uit ander bronne (elektromagnetiese velde). Bioveldterapieë is bedoel om die energievelde, waarvan die bestaan ​​nog nie eksperimenteel bewys is nie, te beïnvloed wat die menslike liggaam omring en binnedring. Sommige vorme van energie -terapie manipuleer biovelde deur druk uit te oefen en/of die liggaam te manipuleer deur die hande in of deur hierdie velde te plaas. Voorbeelde sluit in Qi gong, Reiki, Prana en Therapeutic Touch. Bio-elektromagneties gebaseerde terapieë behels die onkonvensionele gebruik van elektromagnetiese velde, soos polsende velde, magnetiese velde of wisselstroom- of gelykstroomvelde, om byvoorbeeld asma of kanker te behandel, of pyn en migraine te hanteer.

Hipnose is 'n veranderde bewussynstoestand. Hipnoterapie kan die simptome van 'n wye verskeidenheid siektes en toestande help verlig. Dit kan onafhanklik of saam met ander behandelings gebruik word.

Natuurlike en biologies gebaseerde praktyke, intervensies en produkte verwys na die gebruik van voedingsaanvullings en sluit kruie-, spesiale dieet-, ortomolekulêre en individuele biologiese terapieë in. Voorbeelde sluit in plantaardige, uittreksels uit diere, vitamiene, minerale, vetsure, aminosure, proteïene en prebiotika. Duisende studies oor verskillende voedingsaanvullings is uitgevoer. Daar is egter bewys dat geen enkele aanvulling op 'n oortuigende manier effektief is nie.

In Indië, wat die tuiste is van verskeie alternatiewe medisyne, word Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani en Homeopatie deur die regering gelisensieer, ondanks die gebrek aan betroubare wetenskaplike bewyse. Naturopatie sal ook binnekort gelisensieer word omdat verskeie universiteite nou baccalaureusgrade daarin aanbied. Ander aktiwiteite soos Panchakarma en masseerterapie wat met Ayurveda verband hou, word ook deur die regering gelisensieer [10].

Ongeveer die helfte van die algemene bevolking in ontwikkelde lande gebruik CAM [10]. 'N Opname wat in Mei 2004 deur die National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, deel van die National Institutes of Health in die Verenigde State, gepubliseer is, het bevind dat 36% van die Amerikaners in 2002 die afgelope 12 maande een of ander vorm van alternatiewe terapie gebruik het, 50 % in 'n leeftyd kategorie wat joga, meditasie, kruiebehandelings en die Atkins -dieet ingesluit het. Die meerderheid individue (54,9%) gebruik CAM saam met konvensionele medisyne. Die meeste mense gebruik CAM om muskuloskeletale toestande of ander toestande wat verband hou met chroniese of herhalende pyn, te behandel en/of te voorkom. Vroue was meer geneig as mans om CAM te gebruik. Die grootste geslagsverskil word gesien in die gebruik van gees-liggaam-terapieë, insluitend gebed spesifiek om gesondheidsredes [2, 3]. As gebed as 'n alternatiewe terapie beskou word, het die syfer tot 62,1%gestyg. 25% van die mense wat CAM gebruik, doen dit omdat 'n mediese beroep dit voorgestel het [11]. 'N Britse telefoniese opname deur die BBC onder 1 209 volwassenes in 1998 toon dat ongeveer 20% van die volwassenes in Brittanje die afgelope 12 maande alternatiewe medisyne gebruik het.

Voorstanders van alternatiewe medisyne meen dat die verskillende alternatiewe behandelingsmetodes effektief is in die behandeling van 'n wye verskeidenheid groot en geringe mediese toestande, en beweer dat onlangs gepubliseerde navorsing (Michalsen, 2003 Gonsalkorale, 2003 Berga, 2003) die doeltreffendheid van spesifieke alternatiewe behandelings bewys [ 6 𠄹].

Bewysgebaseerde medisyne (EBM) pas die wetenskaplike metode toe op die mediese praktyk, en streef na die ideaal wat gesondheidswerkers in die alledaagse praktyk bewus, eksplisiet en oordeelkundig moet gebruik. Alhoewel voorstanders van alternatiewe medisyne erken dat die placebo -effek 'n rol kan speel in die voordele wat sommige van alternatiewe terapieë kry, wys hulle daarop dat dit nie die geldigheid daarvan verminder nie. Hulle glo dat alternatiewe medisyne gesondheidsvoordele kan bied deur bemagtiging van pasiënte deur meer keuses aan die publiek te bied. Navorsers wat behandelings beoordeel volgens die wetenskaplike metode, is bekommerd oor hierdie standpunt, aangesien dit nie die moontlike ondoeltreffendheid van alternatiewe behandelings aanspreek nie.

Solank alternatiewe behandelings saam met konvensionele behandelings gebruik word, vind die meeste mediese dokters die meeste vorme van aanvullende medisyne aanvaarbaar. Consistent with previous studies, the CDC recently reported that the majority of individuals in the United States (i.e., 54.9%) used CAM in conjunction with conventional medicine.

The issue of alternative medicine interfering with conventional medical practices is minimized when it is turned to only after conventional treatments have been exhausted. Many patients feel that alternative medicine may help in coping with chronic illnesses for which conventional medicine offers no cure, only management. Classifying treatments need to be based on the objectively verifiable criteria of the scientific method evidence-based medicine, i.e. scientifically proven evidence of efficacy (or lack thereof), and not on the changing curricula of various medical schools or social sphere of usage [12] .

Since many alternative remedies have recently found their way into the medical mainstream, there cannot be two kinds of medicine - conventional and alternative. There is only medicine that has been adequately tested and medicine that has not, medicine that works and medicine that may or may not work. Once a treatment has been tested rigorously, it no longer matters whether it was considered alternative at the outset. If it is found to be reasonably safe and effective, it will be accepted [13] .

It is argued that there is no alternative medicine. There is only scientifically proven, evidence-based medicine supported by solid data or unproven medicine, for which scientific evidence is lacking. Whether a therapeutic practice is �stern” or “Western”, is unconventional or mainstream, or involves mind-body techniques or molecular genetics is largely irrelevant except for historical purposes and cultural interest. As believers in science and evidence, we must focus on fundamental issues—namely, the patient, the target disease or condition, the proposed or practiced treatment, and the need for convincing data on safety and therapeutic efficacy [14] . The Cochrane Collaboration [15] and Edzard Ernst [16] agree that all treatments, whether “mainstream” or 𠇊lternative”, ought to be held to standards of the scientific method.

Many forms of alternative medicine are rejected by conventional medicine because the efficacy of the treatments has not been demonstrated through double-blind randomized controlled trials in contrast, conventional drugs reach the market only after such trials have proved their efficacy. A person may attribute symptomatic relief to an otherwise ineffective therapy due to the placebo effect, the natural recovery from or the cyclical nature of an illness (the regression fallacy), or the possibility that the person never originally had a true illness [17] . CAM proponents point out this may also apply in cases where conventional treatments have been used. To this, CAM critics point out that this does not account for conventional medical success in double blind clinical trials.

People should be free to choose whatever method of healthcare they want, but stipulate that people must be informed as to the safety and efficacy of whatever method they choose. People who choose alternative medicine may think they are choosing a safe, effective medicine, while they may only be getting quack remedies. Grapefruit seed extract is an example of quackery when multiple studies demonstrate its universal antimicrobial effect is due to synthetic antimicrobial contamination [18, 19] .

Those who have had success with one alternative therapy for a minor ailment may be convinced of its efficacy and persuaded to extrapolate that success to some other alternative therapy for a more serious, possibly life-threatening illness. For this reason, critics contend that therapies that rely on the placebo effect to define success are very dangerous. Scientifically unsupported health practices can lead individuals to forgo effective treatments and this can be referred to as “opportunity cost”. Individuals who spend large amounts of time and money on ineffective treatments may be left with precious little of either, and may forfeit the opportunity to obtain treatments that could be more helpful. More research must be undertaken to prove the effectiveness of complimentary therapies before they can be incorporated in formal medical practice. Sufficient evidence is required for biological or clinical plausibility in order to justify the investment of time and energy in exploring the merits of alternative medicine. After all, human life is precious and no chances can be taken to comprise the health of any individual.


The History of Wound Care

The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. This brief history of wound healing has been compiled for the benefit of readers. It is amazing to see that some of the basic principles of wound healing have been known since 2000 bc .

The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. One of the oldest medical manuscripts known to man is a clay tablet that dates back to 2200 bc . This tablet describes, perhaps for the first time, the “three healing gestures”—washing the wounds, making the plasters, and bandaging the wound.1,2,3

What the ancients and early moderns referred to as plasters is the present-day equivalent of wound dressings. These plasters were mixtures of substances including mud or clay, plants, and herbs. Plasters were applied to wounds to provide protection and to absorb exudate. One of the most common ingredients used in plasters was oil. Oil may have provided some protection from infection as bacteria grow poorly in oil, and oil would have prevented the bandage from sticking to the wound as a nonadherent dressing.1

One of the interesting earliest known wound care products was beer. The Sumerians brewed at least 19 different types of beer. An interesting prescription for wound healing described in Mesopotamian culture stated, “Pound together fur-turpentine, pine-turpentine, tamarisk, daisy, flour of inninnu strain mix in milk and beer in a small copper pan spread on skin bind on him, and he shall recover.𠇑

The Egyptians may have been the first people to use adhesive bandages and were most certainly the first people to apply honey to the wounds. Honey, grease, and lint were the main components of the most common plaster used by Egyptians. Lint made from vegetable fiber probably aided drainage of the wound grease and honey may have protected the wound from infection. Grease made from animal fat may have provided a barrier to bacteria. While honey appears to be an effective antibacterial agent, it has many other healing properties. Honey has been used for thousands of years and is still part of many advanced wound dressings. Honey was also used for wound care in India long before the time of Christ, demonstrating that separate medical cultures empirically arrived at the same successful therapy.1,4,5

Egyptians painted wounds with green color. Green indicates life, and green paint contains copper, which is toxic to bacteria. When most people think of ancient Egypt, they think of pyramids and mummies, and the art of wrapping the bodies of the dead probably influenced the bandaging of wounds. Also the art of preventing decomposition by embalming may have contributed to early advances in controlling infection.1,2

The Greeks stressed the importance of cleanliness. They recommended washing the wound with clean water, often boiled first, vinegar (acetic acid), and wine. The Greeks also differentiated between 𠇏resh,” or acute, and nonhealing, or chronic, wounds. One of the interesting excerpts from the Hippocratic collection about wound healing is, 𠇏or an obstinate ulcer, sweet wine and a lot of patience should be enough.” An early description of the 𠇏our cardinal signs of inflammation”—rubor, tumor, calor, et dolor (redness, swelling, heat, and pain)�me from the Romans.1,2,6,7

It was not until the 18th century that surgery began to be considered as a distinct and respected branch of medicine. In the 19th century, the antiseptic technique was a major breakthrough. The introduction of antibiotics helped control infections and decrease mortality.1,7,8

In the 20th century came the advent of modern wound healing. At the present time, there are more than 5,000 wound care products. Most modern dressings contain materials that are highly absorbent, such as alginates, foam, or carboxymethylcellulose. There are occlusive dressings and semiocclusive dressings. There are growth factors, advanced honey-based dressings, and hypochlorous acid�sed cleansers. Bioengineered tissue, negative pressure therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy have changed the way we treat a lot of chronic wounds today.

There are more than 1,000 wound healing centers in the United States today, and wound healing has become a specialty, with fellowship programs offered at some academic centers.

In summary, The first wound treatments were described 5 millennia ago. Since then, various principles of wound care have been passed on from generation to generation. In contrast to large numbers of general technological inventions over the past 100 years, progress beyond ancient wound care practices is a recent phenomenon. It is essential to know the historical aspects of wound treatment (both successes and failures) in order to continue this progress and provide future direction.9


'Promising' treatment for diabetics

Dr Stadler said it was unfortunate that maggot therapy was perceived to be a last resort treatment in Australia.

"It is ideally suited for early interventions," he said.

"When someone presents with a diabetic ulcer, maggot therapy is fantastic in treating that ulcer and setting the wound up for healing."

Peter Lazzarini, a principal research fellow at QUT and co-chair of Diabetic Foot Australia, said a handful of small studies have tested maggot therapy on diabetic foot ulcer patients with mixed results.

"Maggot or larval therapy has been shown to be pretty effective in scientific labs at essentially gobbling up this devitalized tissue without touching the healthy ulcer tissue," he said.

"The rationale for using larval therapy is promising, but we need larger studies to prove if it is as effective, or more effective, than other forms of debridement yet."

While he has not used the technique on patients, Dr Lazzarini said he was aware of cases where it had been used for complex wounds where removing the tissue with a scalpel proved difficult.

"The larvae seem to be pretty good 𧷫riders' in these cases," he said.


Honey, Mud, Maggots and Other Medical Marvels: The Science Behind Folk Remedies and Old Wives' Tales

The actual remedies are interesting, unfortunately the writing is distractingly poor. I started skipping the last sentence of each chapter to avoid the inevitable atrocious puns that were lurking there. These are not clever puns (which may make you roll your eyes but still make you smile), these are groan out loud, painful and embarrassing to read Fozzie Bear caliber puns:
pg. 30 " After all, maggot therapy didn&apost turn out to be such a flyblown idea, did it?"
pg: 70 "chalk up another success for The actual remedies are interesting, unfortunately the writing is distractingly poor. I started skipping the last sentence of each chapter to avoid the inevitable atrocious puns that were lurking there. These are not clever puns (which may make you roll your eyes but still make you smile), these are groan out loud, painful and embarrassing to read Fozzie Bear caliber puns:
pg. 30 " After all, maggot therapy didn't turn out to be such a flyblown idea, did it?"
pg: 70 "chalk up another success for geopharmacy!" (chapter on eating soil, clay and dirt)
pg. 86. "Far from absurd, bloodletting is proving itself to be a bloody good remedy"
Wocka Wocka Wocka!

I appreciate that they tried to make the subject matter fun and engaging, but I don't think it was successfully executed.

The chapter on circumcision is a soapbox the authors make their stance on the matter known and just repeat it for an entire chapter. (as another reviewer also noted, it feels totally out of place).

An entire chapter is devoted to how the development of medicine parallels Lamarckian evolution. eh?

The last few chapters feel like the first half of the book was put in a blender and just thrown back together in different configurations.

What's the difference between myself and an angler?
One hates this book.The other baits his hook. . meer

Interesting info but the tone and the writing aren’t the best. The idea was sound, it’s helpful to understand what folk remedies can actually do beyond the placebo effect. The book is nicely organized, though the chapter order seems a bit of a hodge-podge. The writing is ok but the chapters are often repetitive within. The serious weakness of this book is the tone, it tends to give too much credit to folk remedies and their positive benefits without pointing out the obvious, much of the remedies Interesting info but the tone and the writing aren’t the best. The idea was sound, it’s helpful to understand what folk remedies can actually do beyond the placebo effect. The book is nicely organized, though the chapter order seems a bit of a hodge-podge. The writing is ok but the chapters are often repetitive within. The serious weakness of this book is the tone, it tends to give too much credit to folk remedies and their positive benefits without pointing out the obvious, much of the remedies are based on the placebo effect. While I found the info and argument for folk remedies convincing for limited purposes, I’m not sure the author really made that clear…they seem to be more focused on attacking the medical industry for not following up fully on these remedies. That said, the book did meet my expectations.

Still, I give this one a 3. I think the info is useful in limited contexts but I didn’t really enjoy the writing and agenda. By all means, ask your doctor about some of these ideas but, don’t do anything with this stuff yourself…I also think authors of post-apocalyptic works could benefit from this book…it’s what doctors would use to heal if modern medicine crumbled away.
. meer

I found this book fascinating.

I must admit, I usually pick up nonfiction books with a bit of trepidation. Some of them are so dry, I fall asleep reading the intro. This book I could not set down though. I was fascinated by all the squirm-worthy and nasty cures in this book and the medical science behind them.

Until I read this, I could never understand why bleeding and leeches was such a popular cure for so long. Now I see that it was used to lower a fever and it actually worked. If only people I found this book fascinating.

I must admit, I usually pick up nonfiction books with a bit of trepidation. Some of them are so dry, I fall asleep reading the intro. This book I could not set down though. I was fascinated by all the squirm-worthy and nasty cures in this book and the medical science behind them.

Until I read this, I could never understand why bleeding and leeches was such a popular cure for so long. Now I see that it was used to lower a fever and it actually worked. If only people wouldn’t have taken so much blood, it might not have killed the patient. If you’re ever curious as to why people used to put urine in sleeping droughts, this book will tell you why.

This was a fast easy read and I whipped right through it. I have to laugh, because the atrocious puns that one reviewer complained about didn’t bother me at all. I rather thought it was a fun read. I was bit off though by the preachy chapter on circumcision. Consequently I knocked off a star.


The top 12 most amazing Israeli medical advances

Israeli ingenuity is responsible for some of the world’s most amazing medical advances.

Whether they’re futuristic, such as Given Imaging’s PillCam capsule endoscopy or Itamar Medical’s fingertip monitors for sleep disorders and cardiac issues — or cleverly simple, such as First Care Products’ Emergency Bandage – blue-and-white inventions are changing the face of healthcare in hospitals, doctors’ offices, homes and even battlefields worldwide.

“It’s almost a cliché to say Israel is an excellent place for medical innovation,” says Eran Perry, managing director at Israel Health Care Ventures (IHCV), one of the largest venture capital funds in the country.

“But if you look at [global] statistics, it’s evident — from total expenditure on civilian R&D, where we are ranked first to human infrastructure and entrepreneurship, where we rank in the top five. You can see the results in patents. We are first in the world for medical device patents per capita, and second in Europe for bio-pharma.”

About 1,000 Israeli companies are in healthcare or life-science products, including 700 in medical devices. Approximately half are already generating revenue.

“There has been an ecosystem created for life sciences, so these 1,000 companies don’t exist in a vacuum but in an environment where they have access to everything they need — engineering, labs, regulatory consultants, manufacturing consultants,” Perry tells ISRAEL21c. “Many young companies can be a one-man show until they get to the clinical trial stage, relying on this excellent ecosystem around them. You can see Israeli companies reaching the same stage as American ones with a fraction of the capital investment.”

IHCV reviews 200 to 300 new opportunities per year. Perry estimates that 60 to 70 Israeli healthcare companies are founded annually. Proceeds from mergers and acquisitions involving Israeli healthcare companies totalled around $1 billion in the past year.

That’s why ISRAEL21c had a hard time narrowing the field to this top 12 list of the most significant recent Israeli contributions to the medical field.

We have chosen products already on, or very near, the market. If you’ve got other companies you think also deserve a mention please don’t hesitate to add them to the comments section below.

And watch for a future top 10 list of the most exciting Israeli medical-device and pharmaceutical developments just around the corner.

And now … ISRAEL21c’s top 12 Israeli medical innovations, in alphabetical order.

1. ApiFix system to correct severe curvature of the spine (scoliosis) minimizes risks, scar size, complications, recovery time and cost. The miniature ratchet mechanism has successfully been implanted in 15 patients so far. Limited sales of the product have begun while clinical trials are in the last stages.

2. Argo Medical Technologies’ Rewalk robotic exoskeleton from was featured on the hit TV show “Glee” and enabled paraplegic runners in London and Tel Aviv to complete marathons. The ReWalk Rehabilitation model currently is used by patients in rehab centers from New York to Dusseldorf. ReWalk Personal, for everyday home use, is available throughout Europe and awaiting FDA clearance in the United States.

3. Gamida Cell is developing stem-cell therapy products to treat blood cancers, solid tumors, non-malignant blood diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, autoimmune diseases and genetic metabolic diseases. On Sept. 9, the first patient was successfully transplanted at Duke University Medical Center (North Carolina) in the second Phase I/II study of NiCord, Gamida’s experimental treatment for blood cancers.

4. GI View Aer-O-Scope disposable colorectal cancer screening device, now in US trials, will make lifesaving colonoscopy screenings cheaper, safer and more accessible worldwide. The self-navigating, flexible Aer-O-Scope removes the risk of perforating the colon, provides superior imaging and can be used by a trained nurse or technician so a gastroenterologist does not have to be present.

5. IceCure Medical’s IceSense3 has been used by US doctors since 2011 to remove benign breast lumps in a 10-minute ultrasound-guided procedure that penetrates the tumor and engulfs it with ice. The system is being clinically tested over the next few years against small malignant breast tumors as well. The procedure is done in a doctor’s office, clinic or breast center, and the patient can get up and leave afterward with no recovery period or post-care.

6. InSightec’s ExAblate OR uses MRI-guided focused ultrasound to destroy tumors and uterine fibroid cysts without surgery. The company has begun a Phase III trial of its next product, ExAblate Neuro, to cure essential tremor — a common movement disorder – using the same non-invasive technology to significantly lower risk of infection, hemorrhage and brain damage.

7. IonMed’s BioWeld1 bonds surgical incisions using cold plasma — instead of painful stitches, staples or glue – within minutes, sealing and disinfecting the wound with minimal scarring and recovery time. The CE Mark is expected in October, with European sales and US FDA approval process starting in early 2014.

8. Nano Retina’s Bio-Retina, a tiny implantable device inserted into the retina in a 30-minute procedure, turns into an artificial retina that melds to the neurons in the eye. Activated by special eyeglasses, the device transforms natural light into an electrical impulse that stimulates neurons to send images to the brain. The prototype is advancing quickly through clinical trials.

9. NanoPass Technologies’ MicronJet is a unique, FDA-approved single-use needle for painless delivery of vaccines into the skin using semiconductor technology. The product has been proven to generate superior immune response with less vaccine, because it does not go past the skin level. Licensed last year to Janssen Pharmaceuticals, MicronJet is being used by the US Center of Disease Control (CDC) in a large trial of polio vaccine for infants in Southeast Asia.

10. OrSense’s NBM-200 non-invasive monitor is relied upon by blood donation centers in 40 countries for continuous and spot measuring of potential donors’ hemoglobin level (to check for anemia) and other blood parameters. This device eliminates the need for finger pricking as well as biologically hazardous equipment and waste. Studies show that donors screened this way are more likely to become repeat blood donors. OrSense recently completed successful trials using its technology to detect hemorrhage and anemia in pregnant women.

11. Surpass Medical’s NeuroEndoGraft flow diverters redirect blood flow from a brain aneurysm (a bulge in a weak artery wall), so that a stable clot can form and the potentially fatal aneurysm no longer is in danger of rupturing. The family of devices has the CE Mark and has been used successfully in dozens of patients. US medical device manufacturer Stryker acquired Surpass for $100 million in October 2012.

12. VitalGo Systems’ Total Lift bed is the world’s only hospital-grade bed that can elevate a patient from a lying to a fully standing position — and all points in between — for treatment and transfer with no lifting required of the caregiver. Two major companies are distributing Total Lift in the acute-care and home-care markets in the United States.


The Medical Book by Clifford A. Pickover

Last year, I was treated to The Physics Book by Clifford A Pickover, which took a huge and sometimes-difficult subject and broke it down into delightful bite-sized pieces anyone can understand. This year, Dr. Pickover has done the exact same thing with an even more universal subject: health. In The Medical Book: From Witch Doctors to Robot Surgeons, there are 250 topics, one page each, with gorgeous illustrations. The topics are presented in more or less chronological order of the subject's discovery or a scientific breakthrough, so The Medical Book is also a history book. Flipping through the topics gives you a sense of how astonishingly recent our knowledge about how human bodies work really is.

Of the 250 topics, it was hard to select just a few to share, but these intrigued me. You'll find others in the book that particularly appeal to you.

10,000 B.C. Witch Doctor

For thousands of years, human health, illness, and injury were all magical concepts.

Shamanic practices, involving healers who appear to be in contact with a spirit world, probably originated in Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) times. For example, evidence for Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) shamanism was found in Israel in the form of an old woman from a burial dating to around 10,000 B.C. The importance of this woman, along with her possible close association with nature and animals, is suggested by the special arrangement of stones by her body, along with 50 complete tortoise shells, a human foot, and remains of birds, boars, leopards, cows, and eagles. Today, the vast majority of the traditional Nguni societies of southern Africa make use of sangomas who employ herbal medicine, divination, and counseling.

Thousands of years later, the science of human biology and the healing arts began to advance in fits and starts, through trial and error, involving a lot of misery on the way to enlightenment. But advance it did, and many of those discoveries are recorded in The Medical Book.

1346 Biological Weapons

Not all those advances were positive. An understanding of germ theory was not necessary to see the nefarious possibilities of contagious diseases, especially in causing harm to one's enemies.

Biological warfare has been conducted for millennia. In 184 B.C., the soldiers of Hannibal of Carthage threw clay pots filled with venomous snakes onto enemy ships. In 1346, Tatar forces threw warriors who died of plague over the walls of Kaffa, a Crimean city, and an outbreak of plague followed. In 1763, representatives of the Delaware Indians were given blankets exposed to smallpox. In 1940, Japanese warplanes flew over China and dropped ceramic bombs filled with fleas carrying bubonic plague.

Yet the goal most medical research is to help the sick and injured. Bodies were dissected, medicines tried, patients suffered and died, and scientists and physicians built upon the knowledge of those who came before.

1683 The Zoo Within Us

Dutch microbiologist Anton Philips van Leeuwenhoek built his own microscope and studied his own body. In 1683, he observed "little living animalcules" in scrapings of his dental plaque. This discovery led to our knowledge of the human microbiome, in which a diverse collection of microbes help our bodies function.

Beneficial and harmful microbes typically reside on and in the skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, nose, and other various orifices. More than 500 species of bacteria live in the human intestines, motivating researchers to think of this population as comprising a "virtual organ." The creatures in our gut can ferment food to aid in digestion, produce vitamins for our bodies, and prevent the growth of harmful species. Such bacteria rapidly colonize a baby's intestines starting from birth.

Hail, hail, the gang's all here -whether you like it or not!

1929 Maggot Therapy

1929 was a banner year for medical discoveries and breakthroughs, and there are quite a few labeled with that year in The Medical Book. One is maggot therapy. Maggots, or fly larvae, had been observed to clean and debride wounds since antiquity, but it was American physician William Baer who tried applying maggots deliberately to infected wounds.

During World War I, Baer had observed a soldier who remained on the battlefield for days with many serious wounds. Back at the hospital, when the soldier's clothes were removed, Baer saw "thousands and thousands" of maggots in the wounds. Surprisingly, the soldier exhibited no fever and had healthy pink tissue in the wounds. These experiences led Baer, in 1929, to apply maggots to the tissue of patients with intractable chronic osteomyelitis (infection of the bone). The maggots worked miracles, and Baer noticed rapid debridement (removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissues), reduction in the number of disease-causing organisms, reduced odor, and rapid rates of healing.

The next time the subject of maggot therapy comes up and someone inevitably says, "Now, what on earth ever gave someone the notion to try that?", you can set them straight --it was based on previous observations of what occasionally happens naturally.

1946 Cancer Chemotherapy

As medical science built on previous research, advances in healing began to take marvelous leaps forward. When cancer was found to be caused by the uncontrolled growth of cells, scientists confronted the problem of how to stop those cells without killing our healthy cells at the same time. It took a tragedy to point them in the right direction.

Surprisingly, one of the first effective anticancer drugs was discovered when American pharmacologists Alfred Gilman and Lewis Goodman performed research, under the cloak of wartime secrecy, after more than 1,000 people were accidently exposed to American-made mustard gas bombs. This chemical warfare agent was found to damage rapidly-growing white blood cells, and scientists reasoned that this might be useful for treating certain lymphomas (cancers of certain white blood cells). When a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was injected with a related nitrogen compound in 1943, Gilman and Goodman observed a dramatic but temporary shrinkage of the tumor masses. The government gave Gilman and Goodman permission to publish their findings in 1946.

That observation and subsequent experiments opened the floodgates to many different chemotherapy regimens that have been developed since then and are used all over the world today.

1961 Self-Surgery

There are pages in which The Medical Book steps sideways and presents stories that will curl your hair. As fascinating as medical advances and discoveries are, those stories pale beside the tales of a select group of people who have performed surgery on themselves.

For example, on April 30, 1961, Russian general practitioner Leonid Rogozov removed his own infected appendix at the Soviet Novolazararevskaya Research Station in Antarctica. This surgery was probably the first successful self-appendectomy undertaken beyond a hospital setting, with no possibility of outside assistance, and with no other medical personnel present. Prior to his surgery, Rogozov recorded in his journal: "I did not sleep at all last night. It hurts like the devil! A snowstorm whipping through my soul, wailing like a hundred jackals. I have to think through the only possible way out: to operate on myself. It's almost impossible. but I can't just fold my arms and give up."

Luckily, Rogozov recovered completely, but his story is only one of several self-surgeries related in the book.

The Medical Book is a wonderful resource on what we've learned and when and how we learned about our own health. The oh-so-useful way the book is presented makes it a delightful and appropriate gift for readers of all ages who like to take a break and learn something new and interesting. Who knows --you may find yourself reading it all the way through at once! The Medical Book: From Witch Doctors to Robot Surgeons, 250 Milestones in the History of Medicine is available now at Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and at a bookstore near you. Visit author Clifford A Pickover at his website and at Cliff Pickover's Reality Carnival. He also likes to Tweet.


HEALTH Healing Treatment, 4,000 Years Old, Is Revived

To help heal seriously infected wounds, some surgeons have revived a 4,000-year-old treatment, born on the battlefields of ancient Egypt: they pack the depths of treacherous wounds with sweet substances like sugar.

Dressings made of sugar and honey, favored by healers throughout history, fell into disfavor with the development of antibiotics over half a century ago. But even the most sophisticated modern preparations have proved unable at times to overcome the hearty bacteria that live in deep wounds, and a handful of doctors, mostly in Europe, are turning once again to sugar ''It's a very old and very simple treatment which was forgotten for a while but is now coming back, like a fashion,'' said Prof. Rudy Siewert, chairman of the department of surgery at the Klinikum Rechts der Isar in Munich, West Germany.

Renaissance vs. Skepticism

Professor Siewert said that in the last five years the technique had enjoyed a wide renaissance in Germany and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe. Despite the interest abroad, most American surgeons express mild skepticism.

'ɿor the right kind of wound it works fine, and it's fun to look at an ancient remedy,'' said Dr. Mary H. McGrath, chief of the division of plastic surgery at the George Washington University Medical Center in Washington, D.C. Doctors there have used sugar to treat uninfected bedsores. 'ɻut there are about 600 lotions and potions for healing wounds, and I think you can get a lot more effect with our contemporary local antibacterials.''

Experts say the ancient treament probably works because sugar tends to draw water into its gritty midst, through osmosis. This action both dries the bed of the wound to promote new tissue growth and dehydrates the bacteria that cause infection, leaving them weak and fragile. Several American pharmaceutical concerns make expensive wound pastes composed of synthetic microscopic water-absorbing beads that perform this same function. Revival Began in U.S. Although sugar dressings have few American advocates, Europeans ascribe the current revival in part to the work of an American, Dr. Richard A. Knutson, an orthopedic surgeon in Greenville, Miss., who published one of the few papers on the technique a decade ago.

About 15 years ago, frustrated by stubborn, pus-filled wounds filled with bacteria resistent to all drugs, Dr. Knutson began experimenting with sugar dressings at the suggestion of a retired nurse who had worked in the Deep South before the antibiotic era.

''When we started I thought it was absolutely nuts,'' Dr. Knutson said in a recent telephone interview. ''Sugar! The first thing you think about is the old jar of marmalade in the fridge growing all that junk. You think you'll create a perfect medium for bacterial growth. That turned out not to be the case.''

He has since used a salve made of sugar, which he now mixes with a mild bacteria-killing iodine liquid, on about 6,000 patients with anything from burns to shotgun wounds. The mixture is applied as a paste. ''It's easy to use, painless, inexpensive, and it works,'' he said, ''You can't ask for more. If it has a fancy name and cost $300 a bottle everyone would be buying it.'' Most European surgeons use sugar alone.

The care of deep wounds is a major challenge to surgeons. Although doctors sew up small clean cuts, the skin above penetrating injuries that are likely to be infected is generally left open, both to allow the doctors to clean the cavity and to allow the body to grow new tissue, called granulation tissue, from the deep wound base.

Over weeks to months, the wound becomes sterile and slowly fills with new tissue. Systemic antibiotics are often required to aid the healing process. Sometimes skin and muscle must be surgically moved from other parts of the body to cover areas that would otherwise never completely heal.

Using the resurrected technique, doctors alter the usual cleaning regimen by sprinkling granulated sugar or spreading sugar paste in the wound two to four times a day, before applying new bandages. The sugar liquefies somewhat as it absorbs fluid from the wound, so it is simple to rinse out the sugar, along with dead tissue, at the next dressing change.

Doctors who use the method say that even dirty injuries are often germ-free after several days and that wounds seem to heal faster and more completely than with conventional treatments.

''The granulation tissue is much pinker and healthier,'' said Dr. B. G. Spell, a surgeon at the Methodist Rehabilitation Hospital in Jackson, Miss., who says he uses the technique daily to heal infected amputations and the deep pressure sores that plague paraplegics. ''The dead tissue breaks down more easily, so there's not as much debridement,'' he said.

In a series of articles in the British medical journal Lancet over the last five years, doctors at various European medical centers have reported success using the technique in a variety of situations in which nothing else worked. Dr. J. L. Trouillet at the Hopital Bichat in Paris described using granulated sugar bought from a supermarket for successful treatment of 19 critically ill cardiac surgery patient who had mediastinitis, a frequently deadly infection of the compartment in the chest that contains the heart.

Patients expecting high-tech medicine are often surprised to find their injuries sweetened. ''The doctors had mentioned that they were going to use 'wound sugar,' but it didn't register,'' said John Tagliabue, a New York Times reporter who was shot and seriously wounded last December while covering the revolution in Romania.

His wound was packed with sugar at the Klinikum in Munich, where he was moved for treatment. ''One day I noticed this sandy material on the sheets, like crumbs from eating cookies in bed.'' he said. ''Then it hit me: They really meant sugar.''

Will the enthusiasm for the revival spread to the Americas? ''There are better treatments these days,'' said Dr. McGrath, in an opinion that half a dozen prominent American surgeons echoed in interviews. Dr. McGrath's own research includes studying the effect of molecules called growth factors, manufactured by genetically altering organisms, on a type of cell involved in healing.

''Over all, I think the Europeans are a little less rigorous in their journals,'' she said. And, in truth, despite nearly 4,000 years of use, there are no comparative scientific studies of sugar dressings to be found.

But Professor Siewert has a slightly different take on the issue. ''The American way is more scientific,'' he said, ''The European way sometimes comes more from history and experience. That's good, too.''

Other Remedies From History

Until a century ago, doctors applied leeches for almost every illness in the mistaken belief that they would draw out '𧮭 blood.'' Today they are used after microsurgery that reattaches fingers, toes and other body parts. An operation can fail because tiny blood vessels become clogged. But when a small European leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is attached, it sucks out an ounce or two of blood from the clogged vessels. The leech's saliva containes an anticoagulant and an antiseptic.

Maggots, fly larvae, once allowed to clean festering battlefield wounds, have been used to save the legs of a 17-year-old girl who developed a blood infection that caused clotting in her legs. Oral antibiotics could not reach the sores, so physicians at Children's Hospital in Washington D.C., applied 1,500 maggots. They ate away dead skin while allowing healthy skin to thrive.

Scientists have also validated a folk remedy for cuts used by Arab fishermen. The Arabian saltwater catfish, Arius bilineatis, secretes a slimy, gellike substance that contains proteins that coagulate blood to stop bleeding and enzymes that speed the growth of new tissue.


Band-Aids

It may seem odd to consider anything adorned with Rugrats or Spider-Man as a medicine-changing tool, but don’t make the mistake of dismissing Band-Aids simply because they can be cute. Huge numbers of people see the world’s first self-adhesive bandages not just as temporary fixes but, rather, a device helping put the care into health care.

A caring cotton buyer for Johnson & Johnson (Band-Aids’ maker) invented them in 1920 so he could tend to the many cuts and minor burns his beloved and accident-prone wife got while cooking and keeping house.

By 1942, millions of Johnson & Johnson’s adhesive bandages accompanied World War II soldiers overseas. In 1963, Mercury astronauts took them into space. Back here on Earth, Band-Aids became the go-to therapy for parents wanting to make boo-boos better.

They act as medals for bravery in the face of inoculations, they hide the tear-inducing sight of a skinned knee, and they actually do help minor wounds heal better with fewer scars and infections. Turns out, we really are stuck on Band-Aids. By 2001, the number manufactured had rocketed past 100 billion.


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