Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum

Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum

Die Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum, geleë in West Prattstraat 901 in Baltimore, Maryland, is toegewy aan 'bewaring en interpretasie van Amerikaanse spoorweë', hoofsaaklik van die Baltimore en Ohio, ook bekend as die B&O Railroad, die Chesapeake & Ohio, die Western Maryland en ander spoorweë in die middel van die Atlantiese Oseaan. Die museum word algemeen erken as die geboorteplek van Amerikaanse spoorweë, en het die oudste en mees omvattende Amerikaanse spoorwegversameling ter wêreld. Aan die einde van die 19de eeu het 'n skakelbeampte 'n beursuitstalling gereël vir 'n groot Amerikaanse spoorweg met sy hoofkwartier in Baltimore. Vandag word hierdie nasionale skatte van spoorweg-artefakte uitgestal in die Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum, geleë op die oorspronklike plek van die historiese Mount Clare Shops. In 1827 was die museumkampus van 40 hektaar die tuiste van die B&O Railroad. Dit was hier die eerste kommersiële langafstandspoor, die eerste passasiersstasie en Amerika se unieke spoorlyn is gebou. In 1927 bereik B&O sy honderdjarige bestaan ​​en staan ​​bekend as die oudste spoorweg wat deurlopend in bedryf is. Vir meer as 20 jaar het die B&O Museum sy indrukwekkende versameling behou in 'n Roundhouse, eens geleë op die terrein van Baltimore se M&T Bank Stadium - nou die Die ronde huis van die museum, aanvanklik gebou as 'n motorwinkel, was die grootste sirkelvormige industriële gebou ter wêreld. Later op 4 Julie 1953 het die B&O Transportation Museum by die berg Clare die spoorweg geopen. Vanweë swaar sneeuval het die helfte van die museum se dak op 16 Februarie 2003 ineengestort. Die museum is op 13 November 2004 weer oopgemaak vir die publiek, nadat herstelwerk voltooi is. en historiese geboue, wat die geskiedenis van die spoorwegtegnologie van 1830 tot vandag uitbeeld. Clare Depot (1851); die Roundhouse (1884); die aanhangselgebou (1884), die passasiersmotorwerke in Baltimore en Ohio (1869-1870), die vragmotorherstelwinkel (1919) en die oorspronklike weg van 1,5 myl word vertoon. Ander uitstallings sluit in uitstekende tydstukke , beeldende kuns, aanbiedingssilwer, uniforms, meubels, persoonlike aandenkings, skaalmodelle en speelgoedtreine. Die museumkampus het moderne fasiliteite vir privaat byeenkomste en korporatiewe geleenthede. 'N Verskeidenheid interpretatiewe en openbare programme word dwarsdeur die jaar aangebied.


Kaart Kaart van die Baltimore en Ohio Rail Road met sy takke en verbindings.

Die kaarte in die Map Collections -materiaal is óf voor 1922 gepubliseer, vervaardig deur die Amerikaanse regering, óf albei (sien katalogusrekords wat elke kaart vergesel vir inligting oor die datum van publikasie en bron). Die Library of Congress bied toegang tot hierdie materiaal vir opvoedkundige en navorsingsdoeleindes en is nie bewus van enige Amerikaanse kopieregbeskerming nie (sien titel 17 van die Amerikaanse kode) of enige ander beperkings in die kaartversamelingmateriaal.

Let daarop dat die skriftelike toestemming van die outeursregte -eienaars en/of ander regtehouers (soos publisiteits- en/of privaatheidsregte) nodig is vir verspreiding, reproduksie of ander gebruik van beskermde items wat verder toegelaat word as billike gebruik of ander statutêre vrystellings. Die verantwoordelikheid vir die onafhanklike beoordeling van 'n item en die verkryging van die nodige toestemmings berus uiteindelik by persone wat die item wil gebruik.

Kredietlyn: Library of Congress, Geografie en kaartafdeling.


Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum - Geskiedenis


Die spoorweg van Baltimore en Ohio

Die Baltimore en Ohio Rail Road Company, die eerste gewone vervoerder van Amerika, is op 28 Februarie 1827 deur 'n groep sakelui in Baltimore gehuur om te verseker dat die verkeer nie verlore gaan na die voorgestelde Chesapeake & Ohio -kanaal nie. Konstruksie op 4 Julie 1828 met die lê van die eerste klip tydens 'n groot seremonie wat die eerbare Charles Carroll, die laaste lewende ondertekenaar van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring, bygewoon het. Die vroeë perde getrek spoorlyne was gemaak van hout relings met yster bande op klippe gelê. Die eerste klip, wat nou in die B&O museum in Baltimore geleë is, bevat 'n afskrif van die oorspronklike handves. President John Quincy Adams, wat geglo het dat kanale waar die pad van die toekoms was, dieselfde dag op 'n seremonie vir die C&O -kanaal gebreek het.

Die eerste "amptelike" passasiers het in perdekarre gery vanaf Mount Clair in Baltimore tot by die Carrollton Viaduct wat op 7 Januarie 1830 gebou is. Op 24 Mei was die lyn voltooi tot by Ellicott's Mills, Md. Die vordering na die Potomac was beperk. deur die C&O Canal, wat die seën van die federale regering gehad het en reeds die beste roete gekry het. Die eerste proeflopie van Peter Cooper se Tom Thumb in Augustus 1830 het stoom na die spoorlyn gebring, tesame met vele ander verbeterings. Gietysterrails het hout vervang, treine met karre het die gewig op die relings verdeel, ysterwiele met flens het beter as hout vasgehou en 'n breekstelsel is ontwikkel.

Opbrengste vloei teen 1832 uit Point of Rocks, Md. Op die Potomac en die B&O brei geleidelik uit met 'n tak wat in 1835 na Washington kom. US Mail begin op 1 Januarie 1838 op die lyn vloei. Die B&O bereik Cumberland, Md. Teen Junie 1851. , maar om Wheeling, Va. (Wes -Virginia nog nie bestaan ​​nie) te bereik, moes 11 tonnels en 113 brûe gebou word. Op 22 Junie 1852 bereik die lyn die Monongahelarivier in Fairmont, Va. (Nou WV) en op Oukersaand is die laaste piek oos van Wheeling gelê. Op 1 Januarie 1853 arriveer die eerste trein binne 16 uur in Wheeling vanuit Baltimore, 'n rit wat 'n paar dae geneem het. Die "Weste" was nou oop.

Namate die Westelike Grens aanhou beweeg het, het nuwe stede in belang begin groei. Cinncinnati, St. Louis en Chicago was die nuwe doelwitte vir die B&O. Tydens die burgeroorlog het die spoorweg die troepe en voorrade van die Unie verplaas en was dit die teiken van baie aanvalle. Brûe is verbrand en herbou, spore is opgeskeur en vervang, telegraaflyne afgetrek en herstel. Staalrails het begin gebruik en voorafvervaardigde ysterbrue het herstelwerk bespoedig. Die eerste brug oor die Ohio is in 1868 begin en dit het 37 maande geneem om te voltooi, 'n tweede brug is op die Parkersburg -lyn in 1869 begin en in Januarie 1871 voltooi. Die B&O het uiteindelik Chicago in November 1874 bereik nadat hulle 811 myl se spoor voltooi het. . Terselfdertyd het die B&O sy beheer oor die Marietta & Cincinatti -spoorweg, die Ohio & Mississippi -spoorweg en ander verhoog om St. Louis te bereik. Hierdie lyne het in 1893 deel geword van die B&O.

Teen die einde van die 19de eeu het die B&O byna 5 800 kilometer se ry bereik en Chicago en St. Louis verbind met Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia en New York. Depressies en moeilike tye het die ontvangs van die B&O op die Pennsylvania Railroad op 29 Februarie 1896 gebring. Verbeterings het voortgegaan met 'n tonnel onder die strate van Baltimore en nuwe lyne aangekoop. Die Amerikaanse regering het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1917 beheer oor die spoorlyne van Amerika geneem en dit teen 1920 erg verswak. Die B&O het egter steeds gegroei en in 1927 'n aandeel van 40 persent in die Western Maryland Railway verkry. Die spoorweg vier in 1927 sy 100ste bestaansjaar met twee geleenthede, 'n privaat ete in Februarie en The Centenary Exhibition and Pageant of the Baltimore & Ohio in September. Sommige van die B & O se oorspronklike lokomotiewe en toerusting was byderhand, net soos die herhalings van die eerste stoomenjins, saam met die nuutste stoomtegnologie in die B&O, Pennsylvania en NYC. Die totale bywoning van die geleentheid van drie weke was meer as 1,3 miljoen mense.

Die eerste diesellokomotief op die B&O was 'n omskakelaar van 60 ton, 300 perde, wat in 1925 vir werfwerk gebruik is. Die eerste paddiesel, wat in 1935 vir die Washington-New York Royal Blue aangekoop is, was 'n twee-eenheid EMD EA "graafneus "stel. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het 5400 pk EMD -vragstelle met vier eenhede na die B&O gekom. Groot stoommalets is tot 1945 aangeskaf. Met die tekort aan petrol en bande, is groot hoeveelhede olie en steenkool en 97 persent van alle troepe deur Amerika se spoorweë vervoer. Ná die oorlog, namate die inkomste afgeneem het en die vragmotorverkeer toegeneem het, het die B&O meer finansiële probleme ondervind. Baie van die oostelike spoorweë het bankrotskap verklaar en samesmeltings voorgestel. Die NYC het 'n samesmelting met die B&O en C&O voorgestel, maar die C&O het reeds teen 1961 61 persent van die B&O verkry en op Oujaarsaand 1962 is die samesmelting goedgekeur. Die gekombineerde stelsel het 11 000 myl se spoor bestuur.

In 1972 is die Chessie System gebore met enjins en toerusting geverf in geel, blou en oranje, met die Chessie-C-logo en hul oorspronklike merke op die kajuit. In 1974 verkry die B&O totale beheer oor die Westelike Maryland. Die Chessie System en die Seaboard System, onder beheer van die C&O, het op 1 November 1980 saamgesmelt onder die naam CSX Corporation. CSX staan ​​vir Chessie, Seaboard en nog vele meer. Die gekombineerde pad het destyds meer as 27 000 myl spoor gehad. In 1986 het CSX al die spoorweë saamgesmelt in CSX Transportation en sodoende die geskiedenis van die groot Baltimore & Ohio Railroad beëindig. Byna alle lokomotiewe en die meeste vragmotors is nou in die nuutste CSX -verf en -merke. Baie kilometers B & O -baan, insluitend die grootste deel van die St. Louis -hooflyn, is laat vaar, en die tradisionele B&O -kleurposisie -seine word vervang met stopligte in C & O -styl. Die naam is dalk weg, maar die pad sal altyd onthou word.


B & ampO nr. 5300

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad No. 5300 is 'n klas P-7 4-6-2 'Stille Oseaan' stoomlokomotief, gebou deur die Baldwin-lokomotief in 1927 vir die Baltimore en Ohio Railroad. Hierdie tipe was bekend as die "President" -klas, sy is die enigste oorlewende lid van haar klas.

Hierdie lokomotief is op 160 passasierstreine toegeken, en as die eerste van die geboude tipe is dit (toevallig) 'president Washington' genoem, na George Washington, die eerste President van die Verenigde State wat president was van 1789 tot 1797. Dit is onthul tydens die "Fair of the Iron Horse" in 1927.

Die 5300 en sy broers het aanvanklik die Royal Blue -treine tussen Washington DC en Jersey City, NJ, getrek, maar hulle is gou met die EMC EA/EB -eenhede na die westelike afdeling gedelegeer.

Sy is in 1958 afgetree by inkomstediens en word nou staties vertoon in die Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.


Die pragtige blou-en-wit porselein van die ou B&O Railroad-eetwaens is terug, soos swaar papierborde

Baltimore en Ohio Railroad-eetwa-porselein, nog steeds beskou as een van die mooiste porseleinpatrone van die land wat dateer uit die goue era van spoorwegreise, is terug.

Ten minste een stuk daarvan is terug, en dit is papier.

Die geesteskind van die afgetrede CSX -uitvoerende hoof, E. Ray Lichty, wat saam met sy vrou, Judy, die werklike ding versamel, en wie se persoonlike versameling waarskynlik 'n werklike eetmotor kan versier, het die idee gekry om 'n stuk van die legendariese porselein weer te gee as 'n geldinsameling vir die nie -winsgewende Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Historical Society.

Die oorspronklike kenmerkende diepblou-gekleurde koloniale eetwa-porselein is ontwerp deur Olive W. Dennis, 'n siviele ingenieur van die Cornell-universiteit, vir die B & ampO se 100ste bestaansjaar in 1927.

Dennis begin haar loopbaan in 1920 in die ingenieursafdeling van die spoorweg, met die ontwerp van brûe, en word 'n jaar later heraangestel in 'n nuwe pos as navorsingsingenieur, wie se hoofdoel was om die ervaring en die gemak van die skepsel te verbeter vir diegene wat met die spoorweg se passasierstreine reis, soos sowel as toesig oor die ontwerp van passasiersmotors.

By die ontwerp van die B & ampO se porselein, met Maryland-tonele, het sy na die blou-en-wit Engelse Staffordshire-patroon gekyk vir inspirasie.


Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum - Geskiedenis

Die B & ampO Railroad Museum is in Wes -Baltimore geleë, een blok suid van die Irish Railroad Workers Museum. Dit is waar baie van die vroeë Ierse immigrante van Wes -Baltimore werk gekry het. Die B & ampO Railroad Museum is geleë in die historiese suidwestelike buurte van Baltimore City, op die oorspronklike plek van die historiese Mount Clare Shops, en word algemeen erken as die geboorteplek van Amerikaanse spoorweë. Dit was hier op die 40 hektaar groot kampus van die Museum dat sakelui, landmeters en ingenieurs in Baltimore in 1829 begin bou het aan die destydse platteland van Wes-Baltimore. Daar het hulle die eerste kommersiële langafstandspoor gelê, die eerste passasiersstasie gebou en die eerste spoorweg van Amerika uitgevind. Ierse immigrante het baie bygedra tot hierdie poging en was 'n groot deel van die arbeidsmag wat Amerika se eerste spoorlyn gebou het. Spoorwegwerk word al meer as 190 jaar by die berg Clare uitgevoer, en word vandag voortgesit.

Die B & ampO Railroad Museum is 'n nasionale historiese landmerk, 'n vennoot van die Smithsonian Museum en 'n onafhanklike opvoedkundige bron, en versamel, bewaar en interpreteer artefakte wat verband hou met vroeë Amerikaanse spoorweë, veral die Baltimore en Ohio, Chesapeake en Ohio, Wes-Maryland en ander Mid-Atlantiese Oseaan spoorweë tot die vreugde van meer as 200 000 besoekers per jaar. Byna 200 stukke lokomotiewe en rolmateriaal bied 'n kontinuum van die spoorwegtegnologiegeskiedenis van 1830 tot vandag, en honderde duisende klein artefakte bied 'n unieke blik op spoorweë deur gereedskap, uitstekende tydstukke, beeldende kuns, silwer, uniforms , meubels en persoonlike gedenkwaardighede. Boonop illustreer 'n uitgebreide versameling skaalmodelle en speelgoedtreine die lang fascinasie van Amerika vir treine en spoorweë. Die terrein van die museum bevat belangrike historiese strukture en bevat brûe, grondwerke en argeologiese bronne.

Die Irish Railroad Workers Museum en die B & ampO Museum werk gereeld saam vir geleenthede en lesings van wedersydse belang.


Age of Steam Roundhouse

Die Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum is meer as net 'n museum en versameling. Dit is 'n lewendige, asemrowende rondehuis waar talentvolle restaurasiespesialiste werk om die lokomotiewe, spoorwaens, gereedskap en masjinerie van die gloriedae van spoorweë te bewaar. Openbare toere word seisoenaal (Mei tot Oktober) op Donderdae, Vrydae en Saterdae aangebied.

Ons stigter, Jerry Jacobson, het 'n plek nodig om sy vloot spoorweg-ou tyders veilig op te slaan en te herstel, en het 'n stuk grond van 34 hektaar verkry wat onmiddellik langs die hoofspoor van Ohio Central Railroad geleë is, en langs 'n pad met die naam Smokey Lane. Vandag bestaan ​​die perseel uit opbergspore, 'n stoorhuis, steenkooldok, houtwatertenk, asput, agterwinkel en die juweel van die perseel, 'n volledige, werkende, 18-stene, baksteen-ronde huis rondom 'n draaitafel van 115 voet en draaitafel put. Behalwe 'n paar klein ronde huise wat onlangs vir spoorwegmuseums gebou is, is ons van mening dat dit die eerste werkende ronde huis is wat sedert 1951 in die VSA gebou is.

Die Age of Steam Roundhouse Museum is gebou en word onderhou met private fondse wat geskenk is deur die Jerry and Laura Jacobson Foundation, Inc., 'n belastingvrye 501 (c) (3) entiteit.


Baltimore en Ohio Railroad Museum - Geskiedenis

Inleiding

Die Irish Railroad Workers Museum bestaan ​​uit twee opgeknapte steeghuise in die 900 -blok van Lemmonstraat. Die huise in Lemmonstraat is in 1848 gebou om huise te voorsien vir die groeiende aantal werkers wat Amerika se eerste spoorweg benodig. Een van die huise is ingerig as 'n tydelike museum, wat die lewens weerspieël van die Ierse immigrantgesin wat in die 1860's daar gewoon het. Die ander huis bied wisselende uitstallings met betrekking tot die Iers-Amerikaanse geskiedenis en die plaaslike buurtlewe.

Die ry met twee verdiepings plus huise in die 900 -blok van Lemmonstraat aan die noordekant is in 1848 gebou om huise te voorsien vir die groeiende aantal werkers wat nodig is vir die eerste spoorweg van Amerika, die Baltimore & amp; Ohio Railroad, gehuur in 1828. Huise van die Die woonbuurt is oor baie dekades gebou en in verskillende style. Dit wissel van vroeë beskeie huise met twee verdiepings, huise van "twee verdiepings en solder" tot groot huise met drie verdiepings langs Hollinsstraat, waar suksesvolle sake-eienaars, polisie-speurders en spoorwegbestuurders huise gevestig het.

Hierdie huise is in die somer en herfs van 1848 in Lemmonstraat gebou deur Charles Shipley, 'n timmerman, op grond wat hom gehuur is deur John Howard McHenry, 'n kleinseun van die rewolusionêre oorlogsheld kolonel John Eager Howard. Teen September 1849 is al die huise verkoop aan individue van Ierse afkoms, waarvan die meeste vir die nabygeleë Baltimore & Ohio Railroad gewerk het. Mense soos Thomas McNew, 'n wag by die B & amp O Depot Thomas Medcalfe, 'n brandweerman en Dennis McFadden en Cornelius McLaughlin, arbeiders, betaal $ 400 vir hul nuwe huise met ses kamers.

Teen die tyd dat hierdie huise gebou is, was die aantal wonings, naby die nuwe B & amp O Yards, soms nog onder oop velde. Baltimore City was 'n entjie weg, geskei deur 'n oop land met privaat landgoedere. Die nuwe Sint -Pieterskerk, wat deur die aartsbisdom gebou is om die vinnig groeiende Ierse Katolieke bevolking in die 'westelike gebied' te bedien, het die gemeenskap gedien en meer gelok om na Wes -Baltimore te verhuis.

Die historiese betekenis van die Lemmon Street -huise is dus direk gekoppel aan hul fisiese nabyheid en historiese betrokkenheid by die N & B O Roundhouse en motorwinkels van die National Register, sowel as die historiese Sint -Pieters -Apostelkerk (ontwerp deur Robert Carey Long , Jr.) en die Hollins Market, een van die vroeë openbare markte van Baltimore.

Betekenis van hierdie huise

Argitektonies is die huise belangrik omdat dit 'n paar van die vroegste ryhuise verteenwoordig wat in Baltimore gebou is in die twee verdiepings plus solderstyl, 'n algemene weergawe van die duur meenthuis in die Griekse herlewingstyl. Ryhuise in die federale tydperk het meer steil dakdakke met dakkapels gehad om die solderverhaal te verlig. Hierdie huis in 'n nuwe styl, met sy laer dak en klein soldervensters in die plek van dakkapels, het voorsiening gemaak vir twee klein slaapkamers op die boonste verdieping in plaas van een kamer in die dakkapel.
Die twee verdiepings plus solderhuise in die 900 -blok van Lemmonstraat is besonder belangrik en moet bewaar word, omdat baie van hul oorspronklike binneste stof ongeskonde is. Elkeen van die vier hoofkamers het 'n kaggel met 'n Doriese mantelomgewing. Die breë kombuiskaggel is ingerig met 'n stel ingeboude rakke wat die ruimte tussen die haard en die agtermuur van die huis beslaan. Aan die ander kant van die kaggel styg die stywe windtrap na die tweede en solderverdieping.


BALTIMORE CITY, MARYLAND

1801, 27-1805 Julie, 4 Maart. Robert Smith (1757-1842) van Baltimore was Amerikaanse sekretaris van die vloot.

1802. Daniel Coker (1780-1846) bedien swart metodiste, Baltimore.

1803, 24 Desember. Elizabeth Patterson (1785-1879) van Baltimore trou met Jerome Bonaparte (1784-1860), broer van Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), in Baltimore. 1804, 20 April. Baltimore Water Company gestig (geoktrooieerd 1792).

1805, 3 Maart-Aug. 6. Robert Smith (1757-1842) van Baltimore was die Amerikaanse prokureur-generaal.

1806. Bouwerk aan die Basiliek van die Hemelvaart, die eerste Rooms -Katolieke katedraal van Amerika, is begin. Ontwerp deur Benjamin Henry Latrobe, hoofgedeelte voltooi 1818.

1806. Maximilien Godefroy ontwerp die eerste Gotiese herlewingsstruktuur in die Verenigde State, St. Mary's Seminary Chapel, Baltimore (voltooi 1808).

1807, 18 Des. College of Medicine of Maryland, die eerste openbare mediese skool van die land, wat deur die Algemene Vergadering in Baltimore gehuur is.

Binne, Basiliek van die National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 409 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Maryland, November 2015. Foto deur Sarah A. Hanks.
1808. John Carroll word aartsbiskop van Baltimore, die eerste Katolieke aartsbiskop in die Verenigde State.

1808. Elizabeth Seton het die vroulike akademie in Baltimore geopen.

1809. Washington Cotton Manufacturing Company, Mount Washington, eerste in die staat, opgeneem.

1809. Tweede hofgebou is in Baltimore geopen by Church (nou Lexington) St. en Washington Square.

1809, 6-1811 Maart, 1 April. Robert Smith (1757-1842) van Baltimore was die Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake.

Aartsbiskop John Carroll (1735-1815) Bicentennial Memorial (1976), deur Felix de Weldon (1907-2003), aan die suidekant van Duvall Wing, Prince George's County Courthouse, Upper Marlboro, Maryland, Oktober 2009. Foto deur Diane F. Evartt.
1811. Maryland Penitentiary (nou Metropolitan Transition Center) geopen in Baltimore.

1811, 7 Sept. Hiskia Niles het in Baltimore begin publiseer Niles se register, 'n nasionale koerant.

1812, 27 Junie. Mob het Alexander Contee Hanson, redakteur van Baltimore, aangeval Federale Republikein, en partytjie hou.

1812, 12 Desember. Thomas Kemp, Fell's Point, het Baltimore Clipper bekendgestel Chasseur, later bekend onder bevel van deeleienaar en privaat Thomas Boyle.

1812, 29 Des. College of Medicine of Maryland heraangestel as University of Maryland, Baltimore.

1813, 13 Junie. Chesapeake, eerste stoomboot op Chesapeakebaai, gereis tussen Baltimore en Annapolis.

1814, Aug. Rembrandt Peale het die Baltimore Museum en Gallery of Fine Arts geopen, ontwerp deur Robert Cary Long, Sr. 1814, 13-14 September. Die bombardement van Fort McHenry, onder bevel van majoor George Armistead en verdedig deur ongeveer 1 000 soldate, militante en matrose, duur 25 uur. Die gesig van die Amerikaanse garnisoenvlag wat in die nasleep van die bombardement bo Fort sit, het Francis Scott Key geïnspireer om 'Defense of Fort McHenry' te skryf, wat later bekend gestaan ​​het as 'The Star-Spangled Banner'.

1814, 15 Sept. Britse magte het uit Baltimore teruggetrek en die Slag van Baltimore en die Chesapeake -veldtog beëindig.

Toegang tot Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland, Augustus 2010. Foto deur Diane F. Evartt.
1815. Charles Reeder, sr., Het 'n stoommotorvervaardiging en gietery, Federal Hill, gevestig.

1815, Julie. Baltimoreërs het 'n hoeksteen gelê vir Robert Mills se Washington -monument (voltooi 1829).

1815, Sept. Baltimoreërs het 'n hoeksteen gelê vir Maximilien Godefroy se Slag om Noordpunt -monument (voltooi 1825).


Groot George Armistead -standbeeld (1914), deur Edward Berge, Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, 2400 East Fort Ave., Baltimore, Maryland, Julie 2016. Foto deur Sarah A. Hanks.

Major Armistead (1780-1818) was die bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse magte tydens die Slag van Baltimore by Fort McHenry, 13-14 September 1814, en het tot sy dood as Fort-bevelvoerder gebly.
1816. Delphian Club, 'n literêre groep, wat in Baltimore georganiseer is en ontmoet het in Tusculum, die tuiste van William Gwynn, eienaar van die koerant en redakteur.

1816. Sprinkaanpunt by die stad Baltimore gevoeg.

1816, 11 Junie. Rembrandt Peale demonstreer gasbeligting by sy museum.

1816, 13 Junie. Rembrandt Peale het Gas Light Company van Baltimore gestig, die eerste gasmaatskappy in die land.

1816, 17 Junie. Burgemeester en raad van die stad Baltimore het die verordening goedgekeur om die Gas Light Company van Baltimore te stig.

1817. Maryland -hulp van die American Colonization Society wat in Baltimore gestig is.

1817, 3 Februarie. Baltimore -grense strek noordwaarts tot by East Ave.

1817, 7 Februarie. Gas Light Company van Baltimore het die eerste gasstraatlamp in die land aangesteek op die hoek van Market- en Lemonstraat (nou Baltimore- en Hollidaystraat).

1818. National Road voltooi van Cumberland na Wheeling, nou West Virginia.

1818, 1 Januarie. Spaarbank van Baltimore, die eerste in sy soort in die staat, gehuur.

1818, 2 Junie. Maryland Agricultural Society georganiseer, Baltimore.

1819, 2 April. John Stuart Skinner gepubliseer in Baltimore, Die Amerikaanse boer, eerste landboujoernaal in die Verenigde State.

1819, 26 April. Onafhanklike Order of Odd Fellows georganiseer in Fell's Point, Baltimore.

1819, 5 Mei. By die First Independent Church of Baltimore het William Ellery Channing 'n preek gelewer waarin Unitarisme gedefinieer is, wat gelei het tot die stigting van die Amerikaanse Unitarian Association in 1825

1822. Isaac McKim het meel met stoomkrag gemaal, Baltimore, die eerste keer in die land.

1824. Maryland Law Institute (nou Francis King Carey School of Law) aan die Universiteit van Maryland, Baltimore, geopen.

1824. Benjamin Lundy gepubliseer in Baltimore die Genie van Universele Emansipasie, 'n koerant teen slawerny.

1824, 9 Augustus. William Pinkney Whyte (1824-1908), goewerneur van Maryland, gebore in Baltimore.

1825. Marquis de Lafayette het Baltimore weer besoek.

1825, 6 November. Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts (nou Maryland Institute College of Art) het die eerste uitstalling, Amerikaanse vervaardigingsartikels, gehou.

1825, 24 September. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), afskaffer en skrywer, gebore in Baltimore.

1826, 10 Januarie. Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts gehuur.

1826. Die Levy Court het die burgemeester afgeskaf en die stadsraad neem die bevoegdhede van die Levy Court oor. 1827. Washington Medical College (1827-1839) gestig in Baltimore.

1828. Maryland en Virginia Steam Boat Company bied gereelde Baltimore diens aan Norfolk aan.

1828. Maryland Penitentiary -direkteure het 'n komitee aangestel om planne vir uitbreiding aan te beveel.

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum, 901 West Pratt St. (by Poppleton St.), Baltimore, Maryland, Mei 2013. Foto deur Adam N. Wexler.
1828. Elizabeth Lange, Maria Balas, Rosine Boegue en Theresa Duchemin het Saint Frances School for Colored Girls (nou Saint Frances Academy) in 5 St. Mary's Court, Baltimore, geopen.

1828, 4 Julie. Die eerste keer was die bou van Baltimore en Ohio Railroad en Chesapeake en Ohio Canal.

Phoenix Shot Tower, 801 East Fayette St., Baltimore, Maryland, Februarie 2008. Foto deur Diane F. Evartt.
1828, Des. Peter Cooper (1791-1883), Columbus O'Donnell (1792-1873), William Patterson (1752-1835) en ander stig Canton Company, Baltimore.

1828-1829. Peter Cooper begin Canton Iron Works, die vroegste beplande nywerheidsgebied in die land, in Canton, Baltimore.

1829. Daar is begin werk aan die spoorweg Baltimore en Susquehanna (voltooi tot by Pennsylvania -lyn 1832).

1829. Die Carrollton Viaduct van Baltimore en Ohio Railroad, die eerste spoorwegbrug in die land, steek die Gwynn's Falls oor.

1829, 2 Julie. Elizabeth Lange, Maria Balas, Rosine Boegue en Theresa Duchemin het hul gelofte afgelê en die Oblate Sisters of Providence in Baltimore gestig, die eerste orde van Afro-Amerikaanse nonne in die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk.

1830. Baltimore en Ohio Railroad het begin met treinwaens wat deur perde getrek is.

1830. Peale Museum verkoop nadat uitstallings verhuis het en die eerste stadsaal van Baltimore geword het.

1830, 25 Februarie. Baltimore Hebreeuse Gemeente, georganiseer as die eerste Joodse gemeente van die staat, gestig in Baltimore.

1830, 22 Mei. Baltimore en Ohio Railroad se eerste passasiersmotor, "Pioneer", het die eerste keer na Ellicott Mills gehardloop.

1830, 28 Aug. Wedloop in Baltimore tussen Peter Cooper se Tom Thumb -stoomlokomotief en 'n perd getrek per Baltimore en Ohio Railroad.

1830, 30 Sept. John Lee Carroll (1830-1911), goewerneur van Maryland, gebore te "Homewood" in Baltimore.

1831. Erfgename van John Eager Howard het grond geskenk vir parke om noord, suid, oos en wes van Washington Monument, Baltimore, uit te strek.

1831, 26-28 September. Anti-Masonic Party Convention (die eerste nasionale politieke konvensie) het in Baltimore vergader.

1831, 12-16 Des. Die nasionale Republikeinse Party -byeenkoms het in Baltimore vergader.

1832. David Carroll en Horatio Gambrill het die Washington Manufacturing Company in Mount Washington, Baltimore, gekoop.

1832, 5 Maart. Baltimore en Port Deposite Rail Road gehuur (Hoofstuk 288, Handelinge van 1832).

1832, 21-23 Mei. Die eerste nasionale konvensie van die Demokratiese Party het in Baltimore vergader.

1833, 19 Okt Baltimore Saterdag besoeker gepubliseerde verhaal van Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849): "Me. Found in a Bottle", wenner van $ 50-prys.

1834, 24 Maart. Bank of Maryland het misluk.

1835. Verbeterde Orde van Rooi Manne (geheime broedervereniging) het Great Council of Maryland, Baltimore, georganiseer.

1835, 13 Februarie. Die dak van die hof en die tweede verdieping is deur 'n brand verwoes.

1835, 6-9 Augustus. Die skare in Baltimore het oproer opgehou ná maande se traagheid ná die sluiting van Bank of Maryland en die huise van onder meer bankdirekteure en burgemeester Jesse Hunt beskadig.

1835, 25 Aug. Washington -tak van Baltimore en Ohio Railroad is geopen.

17 Mei 1837. Baltimore Sun begin met die publikasie onder Arunah S. Abell.

1838. Kiesersregistrasiestelsel is in Baltimore begin.

1838, 3 September. Frederick Douglass het ontsnap uit slawerny in Baltimore.

1839. David Carroll en Horatio N. Gambrill het Whitehall Flour Mill in Hampden-Woodberry naby die Jones Falls gekoop en dit omskep in tekstielmeule vir katoen-eend, die doek vir skeepsseile.

1839. Washington Medical College herdoop Washington Universiteit van Baltimore (1839-1851).

1839, 20 Okt. Die stadsraad van Baltimore het Male Central High School (nou Baltimore City College) gestig.

1839, 14 November. Mercantile Library Association gestig in Baltimore.

1840, 1 Februarie. Baltimore College of Dental Surgery (nou School of Dentistry), die wêreld se eerste tandheelkundige kollege, gestig in Baltimore.

1840, 2 April. Washingtonian Total Abstinence Society (Washingtonian movement, Washington Temperance Society) founded in Baltimore.

1840, May 5-6. Democratic Party National Convention met in Baltimore. First convention at which a Party platform was adopted when delegates decided that federal government role not defined by Constitution should be decided by state government.

1841, Jan. Maryland College of Pharmacy (now School of Pharmacy) founded in Baltimore.

1844, Jan. Maryland Historical Society (now Maryland Center for History & Culture) founded in Baltimore.

1844, May 1. First omnibus lines began operating in Baltimore.

1844, May 1. Whig Party National Convention met in Baltimore.

Maryland Historical Society, 201 West Monument St., Baltimore, Maryland, December 2006. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
1844, May 24. Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated telegraph line, sent first telegraph message, "What hath God wrought", from Supreme Court in Washington, DC, to Mount Clare Train Station in Baltimore.

1844, May 27-29. Democratic Party National Convention met in Baltimore.

1845. Lloyd Street Synagogue constructed in Baltimore, first Maryland synagogue, a Robert Cary Long, Jr., design.

Lloyd Street Synagogue, Lloyd St., Baltimore, Maryland, April 2008. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
1845. Baltimore and Cuba Smelting and Mining Company began operations in Locust Point, Baltimore.

1845. Baltimore Marine Hospital constructed at Fairfield.

1846. Cross Street Market opened in Federal Hill between Charles St. and Patpsco St.

1846. Hollins Market opened at Hollins St. and Arlington Ave.

1846. James Corner opened first transatlantic packet line, Baltimore to Liverpool.

1847. Improved Order of Red Men (secret fraternal society) formed Great Council of the United States in Baltimore.

1848, May 22-25. Democratic Party National Convention met in Baltimore. 1849. Thomas Kensett, Jr. began canning oysters in Baltimore.

1849, Oct. 7. Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore.

1850. Sun Iron Building, Baltimore's first all-iron structure, built.

1850, Feb 18. President St. Station (Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad) opened in Baltimore.

1850, June 3. Calvert Station (Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad), largest railroad terminal in country, opened in Baltimore.

1851. Washington University of Baltimore closed.

Tombstone of Edgar Allan Poe & Maria Clemm, Westminster Presbyterian Cemetery, West Fayette St. & Greene St., Baltimore, Maryland, August 2018. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
1851. Three-masted clipper Seaman, Baltimore, established speed record for sail (94 days) from San Francisco to Cape Henry.

1851, July 4. Baltimore City, as a governmental unit, separated from Baltimore County.

1852. Baltimore boundaries extended.

1852. Loyola College (now Loyola University Maryland), Baltimore, founded.

1852, April 24. Merchants and Miners Transportation incorporated in Baltimore to begin coastal shipping service.

1852, June 17-20. Whig Party National Convention met in Baltimore.

1852, July 22-1853, March 7. John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) of Baltimore served as U.S. Secretary of the Navy.

1852, July 27-29. Statewide convention of free blacks, Baltimore.

1852, Nov. 18. Evangelical groups formed Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), Baltimore.

1853. Henry Sonneborn, Baltimore, began manufacturing clothing.

1853. Baltimore, Carroll, and Frederick Railroad organized, later became Western Maryland Railroad.

1854. Union Protestant Infirmary (now MedStar Union Memorial Hospital) established.

1854-1859. Rise of Know Nothing Party Baltimore riots named city "Mobtown."

1855. Mary Whitridge, Baltimore-built clipper ship, sailed from Cape Henry to English Channel in record-setting 12 days and 7 hours. 1856. Camden St. Station (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad), Baltimore, opened.

1856. Hebrew Benevolent Society (formerly United Hebrew Assistance Society, now The Associated: Jewish Community Federation of Baltimore) incorporated at Baltimore.

Model showing horses pulling train car between President St. & Camden Stations, Baltimore, Baltimore Civil War Museum at President St. Station, 601 South President St., Baltimore, Maryland, May 2016. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.
1856, Sept. 17-18. Whig Party National Convention met in Baltimore.

1856, Oct. & & Nov. 4. Election violence, known as Know-Nothing Riots, took place in Baltimore.

1857. Bank of Baltimore failed during Panic of 1857.

1857. Baltimore gentlemen formed Maryland Club.

1857. Washington College Hospital reopened as Church Home and Infirmary Hospital.

1857, Jan. 2. Martha Carey Thomas (1857-1935), president of Bryn Mawr College and founder of Bryn Mawr School for girls, born in Baltimore.

1857, Feb. Peabody Institute founded in Baltimore by philanthropist George Peabody (affiliated with The Johns Hopkins University in 1977). It was first academy of music established in United States.

1859, July 26. First Baltimore horsecar line, began operating from Broadway to Baltimore St. and North St.

1860. Irish-born population of Baltimore City peaked (15,536 of 212,418).

1860, May 9. Constitutional Union Party formed in Baltimore.

1860, June 18-23. Democratic Party National Convention (first assembled at Charleston, South Carolina, April 23 - May 3, 1860) reconvened in Baltimore

1860, Oct. 19. Druid Hill Park opened, Baltimore. 1861. Peabody Institute (later west wing) opened in Baltimore.

George Peabody (1795-1869) statue (1869), by William W. Story, before Peabody Institute, Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, Maryland, March 2009. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.

A Baltimore merchant who moved to London, George Peabody became a philanthropist and diplomat. He established the first charitable foundations in America and England, and founded the Peabody Institute at Baltimore in 1857.
1861, April 19. Sixth Massachusetts Union Regiment attacked by Baltimore mob in first bloodshed of the Civil War.

1861, May 13. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Union forces occupied Baltimore.

1861, June 27. Military arrested Baltimore's Marshall of Police George P. Kane and imprisoned him at Fort McHenry. Police Commission suspended.

1861, July 1. Military arrested Baltimore's Police Commissioners and imprisoned them at Fort McHenry.

Exhibit showing 6th Massachusetts Infantry attacked by Baltimore mob on April 19, 1861, Baltimore Civil War Museum at President St. Station, 601 South President St., Baltimore, Maryland, May 2016. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.
1861, Sept. 12. Severn Teackle Wallis of Baltimore and other members of General Assembly arrested by Union soldiers at Frederick.

1864, June 7-8. National Union Party [Republican Party] National Convention met in Baltimore.

1864, Nov. 1 Maryland slaves emancipated by Maryland Constitution of 1864. To celebrate, under direction of Baltimore City Council, five hundred guns were fired, bells were rung, and flags displayed "to attest the joy of the people at their great deliverance."

1865. Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Company, first black-owned business in State, established in Baltimore by Isaac Myers.

1865, July. Bank of Baltimore reorganized as National Bank of Baltimore.

1866. First library of Peabody Institute opened in Baltimore.

1866, Aug. 20. National Labor Union, the first national labor union in America, organized in Baltimore and lobbied Congress to authorize an eight-hour work day.

1866-1869. Thomas G. Swann (1806-1883) of Baltimore served as Governor of Maryland.

1867. Centenary Biblical Institute chartered under auspices of Methodist Episcopal Church later became Morgan State University.

1867. Isaac Freeman Rasin won election to clerkship, Baltimore City Court of Common Pleas.

1867. Lavinia Dundore organized Maryland Equal Rights Society in Baltimore to work for suffrage.

1867, March 23. Washington University of Baltimore reorganized as Washington University (1867-1877) and Maryland Free Hospital established.

1867, Nov. 27. Knights of Pythias formed in Baltimore.

1868. Regular steamship service between Baltimore and Bremen inaugurated by Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and North German Lloyd.

1869, July. Isaac Myers and black caulkers in Baltimore formed national black labor union.

1870, May. Baltimore African Americans parade to celebrate passage of Fifteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution.

1871, Dec. Lafayette Market (now Avenue Market) opened at Pennsylvania Ave.

1872. Western Maryland Railroad completed line, Hagerstown to Baltimore.

1872, Oct. 8. College of Physicians and Surgeons (1872-1915) incorporated in Baltimore.

1872, July 9-10. Democratic Party National Convention met in Baltimore.

1873, May 23. First Preakness Stakes, second race of Triple Crown, held at Pimlico Race Course.

1873, Sept. 21. School Sisters of Notre Dame established Notre Dame of Maryland Collegiate Institute for Young Ladies (now Notre Dame of Maryland University), Baltimore, first Catholic women's college in United States.

1874. Baltimore boundaries extended.

1875. Work began on east wing (now George Peabody Library) of Peabody Institute (completed 1878).

1875, Oct. 25. Designed by Baltimore architect George A. Frederick, new Baltimore City Hall dedicated, replacing old city hall in Peale Building, which formerly held the Peale Museum.

City Hall, 100 North Holliday St., Baltimore, Maryland, June 2006. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
1876, Oct. 3. The Johns Hopkins University opened in Baltimore, founded by philanthropist Johns Hopkins.

1877, July 20-22. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strike workers went on strike along line, demonstrated in Cumberland, struck and rioted at Baltimore.

1877. Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital opened on Baltimore Street (closed & consolidated in 1960 with Hospital for the Women of Maryland to form Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore County).

1877. Washington University's franchise transferred to College of Physicians and Surgeons.

1878, March 27. Washington University merged into College of Physicians and Surgeons.

1878, Sept. 2-1889, Sept. 3. Male and Female Colored School no. 1, first Baltimore high school for African Americans, held in old City Hall (former Peale Museum).

1878, Aug. Young men of Baltimore Athletic Club returned from Newport, Rhode Island, with lacrosse sticks.

1878. Knights of Labor organized, Baltimore.

1879, Jan. Telephone exchange opened on corner of Baltimore & South Streets, Baltimore, first in State.

1880, July 1. Consolidated Gas Company of Baltimore formed from merger of Consumers' Mutual Gas-light Company of Baltimore City, Gas-light Company of Baltimore, and People's Gas Company of Baltimore.

1880. Electrical energy debuted in Maryland at Sun Building, Baltimore.

1881, Sept. Baltimore Medical College and its teaching facility, Maryland General Hospital (now University of Maryland Medical Center Midtown Campus), incorporated (merged with University of Maryland School of Medicine in 1913).

1881, Oct. 10-12. Oriole Festival, an event similar to Mardi Gras, celebrated opening of Loch Raven Reservoir.

1882, Feb. 20. Woman's Medical College of Baltimore (1882-1910) incorporated.

1882, Sept 12-14. Second Oriole Festival held.

1882. Baltimore reformers won "good judges" election.

1882. Baltimore Orioles, owned by Harry R. Von der Horst, founded as a team in newly-formed American Association professional baseball league.

1882. Hospital for the Women of Maryland, 2nd women's hospital in nation, opened in Bolton Hill, Baltimore (closed & consolidated in 1960 with Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital to form Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore County).

1882. University of Maryland opens Dental Department (now School of Dentistry).

1882. Woman s Industrial Exchange incorporated.

1883, Sept 11-13. Third Oriole Festival held.

1883. Colored High and Training School (now Frederick Douglass High School) opened, Baltimore.

1884, Jan.-1885, March 27. Robert M. McLane (1815-1898) of Baltimore served as Governor of Maryland.

1885, Aug. 10. Baltimore to Hampden Line of Baltimore-Union Passenger Railway Company converted from horse-drawn to electric streetcars, first commercial electric street railway in country.

1885. Northeast Market established at East Monument St.

1885. Baltimore civic leaders established Baltimore Reform League.

1885. African-American leaders established Mutual Brotherhood of Liberty, Baltimore's first civil rights organization.

1885. Woman's College of Baltimore chartered by Methodists, later became Goucher College.

1886. Linotype machine perfected by Ottmar Mergenthaler, Baltimore.

1886, Jan. 5. Enoch Pratt Free Library, the gift of Enoch Pratt, opened in Baltimore. 1888. Voters north and west of Baltimore City agreed to annexation.

1889. Henrietta Szold opened night school for immigrants in Baltimore, first of its kind in nation.

1889, May 7. The Johns Hopkins Hospital dedicated in Baltimore.

1889, May 25. Lillie Carroll Jackson (1889-1975), civil rights activist, born in Baltimore.

Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe St., Baltimore, Maryland, July 2012. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
1890. Morgan College (now Morgan State University) formed from Centenary Biblical Institute.

1890. German-born population of Baltimore City peaked (41,930 of 365,863).

1890. Harry S. Cummings, African American, won seat on Baltimore City Council.

1890, Jan. 25. Columbian Iron Works, Baltimore, launched Maverick, first steel tanker ship in United States.

1891. Charles H. Grasty assumed control of Baltimore Evening News.

1892, Aug. 13. Baltimore Afro-American founded by John H. Murphy, Sr.

1892, Dec. Sheppard Asylum for the mentally ill founded by Moses Sheppard, opened to patients later became Sheppard-Pratt Hospital.

1893, Oct. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine opened in Baltimore, accepting women.

1894. Baltimore women formed Arundell Club.

1894. Provident Hospital, Baltimore, founded by William T. Carr and William H. Thompson.

1894. Baltimore Orioles won their first professional baseball championship.

1895, Nov. Reformers carried Baltimore City and State elections.

1896-1900. Third Courthouse erected in Baltimore at Lexington St. and St. Paul St.

1896, Nov. 17. Herbert R. O'Conor (1896-1960), Governor of Maryland, born in Baltimore.

1897. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., planned west side of Roland Park (company organized 1891).

1898. Baltimore obtained reformed city charter.

1898. Maryland Medical College of Baltimore (1898-1913) founded.

1899, Jan. Baltimore Municipal Art Society formed to beautify public buildings, streets, and open spaces.

1899, Dec. 1. Maryland Federation of Women's Clubs organized at Baltimore.

Maryland Constitutional Offices & Agencies Maryland Departments Maryland Independent Agencies Maryland Executive Commissions, Committees, Task Forces, & Advisory Boards Maryland Universities & Colleges Maryland Counties Maryland Municipalities Maryland at a Glance

Maryland Manual On-Line

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Concerning B&O's "Centenary" China

In 1927, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad introduced the "Centenary" pattern of china for its dining cars. The pattern commemorated the B&O's 100-year anniversary and proved to be a huge hit with travelers. Over subsequent years, its Dining Car Department issued different versions of a booklet entitled "Concerning the Blue China". The eight page booklet was distributed to the public and describes the production process as well as the historical significance of scenes found on various pieces.

Interestingly, the name that collectors use to describe this pattern -- "Centenary" -- is not used in the booklet. While the phrase "Centenary china " is used at one point, this appears to be a reference to the china's significance as a commemorative of the railroad's 100 year anniversary and not as an official name for the pattern. Doug McIntyre, in his book, "The Official Guide to Dining Car China", says that official B&O correspondence referred to the pattern as "Colonial", and a hint of this is contained in the booklet where the china's use on "Colonial style" dining cars is mentioned. Like many china patterns, the "Centenary" name appears to have been applied years later by collectors.

The booklet concludes with a note that plates in this pattern, already packed in separate cartons, could be obtained from B&O dining car stewards for $1.00 each. It also presents a list of additional pieces that could be obtained by contacting the DIning Car and Commissary Department in Baltimore. Some sample prices: a 2-quart pitcher for $2.65, "extra large" platters for $3.40, and butter chips for 20 cents each! The B&O, ever mindful of the value of good public relations, realized that they could capitalize on the appeal of this china as a ambassador for the railroad, and evidently many people took them up on their offer. There is, in fact, documented evidence that an extensive supply of Centenary china wound up in service on a Great Lakes steamship! Today, collectors continue to reap the benefit of B&O's public relations policy since Centenary pieces continue to surface in estate auctions, garage sales, and antique shows.

Following is the text of a 1930's version of the B&O Booklet "Concerning the Blue China, complete with original spelling and some mighty long sentence construction. A few illustrations have been omitted, and others obtained by scanning the original.

Concerning
die
Blue China

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Dining Car Department

In 1827, when the idea of transportation by rail was born, when a small group of enterprising business men adopted this method of bringing the trade of the rapidly growing West to the city of Baltimore, when the first charter ever drawn up for a public carrier of passengers and freight by rail was granted to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, these momentous events were commemorated by Enoch Wood, of Burslem, England, one of the leading manufacturers of Staffordshire china, in two beautiful blue plates stamped on the reverse --"The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road."

Now, for the hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the blue china in use on its dining cars was especially prepared in the United States of America to celebrate this centenary birthday of the Father of American Railroads. The two souvenir plates prepared by Enoch Wood to mark the establishment of the Baltimore and Ohio in 1827 were engraved by English potters who had never seen an American locomotive, so that the train illustrated on the plate shown on the preceding page [above right] is typically British with a locomotive patterned after the illustration of Messrs. Losh and Stephenson's patent of 1816, printed in Strickland's "Report on Canals and Railroads" in 1826. No locomotive of this type was ever used in America. The inclined plane presented on the other plate shown on the opposite page [left] was, in the early days of railroading, the usual method of overcoming grades too steep for a locomotive and train to climb. In those early days the cars were pulled up and lowered down a series of inclines by cables operated by stationary engines, with a fresh locomotive waiting for the train when it reached the other side of the hill. Of course, such an arrangement was bothersome and consumed a great deal of time, so that, as the science of railroading progressed and the demand for greater speed in traveling began to be felt, the railway engineers found other ways of overcoming grades, by a longer track running more gradually around the side of the hill, by leveling the tops of the hills, or by boring tunnels through them, so that now inclined planes are not in use on railroad lines, although they still serve to carry street cars and passengers up and down hill as, for example, the inclined railways at Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. A trace of some of these old planes on the Baltimore and Ohio may be found on the Old Main Line near Ellicott City, where the first and last of a series of four inclines have furnished names to the stations still known as Plane No. I and Plane No. 4.

In selecting the various subjects to be depicted on the new blue Centenary china, especial attention was given to the outstanding features of the Baltimore and Ohio's history and to the most representative scenic points along its lines. In the various borders is shown in historical sequence the evolution of the motive power of this particular railroad in its hundred years of progress. Advancing from the horse-drawn car, for which the road was originally designed, past the first American built locomotive, the "Tom Thumb," we come to the little "Atlantic," which was in actual service on Baltimore and Ohio tracks for more than sixty years, and can still be run under its own steam at nearly one hundred years of age. The "Philip E. Thomas," with its large smoke stack, was a familiar type of locomotive until Ross Winans designed and built in the Mount Clare shops of the Baltimore and Ohio at Baltimore, his famous camel-back locomotives, the most powerful engines of their day. The camel-back is the type which carried the Baltimore and Ohio trains with Union troops and supplies over the heavy grades of the Alleghany Mountains during the trying days of the Civil War. After the close of this war came the Mogul type, which was gradually supplanted by the more powerful Pacific, which reached its climax in the "Lord Baltimore," one of the most powerful passenger engines in the world at this time. The latter also was built in the Mount Clare shops of the Baltimore and Ohio and has the strength of two ordinary locomotives, being capable of handling the heavy trains of the Capitol and National Limiteds over the Alleghany Mountains without the aid of the customary second or "helper" engine. This forms a pageant of motive power in the border circles from the First Stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, laid on July 4, 1828, around the plates and back once more to this corner stone, as if to celebrate the anniversary year when the hundredth birthday of the railroad was reached.

For the scenes within the border there was selected, first, historic Harper's Ferry, with its scenic beauty which has entranced thousands from Thomas Jefferson down to the present day tourist on Baltimore and Ohio trains. This spot is also memorable for its story of John Brown's raid and the subsequent part the fortified heights played in Civil War history. The Potomac River Valley shown on the tea plate celery trays [right] is typical of the rugged wilderness with its almost insurmountable natural barriers through which the pioneer surveyors of this pioneer railroad had to fight their way. The railroad track winds up to the crest of the Alleghanies along the side of Laurel Ridge with the Briery Mountains on the opposite bank. On the platters [below left], the beautiful scene at Indian Creek shows the junction of that stream with the historic Youghiogheny. All of the nearby country is sacred to memories of the early life of Washington and the struggles of the colonists for this territory in the French and Indian War. Near here is the site of Fort Necessity where Washington made his first and only surrender, withdrawing with all the honors of war in the face of a superior force of French and Indians on July 4, 1754. On the heights near this spot also is the grave of Braddock, the brave but stubborn English general who paid for his folly with an even more overwhelming defeat and with his life. The Narrows at Cumberland shown on the smaller platter [below right] mark the gap in Wills Mountain through which Braddock and his forces marched to their defeat. It is also the gap through which many thousands of pioneers made their way westward over the Old National Pike, the original stone bridge of which is shown in the picture.

The Carrollton Viaduct, shown in the small saucers [not shown here], is the oldest stone arch railroad bridge in America, being the first one built by the Baltimore and Ohio in order to carry its original line from the historic First Stone across Gwynn's Run on the old route to the Patapsco River at the Relay House. The second oldest bridge of this type is at this latter point. It is the Thomas Viaduct, pictured on the bread and butter plates [left] and the smallest platters. This beautiful stone arch bridge across the Patapsco River was completed in 1835 to carry the first rails of the Metropolitan Branch leading into the young Capital City of Washington. It was quite an engineering feat for its day, being built on a four-degree curve. How well the railroad's early engineers did their work is proved by the fact that this bridge, constructed for the light traffic of those early days, has been in continuous service for almost a century and shows no sign of strain under the heavy traffic loads of the present day. On the hills above the old Relay House a Federal garrison protected this vital junction point of the railway during the Civil War.

The making of this special blue china has been a stupendous task and was actually under way for more than two years. In the manufacture of most sets a conventional pattern is used, one which can be repeated over and over in sections to fit the shape of the various pieces. But in this Baltimore and Ohio design there is no repetition, each border and each center scene is a complete and separate unit and was especially engraved in full detail for every kind of dish. It was necessary to do all the engraving of these copper plates by hand, since photo-engraving could not be made to produce the desired effect. The different shades of blue in the scenes are produced by making impressions on the copper plates of varying depths. For example, the shading which produces the effect of distance and perspective in the various scenes is obtained by cutting series of fine dots, carved deeper as the darker blues of the foreground are desired. There are approximately 2,600 of these dots to the square inch. The center of the dinner plate, including the view of Harper's Ferry and it's enclosing rose border, but not including the locomotive border, contains approximately 90,000 of these fine dots all carved by hand to the varying depths required for the shading. It was not only necessary to engrave all the designs freehand, but it was also found necessary, as explained above, to make fresh engravings for the center and border of every piece of different shape. It may be safely stated that never before in an American pottery have such a large number of copper plates been required for a single set. Sixteen large coppers were required for this Colonial pattern, more than four times the usual number. Three engravers, specially trained for this artistic work, devoted their whole time for a year in the preparation of the copper plates for this one set of chinaware. Even after the completion of the engravings, every piece of china requires a large amount of handwork. The engravings are printed on a thin rice paper and the wet print placed in position on the dish to be decorated, which has previously been molded and fired to the form known as the "biscuit," or more commonly the "bisque." The design is then transferred by rubbing, somewhat like a decalcomania, after which the paper is washed off and the dish is ready for glazing and firing.

To follow each article of chinaware through the factory would make an interesting story. About three months are consumed in the manufacture of each piece, thirty days of which are necessary for completing the product after printing the pattern on the bisque. Each piece requires three firings at extremely high temperatures, during any one of which it may warp or crack and have to be discarded. It is baked for approximately seventy-two hours before the pattern is printed on it, fired again for about nine hours after printing, then glazed and fired for the third and last time for from thirty-six to forty-two hours. During the firing, each piece must be kept from touching any other, so that no rough spots may mar the surface. To do this, each single piece is held in the kilns in a separate container or "sagger" with the touching edge resting on a clay base covered with a flint wash, which is too hard to fuse at the temperatures used in firing.

The deep blue color used in this china is very difficult to handle, because of its tendency to run and blur the pattern under the intense heat to which it must be exposed in producing a strong, high-grade ware suitable for dining car service. In the cheaper grades of earthenware, such as is found in the old Staffordshire, the dishes are only fired to about one-fourth the temperatures required here, and the color can be handled more readily. But that kind of soft china chips and cracks very easily and cannot stand the strain of dining car service. While modern in texture the new china follows closely in style that of the old Staffordshire china and is particularly appropriate for use in the twenty dining cars which The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company has had built and furnished in American Colonial style. While the task was found greater than anyone imagined in advance, it is felt that the final result in this dinner set of blue china, especially prepared for your use as a guest in a Colonial dining car of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, is a fitting commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of America's first passenger and freight railroad.

The dinner plates, packed in separate cartons, for sale as souvenirs, may be secured from the stewards of dining cars, at $1.00 each.

For information in relation to purchase of any of the other pieces (prices listed below), please communicate with the Manager Dining Car and Commissary Department, Baltimore, Md., or during the period of "A Century Of Progress" Exposition at Chicago, May 27-Nov. 1, 1933, orders may be left in the Office at the B. & O. Exhibit in the Travel and Transport Building.

This booklet was prepared originally for the Baltimore and Ohio Centenary Exhibition and Pageant held in 1927, Baltimore, Md., which was known as the "Fair of the Iron Horse," and has been reprinted in connection with the Company's exhibits at A Century of Progress, at Chicago, 1933.


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