USS Hull (DD-7) by Norfolk Navy Yard, 1907

USS Hull (DD-7) by Norfolk Navy Yard, 1907

U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann. Die standaardgeskiedenis van die ontwikkeling van Amerikaanse vernietigers, van die vroegste torpedobootvernietigers tot die naoorlogse vloot, en dek die massiewe klasse vernietigers wat vir beide Wêreldoorloë gebou is. Gee die leser 'n goeie begrip van die debatte wat elke klas vernietigers omring het en tot hul individuele kenmerke gelei het.


Gedurende haar eerste twee diensjare, Romp besig met patrollie en oefenmaneuvers buite Newport en in Chesapeake Bay. Na 'n vaart na die Karibiese Eilande en Januarie 1905 keer sy terug na League Island, Pennsilvanië, waar sy op 30 September 1905 uit diens neem.

Romp hergebruik 14 November 1906 in Philadelphia en het deelgeneem aan winteroefeninge met vlooteenhede in Kubaanse waters. Na die operasies buite Newport keer die skip in Oktober 1907 terug na Norfolk om voor te berei op die reis van die Great White Fleet. Romp het op 2 Desember as begeleide vaartuig geseil en nadat hy by baie hawens in Suid -Amerika en Sentraal -Amerika op die seereis na Suid -Amerika met die groot slagskepe gestop het, het hy op 28 April 1907 by San Diego aangekom. Romp was aan die Weskus losgemaak terwyl die Groot Wit Vloot sy vaart voortgesit het, met die vlag oor die hele wêreld. Die vernietiger het in die omgewing van San Francisco gebly totdat hy op 24 Augustus 1908 vertrek het vir 'n vaart na die Suidelike Stille Oseaan. Sy het aan verskillende oefeninge in die Hawaïese en Samoaanse waters deelgeneem voordat sy in November na San Diego teruggekeer het.

Romp het die jare voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog aan patrollie en oefenoefeninge aan die kus van Kalifornië deurgebring. Sy het op 30 Oktober 1912 die staking geneem en by die Reserve Torpedo -afdeling op Mare Island aangesluit, waarmee sy af en toe opleidingskruise na die hawens van Kalifornië gemaak het. Toe Amerika die oorlog betree in April 1917, Romp is op Mare -eiland opgeknap. Sy vaar op 25 April 1917 saam met ander vernietigers na die Canal Zone en was vir die volgende drie maande besig met verdedigingspatrollie langs die westelike benaderings na die lewensbelangrike waterweg.

Op 26 Julie vaar sy na Norfolk vir begeleiding en patrolliediens langs die ooskus. In die daaropvolgende maande, Romp het skepe na Bermuda begelei en was ook besig met oefenmaneuvers met ander vlootskepe. In Junie 1918 breek sy 'n aanval deur Duitse duikboot op U-151 op 'n handelsskip, en het dikwels matrose van sinkende skepe gered. Sy het hierdie noodsaaklike patrollieplig tot die einde van die oorlog voortgesit.

Romp het op 29 Januarie 1919 in Philadelphia aangekom en op 7 Julie 1919 buite gebruik gestel. Sy is op 5 Januarie 1921 verkoop aan Joseph G. Hitner van Philadelphia.


Lisensiëring wysig

Hierdie beeld is beskikbaar by die Naval History and Heritage Command onder die digitale ID 19-N-60-10-20.
Die meeste foto's in die NHHC -versameling is in die publieke domein en kan afgelaai en gebruik word sonder toestemming of spesiale vereistes. Diegene wat nie verskyn nie, sal in die kopieregafdeling van die NHHC -beeldbeskrywing aangeteken word. [1]
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Vernietigers by die Norfolk Navy Yard, Virginia, herfs 1907

Hierdie skepe is (van links na regs):
USS Hull (Destroyer # 7)
USS Lawrence (Destroyer # 8)
USS Hopkins (Destroyer # 6)
USS Whipple (Destroyer # 15) en
USS Truxtun (Destroyer # 14).

Foto uit die Bureau of Ships Collection in die Amerikaanse nasionale argief.

Aanlynbeeld: 73KB 740 x 595 pixels

Reproduksies van hierdie beeld is moontlik ook beskikbaar via die National Archives fotografiese reproduksiestelsel.

Norfolk Navy Yard, Virginia

Waterfront -toneel, herfs 1907. Skepe links is (van voor na agter):
USS Hopkins (Destroyer # 6)
USS Lawrence (Destroyer # 8)
USS Hull (Destroyer # 7)
USS Talbot (Torpedo Boat # 15) en
USS Moccasin (duikboot # 5).
Laasgenoemde twee word op die mariene spoorweg getrek.
USS Stewart (Destroyer # 13) is op die regte voorgrond. Voor haar is 'n torpedoboot, 'n skuit en die sleepboot Mohawk. Drie slagskepe lê agter hulle vas, met USS Iowa (slagskip # 4) die verste na regs.


Die vlootjare 1900 - 1910

Onderste ry, links na regs: William H. Reader, stuurman van die hoofskutter, Augustus Gumpert, skutmaat se tweede klas, luitenant Harry H. Caldwell, bevelvoerder Arthur Callahan, skutmaat se tweede klas Barnett Bowie, stuurman van die masjiniste . Boonste ry: Harry Wahab, skutmaat se eerste klas O. Swanson, skutmaat se eerste klas, skutter Owen Hill W. Hall, elektrisiën se maat tweede klas.

USS Holland aan die U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland.

Amptelike Amerikaanse vlootfoto

Kaptein en bemanning, links na regs: Harry Wahab, stuurman van die hoofskutter Kane Richard O. Williams, hoof -elektrisiën, hoofskutter Owen Hill, onder bevel van Igoe Michael Malone Barnett Bowie, stuurman van die masjinis Simpson Rhinelander. Op die agtergrond, 'n monitor van die Arkansas-klas, links, en die USS Terror, 'n pre-Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlogsmonitor ".

Naval Academy Cadet Training omstreeks 1902

Amptelike Amerikaanse vlootfoto

William Reader (een van die oorspronklike bemanningslede) het sy herinneringe aan die lewe aan boord van die USS Holland in 1943 neergeskryf. 'N Afskrif van hierdie herinneringe kan gevind word in die Submarine Force Library. Die persoonlike herinneringe van die oorspronklike bemanningslede Richard Williams en Harry Wahab is gedruk in 'n Navy News -weergawe van 1952 wat ook in die Submarine Force Library gevind kan word. Boonop bevat Alan Burgoyne die getuienis van die kongres en amptelike verslae van verskeie offisiere, waaronder luitenant Harry H. Caldwell, in sy boek Submarine Navigation: Past and Present.

'N Oorsig van die logboek van die USS Holland, geleë in die National Archives in Washington DC, onthul dat sy die grootste deel van haar aktiewe lewe by die Naval Academy van die Verenigde State deurgebring het om die jong kadette op te lei. Sy het egter twee somers by die Torpedo -stasie in Newport Rhode Island deurgebring. In die somer van 1900 het die Frank Cable en die Electric Boat -bemanning die eerste Navy Crew opgelei. In die somer van 1901 blyk dit dat sy besig was met oefenlopies en torpedo -toetse.

Opsomming van die logboek van die USS Holland

1 Januarie 1900 aan 13 Junie 1900 Navy Yard, Washington DC 25 Junie 1900 aan 16 Okt 1900 Torpedo -stasie, Newport Rhode Island 22 Okt 1900 aan 8 Januarie 1901 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 10 Januarie 1901 aan 22 Januarie 1901 Navy Yard, Norfolk VA 23 Januarie 1901 aan 10 Junie 1901 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 15 Junie 1901 aan 2 Okt 1901 Torpedo -stasie, Newport Rhode Island 3 Okt 1901 aan 24 Okt 1901 Navy Yard, New York 5 November 1901 aan 14 Julie 1902 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 18 Julie 1902 aan 31 Julie 1902 Navy Yard, New York 1 Augustus 1902 aan 3 April 1903 Navy Yard, League Island PA 3 April 1903 aan 4 Augustus 1903 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 4 Augustus 1903 aan 8 Augustus 1903 Baltimore Shipbuilding & Drydock Co, Baltimore 8 Augustus 1903 aan 6 September 1904 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 6 September 1904 aan 10 September 1904 Baltimore Shipbuilding & Drydock Co, Baltimore 10 September 1904 aan 18 Julie 1905 United States Naval Academy, MD van Annapolis 20 Julie 1905 aan 1915 Navy Yard, Norfolk VA

Uittreksels uit die log van die USS Holland

25 September 1900 "Ek het binne die torpedobereik van die USS Kearsage gekom tydens 'n nagaanval." 11 Okt 1900 Waarnemende Gunner O. Hill, Lieut. H. H. Caldwell aangemeld vir diens. 12 Okt 1900 "Lieut H.H. Caldwell het hierdie boot vandag in gebruik geneem." 11 Februarie 1901 W. Reader GM 1ste klas gegradeerde Chief Gunner gedateer van 1-1-1901 20 Februarie 1901 Hoofman B. Bowie het vir diens aangemeld 22 April 1901 B. Bowie Mach 1ste klas tot CM gegradeer vanaf 14de, Callahan GM 3de tot GM 2de klas. 13 Mei 1901 A. Gumpert GM 3de klas aangemeld vir diens. 30 Julie 1902 "RK Holland, Elect 2cl, by die aanvang van die batteryblaser, as gevolg van die begin van die reostaat, het 'n ontploffing van gas veroorsaak wat deur die opbergbattery afgegee is. die rand van die toring. " "Die vlamme het ook 'n bietjie afval aan die brand gesteek wat in die boot geberg is, die bron van die planke wat die battery bedek het, is opgegooi en vasgemaak. Anders is geen skade aangerig nie." 25 November 1902 "Luitenant Arthur McArthur Jr neem die bevel oor USSTB Holland" 17 Januarie 1903 W. Reader CGM oorgeplaas na USRS Minneapolis vir algemene besonderhede 18 Januarie 1903 R.O. Williams (Uitverkore 2cl) het waarnemende aanstelling as Uitverkore 1cl gekry en deel uitgemaak van die gewone bemanning 7 Mei 1903 Lieut. Arthur MacArthur Jr los van Holland en bestel na New Suffolk, Long Island. Holland onder bevel van Gunner O. Hill, USN 9 Augustus 1904 "Nuwe doekbedekking vir batterykap en rubberdeksel toegerus." 29 Okt 1904 R.O. Die hoof-elektrisiën van Williams is oorgeplaas na die Gunnery-skool in Navy Yard, Washington, DC. 1 November 1904 E. Swanson, waarnemende skutter, herleef Owen Hill Ensign, USN. 16 November 1904 Owen Hill Ensign los van die bevel van USS Holland en beveel aan USS Wisconsin 30 Maart 1905 "Gedeelde dele aan die binnekant van die boot met wit verf." 31 Maart 1905 "Bemanning by die werk skilder die binnekant van die boot met lood - kleure, swart - skulp en rooi skulp." 1 April 1905 "Gee 'n laag rooi skilpad op die batterykap." 29 April 1905 "A. Wm Keane, M Mate 1ste klas het vyf dae brood en water gekry om whisky in sy besit te hê" 6 Mei 1905 "E.R. Rhinelander GM 2e kl in ysters geplaas om te wag vir die optrede van kommandant" 9 Mei 1905 "A.E. Simpson, Gunner se maat 3de klas, het 5 dae brood en water gegee omdat hy sonder die regte gesag van die skip afwesig was" 3 Junie 1905 E.R. Rhinelander, Gunners Mate 2de klas in diens 24 Julie 1905 Raad van inspeksie van die toerustingafdeling beveel aan dat u die battery uit die boot haal en op die dok sit 1 Augustus 1905 "Yard mense het begin om batteryselle uit te pomp en plate in die selle te verwyder" 10 Augustus 1905 "Borde is heeltemal uit die battery en werfmanne het die leë selle begin uithaal" 13 April 1907 Uitgetrek op die mariene spoorlyn. Werkers het die boot voorberei om van die spoorweg afgeskuif te word - swaar mariene groei, maar andersins is die romp in 'n goeie toestand 17 April 1907 Van die spoorweg af weggejaag - werk aan die enjin - met die hand ingepalm 30 Junie 1907 "Alle masjinerie is met die hand omgedraai. Bemanning is by kwartiere op Torpedo -stasie geïnspekteer" (Laaste inskrywing in die logboek)

Bron: "Deck Log of the USS Holland" geleë in die National Archives, Washington, DC.


USS Long Beach (CGN 9)

USS LONG BEACH, die derde skip in die vloot wat die naam dra, was die eerste oorlogskip ter wêreld met kernkrag en die eerste groot vegter in die Amerikaanse vloot met sy hoofbattery wat geheel en al bestaan ​​uit geleide missiele. Sy was ook die eerste Amerikaanse kruiser sedert die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat heeltemal nuut gebou is, en spog met die hoogste brug ter wêreld. Sy was ook die laaste oorlogskip met teakhoutdekke.

LONG BEACH is oorspronklik bestel as CLGN 160. Sy is vroeg in 1957 herklassifiseer CGN 160, maar is weer herklassifiseer as CGN 9 op 1 Julie 1957. Op 1 Mei 1995 is LONG BEACH uit diens geneem en van die vlootlys verwyder. Sy is daarna aangelê by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, WA, en het haar bo -gebou verwyder. Die romp van LONG BEACH wag tans op finale beskikking.

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USS Hull (DD -7) by Norfolk Navy Yard, 1907 - Geskiedenis

Gedurende September en Oktober 1907 het al sestien van die moderne gevegskepe van Atlantic Fleet na die East Coast Navy Yards gestoom vir herstelwerk en veranderings. Boston het aan vier gewerk: Vermont, New Jersey, Missouri en Illinois. New York het vyf gedoen: Connecticut, Louisiana, Rhode Island, Ohio en Alabama. Vier (Kansas, Georgia, Maine en Kearsarge) ontvang die aandag van die Philadelphia Navy Yard, terwyl die Norfolk Navy Yard werk verrig op Virginia, Minnesota en Kentucky. Die drie Norfolk -skepe moes noordwaarts gaan na New York (eerste twee) en Boston (Kentucky) vir die droogdokfases van hul opknappings. Hierdie werfwerk is vroeg in Desember voltooi en die gevegskepe het in Hampton Roads, Virginia, vergader om die voorbereidings te voltooi vir hul komende vaart deur Suid -Amerika na die Stille Oseaan.

Intussen het die ses torpedobootvernietigers (Whipple, Truxtun, Lawrence, Stewart, Hopkins en Hull), vier hulpmiddels (Arethusa, Culgoa, Glacier en Panther) en tender (ex-seiljag) Yankton ingerig en voorraad aangeneem vir die lang reis voor, veral in Norfolk en New York. Die vernietigers het Hampton Roads verlaat op 2 Desember, veertien dae voor die slagskepe, en het oor die algemeen apart van die hoofvloot gegaan. Hulle beperkte stomende uithouvermoë het vereis dat hulle meer as twee keer soveel hawe -oproepe moes maak as wat die veel groter slagskepe nodig was. Net so het die hulpdienste by die slagskepe en vernietigers by hul hawe aangesluit, maar het oor die algemeen onafhanklike stoomskedules gehandhaaf.

Hierdie bladsy bevat sienings oor die voorbereidings vir die & quotGreat White Fleet & quot; se Wêreldvaart, gedurende die herfs van 1907.

As u reproduksies met 'n hoër resolusie wil hê as die digitale beelde van die aanlynbiblioteek, sien: Hoe om fotografiese reproduksies te verkry.

Klik op die klein foto om dieselfde prentjie groter te sien.

Vernietigers by die Norfolk Navy Yard, Virginia, herfs 1907

Die vernietigers in die voorgrondkom (van links na regs):
USS Hull (Destroyer # 7)
USS Lawrence (Destroyer # 8)
USS Hopkins (Destroyer # 6)
USS Whipple (Destroyer # 15) en
USS Truxtun (Destroyer # 14).
USS Stewart (Destroyer # 13) is aan die einde van die beskuldigdebank, regs, en USS Talbot (Torpedo Boat # 15) word links op die seespoor getrek.
Aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die rivier is verskeie torpedobote van die Reserve Torpedo Flotilla en hul kaserne skip, die ou kruiser Atlanta.

Foto uit die Bureau of Ships Collection in die Amerikaanse nasionale argief.

Aanlynbeeld: 102KB 740 x 600 pixels

Reproduksies van hierdie beeld kan ook beskikbaar wees via die National Archives fotografiese reproduksiestelsel.

Algemene kenmerke: Toegeken: 15 Oktober 1956
Keel gelê: 2 Desember 1957
Bekendgestel: 14 Julie 1959
In gebruik geneem: 9 September 1961
Ontmantel: 1 Mei 1995
Bouwer: Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Quincy, Mass.
Aandrywingstelsel: 2 - Westinghouse C1W kernreaktors, 2 turbines met ratkas
Propellers: twee
Lengte: 721 voet (219,8 meter)
Breedte: 22,3 meter
Diepgang: 9,4 meter
Verplasing: ongeveer. 17 500 ton
Spoed: 30 knope
Vliegtuie: niemand behalwe helikopterlandingsplatform nie
Bewapening: twee 5-duim/38 kaliber Mk 30 gewere, twee Mk 10 raketwerpers Standard missiele (ER), twee Mk 141 Harpoon raketwerpers, een Mk 16 ASROC missielwerpers, Mk 46 torpedo's van twee Mk 32 triple mounts, twee 20 mm Phalanx CIWS, twee gepantserde laaiers vir Tomahawk -kruisraketten
Bemanning: 79 beamptes en 1081 aangewys (na middeljarige omskakeling: 55 beamptes en 770 aangewys)

Hierdie afdeling bevat die name van matrose wat aan boord van USS LONG STRAND gedien het. Dit is geen amptelike lys nie, maar bevat die name van matrose wat hul inligting ingedien het.

USS LONG BEACH Cruise Books:

Bevelvoerders van USS LONG BEACH:

  • USS LONG BEACH is gemagtig as USS BROOKLYN, maar die naam is kort daarna verander.
  • USS LONG BEACH is in gebruik geneem sonder enige gewere aan boord. In April 1962 het president John F. Kennedy die skip besoek en daar word gesê dat hy die LONG STRAND beveel het om toegerus te word met die twee 5-duim kanonne wat later dieselfde jaar aan boord van die skip aangebring is.

Vroeë geskiedenis van USS LONG STRAND:

USS LONG BEACH is neergelê as CGN 9, 2 Desember 1957 deur Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Mass. Gelanseer 14 Julie 1959 geborg deur mev Craig Hosmer, vrou van kongreslid Hosmer van Kalifornië en in opdrag van 9 September 1961, Kapt EP Wilkinson in bevel.

Die eerste kernkrag aangedrewe oppervlakte-oorlogskip in die geskiedenis, LONG BEACH is aan die Atlantiese Vloot toegewys en tuis in Norfolk, Va. Die kruisvaartuig met geleide missiele het van 2 Oktober tot 16 Desember 1961 uitgebreide toetsing van haar komplekse wapens en aandrywingstelsels uitgevoer. uitstekende prestasie bewys die kernkruiser 'n hoogs bekwame en effektiewe oorlogskip. Tussen 28 Desember en 6 Januarie 1962 het sy operasionele toetse van haar missiele buite Puerto Rico uitgevoer, waarna sy na Bremerhaven, Duitsland, gevaar het en 15 Januarie aangekom het vir oproepe in Noord -Europese hawens.

Toe sy op 7 Februarie terugkeer na Norfolk, het sy aan die ooskus en in die Karibiese Eilande opgelei. Op 10 April neem sy deel aan die Atlantiese Vlootoefeninge by Noord -Carolina en Virginia as vlagskip vir adm. Robert H. Dennison, opperbevelhebber, Atlantic Fleet. Sy is hersien deur president John F. Kennedy en vise -president Lyndon B Johnson tydens hierdie demonstrasie van seemag.

Na opknapping en installering van nuwe toerusting by Philadelphia NSY, het LONG BEACH in die Karibiese Eilande opgelei en op 6 Augustus 1963 gevaar om by die 6de Vloot aan te sluit by sy mediterrane vredesoperasies. Sy keer op 28 Desember terug na Norfolk vir operasies aan die kus en die Karibiese Eilande, toe sy na die Middellandse See vaar om by die aanvalsdraer ENTERPRISE (CVAN 65) en die fregat-geleide missiel BAINBRIDGE (DLGN 25) aan te sluit by die stigting van die eerste kernkrag-taakgroep 13 Mei. Die mag het in die Middellandse See opgedaag en sy unieke vermoëns getoets tot op 31 Julie toe dit onder agterbestuurder Bernard M. Strean van Gibraltar af op 'n rondvaart oor die hele wêreld gevaar het. Hierdie operasie, "Sea Orbit", wat herinner aan die vaart van die Great White Fleet in 1907-09, het die strategiese mobiliteit van Amerikaanse vlootkragaangedrewe oppervlaktemagte getoon, onafhanklik van normale vlootlogistieke ondersteuning. Gedurende 58 stoomdae het LONG BEACH meer as 30 000 myl gestoom teen 'n gemiddelde snelheid van 25 knope, sonder om aangevul of aangevul te word. Tydens die reis het talle buitelandse hooggeplaastes die skip besoek tydens besoeke aan beide kus van Afrika en in die hawe in Karachi, Melbourne, Pakistan, Australië Wellington, Nieu-Seeland en Rio de Janeiro, Brasilië. Die operasie was 'n ongekwalifiseerde sukses en het aan mense oor die hele wêreld bewys oor die geweldige toename in vermoëns wat kernkrag die vloot bring.

LONG STRAND keer op 3 Oktober terug na Norfolk om deel te neem aan oefeninge aan die ooskus en in die Karibiese Eilande. Op 4 Junie vaar sy na die Global Strategy Conference by die Naval War College, Newport, waar vise -adm. Kleber S. Masterson, bevelvoerder, 2de vloot, sy vlag in die skip breek. Terug in Norfolk, 23 Junie, het LONG BEACH opleiding en instandhouding hervat voordat sy na die Stille Oseaan -vloot oorgeplaas is. Sy vaar 28 Februarie 1966 na haar nuwe tuishawe en naamgenoot, Long Beach, Kalifornië en arriveer 15 Maart.

Die somer van 1966 is bestee aan die opleiding en oriëntering van middelskepe in die taktiek en operasies wat by die moderne kernvloot betrokke was. Na 'n tydperk van verlof en instandhouding in die herfs, vaar LONG BEACH 7 November vanaf Long Beach na die Verre Ooste. Sy het op die 30ste op die PIRAZ -stasie (positiewe identifikasie en radaradviesgebied) aangekom en gedurende die grootste deel van haar WestPac -toer met die noodsaaklike operasie voortgegaan. Van 8 tot 27 April 1967 het die kernkruisvaartuig 'n vaart gemaak na Sydney, Australië. By die terugkeer van die reis terug na Subic Bay, die Republiek van die Filippyne, het die skip op 23 April in "Ironbottom Sound" stilgehou vir 'n gedenkdiens ter herdenking van die gevegte en lewens wat daar tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlore gegaan het. Na die kranslegging, stoom sy "The Slot" op 30 knope op, terug na 'n ander oorlog.

LONG STRAND kom op 4 Julie terug aan die weskus, waar sy na 'n welverdiende rusperiode die oefeninge en operasies hervat het wat haar goed voorbereid sou hou vir haar terugkeer na Vietnam die volgende jaar. Hierdie volgende ontplooiing begin toe sy weer haar huis verlaat op 15 April 1968. Soos voorheen het die kruiser die meeste van haar tyd op die PIRAZ -stasie deurgebring en die talle vliegtuie wat oor Noord -Viëtnam gery het, gelei. Hierdie diensplig in WestPac het geëindig met haar aankoms op 16 November weer by Long Beach, waar sy tot 1969 gebly het.

Belangrike ontplooiings en skeepswerfperiodes van USS LONG STRAND:

. Lees die geskiedenisteks hierbo vir meer inligting oor die ontplooiings.

USS LONG BEACH Beeldgalery:

Die onderstaande foto's is deur my geneem en toon die romp van die LONG STRAND wat op 14 Maart 2010 in Bremerton, Washington, opgestel is.

Die onderstaande foto's is deur my geneem en toon die romp van die LONG STRAND wat op 12 Mei 2012 in Bremerton, Washington, opgestel is.

Die onderstaande foto is geneem deur Michael Jenning en toon die oorblywende romp van die LONG BEACH wat op 13 Oktober 2017 in Bremerton, Washington, opgestel is.


Op 20 April 1861, toe die owerhede van Virginia die Norfolk Navy Yard oorgeneem het nadat dit deur die federale magte ontruim is, het hulle onder meer die hulp van die stoomfregat USS Merrimack gevind. Alhoewel dit aan die waterlyn verbrand en gesink is, was die onderste romp en masjinerie van die groot skip ongeskonde. Gedurende die res van 1861 en die eerste twee maande van 1862 het die Vloot van die Konfederale State haar grootgemaak, drooggedok en omskep in 'n kazemat -ysterbekleding, 'n nuwe tipe oorlogskip wat beloof het om die Unie se groot meerderwaardigheid in konvensionele oorlogskepe te oorkom. Die ysterwapen van die skip, wat middel Februarie 1862 as CSS Virginia aangestel is, het haar feitlik onkwetsbaar gemaak vir kontemporêre geweervuur. Sy het tien gewere van haar eie, 'n sewe-duim-geweer aan elke kant en 'n breëbattery van twee ses-duim-gewere en ses nege-duim gladborde gedra. Op haar boog was 'n ysterram wat die skip self as 'n dodelike wapen laat werk.

Virginia het op 8 Maart 1862 haar eerste gevegsuitstappie gemaak, terwyl sy langs die Elizabethrivier van Norfolk en in Hampton Roads gestroom het. In 'n historiese aksie wat die superioriteit van gepantserde stoom-aangedrewe oorlogskepe dramaties demonstreer bo hul eweknieë van houtseil, het sy die groot oorlogsloep van die Amerikaanse vloot Cumberland gestamp en neergesink en die fregatkongres onderdanig gemaak. In Washington, DC, het baie van die senior amptenare van die Federale Regering paniekbevange geraak, oortuig dat Virginia 'n ernstige bedreiging vir die seestad en kusstede van die Unie inhou. Hulle was nie bewus daarvan dat haar ernstige operasionele beperkings, veroorsaak deur haar diep trek, swak kragbron en uiters swak seevaart, haar gebruik in wese beperk het tot diep kanale in kalm binnelandse waterweë.

Hulle besorgdheid is egter die volgende dag verlig. Toe Virginia terugkeer na Hampton Roads om die gestoomde stoomfregat Minnesota aan te val, vind sy dat die Unie se eie baanbreker, USS Monitor, wag. 'N Tweede historiese geveg het gevolg, met die twee teenstanders wat sonder sterflike effek weggeskiet het totdat die aksie vroegmiddag van 9 Maart 1862 in 'n taktiese trekking geëindig het.

Oor die volgende twee maande het die twee ysterklere mekaar in toom gehou. Virginia, herstel en versterk by die Norfolk Navy Yard, het op 11 April en 8 Mei weer die Hampton Roads -gebied binnegegaan, maar daar was geen verdere geveg met die Monitor nie. Aangesien die Konfederate hul posisies in die Norfolk -omgewing laat vaar het, word Virginia bedreig met die verlies van haar basis. Na 'n vergeefse poging om die skip genoeg te maak sodat sy die Jamesrivier kon opklim, is die suidelike ysterbekleding op 11 Mei deur haar bemanning van Craney Island vernietig, sowat ses kilometer van waar sy die wêreld geëlektrifiseer het deur haar gevegte van 8 en 9 Maart. Die wrak van CSS Virginia is tussen 1866 en 1876 grootliks verwyder.

Hierdie bladsy bevat al ons relatief akkurate sienings van die Konfederale Vloot-ysterbek-ram Virginia, oud-USS Merrimack, en bied skakels na ander sienings van die skip en haar optrede.

Wastekening deur Clary Ray, 1898.

Met vergunning van die U.S. Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC

Foto van 'n 19de -eeuse kunswerk.

Gekleurde buiteboordprofielplan, oorspronklik in die lêers van die Buro vir Bou en Herstel. Die oorsprong daarvan is onbekend, maar dit is moontlik uit die burgeroorlog.

Die oorspronklike is plan # 81-12-2B in Rekordgroep 19 by die Amerikaanse nasionale argief.

Halftoonreproduksie van 'n reëlgravure, oorspronklik gepubliseer in "Battles and Leaders of the Civil War", Deel I, bladsy 695.
Dit is gebaseer op 'n tekening deur Lt. B.L. Blackford, gemaak op 7 Maart 1862, die dag voor Virginia (voorheen USS Merrimack) met USS Cumberland en USS Congress besig was.

USS Monitor (1862) en
CSS Virginia (1862)

Montagetekening met planne van die twee skepe, portrette van mans wat verantwoordelik was vir die bou en bedryf daarvan, en tonele van hul geskiedenis. Dit is geskryf: "Opgedra aan die geheue van Thomas Fitch Rowland, bouer van die oorspronklike monitor.". Geteken deur Charles H. Corbett, omstreeks 1907 of later.
Sien foto # NH 45978 (uitgebreide onderskrif) vir meer uitgebreide inligting.

Met vergunning van Charles H. Corbett.

Gravure wat die skip in droë dok by die Norfolk Navy Yard uitbeeld, na die installering van haar wapenrusting, ongeveer vroeg in 1862. Sy was toe naby voltooiing na die bekering van die hulk van USS Merrimack.

Met vergunning van mev. A.W. Hasker.

Halftoon van 'n kunswerk wat in Fiveash gepubliseer is, "Virginia-Monitor Engagement", Norfolk, Va., 1907. Dit beeld die skip in droëdok uit by die Norfolk Navy Yard, ongeveer Februarie 1862, terwyl dit naby voltooiing is na die omskakeling van die huls van USS Merrimack.

Halftoonreproduksie van 'n kunswerk wat onder die kopiereg van G.S. Richardson, 1906, was, wat die skip met 'n droë dok by die Norfolk Navy Yard, ongeveer vroeg in 1862, afbeeld terwyl dit voltooiing bereik het ná die omskakeling uit die huls van USS Merrimack.

Model deur Alexander Lynch, 1939, uitgestal in die Los Angeles Museum, Los Angeles, Kalifornië. Model se skaal is 1/8 "= 1 '.

Met vergunning van Arthur Woodward, direkteur van geskiedenis en antropologie, Los Angeles Museum, September 1939.


HistoryLink.org

Die USS Missouri (BB-63), vasgemeer by Bremerton's Puget Sound Naval Shipyard van 1954 tot 1984, was die laaste slagskip wat in opdrag van die Amerikaanse vloot en die tweede slagskip die naam gedra het Missouri. Sy is in 1944 teen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die New York Naval Shipyard in Brooklyn, New York, gelanseer. 'N Formidabele vaartuig met talle gewere wat in geweertorings gemonteer was, "Mighty Mo" het aksie op die Oosfront gesien en aan die einde van die oorlog is gekies as die stadium vir die ondertekening van Japan se formele oorgawe aan die Geallieerde Magte. Dit het op 2 September 1945 in Tokiobaai plaasgevind en die oorlog beëindig. Sy het in September 1954 in Seattle aangekom en is hartlik ontvang. Sy was 30 jaar lank in Bremerton vasgemeer, en sy was die belangrikste toeriste -aantreklikheid van die stad. In 1984 is sy na die Naval Yard van Long Beach (Kalifornië) gesleep, opgeknap en toegerus met Tomahawk -kruisraketten, en in 1986 heraktiveer. In 1992 is sy vir die tweede keer uit diens geneem, en het uiteindelik by die vloot se skenkingsprogram aangekom. Na 'n omstrede besluitnemingsproses, het die Missouri is na Pearl Harbor gesleep, waar sy dien ter herdenking van die Japannese oorgawe. Sy lê vasgemeer langs die gedenkteken vir diegene wat op die USS verlore geraak het Arizona toe Japan Pearl Harbor bombardeer - saam verteenwoordig die twee die begin en die einde van die oorlog.

'N Skip wat vir oorlog gebou is

Die "Mighty Mo", wat op 29 Januarie 1944 op die New York Naval Shipyard in Brooklyn gelanseer is, is die laaste slagskip wat in opdrag van die Amerikaanse vloot en die tweede slagskip met die naam gedra is Missouri. Die Iowa-Slagskip het 'n lengte van 887 voet, 'n balk van 108 voet, 'n verplasing van 45.000 ton (afgelaai) en 'n maksimum snelheid van 33 knope.

In 1944 het die wapenskip se bewapening bestaan ​​uit nege 16-duim-gewere in drie drievoudige torings met 'n reikafstand van 23 myl, vyf-en-twintig-duim gewere in 10 tweelinghouers met 'n reikafstand van nege myl, 80 40 mm-kanonne in twintig vierwielmotors en 49 20 mm gewere in enkele houers. Die formidabele voorkoms van die USS Missouri het baie gedoen om 'n beeld van krag en onoorwinlikheid voor te dra. Die slagskip is gekies om die stadium te wees vir die ondertekening van Japan se formele instrument van oorgawe aan die geallieerde moondhede in Tokiobaai op 2 September 1945, wat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog beëindig het.

Groot onthaal van Seattle

Op Woensdagoggend, 15 September 1954, het die slagskip Missouri aangekom in Puget Sound van Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia, en vasgemeer by die Seattle Naval Station, Pier 91 aan die waterkant van Seattle. 'Mighty Mo' was geskeduleer vir 'n eendag-vertrek in Seattle voordat hy by die reservaatvloot by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton aansluit.

Al was die weer koud en reën, het die Missouri is begroet deur etlike duisende mense, onder wie Greater Seattle, Inc., die Seattle Chamber of Commerce, die Navy League en die Seattle Seafair royalty. Die 13de Naval District Band en die orkes van Jackie Souders speel om die beurt musiek terwyl die vaartuig aanloop. Na die verwelkomingseremonie vir die 1 100 offisiere en mans, het die Missouri is vir die publiek oopgemaak vir 'n laaste close-up kyk na die beroemde vaartuig. Meer as 7.500 besoekers het oor die skip gewemel om een ​​van die vloot se laaste operasionele slagskepe te beleef.

Bremerton jare

Vroeg Donderdagoggend, 16 September 1954, het die Missouri vertrek uit Seattle in die mis en vaar na die Bangor Naval Depot om ammunisie af te laai. Op 18 September 1954 vaar die slagskip na Bremerton en lê aan by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard om voor te berei op haar laaste openbare oop huis. 'N Syrit deur Commencement Bay vir inwoners van Tacoma moes weens mis gekanselleer word.

Op 22 September 1954 het die Missouri het in die droogdok gegaan, waar die skip voorberei is op sy toewysing aan die reservaat "motbal". Die vaartuig is verseël en ontvochtigingsmasjinerie geïnstalleer om agteruitgang tydens die stoor te voorkom. Die enigste gebied waar besoekers toegang sou kry, was die "oorgawe -dek", waar 'n bronsplaat in die dek van die teakhout ingebed was, wat die plek aandui waar Japan aan die Geallieerdes oorgegee het. 'N Historiese uitstalling, wat afskrifte van die dokumente en foto's van die afgee bevat, is op die skot aangebring.

Op 10 Januarie 1955 het die Missouri is uit die droogdok gehaal en vasgemeer by die laaste pier van die reservaatvloot in die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Op 26 Februarie 1955 is ontruimingseremonies, wat die skip na die Pacific Reserve Fleet oorgedra het, in die saal gehou weens koue, sneeuweer. Die Missouri is amptelik aangestel as die bevelskip vir die 36 afgedankte vaartuie in die Bremerton -groep se "motbal" (reserwe) vloot.

Terwyl dit in Bremerton vasgemeer is, het die Missouri Dit was 'n gewilde toeriste -aantreklikheid en het ongeveer 180 000 besoekers per jaar aangeteken. In 1977 is die slagskip gebruik vir die herontwikkeling van die Japannese oorgawe in die film MacArthur staar Gregory Peck aan. En in 1983 is die skip verskeie kere gebruik as 'n rekwisiet vir die mini-reeks televisie Winde van oorlog, met Ralph Bellamy en Robert Mitchum.

Totsiens aan Bremerton

Vroeg in 1984 besluit die departement van verdediging dat die Missouri sal na die Long Beach Naval Shipyard verskuif word vir 'n opknapping en heraktivering van $ 467 miljoen. Die skip sou in 1986 weer by die aktiewe vloot van die vloot aansluit as die derde van vier opgeknapte slagskepe. Op 30 April 1984 sluit die "Mighty Mo" haar loopbaan as Bremerton se eerste toeriste-aantreklikheid en is voorbereidings getref om die skip gereed te maak vir die reis na Kalifornië. Ongeveer 85 000 mense het die besoek afgelê Missouri gedurende die laaste vier maande, 8 000 van hulle op die laaste dag.

Op 14 Mei 1984 het Foss sleepbote getrek Missouri weg van die Bremerton -pier en uit na die oop waters van Puget Sound. Die vertrek van die "Mighty Mo's" was selfs meer skouspelagtig as haar aankoms 29 jaar tevore. Dit was vol vuurwerke, bands, ballonne, 'n vloot van plesiervaartuie, 'n lug vol nuusmediavliegtuie en duisende toeskouers. Sleepbote het die Missouri deur Rich Passage na die Straat van Juan de Fuca. Daar het die Navy -reddingsskip USS Beaufort het oorgeneem vir die reis van 11 dae na Long Beach, vergesel van 'n vloot sleepboot vir noodgevalle.

Die gedeaktiveerde USS Missouri 'n perdrypersoneel van 20 matrose vir die reis. A portable generator supplied power to the wardroom so the crew could heat meals in microwave ovens and have lights, but they had to drink bottled water and use portable toilets brought aboard for the voyage. The crew slept in the officer’s staterooms using sleeping bags on any available bunk. The battleship arrived at Long Beach on May 25, 1984.

A New Battleship for a New Age

At the Long Beach Naval Shipyard, some guns were removed, replaced by 32 nuclear-tipped Tomahawk cruise missiles, 16 Harpoon anti-ship missiles and four Vulcan Phalanx Gatling Guns that launch a wall of bullets to stop enemy missiles. But, the ship’s engines and guns were only slightly changed from their original World War II design.

On May 10, 1986, the USS Missouri was recommissioned in San Francisco and sent on an around-the-world shakedown cruise, returning to Long Beach on December 19, 1986. This trip made her the first battleship to circumnavigate the world since President Theodore Roosevelt’s "Great White Fleet" of 1907-1909.

In July 1987, the Missouri was sent to the Persian Gulf for six months to protect American flagged oil tankers near the Strait of Hormuz during the Iran crisis. During 1988, the battleship participated in the Rim of the Pacific (RimPac) exercises off the coast of Hawaiian Islands involving the Armed Forces of Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, and the United States. After the exercises, the Missouri visited Seattle and Bremerton from September 17-23, 1988, as part of a West Coast tour, the first since departing Puget Sound in 1984.

In 1991, the "Mighty Mo" was deployed to the Persian Gulf War where she launched 28 Tomahawk missiles at Iraqi-held targets and participated in land bombardments with her 16 inch guns. The ship returned home without a casualty.

Na die oorlog het die Missouri returned to the Long Beach Naval Station, via Australia, for her last West Coast tour. In July and August 1991, the battleship visited Seattle during Seafair, and also visited Vancouver, British Columbia and San Francisco. The "Mighty Mo's" final mission was a visit to Hawaii on December 7, 1991 for the 50th Anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which occurred on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The ceremony on the Missouri was attended by U.S. President George Bush and his wife, Barbara. A few days later, the vessel began her return voyage to the Long Beach Naval Shipyard in southern California for decommissioning.

Back to Moth Balls

The end of the Cold War in 1989 and declining defense budgets sent the four Iowa class battleships, the USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Wisconsin en USS Missouri, overhauled in 1984 for $1 billion, back into mothballs one-by-one. Fittingly, the Missouri, the last battleship built, would be the last to leave service. On March 31, 1992, while moored at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard, the USS Missouri was decommissioned for the second time and reentered the reserve fleet.

She was subsequently towed to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, arriving without fanfare on Sunday, April 12, 1992. After several months of deactivation work, the battleship was moored at the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility on Sinclare Inlet, closed to the public.

Omstredenheid

In 1995, the Missouri, which had been largely neglected since deactivation in 1992, suddenly became the object of considerable attention. The Chief of Naval Operations reported that the Navy’s Board of Inspection and Survey recommended the four mothballed Iowa-class battleships be declared excess to the Navy’s requirements and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. On January 12, 1995, Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton removed the Iowa, New Jersey, Wisconsin en Missouri from the Navy’s list of mobilization assets. This meant the 50-year-old dreadnoughts were now available, under the Navy’s ship donation program, to become memorials and museums. Die Missouri was considered the most desirable in the group because of her history as the surrender ship.

The Office of Naval Sea Systems Command, overseeing the donation program, advised competitors that each community would have to convince the Navy it had a solid business plan to move the ship, refurbish it, moor it at an all-weather site and operate it at a profit.

The Navy set a deadline of November 1, 1995 for bids on permanent homes for the Missouri and the three other Iowa-class battleships.

Bremerton Battles for Her Battleship

For Bremerton civic leaders, the potential loss of the Missouri came as a shock. The Navy’s top brass had stated earlier there were no plans to retire or move the vessel for 33 years. Now Bremerton was forced to compete with other communities for the ownership of the famous battleship. Initial estimates to create a USS Missouri memorial were $7 to $10 million, plus another $1 million for operating costs. U.S. Representative Norm Dicks (D-Bremerton) said the local community probably couldn’t afford the cost of the venture. But local businessmen and political leaders formed a 25-member organizing committee, which included Secretary of State Ralph Monro, U.S. Representative Dicks and Bremerton Mayor Lynn Horton, to explore the possibility of bidding for the "Mighty Mo."

Shortly after the Navy delisted the warship, the USS Missouri Memorial Association (MMA), based in Honolulu, Hawaii, submitted a 137-page proposal to the Navy and claimed to have raised $6.5 million for the project. The MMA proposed the Missouri be berthed near the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, the two ships representing the beginning and end of the war with Japan. San Francisco and Long Beach also formed committees to bid for the Missouri. Pressure on the Bremerton’s "Save the Missouri" Committee was mounting.

Save the Missouri

Bremerton’s "Save the Missouri" Committee proposed mooring the Missouri along the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard waterfront just south of the Washington State Ferries Terminal. Visitors could walk to the ship on a floating walkway connected to a proposed waterfront park adjacent to the ferry terminal. San Francisco wanted to tie-up the Missouri at an existing pier at the Treasure Island Navy Base, creating a Naval Maritime Historical Center. Long Beach wanted to moor the battleship next to the Queen Mary as a ship museum.

Bremerton’s "Save the Missouri" Committee hoped to raise $6 million in public and private donations to construct the new Missouri mooring, create a park along the shipyard waterfront and renovate the ship for tours. The $6 million budget included an estimated $1.5 million for the first year of operational expenses, including sewer and electricity costs, insurance and anti-corrosion efforts. Die USS Missouri would need to attract 300,000 visitors a year to meet all projected expenses.

In the spring of 1995, the "Mighty Mo" was moved from her moorage in Sinclare Inlet, back to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard pier she had occupied for 30 years prior to her reactivation in 1984. The Missouri was opened to the public on May 30, 1995. Visitors got access to the surrender deck and the wardroom where a large photo display highlighted the ship’s long history. On September 2, 1995, ceremonies commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Japan’s surrender and the end of World War II, were held on the Missouri’s surrender deck, attended by 7,500 people. The ship was closed to the public on September 4, 1995, after receiving 216,149 visitors.

Meanwhile, Kitsap County and the Port of Bremerton agreed to commit $6 million to the campaign to make Bremerton the Missouri’s permanent home. "We now have the resources to submit an application (to the Navy) to compete for the Missouri" U.S. Representative Norm Dicks said (Seattle Post-Intelligencer). And on Oct 31, 1995, the "Save the Missouri" Committee express-mailed its 250-page, $6 million proposal to the Navy.

During the 1996 legislative session, Governor Mike Lowry, hoping to save the Missouri for Bremerton, urged the state legislature to approve a $3 million contribution to the fight. Lawmakers from both parties had proposed contributing state dollars to help Bremerton, but a partisan dispute over the funding source doomed the plan. Senate Democrats had proposed contributing $2.5 million from the state construction budget toward the project. But House Republicans wanted to tie the money to elimination of a state tax on fuel for ferries. The first $3 million saved from the tax exemption would be paid by the ferry system to the Bremerton project. On March 7, 1998, house and senate leaders were frantically trying to resolve their differences when a midnight deadline forced them to adjourn for the1996 session leaving the funding issue unresolved.

In June 1996, a Kitsap County delegation, lead by U. S. Representative Norm Dicks, who had convinced the Navy to return the Missouri to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard when it was decommissioned in 1991, traveled to Washington D. C. to lobby the Secretary of the Navy to keep the historic battleship in Bremerton. But on August 21, 1996, Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton announced the decision of the Navy to move the Missouri from Bremerton to a permanent home in Hawaii’s Pearl Harbor. Dalton said the choice was made after weighing technical, financial, and public interest factors.

Problematic Decision-making

During a post-selection briefing held by Navy officials, U. S. Representative Dicks learned the Navy changed their rating system by adding weight for historical value and public affairs without telling participants. Dicks asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to investigate the Navy’s decision-making process.

In June 1997, the GAO reported significant problems in the way the Navy chose Hawaii as the display site for the Missouri. In fact, Bremerton won the competition for the Missouri based on the Navy’s original criteria for making the decision. In the last days of the site-selection process, the Navy suddenly announced two more criteria and gave all the applicants only two weeks to explain how they would meet them. Applicants weren’t told that the new criteria, public affairs benefit and historical significance, would be worth 75 percent of the final score and the original criteria only 25 percent. After new criteria were added in the final stages of the competition, Honolulu’s application received the highest score and knocked Bremerton out of first place. The Navy did not challenge GAO’s findings.

By law, Congress had only a few weeks left to approve or disapprove the Navy’s decision to award the Missouri to Hawaii. U. S. Representative Dicks immediately sent a letter to Navy Secretary Dalton asking him to reopen the selection process, claiming the original decision was fatally flawed. Despite the appeal, Secretary Dalton denied the request, stating the GAO review contained nothing that would warrant reopening the process. Dicks conferred with congressional leaders about the possibility of a legislative reversal of Dalton’s decision, but there was not enough support in Congress to overturn the Navy’s decision. Dicks threw in the towel.

U. S. Senator Slade Gorton (R-Washington), outraged at the Navy’s lack of objectivity and indifference to fairness, pushed for legislation to force a reopening of the evaluation process. Gorton tried to attach the provision to reopen the site-selection competition to the bill authorizing the Defense Department’s programs for the coming year. But on July 8, 1997, in a narrow 53-46 vote, the Senate defeated an amendment to require Navy to reopen the competition and sanctioned the Navy’s decision to donate the "Mighty Mo" to the USS Missouri Memorial Association in Hawaii.

In January 1998, the Navy opened the Missouri for the public’s last opportunity to visit the famous battleship before leaving for Hawaii. Open for only 3 weekends, the "Mighty Mo" received 24,000 visitors.

On March 4, 1998, Navy Secretary John H. Dalton signed the ship donation contract officially transferring the famous battleship to the USS Missouri Memorial Association.

On May 20, 1998, Members of the Bremerton-based "Missouri on the Mainland" (MOM) filed a suit in U. S. District Court in Tacoma challenging the legality of transferring the battleship to the USS Missouri Memorial Association, a private, nonprofit group, claiming the donation was illegal. The group, however, did not seek an injunction to block the move. In December 1998, U. S. District Court Judge Franklin D. Burgess ruled that MOM had no standing in the case and the lawsuit was dismissed.

On to Pearl Harbor

On Saturday afternoon, May 23, 1998, tugboats carefully guided the Missouri away from the Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, through Rich Passage into Puget Sound, where she was attached to the Sea Victory, a Crowley Marine salvage tugboat, with a half-mile long towing bridle. The 149-foot, 40-ton Sea Victory towed the huge 887-foot, 45,000-ton battleship at about 6 knots, up Puget Sound, through the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and into the Pacific Ocean, beginning the 2,639-mile voyage to Hawaii.

This marked the end of an era for Bremerton, "Mighty Mo’s" home port for 36 years (1954-1984 and 1992-1998). The famous battleship had always been this economically depressed city’s number-one tourist attraction and the dollars would be sorely missed.

A Last Farewell

Before leaving the West Coast forever, the Sea Victory towed the Missouri up the Columbia River to Astoria, Oregon, for a fresh-water hull cleaning and a last farewell. The ship arrived on Tuesday, May 26, 1998 with much fanfare. More than 125,000 people visited the "Mighty Mo" during her week-long stay in the resort city, leaving behind a bonus of $7 million in tourist dollars, a fact that did not escape the attention of Bremerton city leaders.

On Wednesday, June 3, 1998, tugboats eased the Missouri out of the Columbia River and reattached the half-mile long towing bridle to the Sea Victory for the 22 day voyage to Hawaii. The two ships arrived in Hawaiian waters without incident on Monday, June 22, 1998. The "Mighty Mo" was escorted from Diamond Head by dozens of pleasure boats, fishing vessels, jet propelled water skis and news-media helicopters along with a welcoming fireworks display. The huge dreadnought was gently guided into Pearl Harbor and delicately docked at Ford Island, only 1,000 yards from the USS Arizona Memorial. Although moving the vessel to Hawaii cost $800,000, plus a $1 million refurbishment to create the museum, the USS Missouri Memorial Association was confident the battleship would instantly become a major tourist attraction.

On January 29, 1999, the 55th anniversary of the Missouri launching at the New York Naval Shipyard, the battleship was officially opened for visitors. Die USS Missouri Memorial Association runs the museum ship under the auspices of the National Park Service. The "Mighty Mo" established herself as the perfect complement to the USS Arizona Memorial, symbolizing the beginning and end of World War II.

USS Missouri Chronologie

  • January 29, 1944 --Launched at the New York Naval Shipyard in Brooklyn, NY.
  • June 11, 1944 -- The USS Missouri is commissioned at the New York Naval Shipyard.
  • June 12, 1944 - August 1945 -- Service in Pacific as Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey’s 3rd Fleet flag ship.
  • September 2, 1945 -- In Tokyo Bay, Japan surrenders unconditionally to the Allied Powers, ending war in Pacific.
  • September 29, 1945 -- Assigned to naval shipyard at Norfolk, VA., for overhaul. A Bronze plaque, commemorating Japan's surrender, is installed on the surrender deck.
  • August 19, 1950 -- First Korean War tour of duty.
  • August 4, 1952 -- Second Korean War tour of duty.
  • April 6, 1953 -- Returns to Norfolk, assigned as a training ship.
  • February 26, 1955 - Decommissioned and assigned to Bremerton Group, U.S. Pacific Reserve Fleet.
  • September 15, 1954 -- Arrives in Puget Sound, docks at Seattle Naval Station, Pier 91.
  • September 16, 1954 -- Bangor Naval Depot to unload ammunition
  • September 18, 1954 -- Arrives at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for decommissioning.
  • February 26, 1955 -- Decommissioning ceremonies, transferring the ship to the Pacific Reserve Fleet.
  • May 14, 1984 - Towed to Long Beach Naval Shipyard for modernization.
  • May 10, 1986 -- Recommissioned in San Francisco departs for around-the-world shakedown cruise.
  • July 25, 1987 -- Assigned to the Persian Gulf during the Iran crisis, to protect American flag oil tankers.
  • January - February 1991 -- Assigned to Persian Gulf, Operation Desert Storm
  • July - August 1991 -- Final West Coast Tour. Visits Seattle during Seafair.
  • December 7, 1991 -- In Hawaii for the 50th Anniversary of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor
  • March 31, 1992 -- Decommissioned at Long Beach for the second time and towed to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton
  • April 12, 1992- Arrives at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Moored at the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility.
  • January 12, 1995 -- Stricken from the Navy’s list of mobilization assets and enters the Navy’s ship donation program.
  • May 20 - September 4, 1995 - Ship open to public tours receives 216,419 visitors.
  • September 2, 1995 -- Ceremony aboard the Missouri marks the 50th anniversary of Japan’s surrender that ended World War II, attended by 7,500 people.
  • January - November 1995 -- Interested communities submit proposals for permanent ownership Honolulu, Bremerton, San Francisco and Long Beach submit bids.
  • August 21, 1996 -- Navy announces Missouri will be permanently docked at Pearl Harbor.
  • January 1998 -- Ship reopened for the last public tours in Bremerton, receives 24,000 visitors.
  • March 4, 1998 -- Navy Secretary Dalton signs the ship donation contract officially transferring the battleship to the USS Missouri Memorial Association.
  • May 23, 1998 -- Departs Bremerton for Astoria, Oregon, for visit and hull cleaning.
  • June 3, 1998 -- Departs Astoria, towed by Sea Victory to Pearl Harbor.
  • June 22, 1998 -- Arrives in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii docked at Ford Island.
  • January 29, 1999 -- On the 55th anniversary of the Missouri’s launching at the New York Naval Shipyard, the battleship is officially opened for visitors

USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay for Japanese surrender, September 2, 1945

Plaque on U. S. S. Missouri commemorating Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945

USS Missouri moored at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, March 19, 1970

Logo of the USS Missouri (BB-63)

Foss tugboats towing USS Missouri away from Bremerton, May 14, 1984

USS Missouri at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, 1995

USS Missouri approaching the USS Arizona Memorial (lower right), June 22, 1998

Photo by Kerry Baker, Courtesy U.S. Navy

Bronne:

Paul Stillwell, Battleship Missouri An Illustrated History (Annapolis, Naval Institute Press, 1996) "Mighty Mo Loses. " Columbian (Vancouver), March 8, 1996 "Die-hards File Last-minute Lawsuit . " Ibid., May 22, 1998. Kris Sherman, "The Area Briefly – Bremerton: USS Missouri Closes . " The News Tribune (Tacoma), September 6, 1995, p. B-2 Angela Galloway, "The Area Briefly – Bremerton: Kitsap Delegation Lobbies for USS Missouri," Ibid., June 22, 1996, p. B-2 Kris Sherman, "Bremerton Still Trying to Get Its Ship Back . " Ibid., January 18, 1999, p. A-12 "Drizzle Fails to Dim Gay Welcome . " The Seattle Times, September 15, 1954, p. 1 "Mighty Mo Leaves to Unload Ammunition," Ibid., September 16, 1954, p. 11 "Mighty Mo is Out of Service," Ibid., February 27, 1955, p. 30 Murlin Spencer, "Biggest Day of Glory . " Ibid., August 28, 1955, p. 1 "Missouri to Begin Journey to Long Beach," Ibid., May 12, 1984, p. A-6 Bill Dietrich, "Bremerton Bids Bon Voyage to the Battleship Missouri," Ibid., May 14, 1984, p. A-1 Bill Dietrich, "Missouri Rejoins the Fleet," Ibid., May 10, 1986, p. A-7 Bill Dietrich, "Might Mo Is Back . " Ibid., May 11, 1986, p. A-1 Gary A. Warner, "Big Mo to End Its Glorious Run in Bremerton," Ibid., March 1, 1992, p. A-22 "USS Missouri Is Due at Shipyard Sunday, Ibid., April 10, 1992, p. E2 "Mighty Mo Slips Quietly into Shipyard," Ibid., April 13, 1992, p. A-1 "Navy Will Retire USS Missouri," Ibid., January 20, 1995, p. B-2 "Mighty Mo Not Likely to Stay in Bremerton," Ibid., April 16, 1995, p. B-3 Susan Gilmore, "Mighty Mo up for grabs . " Ibid., May 15, 1995, p. A1 "Mighty Mo Reopens . " Ibid., May 21, 1995, p. B-4 "Bremerton Bids on Missouri . " Ibid., September 3, 1995, p. B-1 "Bremerton Bids on Battleship," Ibid., November 2, 1995, p. B-2 Jennifer Bjorhus, William Dauber, "The Fight for a Battleship is Over. " Ibid., August 22, 1996, p. A-1 "Bremerton Lost ‘Mighty Mo’ Unfairly, Report Suggests," Ibid., June 5, 1997, p. B-3 Luke Timmerman, " Bremerton Appeal for Mighty Mo Sunk . " Ibid., June 11, 1997, p. B-1 "Senate Turns Down Attempt to Reopen . " Ibid., July 10, 1997, p. B-2 "Mighty Mo Tickets Dwindle," Ibid., December 25, 1997, p. B-2 Jack Broom, "Group Sues to Keep Ship Here," Ibid., May 21, 1998, p. A-18 Jack Broom, "Tug prepares to pull USS Missouri to New Hawaiian Home," Ibid., May 12, 1998, p. A1 "Missouri to Leave Aarea on May 23," Ibid., May 13, 1998, p. B-2 Lily Eng, "Mighty Mo’s Countdown . " Ibid., May 19, 1998, p. B-1 Robert T. Neslon, "Sadness in Bremerton . " Ibid., May 20, 1998, p. B-1 "Bon Voyage, Missouri," Ibid., May 23, 1998, p. A-12 Jack Broom, "Bremerton, Fans Say Farewell . " Ibid., May 24, 1998, p. A-1 "Mighty Mo’s Visit Gives Boost to Economy in Astoria," Ibid., June 1, 1998, p. B-3 Ignacio Lobos, "Hawaii Welcomes Missouri to New Home," Ibid., June 22, 1998, p. A-1 Ignacio Lobos, "The USS Arizona and USS Missouri Flank Honolulu’s War Memories," Ibid., September 13, 1998, p. K-2.


USS Hull (DD-7) at Norfolk Navy Yard, 1907 - History

USS Hull , a 1395-ton Farragut class destroyer built by the New York Navy Yard, was commissioned in January 1935. She made a shakedown cruise to the western coast of Europe in mid-year and transited the Panama Canal to take station in the Pacific in October. From then until 1939, Hull participated in U.S. Fleet exercises and training operations, steaming north to Alaska and west to Hawaii on occasion. Her base was shifted to Pearl Harbor in October 1939. She was moored there during the 7 December 1941 Japanese attack that opened the Pacific War.

During the war's first months Hull escorted the aircraft carrier Lexington in the South Pacific and carried out convoy escort missions between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii. In August 1942 she took part in the invasion of Guadalcanal and Tulagi and was involved in the emerging Guadalcanal Campaign over the next two months. Hull served as a battleship escort in the South Pacific in late 1942 and early 1943. In April 1943 she went to the North Pacific, where she participated in the Kiska landings in August. The destroyer then returned to the much warmer Central Pacific to take part in raids on Japanese-held islands and, during November 1943, in the Gilberts Campaign.

Hull 's next combat operation was the invasion of the Marshall Islands in late January and February 1944. Over the next several months she was a participant in raids on enemy bases in the Marshalls and Carolines, the Saipan and Guam invasions and the Battle of the Philippine Sea. A West Coast shipyard overhaul occupied her during August-October 1944. She then steamed across the Pacific, joining the Third Fleet's underway logistics forces in November. When her fueling group encountered a typhoon off the Philippines on 18 December 1944, Hull was overwhelmed by the violent winds and seas, capsized and sank. The tragedy took the lives of more than two hundred men, about three-quarters of her crew.

USS Hull was named in honor of Commodore Isaac Hull (1773-1843), a signficant Naval commander during and after the War of 1812.

This page features, or provides links to, all the views we have concerning USS Hull (DD-350).

As u reproduksies met 'n hoër resolusie wil hê as die digitale beelde wat hier aangebied word, sien: "Hoe om fotografiese reproduksies te verkry."

Klik op die klein foto om dieselfde prentjie groter te sien.

Off the New York Navy Yard, 18 April 1935.

Image from the New York Naval Shipyard Collection, 1966.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 42KB 740 x 575 pixels

Alongside the dock at St. Nazaire, France, in 1935.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 66KB 740 x 500 pixels

Anchored at Funchal, Madeira, on 1 June 1935.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 100KB 740 x 490 pixels

Operating with an airplane, circa 1935-1936.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 95KB 740 x 605 pixels

Moored in a harbor, circa 1935-1937.

Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1969.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 63KB 740 x 520 pixels

Heavily retouched photograph of the ship underway, circa 1935-1937.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 90KB 740 x 490 pixels

Aproaching an anchorage in the lower end of Iliuliuk Bay, in the Aleutian Islands, 27 April 1937.
Photographed from USS Dewey (DD-349).

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 88KB 740 x 595 pixels

Off the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 20 April 1942.

Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

Online Image: 60KB 740 x 600 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Preparing to refuel at sea, 8 January 1943

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 67KB 740 x 610 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 104KB 740 x 610 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

At sea in May 1944, with an aircraft carrier and other ships in the distance.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 113KB 740 x 600 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Underway in the vicinity of the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Washington, 10 October 1944.
She is wearing camouflage Measure 31, Design 6d.


USS Hull (DD-7) at Norfolk Navy Yard, 1907 - History

Shipmate Chet Thomason at Guadalcanal, 7 April 2006.

&bull Before daylight on that day in March 1942, with 13 officers on board, she grounded in 13 feet of water at the Cape Cod Canal&rsquos buoy 13, a lighted buoy with a burned-out light&mdashbad for the the ship, which returned to Boston Navy Yard for a new bow, but good for the crew, which gained a few extra weeks of leave in Beantown!

&bull That November, she was one of 13 Task Force 67 ships engaged in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, where she was sunk with three-quarters of her officers and men killed or wounded.

The circumstances of Monssen&rsquos loss overshadowed a diverse record of participation in many key events of early World War II, both in the Atlantic and the Pacific. She was laid down at Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington on 12 July 1939 and launched there on 15 May 1940 she was commissioned on 14 March 1941 under LCdr. Roland Smoot. Attached to Destroyer Squadron 11, she served in the Atlantic from June 1941 until March 1942 in neutrality patrols and &ldquoshort of war&rdquo operations between New England and Iceland. Often operating with Kearny of her squadron, Monssen was in port she received news that Kearny had been torpedoed, 17 October. Monssen stood out, rendezvoused with Kearny and escorted her to Iceland.

Kearny (left) and Monssen lie off Iceland, October 1941, after Kearny sustained torpedo damage, visible amidships. From NARA photo 80-G-28788.

Detached from DesRon 11 and transferred to the Pacific, Destroyer Division 22 (Monssen met Gwin, Meredith en Grayson) joined Task Force 16 (carrier Hornet, cruisers Vincennes en Nashville and oiler Cimarron) for Lt. Col. &ldquoJimmy&rdquo Doolittle&rsquos raid on Tokyo in April. The task force then steamed to the South Pacific and, after missing the Battle of the Coral Sea, returned to Hawaii. In June, during the Battle of Midway, Monssen escorted Cimarron, then with Gwin stood by Yorktown as the latter was sunk. With her full division again, she then returned to the South Pacific in July for the beginning of the Guadalcanal campaign.

Klik op enige skipbeeld om dit in meer detail te sien.

On the morning of 7 August, operating with Buchanan en San Juan (CL 53) as Fire Support Group &ldquoMike&rdquo of Task Group 62.2, Monssen was first to open fire&mdashon Florida Island&mdashin preparation for the landing on Beach Blue, Tulagi, half an hour before the 2d Marines went ashore. That afternoon, when Marines attempting to seize nearby Gavutu Island were enfiladed by enemy fire from caves on adjacent Tanambogo, the two destroyers joined aircraft from carrier Wasp with an intense bombardment, though the islands were not secured until two days later. With the landings complete, Monssen returned to escort duty.

Monssen&rsquos casualties at the Battle of Guadalcanal.

Source: Bureau of Personnel casualty report, NARA .

In November, under LCdr. Charles McCombs, Monssen escorted transports carrying reinforcements and supplies to Guadalcanal, helping fight off a Japanese air attack while they were unloading on the 12th. That night, she was part of a RAdm. Daniel J. Callaghan&rsquos Task Force 67, which was ordered to intercept a Japanese battleship force attempting to bombard Henderson Field. The resulting gunfire and torpedo action, the first surface phase of the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, prevented the enemy from achieving its objective but cost the US Navy one cruiser and four destroyers. Monssen was among the latter: disabled by Japanese gunfire after flashing her recognition lights as ordered, she was abandoned and burned until the following afternoon, when she sank. Her survivors swam and/or were picked up and taken to Guadalcanal.

In 1992, Monssen&rsquos wreck was discovered and examined. She lies upright, over 2000 feet deep in Guadalcanal&rsquos Ironbottom Sound. Her hull is intact, though damaged forward by explosions and aft by impact with the sea floor. Her 5-inch guns are trained out to starboard. While her forward 5-inch guns and superstructure show the effects of Japanese shells and fire, the after guns and deckhouses are in relatively good condition.

Also in 1992, on Friday, 13 November, exactly 50 years after she was lost, Monssen&rsquos sole reunion was organized by shipmate Chet Thomason at the Radisson Hotel in San Diego. Most survivors had not seen each other since her sinking.


Kyk die video: USS James E. Williams deploys from Naval Station Norfolk