Belangrike gebeure in Irak - Geskiedenis

Belangrike gebeure in Irak - Geskiedenis


1900-2000: Irak se tydlyn

'N Tydlyn van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in die Irakse geskiedenis en klassestryd in die 20ste eeu.

Sedert die staat Irak vroeg in hierdie eeu tot stand gekom het, het die werkersklas in die gebied 'n wrede uitbuiting en onderdrukking beleef deur die mededingende regerende klasgroepe wat om mag meeding. Asof die hantering van hierdie tuisgemaakte gangsters nie genoeg was nie, het hulle ook die koeëls en bomme van die globale kapitalistiese moondhede (veral Brittanje en Amerika) in die gesig gestaar wat probeer het om die olie -rykdom van hierdie deel van die wêreld te beheer.

Intussen het opposisie -politieke organisasies, soos die Irakse Kommunistiese Party en die Koerdiese Demokratiese Party, konsekwent afsprake gemaak met sowel die Irakse regimes as die wêreldmagte ten koste van diegene wat hulle beweer het dat hulle teen die staat lei. Ten spyte van al hierdie dinge, het die werkersklas 'n krag getoon om mee rekening te hou, regerings omver te werp en oorlogspogings te saboteer. Hierdie kort chronologie beskryf 'n paar van die belangrikste oomblikke in 'n eeu van oorlog en opstand.

1900
Irak bestaan ​​nie. Sedert die sestiende eeu het die gebied wat later Irak word, deel uitgemaak van die Turkse Ottomaanse Ryk. Die heerskappy van die Ryk is gebaseer in die stede waar die platteland steeds oorheers word deur landelike stamgroepe, sommige van hulle nomadies.

1912
Turkish Petroleum Company wat deur Britse, Nederlandse en Duitse belange gevorm is, verkry toegewings om na olie te soek in die Ottomaanse provinsies Bagdad en Mosul (albei later deel van Irak).

1914-18
Turkye staan ​​saam met Duitsland in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Om sy strategiese belange en moontlike olievelde te beskerm, beset Brittanje Basra in November 1914, wat uiteindelik Bagdad in 1917 verower. Teen die einde van die oorlog word die meeste provinsies van Irak deur Britse magte beset, hoewel sommige gebiede nog steeds & quotunpacified & quot. Koloniale direkte heerskappy word gevestig in Brits Mesopotamië, met die hoogste vlakke van die administrasie in Britse hande.

1919
Gedurende 1919 en 1920 is daar konstante stygings in die noorde van Irak, met Britse militêre offisiere en amptenare wat vermoor word. Die verskillende stamme in hierdie gebied deel 'n gemeenskaplike Koerdiese taal en kultuur, maar in hierdie stadium is daar weinig vraag na 'n aparte Koerdiese nasiestaat. Die kwessie is eerder weerstand teen enige eksterne staatsowerheid.

Die RAF bom Koerdiese gebiede. Vleuel-bevelvoerder Arthur Harris (later bekend as "bomber Harris" vir sy rol in die vernietiging van Dresden in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog) spog met: "Die Arabier en die Koerd weet nou wat werklike bombardering beteken by ongevalle en skade. Binne 45 minute kan 'n groot dorp prakties uitgewis word en 'n derde van die inwoners dood of beseer word & quot.

Kolonel Gerald Leachman, 'n toonaangewende Britse offisier, verklaar dat die enigste manier om die stamme te hanteer, 'groot slagting' is. Die RAF Midde -Oosterse kommando versoek chemiese wapens om teen 'n weerbarstige Arabier 'n eksperiment te gebruik. Winston Churchill, minister van buitelandse sake vir oorlog, sê: "Ek is sterk ten gunste van die gebruik van giftige gas teen onbeskaafde stamme .. tog sou daar geen ernstige permanente gevolge van die meeste van die geraakdes & quot. Ander voer aan dat die voorgestelde gas in werklikheid kinders en siek persone sou doodmaak en die sig permanent sou beskadig. In hierdie stadium voorkom tegniese probleme die gebruik van gas, maar later word dit ontplooi.

1920
In die na-oorlogse opgrawing van die buit van die verowering tussen die seëvierende imperialistiese moondhede, kry Brittanje Irak (sowel as Palestina), Frankryk kry Sirië en Libanon. Die grense van die nuwe staat Irak word bepaal deur die groot moondhede, wat die toneel stel vir 'n eeu van grenskonflikte (byvoorbeeld die oorlog tussen Iran en Irak).

Die Britse owerhede pas streng kontrole toe, hef strenger belasting op as hul voorgangers en bedryf dwangarbeidskemas. In Junie 1920 versprei 'n gewapende opstand teen die Britse heerskappy (die Revolusie van 1920) oor die suide en sentrale Irak. Brittanje verloor drie maande lank beheer oor groot dele van die platteland. Britse militêre poste word oorskry en 450 Britse troepe word gedood (1500 word beseer).

1921
Teen Februarie is die opstand verpletter, met 9000 rebelle wat deur Britse magte gedood of gewond is. Hele dorpe word vernietig deur Britse artillerie, en vermeende rebelle word sonder verhoor geskiet. Die lugmag van die POF speel 'n groot rol wat dit behels, blyk uit 'n verslag van 'n lugaanval waarin mans, vroue en kinders met 'n masjien geskiet is toe hulle uit 'n dorp gevlug het.

Brittanje besluit om die direkte koloniale bewind te vervang deur 'n Arabiese administrasie wat volgens hom Britse belange sal dien. Aan die hoof van die nuwe staatstruktuur skep Brittanje 'n monargie met Faysal as die eerste koning van Irak. Alhoewel senior poste nou deur Irakezen gevul word, bly die uiteindelike beheer by die Britse adviseurs.

1924
Die Britse Arbeidsregering sanksioneer die gebruik van die POF teen die Koerden, en gooi bomme en gas, onder meer op Sulliemania in Desember. Die gevolge word deur Lord Thompson beskryf as 'angswekkend' met paniekbevange stamme wat in die woestyn vlieg 'waar honderde meer van dors moes omgekom het'.

1927

Die Britse beheerde Iraq Petroleum Company (opvolger van die TPC) maak sy eerste groot olieput oop by Baba Gurgur, noord van Kirkuk. Tonne olie ontruim die plaaslike platteland voordat die put toegemaak word.

1930

Die Anglo-Irak-verdrag baan die weg na onafhanklikheid. Die verdrag maak egter voorsiening daarvoor dat Brittanje twee lugbase moet onderhou en Britse invloed op Irak se buitelandse beleid tot 1957 sal behou. In onderhandelinge voer die Britse regering aan dat Koeweit 'n klein verbruikbare staat is wat sonder te veel kommer opgeoffer kan word as die magstryd van die tydperk dit vereis & quot.

Koerdiese opstande, wat veroorsaak word deur die vrees vir hul plek in die nuwe staat, word met behulp van die POF neergelê.

1931

Algemene staking teen die munisipale fooi -wet wat drakoniese nuwe belasting (drie keer swaarder as voorheen) en werkloosheidsvergoeding oplê. Duisende werkers en ambagsmanne, waaronder 3 000 petroleumwerkers, neem deel en daar is botsings met die polisie. Die POF vlieg oor stedelike sentrums om stakers en hul ondersteuners te intimideer.

1932

Irak word toegelaat tot die Volkebond en word formeel onafhanklik - hoewel Brittanje steeds 'n sterk invloed het.

1933

Die Artisans Association ('n vakbond) reël 'n boikot van 'n maand lank op die Britse Bagdad Electric Light and Power Company. Hierna word vakbonde en werkersorganisasies vir die volgende tien jaar verbied en ondergronds gedwing met hul leiers in die tronk.

Koning Faysal sterf en word opgevolg deur sy seun Ghazi.

1934

Iraq Petroleum Company begin kommersiële uitvoer van olie uit die Kirkuk -velde.

1935-36

Sporadiese stamopstand, veral in die suide van die land. Oorsake sluit in die poging van die regering om diensplig in te stel (die fokus van 'n opstand deur die minderheid Yazidi-gemeenskap), die onteiening van kleinboere as grond wat in stambesit is, in private hande geplaas word, en die afnemende mag van stamleiers. Die opstande word verpletter deur lugaanvalle en summiere teregstellings.

1936-37

Generaal Bakr Sidqi, 'n bewonderaar van Mussolini, installeer 'n militêre regering en begin onderdrukking teen die linkses. Daar is protesaanvalle regoor die land, insluitend by die Iraq Petroleum Company in Kirkuk en by die National Cigarette Factory in Bagdad.

1939

Koning Ghazi sterf in 'n motorongeluk. Baie Irakezen glo dat daar 'n sameswering was, aangesien die koning uitgesproke anti-Brits geword het. Tydens 'n woedende betoging in Mosul word die Britse konsul vermoor.

1940

Rashid Ali word premier na 'n staatsgreep, ten koste van pro-Britse politici. Die nuwe regering neem 'n standpunt van neutraliteit in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in en weier om Brittanje te ondersteun, tensy dit onafhanklikheid verleen aan die Britse beheerde Sirië en Palestina. Skakels word met die Duitse regering gevestig.

1941

Britse troepe land by Basra. Die Irakse regering eis dat hulle die land verlaat. In plaas daarvan val Brittanje Irak weer binne en na die dertig dae lange oorlog 'herstel sy ondersteuners aan bewind. Tydens die Britse besetting word krygswet verklaar. Arabiese nasionalistiese leiers word opgehang of opgesluit, met tot 1000 sonder verhoor. Desondanks gryp die Britse magte nie in wanneer Rashid -ondersteuners 'n pogrom in die Joodse gebied van Bagdad oprig nie, wat 150 Jode doodmaak.

1943

Broodstakings veroorsaak deur voedseltekorte en prysstygings word deur die polisie neergelê.

1946

Staking deur oliewerkers by die Britse beheerde Iraq Petroleum Company in Kirkuk wat hoër lone en ander voordele eis. Werkers bots met die polisie en tien word dood toe die polisie op 12 Julie op 'n massavergadering losgebrand het. Die volgende maand is daar 'n staking deur oliewerkers in die Iraanse hawe Abadan en Brittanje skuif meer troepe na Basra (naby die Iraanse grens). Die Irakse regering onderdruk opposisiepapiere wat hierdie stap kritiseer, en veroorsaak stakings deur die drukkers en spoorwegwerkers. Die kabinet word gedwing om te bedank.

1946-47

Stakings en betogings teen die voorgestelde stigting van die Sionistiese staat Israel ten koste van die onteiende Palestyne.

1948

Die Irakse regering onderhandel 'n nuwe verdrag met Brittanje wat Brittanje se seggenskap oor militêre beleid sou verleng tot 1973. Britse troepe sou uit Irak se grond onttrek word, maar het die reg om terug te keer in geval van oorlog. Op 16 Januarie, die dag nadat die Verdrag in Portsmouth ooreengekom is, skiet die polisie vier studente dood tydens 'n betoging teen die verdrag. Dit lei tot 'n opstand wat bekend staan ​​as al-Wathba (die sprong). Militante betogings en onluste het oor die hele land versprei, nie net teen die voorgestelde verdrag nie, maar ook teen broodtekorte en stygende pryse. 'N Paar dae later word verskeie mense doodgemaak toe die polisie op 'n massamars van spoorwegwerkers en krotbuurte losgebrand het. Op 27 Januarie word 300 tot 400 mense deur die polisie en die weermag doodgemaak terwyl betogers versperrings van brandende motors in die straat oprig. Die kabinet bedank en die verdrag word verwerp.

In Mei staak 3000 werkers by IPC se K3 -pompstasie naby Haditha vir hoër lone wat die stasie tot stilstand bring. Na twee en 'n half weke het die regering en die IPC voedselvoorraad en water afgesny vir die stakers, wat dan besluit om op Bagdad, 250 km daarvandaan, op te trek. Op wat bekend staan ​​as die groot opmars '(al-Masira al-Kubra), word stakers gevoed en beskut deur mense in die klein dorpies en dorpe onderweg voordat hulle in Fallujah, 70 km van Bagdad, gearresteer word.

Die Britse militêre sending word teruggetrek uit Irak. Krygswet word verklaar, oënskynlik weens die oorlog in Palestina, en betogings word verbied.

1949

Die leiers van die Kommunistiese Party word in die openbaar in Bagdad gehang, terwyl hul liggame 'n paar uur lank as 'n waarskuwing aan die opponente van die regime laat hang het.

1952

Havenwerkers staak vir verhoogde lone, meer behuising en beter werksomstandighede. Stakers neem die Basra -kragopwekker oor en sny water en elektrisiteit in die stad af. Stakers word dood toe die polisie intrek.

In Oktober staak studente oor veranderinge in eksamenreëls. Die beweging versprei na massa-onluste in die meeste stedelike sentrums, bekend as al-Intifada (die bewing). In Bagdad word 'n polisiestasie en die Amerikaanse inligtingskantoor tot op die grond verbrand. 'N Militêre regering neem oor en verklaar krygswet. Daar is 'n uitgangspunt, massa -arrestasies en die verbod op sommige koerante. 18 betogers word dood in militêre optrede.

1954

Regeringsbesluite laat die Ministerraad toe om persone wat skuldig bevind is aan kommunisme, anargisme en werk vir 'n buitelandse regering, te deporteer. Die polisie kry nuwe magte om vergaderings te stop.

1956

Egipte nasionaliseer die Suez -kanaal. Brittanje, Israel en Frankryk begin 'n militêre aanval op Egipte. Die regering sluit alle kolleges en hoërskole in Bagdad toe groot demonstrasies, stakings en onluste versprei het. Twee oproeriges word ter dood veroordeel ná botsings met die polisie in die stad Al-Havy in die suide. Krygswet word opgelê.

1958

Gewilde onrus regoor die land, insluitend in Diwaniyah waar 43 polisie en 'n onbekende aantal betogers in Junie in 'n geveg van drie uur dood is.

'N Maand later bring die & quot14 Julie -rewolusie & quot; die ou regime tot 'n einde. 'N Staatsgreep onder leiding van lede van die Vrybeamptes neem die mag oor, verwerp imperialisme en roep 'n republiek uit. Die koninklike familie word geskiet. Menigtes loop die strate op en 'n aantal Amerikaanse sakelui en Jordaanse ministers wat in die Bagdad -hotel bly, word gedood. Mense neem kos uit die winkels sonder om te betaal, en dink dat geld nou verouderd is. Om te keer dat die rewolusie buite hul beheer versprei, lê die nuwe regering 'n aandklokreël in. Na 'n kort magstryd binne die nuwe regime, word Abd al-Karim Quasim premier (asook hoof van die gewapende magte) en regeer hy steeds met die steun van die Irakse Kommunistiese Party (TKP) en ander linkses.

Alhoewel die Islamitiese invloed sterk bly, is daar openbare uitdrukkings van anti-klerikalisme, insluitend die openbare verbranding van die Koran.

Boere in die suide neem die saak in hul eie hande sonder om te wag dat Quasim sy beloftes van grondhervorming gestand doen. In al-Kut en al-'Amarah plunder hulle eienaars se eiendom, verbrand hulle huise en vernietig rekeninge en grondregisters.

Uit vrees vir die verspreiding van rebellie in die Midde -Ooste, stuur die Verenigde State 14 000 mariniers na Libanon. Planne vir 'n gesamentlike VSA/Britse inval in Irak kom op niks uit nie, want daar kan niemand in Irak vind om mee saam te werk nie.

1959

Baathiste en nasionaliste vorm ondergrondse anti-kommunistiese treffergroepe, wat nie net ICP-lede, maar ander radikale werkers vermoor. Teen 1961 is tot 300 mense so vermoor in Bagdad en ongeveer 400 in Mosoel.

In Mosoel voer Arabiese nasionalistiese offisiere 'n onsuksesvolle staatsgreep teen die regering aan, hoofsaaklik deur antikommunisme. Populêre verset gaan verder as om die staatsgreep te onderdruk: die rykes word aangeval en hulle huise word geplunder. Daar is soortgelyke tonele in Kirkuk, waar 90 generaals, kapitaliste en eienaars vermoor word in gewelddadige botsings (te veel wat later deur die TKP veroordeel is).

1960

Quasim breek radikale opposisie aan. 6000 militante werkers word afgedank. Verskeie lede van die Kommunistiese Party word ter dood veroordeel ná hul rol in die Kirkuk -botsings. Desondanks ondersteun die ICP -leierskap steeds die regering, aangedring deur Moskou.

1961

Oorlog breek uit tussen die regering en die Koerden wat onderbroke duur tot 1975. In die eerste jaar word 500 plekke deur die Irakse lugmag gebombardeer en 80 000 mense is verplaas.

Koeweit, wat sedert 1899 onder Britse beheer was, word onafhanklik. Irak beweer dat Koeweit deel van Irak moet wees. Brittanje reageer deur troepe na Koeweit te stuur.

1963

Die regering van Quasim word omvergewerp in 'n staatsgreep in Januarie wat die Baathiste vir die eerste keer aan bewind bring. Die Arabiese nasionalistiese Baath -party bevoordeel die samesmelting van Irak, Egipte en Sirië in een Arabiese nasie. In dieselfde jaar kom die Baath ook aan bewind in Sirië, hoewel die Siriese en Irakse partye daarna geskei het.

Die Baath versterk die bande met die Verenigde State, wat vermoed word deur die aanmoediging van die staatsgreep. Tydens die staatsgreep word betogers deur tenks afgemaai en begin 'n tydperk van genadelose vervolging waartydens tot 10 000 mense in die tronk sit, waarvan baie gemartel word. Die CIA help om inligting oor kommuniste en radikale te verskaf. Benewens die 149 wat amptelik tereggestel is, word tot 5000 in die terreur gedood, baie begrawe lewendig in massagrafte. Die nuwe regering sit die oorlog teen die Koerde voort en bombardeer hulle met tenks, artillerie en uit die lug en dorpe wat stoot.
In November word die Baath uit die mag verwyder deur nog 'n staatsgreep deur ondersteuners van die Egiptiese Arabiese nasionalis, Nasser.

1967

Na 'n skeuring in die Kommunistiese Party begin 'n groep onder leiding van Aziz al-Hajj guerrilla-oorlogvoering teen die staat, beïnvloed deur Che Guevara en Maoïsme. Daar is sluipmoorde op individuele kapitaliste en grootskaalse gewapende konfrontasies.

1968

Die Baath Party -mag kom weer aan bewind ná 'n staatsgreep in Julie. Dit skep 'n staatsapparaat wat stelselmatig deur die Baath -party gedomineer word, wat hom in staat stel om minstens die volgende dertig jaar aan bewind te bly.

Die Baath -burgermag, die National Guard, slaan op teen demonstrasies en stakings. In November word twee stakers doodgeskiet by 'n plantaardige olie -fabriek naby Bagdad, en drie word dood tydens 'n betoging ter herdenking van die Russiese Revolusie.

1969

Die regime begin vermeende kommuniste afrond. Die guerrilla -beweging word verslaan, met baie van sy lede wat tot die dood toe gemartel word. Aziz al-Hajj verraai hulle deur terug te sê op televisie en word daarna Irakse ambassadeur in Frankryk.

Die lugmag bombardeer Koerdiese gebiede, maar die militêre dooiepunt bly tot die volgende jaar wanneer Saddam Hussein 'n ooreenkoms met die Koerdiese Demokratiese Party onderhandel. In ruil vir beperkte outonomie stem die KDP -leierskap in om sy peshmerga -vegters in die Irakse weermag te integreer.

1973

Die Irakse oliebedryf is genasionaliseer.

1974

Na druk van die Sowjetunie sluit die Irakse Kommunistiese Party saam met die Baath aan by die pro-regering National Progressive Front, maar die Baath bly in beheer van die staat.

Oorlog breek weer uit in Koerdistan namate die ooreenkoms met die KDP verbrokkel. Die KDP word beroof van sy tradisionele bondgenote in die KP en die Sowjetunie, en ondersteun nou die Baath. In plaas daarvan soek en ontvang hy hulp van die VSA en die Sjah van Iran. Die Baathiste loods napalm -aanvalle op die Koerdiese dorpe Halabja en Kalalze.

1975

Die Irakse weermag gaan voort met die bombardement van burgerlike gebiede in Koerdistan, en 130 mense sterf in Qala'Duza, 43 in Halabja en 29 in Galala in April.

Irak onderhandel 'n ooreenkoms met Iran en onttrek hulp van Iraanse Koerde en ander anti-Shah-magte in ruil daarvoor dat Iran die steun aan die Irakse KDP stop. Iran neem die militêre toerusting terug wat dit aan die KDP gegee het, en laat die veld oop vir die Irakse leër om Koerdistan te verower

1978

Groothandelinge van ICP -lede kritiseer die regime. Twaalf word tereggestel vir politieke aktiwiteite in die weermag. Alle nie-Baathistiese politieke aktiwiteite in die weermag (soos die lees van 'n politieke koerant), of deur voormalige lede van die gewapende magte word verbied onder die doodstraf. Met universele diensplig beteken dit dat alle volwasse mans met die dood bedreig word weens politieke aktiwiteite.

1979

Saddam Hussein word president van die republiek, met die toenemende konsentrasie van mag in sy hande gedurende die voorafgaande elf jaar.

1980

Oorlog breek uit tussen Irak en die nuwe Iraanse regime onder leiding van Ayatollah Khomeni. Die konflik fokus op grensgeskille en die vooruitsig dat die Islamitiese revolusie na Irak sal versprei. Iran beskiet die Irakse stede Khanaqin en Mandali Irak begin 'n bomaanval oor Teheran.

1982

Gewilde opstand teen die regering in Koerdiese gebiede. Die regering besluit dat verdwaaldes uit die weermag (almal wat langer as vyf dae sonder verlof afwesig was) tereggestel sal word.

In die suidelike moerasgebiede begin die Irakse weermag 'n massiewe militêre operasie met die hulp van swaar artillerie, missiele en vliegtuie om die duisende woestyne en hul ondersteuners in die gebied uit te spoel. Rebelle hardloop nie net weg van die oorlog nie, maar organiseer sabotasie -aksies soos om 'n arsenaal naby die stad Amara op te blaas. In die dorp Douru weerstaan ​​bewapende inwoners die polisie om huis-tot-huis soektogte na woestyne te voorkom. In Kasem in dieselfde gebied bots gewapende rebelle met die weermag. Dorpe wat die rebelle ondersteun, word vernietig en hul inwoners word doodgemaak.

1984

Amerikaanse steun vir Irak in die oorlog word weerspieël in die herstel van diplomatieke betrekkinge tussen die twee lande. Irak het militêre vliegtuie uit Frankryk en missiele van die Sowjetunie ontvang. Saoedi -Arabië en Koeweit finansier die Irakse oorlogspoging. Wes- en Oosblokke is verenig in 'n wens dat Irak die invloed van Iran en Islamitiese fundamentalisme moet beperk.

Jalal al-Talabani se Patriotic Union of Koerdistan roep 'n wapenstilstand op terwyl sy troepe langs die Baath veg.

1985

Begin van die 'oorlog van die stede' met Iran en Irak wat rakette op mekaar se hoofstede afvuur.

1987

In Mei vind daar 'n opstand plaas in die Koerdiese stad Halabja onder leiding van die baie woestyne uit die weermag wat in die stad woon. Volgens een ooggetuie het die regeringsmagte omvergewerp. Die mense het oorgeneem en die polisie en weermag moes wegkruip, net in tenks en gepantserde afdelings kon rondbeweeg & quot. Honderde mense word dood toe die opstand verpletter word.

1988

Gewapende woestyne neem die stad Sirwan (naby Halabja) oor. Die Irakse lugmag vernietig die stad met bomme en vuurpyle. Halabja word deur Iran gebombardeer, en op 13 Maart val die Irakse regering die stad aan met chemiese wapens wat minstens 5 000 burgerlikes doodmaak. Arme mense wat probeer het om uit die stad vir Iran te vlug voordat die bloedbad deur die Koerdiese nasionalistiese peshmerga gestaak word. Gedurende hierdie tydperk van opstand heers die Koerdiese nasionalistiese partye wydverspreid as gevolg van hul geskiedenis van samewerking met die staat en hul gebrek aan ondersteuning vir opstande van die werkersklas.

Die Amerikaners stuur 'n vlootmag na die Golf na aanvalle op olietenkskip. Dit neem die Irakse kant effektief af, skiet 'n Iranse passasiersvliegtuig neer wat bykans 300 mense doodmaak, en val Iran se olieplatforms aan, en nog 200 word dood. In Augustus stem Iran en Irak ooreen dat 'n skietstilstand die eerste Golfoorlog tot 'n einde bring. Die Britse regering stem in die geheim in om die beheer oor wapenuitvoer na Irak te verslap.
Die geskiedenis van die Halabja -bloedbad in 1988

1990

In Julie keur die Britse regering toe dat die onderneming Matrix Churchill ingenieursuitrusting na Irak uitvoer, wetende dat dit gebruik gaan word om skulpe en missiele te vervaardig. Die volgende maand val Irak Koeweit binne.

1991

In Januarie loods die Amerikaanse weermag, met steun van Brittanje en die ander 'koalisiemagte' Operation Desert Storm, 'n massiewe aanval op Irak en sy magte in Koeweit. Die konflik is minder 'n oorlog as wat John Pilger noem en kwoteer eensydige bloedfees & quot. Die geallieerde magte ly slegs 131 sterftes (baie van hulle is dood deur 'vriendelike vuur'), ​​in vergelyking met tot 250,000 Irakese dooies.
Die geskiedenis van die Golfoorlog 1990-91
Die geskiedenis van wêreldwye weerstand teen die Golfoorlog

Ondanks die algemene verklaring van generaal Norman Schwarzkopf dat die bondgenote Irakse nie terugtrek nie, word dienspligtiges van Irak geslag, selfs nadat die onvoorwaardelike onttrekking uit Koeweit begin het. Die dag voor die einde van die 'oorlog', word troepe (en burgerlikes) wat terugtrek uit Koeweit -stad op die Basra -snelweg vermoor in wat Amerikaanse vlieëniers met vreugde 'eendskiet' noem. Kilometer lank naby die Mutla -rif is die pad gevul met verkoolde lyke en verstrengelde wrakstukke. 'N Ooggetuie skryf dat & quot In baie gevalle is die menslike vorm tot niks anders as 'n vormlose swart knop, die kleur van steenkool, die tekstuur van as & quot (Stephen Sackur) gereduseer.

Baie burgerlikes word ook doodgemaak, veral in die Amiriya -bunker in Bagdad, waar honderde mense wat van geallieerde bomme skuil, doodgemaak word wanneer dit 'n direkte treffer van twee missiele kry.

In Februarie en Maart het gewilde opstande teen die Irakse regering oor die hele land versprei. Dit begin by Basra in die suide van Irak, waar die vonk rebelle is wat 'n tenk gebruik om op die groot foto's van Saddam Hussein in die stad te skiet. Mense in Koerdiese gebiede is geïnspireer deur rebellie in die suide. Polisiestasies, weermagbasisse en ander regeringsgeboue word verwoes en brand. Winkels word geplunder. Kospakkies word beset en die kos word versprei. In Sulliemania in die noorde breek rebelle die tronk op en maak al die gevangenes vry en storm dan die geheime polisiehoof waar baie gemartel en vermoor is. Baathistiese amptenare en geheime polisie word geskiet. In sommige gebiede word self georganiseerde werkersrade (shoras) ingestel om sake te bestuur. Hulle stig hul eie radiostasies, mediese poste (om bloedskenkings vir die hospitaal in te samel) en milisie om regeringsmagte te weerstaan.
Die geskiedenis van die opstande in Suid -Irak en Koerdistan

In Bagdad self is daar tydens die oorlog massale verlate van die hoofbarakke, met offisiere wat probeer keer dat hulle geskiet word. Twee dele van die stad, Al Sourah en Al Sho'ela val in die effektiewe beheer van woestyne en hul ondersteuners.
Die geskiedenis van die massa -muitery van Irakse magte in die Golfoorlog

Na 'n wrede onderdrukking van die rebellie in die Suide (vergemaklik deur die vroeëre geallieerde slagting van dienspligtiges op die Basra -snelweg), fokus die regeringsmagte op Koerdistan. Hulle beset Sulliemania in April, maar die stad is verlate met byna al die inwoners wat na die berge gevlug het.

Die Westerse media stel die opstande voor as die werk van Koerdiese nasionaliste in die noorde en Sjiïtiese Moslems in die suide, maar dit is eintlik massa -opstande van die armes. Trouens, die belangrikste Koerdiese nasionalistiese partye (die KDP en die PUK) is gekant teen radikale aspekte van die opstande en probeer die shora -beweging vernietig. Regtig kondig hulle 'n nuwe onderhandelde ooreenkoms met Saddam Hussein aan, kort nadat die opstande verpletter is.

1991-2003

Alhoewel militêre optrede ophou, word die oorlog teen mense in Irak voortgesit op ander maniere - sanksies. Die vernietiging van waterpompstasies en rioolfilteringsaanlegte deur geallieerde bombardemente word vererger deur sanksies wat verhoed dat dit herstel word. Dit kom neer op kiemoorlogvoering, aangesien die onvermydelike gevolge epidemies van disenterie, tifus en cholera is. In 1997 beraam die VN dat 1,2 miljoen mense, waaronder 750 000 kinders onder die ouderdom van vyf, gesterf het weens die skaarste aan voedsel en medisyne.

1996

Die VSA lanseer 27 kruisrakette teen Irak.

1998

In Februarie is daar 'n massiewe militêre opbou deur Amerikaanse en Britse magte in die Golf, wat 'n nuwe oorlog teen Irak bedreig. By hierdie geleentheid word gewapende konflik vermy na 'n ooreenkoms op die laaste oomblik oor VN -wapensinspekteurs.

Op 1 Oktober voer die Irakse owerhede onder bevel van genl. Sabah Farhan al-Duri 119 Irakezen en drie Egiptenare tereg in die Abu Ghraib-gevangenis naby Bagdad. Nege-en-twintig van die wat gedood is, is lede van die gewapende magte, en vyftig is gevange geneem vir hul deelname aan die opstande in Maart 1991 wat gevolg het op die Golfoorlog. Hierdie massa-teregstelling is klaarblyklik 'n voortsetting van die veldtog wat 'n jaar tevore deur die regering geloods is en na raming 2500 gevangenes tereggestel het.

In Desember, nadat die wapeninspekteurs uit Irak (en tydens die beskuldigingskrisis van president Clinton) geskors is, begin die VSA Operation Desert Fox. Oor 'n tydperk van vier dae word 400 kruisraketten op Irak gelanseer, tesame met 600 lugaanvalle. Britse vliegtuie neem ook deel aan lugaanvalle. Volgens Irak word duisende in hierdie aanvalle dood en gewond.

1999

In Maart word Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq-al Sadr, die senior Sjiïtiese godsdienstige leier in Irak, vermoor, met die vermoede wat op regeringsagente val. 'N Groot opstand in Basra word onderdruk met honderde sterftes, baie gedood tydens massa -teregstellings.

Westerse militêre aanvalle duur voort, oënskynlik teen Irakse lugverdediging. Op 11 April word twee mense dood toe Westerse oorlogsvliegtuie teikens in die Quadissiya -provinsie bombardeer. Op 27 April word vier mense dood deur Amerikaanse vliegtuie naby Mosulin in die noordelike vliegsone. Op 9 Mei word vier mense in die Basra -provinsie vermoor, waaronder drie in 'n boer se huis in Qurna. Op 12 Mei word 12 mense in die stad Mosul doodgemaak.


Bronne
Robert Clough, Labour: 'n party wat geskik is vir imperialisme (Larkin, Londen, 1992)
Marion Farouk-Sluglett en Peter Sluglett, Irak sedert 1958: van revolusie tot diktatuur (Tauris, Londen, 1990).
Lawrence James, Die opkoms en ondergang van die Britse Ryk (Little, Brown & amp Co., Londen, 1994).
Brian MacArthur (red.), Versendings uit die Golfoorlog (Bloomsbury, Londen, 1991).
Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (Longman, Harlow, 1985).
Midnight Notes Collective, Midnight Oil: work, energy, war, 1973-1992 (Autonomedia, New York, 1992).
Peter Nore en Terisa Turner (red.), Olie- en klasstryd (Zed, Londen, 1980).
Richard Norton-Taylor, Mark Lloyd en Stephen Cook, knie diep in oneer: die Scott-verslag en die gevolge daarvan (Gollancz, Londen, 1996)
Stephen Sackur, The Charred Bodies at Mutla Ridge, London Review of Books, 4 April 1991.
Geoff Simons, Irak: van Sumer tot Saddam (Macmillan, Londen, 1996).
Die Koerdiese opstand en Koerdistan se nasionalistiese winkelfront en sy onderhandelinge met die Baathist/Fascist Regime (BM Blob/BM Combustion, Londen, 1991)
Die klasstryd in Irak - 'n onderhoud met 'n veteraan, Workers Scud, Junie 1991 (beskikbaar by Box 15, 138 Kingsland High St, London E8 2NS)
Ooggetuie in Halabja, Wildcat no.13, 1989 (beskikbaar by BM Cat, WC1N 3XX)
Tien dae wat Irak geskud het, Wildcat, 1991.
Iran-Irak: Klasoorlog teen imperialistiese oorlog, Wildcat no.10, 1987.
Revolusionêre nederlaag in Irak, Kommunisme - Internationalist Communist Group, April 1992.
Slag van imperialisme in die lug oor Irak, An Phoblact/Republican News, 5 Februarie 1998.
Gemerkte kaarte in die Midde -Ooste, Fifth Estate, lente 1991.


Pahlavi -dinastie

1921 Februarie - Reza Khan, militêre bevelvoerder, neem die bewind oor.

1926 April - Reza Khan het Reza Shah Pahlavi gekroon.

1935 - Iran word aangeneem as die amptelike naam van die land.

1941 -Die getrouheid van die Shah's by die as in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog lei tot die Anglo-Russiese besetting van Iran en die afsetting van die Shah ten gunste van sy seun, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

1951 April-Die parlement stem om die oliebedryf te nasionaliseer, wat oorheers word deur die Britse Anglo-Iraanse oliemaatskappy. Brittanje stel 'n embargo en 'n blokkade in, wat olie -uitvoer stop en die ekonomie raak. 'N Magstryd ontstaan ​​tussen die Shah en die nasionalistiese premier Mohammad Mossadeq.

1953 Augustus - Eerste minister Mossadeq word omvergewerp tydens 'n staatsgreep wat deur die Britse en Amerikaanse intelligensiedienste ontwerp is. Generaal Fazlollah Zahedi word as eerste minister aangewys, en die Shah keer terug uit tydelike ballingskap.


2003 Maart - Die inval onder leiding van die VSA val die regering van Saddam Hussein omver, wat begin het met jare van gewelddadige konflik met verskillende groepe wat om mag meeding.

2003 Julie - deur die VS aangestelde Bestuursraad vergader vir die eerste keer. Die bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse magte sê dat sy troepe 'n guerrilla-styl oorlog met 'n lae intensiteit ondervind.

2003 Augustus - Bom met selfmoordvoertuie verwoes die VN se hoofkwartier in Bagdad en maak die VN -gesant Sergio Vieira de Mello dood.

Motorbom in Najaf vermoor 125, insluitend die sjia-leier Ayatollah Mohammed Baqr al-Hakim.

2003 Desember - Saddam Hussein gevange geneem in Tikrit.

2004 Maart - Selfmoordbomaanvallers val Sjia -feesgangers in Karbala en Bagdad aan en 140 mense sterf.

2004 April -Mei - Fotografiese bewyse blyk uit die misbruik van Irakse gevangenes deur Amerikaanse troepe in die Abu Ghreib -gevangenis in Bagdad.


Historiese prestasies

Epos van Gilgamesj, 'n gedig uit Mesopotamië, is een van die vroegste oorlewende literatuurwerke.

Sumerian statuettes depicting theocracy and the bureaucratic system of priesthood

Cuneiform was the earliest writing system.

The Code of Hammurabi, is one of the earliest comprehensive law codes.

Iraq is the birthplace of many significant historical achievements that affect life around the world today, from the earliest known writing system and innovations in irrigation to important agricultural developments like the first wheel and the first seed plow to significant scientific achievements like the division of the circle into 360 degrees and the invention of latitude and longitude in geographical navigation.

A list of some of these achievements includes:

  • sophisticated irrigation systems
  • first cereal agriculture
  • earliest writing system (cuneiform)
  • full syllabic alphabet
  • double entry accounting practices
  • commercial record-keeping
  • the usage of private property
  • the numeral 60 based math system
  • banking
  • recording literature (such as the epic, Gilgamesh)
  • early calendars
  • bureaucratic system of priesthood
  • earliest legal comprehensive code (the Hammurabi Code)
  • the first wheel
  • the first seed plow
  • the first sailboat
  • the division of the circle into 360 degrees
  • the invention of latitude and longitude in geographical navigation
  • the first sophisticated use of medical science
  • algebraic equations and invention of zero

Famous Birthdays

    Omar Pasha [Michael Lats], Croatian governor/viceroy of Bosnia/Iraq Faisal I ibn Hussein ibn Ali, 1st king of Iraq/Syria Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr, Iraqi fieldmarshal and President of Iraq (1968-79), born in Tikrit, Ottoman Empire (d. 1982) Abd al-Karīm Qāsim, Prime Minister of Iraq (1958-63), born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 1963) Safa Khulusi, Iraqi writer and historian, born in Baghdad (d. 1995) Adnan Pachachi, Iraqi politician Ammo Baba, Iraqi-Assyrian footballer and coach, born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 2009) Faisal II, King of Iraq (1939-58), son of Ghasi I, born in Baghdad (d. 1958) Tariq Aziz, Iraqi politician and close adviser to Saddam Hussein, born in Tel Keppe, Iraq (d. 2015)

Saddam Hussein

1937-04-28 Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq (1979-2003), born in Al-Awja, Iraq (d. 2006)

    Paulos Faraj Rahho, Iraqi Chaldean Catholic bishop, born in Mosul, Iraq (d. 2008) Massoud Barzani, Iraqi Kurdish politician Patricia Kluge, Baghdad Iraq, wife of Billionaire John Kluge Zaha Hadid, British architect (London Aquatic Centre), born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 2016) David Petraeus, Commanding General of Multinational Force Iraq (2007-08), born in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer, interim President of Iraq Kamaran Abdalla, Iraq/Engl/Neth actor (Goede Tijden Selechte Tijden) Scott Ritter, UN weapons inspector in Iraq Kadim Al Sahir, Iraqi singer-songwriter (Ana Wa Laila - Me and Laila), born in Mosul, Iraq Ahmed Radhi, Iraqi soccer striker (121 caps 62 goals Al-Rasheed Asian Footballer of the Year 1988), born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 2020) Uday Hussein, Iraqi leader (d. 2003) Melissa Rathburn-Nealy, US soldier (Iraqi POW)

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

1971-07-28 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Leader of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), born in Samarra, Iraq (d. 2019)

    Faris al-Sultan, German-Iraqi triathlete Kaysar Ridha, Iraqi-American reality TV contestant Michael A. Monsoor, United States Navy SEAL killed in Iraq and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, born in Long Beach, California Noor Sabri, Iraqi footballplayer

USIP’s Work

The U.S. Institute of Peace has worked without interruption in Iraq since 2003 and maintains offices in Baghdad and Erbil. USIP’s initiatives strengthen institutions’ and communities’ capacity to prevent, mitigate, and resolve conflicts without violence. Our key partners, Sanad for Peacebuilding and the Network of Iraqi Facilitators (NIF), have halted violent feuds, saving lives and re-stabilizing communities.

In 2015, USIP and its Iraqi partners conducted dialogues that prevented violence among tribes following the Speicher massacre in which ISIS brutally killed 1,700 Iraqi cadets. In 2017, a similar initiative prevented resurgence of communal violence in the city of Hawija, following its liberation from ISIS.

USIP informs U.S. and Iraqi policy through research and analysis on conflict issues in Iraq, and by convening government officials and nongovernment experts.


The first generation of immigrants from the Middle East began arriving in the late 19th century. They were mostly Christians from the Greater Syria province of the Ottoman Empire, which comprised modern day Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. Some came to escape religious persecution in the Ottoman Empire, but most came for economic opportunity, as, like most immigrants, they felt that the United States would offer them the opportunity to build a better life. The typical Arab immigrant of that period was young, male, single and Christian. Most were illiterate and spoke little or no English. Many planned to stay in the United States only until they had saved enough money to return home with more money and greater status. Many moved to major cities, like New York, Los Angeles, Detroit and Boston, and became peddlers. Among other things, they peddled religious items, embroidery, baked goods and confectioneries, which were often made by their wives. As it became clearer that women and a family were an economic asset, more men returned to the Middle East to marry and come back to the United States with their wives. Over time, Arab immigrants saved money and invested it in small businesses. As their financial conditions and personal lives became more stable, Arab Americans settled in cities and established communities, which included churches, clubs, societies and publications.

While they spoke Arabic, these early immigrants did not identify as Arabs. The Ottoman Empire was the dominant power in the Middle East during the late 19th Century, and nearly all of the immigrants from the Middle East came with passports and identification papers issued by the Ottoman Empire. The terms “Turk” and “Syrian” were used interchangeably, including on Port of Entry records. As a result, the immigration figures from the Middle East for that period are not particularly accurate, as Armenians, Turks and Arabs were all identified as subjects of the Ottoman Empire. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed, most Arab immigrants began to identify with the region in the Ottoman Empire from which they came, usually Syria or Lebanon.

By the 1920’s, there were an estimated 250,000 Syrians, Lebanese and Palestinians in the United States. Most were engaged in commercial activities, but some worked in the industrial plants of an emergent Detroit, as well as other cities. The community continued to advance economically, with peddlers establishing stores or small manufacturing plants, while importers imported items from the Middle East, ranging from rugs to olives.

During the First World War, immigration from the Middle East dropped, but a second wave of migration began in the 1920s, as relatives of those already living in the United States began to immigrate and, seeing the success of those living in the United States through their remittances back home, new immigrants decided to join them. The second wave of immigrants was different than the first in that it contained a significant number of Muslims.

By the 1950s, Arab immigrants had settled in major cities across the United States. From the 1950s on, a new type of Arab immigrant began arriving – literate, qualified and bilingual. Immigrants in the 1950s and 1960s pursued white collar or professional vocations, or sought educational opportunities. This group was about 70 percent Muslim and came from across the Middle East, particularly Egypt, Palestine, Yemen, Syria, Jordan and Iraq. In the late 1960s, following Palestinian displacement in the wake of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, a large number of Palestinians emigrated to the United States. Given their unique circumstances, they brought with them a greater ethnic pride and political awareness that would ignite the development of an Arab American identity and spark the community’s political activism in the 1970s and 1980s. Even for some second- and third-generation Arab Americans, who had few remaining attachments to the Middle East and barely spoke Arabic, the ethnic and political consciousness of the new arrivals helped generate a greater awareness of their Arab heritage.

The greater ethnic and political consciousness of the late 1960s and early 1970s became institutionalized in the 1970s and 1980s with the creation of several Arab American organizations, including the Arab American University Graduates, the National Arab American Association, the American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee and the Arab American Institute, as well as a number of other local, professional and family organizations. These organizations would consolidate and transmit Arab American identify for future generations, promote an accurate and positive image of Arab Americans and protect the rights of Arab Americans. These functions became increasingly necessary, as events in the Middle East, from the oil embargo to hijackings, combined with well organized media campaigns to link Arab Americans with terrorism, made Arabs and Arab Americans increasingly stereotyped and suspect to many Americans.

These functions grew in importance in the 2000s, following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. In the aftermath of that event, Arab Americans were subjected to hate crimes, racial profiling and discrimination. In responding to these circumstances, in the 2000s, Arab Americans became a leading voice in the civil rights community of the United States. They have also become a major force in helping to bridge the chasm of misunderstanding that separates many Arabs and Americans. In pursuing these roles as a community and in contributing to the United States in a myriad of other ways as individual citizens, Arab Americans have become a vital and valuable thread in the beautiful tapestry that is America.

NOTE: Much of the information from this section is drawn from, and can be found in, the Arab American Almanac.

Major Funding for Arab American Stories: A National Discussion and Outreach provided by


Iraq's History: An Interactive Timeline

Experience the history, from the Sumerians to modern-day Iraq through this interactive timeline.

Scroll through to tour a history of Iraq, from the Sumerians to modern day.

Around 4800 BC, Sumerians were the very first people to settle in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), marking the emergence of the first human civilization.

The Sumerians were the very first people to settle into Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) around 4800 BC marking the emergence of the first human civilization. Gifted and imaginative, they developed the first known system of writing. The Sumerian language, linguistically separate from any other, has been preserved for us today through the thousands of clay tablets its speakers left behind. Sumerians also invented the wheel, a mathematical system based on the number 60 (the basis of time in the modern world), and a system of banking.

Sumerians developed the first known system of writing, invented the wheel, the basis of time in the modern world and a system of banking.

The Sumerians were the very first people to settle into Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) around 4800 BC marking the emergence of the first human civilization. Gifted and imaginative, they developed the first known system of writing. The Sumerian language, linguistically separate from any other, has been preserved for us today through the thousands of clay tablets its speakers left behind. Sumerians also invented the wheel, a mathematical system based on the number 60 (the basis of time in the modern world), and a system of banking.

Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two distinct empires: Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south.

In 2340 BC Sargon of Akkad conquered most of the Sumerian city-states, thus ending Sumer with the rise of the Akkadian Empire, sometimes regarded as the first empire in history. The Akkadians were a Semitic-speaking group who united the Semites and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian empire was short-lived and in 2125 BC the empire fell. Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two distinct empires: Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south.

Sargon of Akkad conquered most of the Sumerian city-states, ending Sumer with the rise of the Akkadian Empire.

In 2340 BC Sargon of Akkad conquered most of the Sumerian city-states, thus ending Sumer with the rise of the Akkadian Empire, sometimes regarded as the first empire in history. The Akkadians were a Semitic-speaking group who united the Semites and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian empire was short-lived and in 2125 BC the empire fell. Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two distinct empires: Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south.

The ruins of the city of Babylon are near Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq. Above: the Tower of Babel.

The Babylonian Empire ushered in a new era in Mesopotamia after the downfall of the Akkadians. The reign of Hammurabi 1792-1750 BC the sixth King of Babylon is regarded as one of the highlights of ancient Mesopotamian civilization. Hammurabi was the first to develop a code of law, moving justice from the whips of the powerful, to a codified system of regulation applicable to all society. It’s most famous phrase is “an eye for an eye” representing the Babylonian sense of justice.

The Assyrian Empire, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Ashur) was centered in northern Mesopotamia.

The Assyrian Empire, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Ashur) was centered in northern Mesopotamia. The Assyrians were known for their mastery in battle and their penchant for city-building (such as Nineveh and Kalakh) and by the 9th century BC grew to control Mesopotamia and substantial territory in the greater region. In 626 BC, Nabopolasser, the king of Babylonia threw off Assyrian rule and named Babylon the capital of the empire.

Assyrians were known for their mastery in battle and their penchant for city-building (such as Nineveh and Kalakh).

The Assyrian Empire, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Ashur) was centered in northern Mesopotamia. The Assyrians were known for their mastery in battle and their penchant for city-building (such as Nineveh and Kalakh) and by the 9th century BC grew to control Mesopotamia and substantial territory in the greater region. In 626 BC, Nabopolasser, the king of Babylonia threw off Assyrian rule and named Babylon the capital of the empire.

Babylon was made into one of the wonders of the ancient world with the construction of the Gate of Ishtar (eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon).

With the recovery of Babylonian independence under King Nabopolasser, a new era of architectural activity ensued and Babylon was made into one of the wonders of the ancient world with the construction of the Hanging Gardens, the Gate of Ishtar, and the Tower of Babylon.

With the recovery of Babylonian independence under King Nabopolasser, a new era of architectural activity ensued.

With the recovery of Babylonian independence under King Nabopolasser, a new era of architectural activity ensued and Babylon was made into one of the wonders of the ancient world with the construction of the Hanging Gardens, the Gate of Ishtar, and the Tower of Babylon.

In 539 BC, Cyrus the Great rode through the Gate of Ishtar to conquer the Babylonian people.

The Babylonians are defeated by Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire (539 BC), and Mesopotamia would later become subject to subsequent conquests by Alexander the Great (331 BC), the Romans under Trajan, the Parthian empire in the 3rd century BC, and the Sassanid dynasty in the 3rd through 7th centuries AD.

Thousands of Persian soldiers followed Cyrus the Great through the Ishtar Gate.

The Babylonians are defeated by Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire (539 BC), and Mesopotamia would later become subject to subsequent conquests by Alexander the Great (331 BC), the Romans under Trajan, the Parthian empire in the 3rd century BC, and the Sassanid dynasty in the 3rd through 7th centuries AD.

Arabs were the first people to call the country "Iraq" meaning "the fertile."

The region of Mesopotamia came under Arab influence in 636 AD and it was the Arabs who were first to call the country “Iraq” meaning “the fertile”. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, Ali ibn Abi Talib, moved his capital from Medinah to the city of Kufa when he became the fourth Caliph.

In an effort to restore a non-violent atmosphere in Kufa, Ali ibn Abi Talib shifted the capital from Medina to Kufa.

The region of Mesopotamia came under Arab influence in 636 AD and it was the Arabs who were first to call the country “Iraq” meaning “the fertile”. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, Ali ibn Abi Talib, moved his capital from Medinah to the city of Kufa when he became the fourth Caliph.

The construction of Baghdad was commissioned in the year 762 Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th century.

The second Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaafar Al Mansur commissioned the construction of Baghdad which became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th century. During the period beginning in the mid-8th century and lasting until the Mongol conquest of Baghdad in the mid-13th century, the city became a great center of civilizations at the crux of economic and informational trade routes. Universities were established, science, math, philosophy, and medicine flourished, and literature reached its height.

Baghdad became a center for learning and a hub for economic and informational trade routes.

The second Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaafar Al Mansur commissioned the construction of Baghdad which became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th century. During the period beginning in the mid-8th century and lasting until the Mongol conquest of Baghdad in the mid-13th century, the city became a great center of civilizations at the crux of economic and informational trade routes. Universities were established, science, math, philosophy, and medicine flourished, and literature reached its height.

Ottoman rule lasted until the end of World War I, when Iraq was divided into three provinces: Baghdad, Mosul and Basra.

During the 14th and 15th centuries, the Black Sheep and White Sheep Turkmen ruled Iraq. In the 16th century, most of the territory of present-day Iraq came under the control of the Ottoman Empire with the exception of a sixteen year insurrection by the Safavid’s starting in 1622. Ottoman rule lasted until the end of World War I, throughout which Iraq was divided into three provinces, Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra.

In 1921, Faisal I was proclaimed King of Iraq and in 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League.

In 1920, the Treaty of Sevres established Iraq as a mandate of the League of Nations under British administration, and in 1921 Faisal I was proclaimed King of Iraq. The British mandate was terminated in 1932 and Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations. In 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Hashemite monarchy ruled Iraq until 1958 when it was overthrown by a coup d’état by members of the Iraqi Army.

Faisal I was a member of the Hashemite dynasty which ruled Iraq until 1958.

In 1920, the Treaty of Sevres established Iraq as a mandate of the League of Nations under British administration, and in 1921 Faisal I was proclaimed King of Iraq. The British mandate was terminated in 1932 and Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations. In 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Hashemite monarchy ruled Iraq until 1958 when it was overthrown by a coup d’état by members of the Iraqi Army.

Soldiers in trenches in southern Iraq during devastating wars.

Through the structure of the Ba’ath, Saddam Hussein rose to the presidency in 1979. The country existed under autocratic leadership until 2003 when Hussein was deposed. Between 1979 and 2003, Iraq underwent multiple wars—the Iraq-Iran war 1980-1988 and the Gulf war in 1991 followed by a decade of economic sanctions and isolation.

The opening session of Iraq's Transitional National Assembly, the first freely elected parliament in half a century, marked a milestone on the road to forming a new government.

In March 2003, a coalition led by the United States ousted Saddam Hussein from power through military force. In 2005, Iraqis held their first national election through which a National Assembly was elected and a Transitional Government was approved by the Assembly. Additionally, Iraqis approved a constitution in a national referendum, thus making the transition to Iraq’s first constitutional government in half a century.

Elections for a Council of Representatives.

Iraq held a national legislative election of 325 representatives in 2010 the elected Council of Representatives approved a new government in December 2012. A year later, the last remaining US military forces withdrew from the country, marking the end of US operations in Iraq.

Iraqi women show off their fingers, stained with purple ink, after they vote.

Iraq held a national legislative election of 325 representatives in 2010 the elected Council of Representatives approved a new government in December 2012. A year later, the last remaining US military forces withdrew from the country, marking the end of US operations in Iraq.

Iraq approved a new government in December 2012.

Iraq held a national legislative election of 325 representatives in 2010 the elected Council of Representatives approved a new government in December 2012. A year later, the last remaining US military forces withdrew from the country, marking the end of US operations in Iraq.


Torah code reveals dates of 3 major events in recent history

The majority of the following Torah Code was discovered in April 20󈧘 by the Director of Ask Noah International. The code extends over three consecutive verses in Moses’ prophetic Song at the Sea (Exodus 15:1-18). The three verses are Exodus 15:9-11.

The following diagram depicts the Hebrew letters (with their vowel and cantillation signs, as Hebrew is read from right to left) of these three verses, arranged in a grid that is 30 letters wide. The code letters are indicated in the solid-color squares.

Code for the first event and date – Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 19󈨞

This is coded in verse 15:9, which is outlined above in orange. I first learned of this code in the winter of 19󈨞, from Rabbi Dr. Abraham J. Twerski o.b.m., who was the President of my synagogue in Pittsburgh, PA. My understanding is that he discovered this code, but I have not verified that.

English translation: The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil my lust shall be satisfied upon them I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’

Hebrew text: אָ מַ֥ר א וֹיֵ֛ב אֶ רְדֹּ֥ף אַ שִּׂ֖יג אֲ חַלֵּ֣ק שָׁ לָ֑ל תִּ מְלָאֵ֣מוֹ נַ פְשִׁ֔י אָרִ֣יק חַרְבִּ֔י תּֽוֹרִישֵׁ֖מוֹ יָדִֽי

As we go from right to left in the Hebrew, there are eight highlighted letters, which are all initial letters of consecutive words in the verse. These form the date of a year in the Hebrew calendar. First, the letter aleph (א) is repeated five times. The letter aleph stands for the Hebrew word eleph, which means “thousand”, so this letter repeated five times can be understood as the number 5000. The next three letters are ש (numerical value 300), ת (numerical value 400) and נ (numerical value 50), which add up to 750. We thus have a code for the Hebrew year 5750, which overlapped the secular year 19󈨞.

The next consecutive word is אָרִ֣יק (arik), the letters of which can also be pronounced as irak, which is cognate with the name Iraq. This prophesies that there will be an event in the year 5750 involving the nation of Iraq. And in fact, Iraq invaded Kuwait on 2 August 19󈨞, corresponding to the 11th of Menachem Av, 5750. Obviously, this verse itself echoes the theme of that event!

Code for the second event and date – the Indian Ocean tsunami in 20󈧈

This code which I discovered (shortly after discovering the code below) is rooted in verse 15:10, which is outlined above in green.

English translation: You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them they sank like lead in the powerful waters.

Hebrew text: נָשַׁ֥פְתָּ בְרֽוּחֲךָ֖ כִּ סָּ֣ מ וֹ יָ֑ם צָֽלֲלוּ֙ כַּֽעוֹפֶ֔רֶת בְּמַ֖יִם אַדִּירִֽים

The two highlighted letters occur in the world that means “covered”. In the diagram above, these are letters in two strings of Hebrew letters that that run vertically, highlighted in yellow, through the preceding and following verses, with a spacing of 30 letters. The first string is the word מים (mayim), which means water. The letters in the second string can be rearranged as תשסה, in which the letters are the numerical equivalent for the Hebrew year 5765: ת (numerical value 400), ש (numerical value 300), ס (numerical value 60) and ה (numerical value 5) add up to 765, and in writing the year in Hebrew, the thousand’s place is always omitted as being implicit.

This prophesies that there will be an event in the year 5765 involving water. And in fact, the Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 20󈧈, corresponding to the 14th of Tevet, 5765. Obviously, this verse itself echoes the theme of that event!

The meaning of the spacing of 30 letters becomes evident from the next code.

Code for the third event and date – the Corona Virus which became pandemic in 20󈧘

This code which I discovered in March 20󈧘 is rooted in verse 15:11, which is outlined above in red.

English translation: Who is like You among the powerful, O L-rd? Who is like You, powerful in the holy place? Too awesome for praises, performing wonders!

Hebrew text: מִֽי כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖ כָ ה נֶאְדָּ֣ ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ נ וֹרָ֥א תְ הִ לֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא

The highlighted letters are a code with a spacing of 5 letters. It forms a word כרנה which can be pronounced as corona. There is a classic targum (translation) of scripture in which this word is used with the meaning of “illness”. The fact that the verse of this code is connected to the verse of the first code above, through an intermediate code with a spacing of 30 letters, can now be understood as a prophesy that there will be an event involving corona/illness in 20󈧘/5780, 30 years after the event involving Iraq in 19󈨞/5750. The word נוֹרָ֥א (norah = awesome) can also be translated as “terrible,” “dire,” “fearful,” or “shocking”. So obviously, this verse itself echoes the theme of that event!

What is the lesson for us?

The Jewish kabbalistic tradition teaches that the Five Books of Moses (the “Written Torah” that G-d dictated to Moses) existed in G-d’s wisdom before He made the creation, and that He “looked into the Torah and made the creation”. In other words, everything that would happen in the course of history was already pre-planned and coded within the text of the Torah by G-d, so that the Torah served as the blueprint for creation. Many hundreds of Torah codes for events, names and dates in history have been discovered in recent decades by computer analysis. Some can be found by visual inspection, as in the three connected cases above.

But of what use is it to us to discover codes in the Torah for events in history, after those events have occurred? It should convince us (or boost our inspiration if we were are already convinced) to know the Torah is Divine and could only have been composed by G-d Himself, and therefore it is true, its commandments are true (the 613 Jewish Commandments and the Seven Noahide Commandments), and its explicit prophecies in the verses themselves are true. These include the prophecies of the immanent coming of Moshiach (the Messiah) and the Final Redemption which are enumerated by Rambam in Laws of Kings, chapter 11. And in this Song at the Sea, the literal translation of “Az yashir Moshe” in the first verse (15:1) is, “Then Moses sal sing …,” which the Sages of the Talmud identified as a prophecy of the future Resurrection of the Dead.


Kyk die video: Иракская война. Как США захватили Ирак в 2003 году.