Franse beleg van Cadiz, 5 Februarie 1810-24 Augustus 1812

Franse beleg van Cadiz, 5 Februarie 1810-24 Augustus 1812

Franse beleg van Cadiz, 5 Februarie 1810-24 Augustus 1812

Inleiding
Verdediging van Cadiz
1810
Die Barrosa -veldtog
Die einde van die beleg
Boeke

Inleiding

Die beleg van Cadiz van 5 Februarie 1810-24 Augustus 1812 was die langste en waarskynlik die belangrikste van die vele beleërings wat die Skiereilandoorlog onderstreep het. Gedurende twee en 'n half jaar het die verdediging van Cadiz verhoed dat die Franse hul verowering van Andalusië aan die begin van 1810 kon voltooi, 'n groot deel van Marshal Soult se leër van Andalusië vasgemaak (daar was selde minder as 20.000 Franse troepe in die stad) , en gee die Spaanse en hul Britse bondgenote 'n ideale basis vir amfibiese operasies langs die suidkus van Spanje.

Daar was amper geen beleg nie. In Januarie 1810, toe die Franse Andalusië vanuit die noorde binnegeval het, was Cadiz feitlik sonder garnisoen. Selfs nadat die Franse verby die Spaanse leërs in die noorde van Andalusië gedwing het, het die stad leeg gebly. Slegs die optrede van die hertog van Albuquerque en die Franse besetting met Sevilla het die stad gered. As maarskalk Soult (destyds die stafhoof van koning Joseph) 'n klein mag in die rigting van Cadiz losgemaak het toe die Franse Cadiz genader het, sou hulle ver voor die Spanjaarde aangekom het, maar geen Franse troepe is na 2 Februarie, die dag na koning, na Cadiz gestuur nie Josef het Sevilla binnegegaan. Marshal Victor, aan die hoof van sy I Corps, het die reis binne vier dae afgelê en op 5 Februarie buite die verdediging van Cadiz aangekom.

Victor was twee dae te laat. Toe die Spaanse junta in Sevilla besef het dat hulle in ernstige gevaar verkeer, het hulle elke beskikbare leër teruggeroep na Andalusië. Niemand kon moontlik betyds arriveer om Sevilla te red nie, maar een, die Army of Estremadura onder die hertog van Albuquerque, het Andalusië bereik voor die val van Sevilla. Op 24 Januarie, toe hy 'n punt twintig myl noord van Sevilla bereik het, is hy beveel om na Cordova te gaan, vyf en vyftig myl na die noordooste. Dit was duidelik 'n belaglike opdrag, want daardie oggend het die Franse Cordova ingeneem. Teen 27 Februarie het die verkenners van Albuquerque kontak gemaak met die opkomende Franse leërs, en hy het verneem dat die sentrale junta Sevilla verlaat het. Albuquerque het die vrymoedige besluit geneem om sy bevele om Sevilla te verdedig te ignoreer en eerder suidwaarts terug te trek na Cadiz.

Dit was 'n noodlottige besluit. Op 3 Februarie het Albuquerque sy 12 000 man na Cadiz gelei. Twee dae later het Victor aangekom en die stad ontbied om oor te gee. Generaal Venegas, die goewerneur van Cadiz, het die dagvaarding geweier. Dit was omtrent so naby as wat die Franse ooit die stad sou inneem. Victor het berig dat hy swaar beleggewere en tyd nodig sou hê om 'n vloot klein bote te bou. Koning Joseph het 'n kort besoek aan Cadiz gemaak en tot 'n nog somberder gevolgtrekking gekom en aan Napoleon geskryf om die gebruik van die Franse Mediterreense vloot in Toulon te vra. Napoleon het hom van die hand gewys en was nie bereid om 'n vlootnederlaag deur die Britse Middellandse See -vloot te waag nie.

Verdediging van Cadiz

In 1810 was Cadiz ideaal geleë om 'n beleg te weerstaan. Die stad was geleë aan die noordelike punt van 'n vier myl lange sanderige skiereiland, wat self die noordelike hoek van die driehoekige Isla de Leon gevorm het. Hierdie skiereiland, wat noord-tot-suid parallel met die vasteland loop, het 'n natuurlike golfbreker gevorm vir die binne- en buitehawens van Cadiz. Die Isla de Leon is van die vasteland geskei deur die Rio Santi Petri, 'n soutwaterkanaal wat van die suidoostelike hoek van die binneste hawe na die see geloop het. Hierdie waterweg is omring deur soutmoerasse, wat die Franse verhinder het om maklik die kanaal te bereik, terwyl die kanaal self deur Spaanse kanonbote gepatrolleer is. Die enigste brug, by Zuazo in die oostelike hoek van die eiland, is deur die Spanjaarde vernietig, en die enigste benadering tot dit was langs 'n smal weg. Op geen stadium tydens die beleg het die Franse probeer om die kanaal per boot oor te steek nie. Hierdie front is beskerm deur die vlootarsenaal van La Carraca aan die noordkant en die kasteel van Punta de Santri Petri aan die suidekant.

As die Franse daarin geslaag het om die Isla de Leon te bereik, sou hulle die probleem ondervind het om vier myl langs die smal skiereiland wat die eiland met Cadiz verbind, te vorder. Halfpad langs die skiereiland, op 'n punt waar dit slegs 200 meter breed was, was 'n deurlopende versterkingslyn, die Cortadura of die Barry van San Fernando genoem. Tensy die Franse op een of ander manier daarin geslaag het om die Britse vloot uit die see te vee, sou hulle die hele tyd op die skiereiland onder vlootbomaanval gewees het. As hulle daarin geslaag het om verby die Cortadura te kom, was Cadiz self beskerm deur 'n sterk versterkingslyn, op 'n voorkant van 400 meter breed en met diep water aan beide kante. Enige Franse geweerbatterye wat Cadiz in die gesig staar, sou sleg gewees het deur die Spaanse gewere van Cadiz en die Britse en Spaanse gewere van die vloot.

Die enigste moontlike swak punt in die verdediging van Cadiz is gevorm deur die skiereiland van die Trocadero. Dit skei die binne- en buitekant van die hawens en kyk na 'n wyer punt op die skiereiland wat na Cadiz lei. Beide kante van die ingang na die binneste hawe van Cadiz is deur die Spanjaarde versterk, met die forte van San José, San Luis en Matagorda op die Trocadero en Puntales -kasteel op die skiereiland. Matagorda is 3 000 meter van die suidpunt van die stad Cadiz af, maar slegs 1200 meter van Puntales af. Die swaarste Franse artillerie het toe 'n reikafstand van ongeveer 2500 meter gehad, en selfs die massiewe mortiere wat die Franse later in die beleg gebou het, kon slegs 'n enkele dop in Cadiz afvuur. Voordat die Franse aangekom het, is die drie forte op die Trocadero vernietig, maar as die Franse dit reggekry het om hulle te vang en te herbou, kon hulle Puntales bombardeer en dit moeilik maak vir skepe om gedurende die dag in en uit die binneste hawe te verbygaan.

1810

Dit het 'n geruime tyd geneem voordat marskalk Victor besef het dat die kans dat 'n gereelde beleg min of meer sou slaag, min was. Hy het begin met 'n vergeefse poging om hom oor die kwelder te dwing om die Rio de Santi Petri te beskerm. Nadat dit misluk het, het die Franse hul hoofkamp teruggeneem na Chiclana en 'n poging aangewend om die vlootarsenaal van La Caracca te vang, sonder sukses. Victor se volgende mikpunt was die buitelandse fort van die Matagorda. Dit is oorspronklik deur die bondgenote vernietig, maar op 22 Februarie het 'n mag van Britse ingenieurs, ondersteun deur 'n onderneming van die 94th Foot, hierdie fort herbou en herbou. Victor het die vang van die Matagorda sy hoofdoel vir die volgende twee maande gemaak, in die hoop dat hy dit as basis vir 'n aanval op die Puntales kon gebruik. Twee maande se swaar bombardement het gevolg, voordat die Britse garnisoen op 22 April teruggetrek is. In twee maande het die garnisoen van 140 mense 64 doodgemaak en gewond. Die Franse beset die Matagorda, maar al wat hulle kon bereik, was 'n onderbroke artillerie -tweegeveg met die Puntales - die twee versterkings was regtig te ver van mekaar om ernstige skade aan mekaar te berokken, terwyl Britse en Spaanse skepe nog kon deurgaan en saans uit die binneste hawe.

Die stryd om die Matagorda is onderbreek deur 'n orkaan wat van 6-9 Maart gewaai het. Tydens hierdie storm het een Portugese en drie Spaanse skepe van die lyn op die Franse besette kus gewaai. Toe hulle dit sien, word 'n groep Franse gevangenes in die tronk vasgehou Castilla het hul wagte oorrompel en daarin geslaag om naby genoeg aan die kus te dryf sodat 600 gevangenes kon ontsnap. 'N Tweede poging eindig in die dood van die meeste gevangenes toe die skip op 'n modderbank binne die artilleriegebied van die Spaanse gewere dryf.

Teen Mei 1810 was die garnisoen van Cadiz 26 000 sterk. Enige kans dat Victor die stad sou inneem, was nou weg, en in plaas daarvan was hy in die posisie om die suide van Andalusië te beskerm teen die sterk Spaanse en Britse magte in die stad. Cadiz het 'n sentrum geword vir geallieerde operasies in die suide van Spanje, en 'n reeks ekspedisies is langs die kus geloods

Die Barrosa -veldtog

1811 was die bekendste van al die ekspedisies wat vanaf Cadiz gelanseer is. Aan die begin van die jaar het maarskalk Soult Estremadura binnegeval en Victor ietwat geïsoleerd rondom Cadiz gelaat. Die Britte en Spaanse het besluit om hiervan voordeel te trek deur 'n leër ten suide van die Franse linies te laat land. Hierdie mag sou dan noordwaarts vorder en Victor dwing om 'n deel van sy leër uit die lyne te trek om dit in die geveg die hoof te bied. Dit sou die troepe wat in die garnisoen oorgebly het, 'n kans gee om die Franse beleëringslyne aan te val, en die Franse sou selfs gedwing het om die beleg te laat vaar. Nadat hy troepe aan Soult verloor het, was Victor in die minderheid in Cadiz. Hy het 19 000 troepe in die lyn gehad, waarvan slegs 15 000 in 'n veldleër gebruik kon word, terwyl die res ingenieurs, kanonniers of mariniers was. Die Spaanse het 20.000 troepe in Cadiz gehad, die Britte 5.000-6.000.

Hierdie ekspedisie het goed begin. 10 000 Spaanse troepe onder generaal La Peña en 5 000 Britse en Portugese troepe onder generaal Graham bereik Tarifa einde Februarie en begin met hul opmars noordwaarts. Toe die bondgenote sy linies nader, kon Victor slegs 10 000 man vir sy veldleër vind, maar het 'n plan beraam om die bondgenote teen die kus vas te trek. Die slag van Barrosa (5 Maart 1811) het twee derdes van Victor se leër deur Graham se Britse troepe verslaan terwyl La Peña staan ​​en twee kilometer agtertoe kyk. Die dag na die geveg weier Graham om onder La Peña te dien en keer terug na die Isla de Leon, die volgende dag deur La Peña. Die Franse het groot skrik opgedoen, maar die beleg het voortgegaan.

Die einde van die beleg

Wellington se groot oorwinning by Salamanca het die Franse beleg van Cadiz beëindig. Op 12 Augustus 1812 bereik die eerste amptelike nuus van die geveg Soult, in die vorm van 'n bevel van koning Joseph om Andalusië te laat vaar en na Toledo te marsjeer. Alhoewel hy teen hierdie bevel protesteer en Joseph probeer oortuig om saam met hom in die suide te kom, het Soult geen ander keuse gehad as om te gehoorsaam nie. Op 23-24 Augustus vernietig Soult die swaar gewere rondom Cadiz, onder die dekking van 'n verwoede artilleriebombardement, voordat hy op 24 Augustus enigiets vernietig wat nie weggedra kon word nie, en na twee en 'n half jaar het die Franse die lyne om Cadiz laat vaar.

Boeke

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Deur Andrew Bamford

Inleiding

Tussen 1810 en 1814 het die Britse leër 'n militêre teenwoordigheid in die Spaanse stad Cadiz behou. Dit was nie net 'n kwessie van politieke belang nie, as gevolg van die Britse behoefte om te verseker dat die stad nie na Frankryk val nie, maar dit het ook strategiese voordele inhou. Saam met die magte van dieselfde grootte wat op Gibraltar gehandhaaf word, kan troepe uit die Cadiz -garnisoen gebruik word vir offensiewe operasies langs die aangrensende kus, en dit was duidelik die geval tydens die Barossa -veldtog van 1811, toe die Britse kontingent van Graham en rsquos onder La Pena mannekrag benut het garnisoene. Boonop kan troepe deur Cadiz na die hoofveldleër onder Wellington gedraai word, sodat hulle gewoond kan raak aan die Iberiese klimaat voordat hulle met 'n aktiewe diens kan begin. Op soortgelyke wyse kan eenhede wat weens 'n streng diens by die veldleër in 'n swak toestand verval het, na Cadiz gestuur word om hulself te herstel, terwyl dit steeds beskikbaar is vir vinnige herroeping indien nodig.

Ten spyte van hierdie belangrikheid, is die samestelling van hierdie mag en sy interne organisasie nog nie voorheen uiteengesit nie. Deur inligting uit die operasiejoernaal te gebruik wat onder die opeenvolgende Britse bevelvoerders gehou is, [1] aangevul met bykomende besonderhede uit hul korrespondensie met Horse Guards, [2] kan die veranderende organisasie van die mag gevolg word om 'n aanvulling te bied op C.T. Atkinson & rsquos met besonderhede van die hoofleër onder Wellington. [3] Boonop kan maandelikse opbrengste wat in die National Archives gehou word, die sterkte van die betrokke eenhede en hul verliese opgespoor word. [4] Regdeur hierdie artikel is die eenhede sterkpunte slegs vir rang en lêer gegee, en word dit in die vorm gegee (effektiewe sterkte/totale sterkte).

Vanaf die begin van die Skiereilandoorlog is dit as 'n belangrike doelwit vir Brittanje beskou om te verseker dat Cadiz, wat 'n belangrike en strategies belangrike vloothawe was, nie in Franse hande val nie, en dit het uiters onderduimse en uitdagende pogings tot dwang tot gevolg gehad die Spanjaarde om 'n Britse garnisoen toe te laat om die plek binne te gaan. Sulke maatreëls is suksesvol toegepas om die Portugese te laat land op Madeira, maar met betrekking tot Cadiz, 'n natuurlike en onvermydelike vermoede van die ou vyand, wat immers tot onlangs besig was met die handhawing van 'n blokkade van die dieselfde stad, beteken dat geen magte mag land nie. Britse voorbereidings het gevorder tot die aanvang van 'n brigade uit Lissabon in Februarie 1809, bestaande uit:

Kommandant van die mag: generaal -majoor John Randoll Mackenzie

2/9 (Oos -Norfolk) (528/630)
3/27 (Inniskilling) (756/793)
29ste (Worcester) (605/634)
Bredin & rsquos Company, Royal Artillery (86/101)
4de Kompanie, KGL Artillery (Geen data) [5]

Die Spaanse weier om Mackenzie toe te laat om te klim, en sy troepe keer op 11 Maart terug na Lissabon.

Cadiz 1810

Tot in die herfs van 1809 was Cadiz uitsluitlik deur die Spanjaarde opgeneem, terwyl die Britse pogings toegespits was op die veldtogte van Porto en Talavera. Die situasie het egter drasties verander met die ineenstorting van die Spaanse leërs in die suide van Spanje na die onttrekking van Wellington & rsquos na Talavera en die Spanjaarde se verdoemde pogings om die mislukte offensief met een hand voort te sit. Spaanse nederlaag op Ocana op 18 November -1919e 1809 het die daaropvolgende Franse rit deur Andalusië toegelaat, en slegs 'n skraal en ongeorganiseerde mag het Cadiz agtergelaat. [6] Die terugkeer van die geallieerde magte op die eiland Leon, 24 Februarie 1810, kort na die aankoms van die eerste Britte, beskryf die Spaanse magte onder kaptein -generaal, die hertog van Albuquerque, soos volg:

Kavalerie: 1 710, met 1 050 perde wat ongeskik is vir diens
Artillerie: 300
Voorhoede: 2,757
Eerste afdeling 2,839
Tweede afdeling 2,430
Onafhanklike bataljons 2 740
Totaal, 12 776

Daar is ook opgemerk dat daar tussen twee en drie duisend vrywillige infanterie diens doen in Cadiz & rdquo. [7] Daarteenoor het die Franse op 10 Januarie 1810 55.723 effektiewe ranglêers in die drie Corps d & rsquoArm & eacutee wat in Andalusië bedrywig was, waarvan die 21.882 mans van Marshal Victor & rsquos I Corps direk teen Cadiz opereer het. [8] Hierdie ongelykheid in getalle dwing die Spaanse om die behoefte aan hulp te aanvaar.

Ten gunste van die Spaanse verdedigers en die bondgenote wat binnekort by hulle sou aansluit, was die feit dat Cadiz 'n natuurlike vesting was, uiters moeilik om uit die land aan te val. Alhoewel hierdie artikel nie bedoel is om 'n verhaal van die gebeurtenisse van die beleg te wees nie, is 'n begrip van die geografie van die stad en sy omgewing nodig om te verstaan ​​waarom so 'n aansienlike garnisoen nodig is en om die ligging van die verskillende punte waar troepe gepos is.

Soos uit die kaart hierbo gesien kan word, was die stad Cadiz aan die punt van 'n lang sandspoeg wat uitloop van die Isla de Leon, wat self deur soutmoerasse van die vasteland geskei is. Franse belegingsoperasies was gekonsentreer rondom die twee gebiede wat op die kaart gemerk is as Franse kampe, en dit in die noorde was aanvanklik gemoeid met die vermindering van Fort Matagorda, wat aan die begin van die beleg in geallieerde hande gebly het. As gevolg van die sterkte van die posisie van Cadiz/Isla de Leon, is daar geen aktiewe pogings tot aanranding aangewend nie, en die situasie het die karakter van 'n blokkade aangeneem. Die geallieerde marine -superioriteit het egter beteken dat die Franse nooit kon hoop om die stad heeltemal van voorraad en versterkings af te sny nie. Seapower het ook teenaanvalle op die belegers vergemaklik: die handhawing van 'n militêre teenwoordigheid sou die Britte dus nie net toelaat om hul bondgenoot te versterk nie, maar ook om die Franse terug te slaan.

[1] & ldquoJournaal van die verrigtinge van die Britse leër wat in Cadiz dien en die I. van Leon & rdquo [hierna aangehaal as Cadiz Journal], in TNA, WO28/339-341.

[3] Ingesluit as bylaag II by Sir Charles Oman, Wellington& rsquos Army 1809-1814 (Londen: Edward Arnold, 1913), pp. 343-373.

[5] Lys van eenhede van Ron McGuigan, & ldquoThe Origins of Wellington & rsquos Peninsular Army, Junie 1808-April 1809 & rdquo, in Rory Muir et al, Binne Wellington en rsquos Skiereilandse leër 1808-1814 (Barnsley: Pen and Sword, 2006), bl. 64 sterkpunte van die terugkeer van Britse magte in Portugal, 1 Maart 1809, in TNA, WO17/2464. Die KGL -artillerie met Mackenzie word onverklaarbaar teruggestuur en bestaan ​​uit slegs vier ranglêers van die 2/9th ingesluit manne van die 1/9de wat in Portugal oor was toe die hoofliggaam van die senior bataljon saam met Moore na Spanje gegaan het. Daar kan aanvaar word dat die grootste deel van die nie-effektiewe rang en lêer in Lissabon gebly het.


Cadiz

Dit is die hoofstad van die provinsie Cadiz, een van die agt wat die outonome gemeenskap van Andalusië uitmaak. Cadiz, een van die oudste wat deurlopend bewoon word
comarcas provinsiale gebiede of provinsies in die provinsie Cadiz Bahia de Cadiz Baai van Cadiz Campiña de Jerez Platteland van Jerez Campo de Gibraltar
Cadiz -katedraal Spaans: Catedral de Cadiz Catedral de Santa Cruz de Cadiz is 'n Rooms -Katolieke kerk in die suide van Spanje, en die setel van die
Cadiz Club de Futbol, ​​S.A.D., eenvoudig bekend as Cadiz, is 'n professionele voetbalklub in Cadiz Andalusië, Spanje. Dit word in 1910 gestig en speel in Segunda
in Cadiz -nuus afkomstig van Lagos, Portugal in die Algarve, met inligting oor die teenwoordigheid van 'n Engelse vloot. Op daardie oomblik was daar 'n paar in die Baai van Cadiz
Universiteit van Cadiz in Spaans: Universidad de Cadiz wat algemeen bekend staan ​​as UCA, is 'n openbare universiteit in die provinsie Cadiz Andalusië
Baai van Cadiz is 'n watermassa in die provinsie Cadiz, Spanje, langs die suidwestelike kus van die Iberiese skiereiland. Die Baai van Cadiz grens aan
Die beleg van Cadiz was 'n beleg van die groot Spaanse vlootbasis van Cadiz deur 'n Franse leër van 5 Februarie 1810 tot 24 Augustus 1812 tydens die Skiereilandoorlog
Die Carnaval van Cadiz Spaans: Carnaval de Cadiz is een van die bekendste karnavalle in Spanje. Die belangrikste kenmerk daarvan is humor. Deur sarkasme, bespotting

Dit is 'n lys van die 44 munisipaliteite in die provinsie Cadiz in die outonome gemeenskap van Andalusië, Spanje. Aardrykskunde van Spanje Lys van Spaanse stede
Barbate v Cadiz Chiclana v Cadiz Los Barrios v Cadiz Linense v Cadiz Cadiz v Las Palmas Atletico Sanluqueño v Cadiz Cadiz v Al - Rayyan Cadiz v Malaga Win
Oviedo teen Cadiz Cadiz teen Numancia Lorca FC teen Cadiz Cadiz teen Osasuna Sevilla Atletico teen Cadiz Cadiz teen Cultural Leonesa Huesca teen Cadiz Cadiz teen Almeria Cadiz teen Osasuna
Cadiz, ook bekend as die Torings van Cadiz, is twee pyle van 158 m hoog wat 'n driefasige 132 kV driefasige wisselstroomdraad van 132 kV oor die baai van Cadiz ondersteun.
Cadiz is 'n Spaanse benaming wat Vino de la Tierra -wyne beskryf, waarvan die terroir in die outonome Andalusië geleë is. Vino de la Tierra is
Die Portugese kampioen Benfica het aangekondig dat Cadiz 'n kontrak van vyf jaar met die klub gesluit het. Op 23 Mei 2013 is Cadiz na die senior Venezuela ontbied
Die volgende is 'n tydlyn van die geskiedenis van die stad Cadiz, Spanje. Sien ook: Cadiz 1104 BCE - Gadir gestig deur Feniciërs. 530 vC - Gades beset
Die Romeinse teater van Cadiz is 'n ou struktuur in Cadiz Andalusië, in die suide van Spanje. Die oorblyfsels wat slegs gedeeltelik opgegrawe is, is in 1980 ontdek
Sierra de Cadiz Spaans: Cadizberge is 'n comarca -graafskap, maar sonder 'n administratiewe rol provinsie Cadiz Andalusië, Suid -Spanje Die meeste


Die C diz -gedenkteken

, [Latynse kant:] , Devictis a Wellington Duce Prope Salamancam Gallis Solutaque Exiude Gaudiam Obsidione, Hanc Quam Aspictus Basi Superimpositam Bombardam, Vi Praeditam Adhuc Inaudita, Ad Urbem Portumque Gaditanum Destrucudam Conflatam Et a Copiis Turbatis Relantam, Cortes Hismaio, Turmaisio, Turmazio, Turmazio, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turma, Turbo, Turma Illus. Brit. Prins. Qui, In Perpetuam Rei Memoriam, Hoc Loco Ponendam, et His Ormamentis Decorandum, Juissit.


[Latynse kant:]
Devictis a Wellington Duce Prope Salamancam Gallis Solutaque Exiude Gaudiam Obsidione, Hanc Quam Aspictus Basi Superimpositam Bombardam, Vi Praeditam Adhuc Inaudita, Ad Urbem Portumque Gaditanum Destrucudam Conflatam Et a Copiis Turbatis Relantam, Curtisio Veronicio, Turmaisio, Conca, Turma, Turma, Turma, Oorta, Verbeide, Sitio, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbeide, Verbewe . Brit. Prins. Qui, In Perpetuam Rei Memoriam, Hoc Loco Ponendam, et His Ormamentis Decorandum, Juissit.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie gedenkteken word gelys in die onderwerplys: Wars, Non-US.

Ligging. 51 & deg 30.253 ′ N, 0 & deg 7.638 ′ W. Marker is in City of Westminster, England, in Greater London County. Memorial is op Horse Guards Road, 0.1 kilometer suid

van The Mall. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoorgebied: City of Westminster, Engeland SW1A 2AA, Verenigde Koninkryk. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie merker. Veldmaarskalk Earl Haig -gedenkteken (binne 'n skreeuafstand van hierdie merker) Spencer Compton (ongeveer 90 meter weg, gemeet in 'n direkte lyn) Monument vir die vroue van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (ongeveer 120 meter weg) The Viscount Slim (ongeveer 120 meter weg) Turkish Gun (ongeveer 120 meter weg) George, hertog van Cambridge (ongeveer 120 meter weg) Alan Brooke (ongeveer 120 meter weg) Horse Guards Parade (ongeveer 120 meter weg). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in City of Westminster.

Meer oor hierdie gedenkteken. Die Memorial is geleë op die Horse Guards Parade Grounds, tussen Whitehall en St. James 'Park.

Sien ook. . .
1. Belegging van C diz (Wikipedia). "Die beleg van Cédiz was 'n beleg van die groot Spaanse vlootbasis van Cédiz deur 'n Franse leër van 5 Februarie 1810 tot 24 Augustus 1812 tydens die Skiereilandoorlog." (Ingedien op 10 Februarie 2018.)

2. C diz Memorial (Wikipedia). "Die C diz-gedenkteken, ook bekend as die" Prins Regent's Bomb ", is 'n vroeë 19de-eeuse Franse mortier wat op 'n kopermonster gemonteer is, geleë in Horse Guards Parade in Westminster, Londen. Dit is eers" blootgestel aan die openbare oog " op 12 Augustus 1816 en word geklassifiseer as 'n graad II -gebou sedert 1 Desember 1987. Die monument was 'n kenmerk van baie satiriese verse en tekenprente in die vroeë 19de eeu, hoofsaaklik omdat


Hoe die Spaanse Ryk kon oorleef het

17 Maart 1808


Karel IV, koning van Spanje, verdedig Madrid met die koninklike hof om nie deur die Franse troep as gevangene geneem te word nie.


Tydens 'n tydelike stop by Aranjiez, val 'n groep adellikes onder leiding van prins Ferdinand die paleis van Aranjuez binne om 'n staatsgreep te gee en Ferdinand die nuwe koning van Spanje te maak.




19 Maart 1808


Godoy, die premier of Spanje, word versteek onder 'n mat gevind en deur Ferdinand gevange geneem. Koning Charles word gedwing om by sy seun te abdikeer.


Tydens die muitery het Charle egter as 'n handelaar saam met die koninklike familie geklee na die hawe van Cadiz.


Weens die afwesigheid van sy vader, bekroon Ferdinand homself as koning.




25 Maart 1808


Charles bereik Cadiz en word in 'n skip geneem na La Habana, in Kuba.


Franse troepe het Madrid nou ingeneem.


Napoleon stuur 'n brief aan Ferdinand waarin hy sê: "Ons sal u as koning van Spanje herken as u na Bayonne kom."


Ferdinand aanvaar.




5 Mei 1808


Ferdinand word de-jure gekroon as koning van Spanje, maar later die dag word hy gedwing om die kroon af te staan ​​aan Josep, die broer van Napoleon.


Napoleon se bedoeling is om 'n lojale regime in Spanje en sy heerskappy in te stel.




12 Junie 1808


Charles arriveer in La Habana, wat hom die eerste Spaanse koning maak wat ooit op die Amerikaanse lande getrap het. Hy besluit om 'n reis deur sy heerskappye te maak, van Mexiko na Buenos Aires.




19 Julie 1808


Franse troepe onder generaal Murat word by Bailen verpletter. Generaal Dupont word self gevange geneem en na Mallorca gestuur, en later na Engeland.


Teen hierdie datum is Charles op Veracruz en trap op die Amerikaanse vasteland. Hy roep Viceroy van Nieu -Spanje na 'n vergadering in die stad.




1 Augustus 1808


Joseph, die broer van Napoleon, versag Madrid uit vrees dat die Spaanse leër hom teregstel. Franse generaals laat vaar alle veldtogte en ontruim noord van die Ebro -rivier.




17 Augustus 1808


Die onderkoning in Nieu -Spanje ontmoet Charles IV. Die onderkoning verklaar dat edeles in Mexiko en criollos as 'tweedeklas' beskou word en nie gelyk behandel word aan diegene wat in Spanje gebore is nie.


Karel IV aanvaar dat hy dieselfde regte aan Skiereiland -Spanjaarde gee en publiseer 'n besluit daaroor.




22 Oktober 1808


Franse troepe ontruim heeltemal van die Ebro. Napoleon besluit dat die inval in Spanje deur homself gedoen sal word en nie deur 'n generaal nie.


Charles besluit om na Lima te verhuis en tydelike hoofstad daar te plaas totdat Madrid bevry word. Hy ontvang die nuus van die Franse nederlaag en besluit om 'n leër in Amerika op te bou.




4 Desember 1808


Franse troepe onder Napoleon self betree Madrid en dwing die Spaanse "regering" op die skiereiland om na Sevilla terug te trek. Karel IV bel beamptes soos Liniers en laat Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros as 'n tydelike onderkoning. Seweal criollos van Peru en Rio de la Plata ontvang openlik die gelykheidsbesluit van die koning.




12 Julie 1809


Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros verpletter 'n revolusiepoging in Charcas, Bolivia. Die nederlaag van hierdie eerste revolusiepoging in die Amerikas, gekombineer met die teenwoordigheid van die koning, veroorsaak 'n afname in revolusionêre pogings in die Amerikas.


Karel IV het op hierdie stadium 'n leër van 100.000 man gewerf en marsjeer na Buenos Aire wat die leër in Lima verlaat.




5 Februarie 1810


Franse troepe beleër Cadiz, waar die Spaanse verdedigingsjunta geplaas word. Die stad word beskerm deur die Britse vloot.


Die besoek van Charles IV aan Buenos Aires en sy ontmoetings met plaaslike criollos en militêre personeel in die stad oortuig hom dat die onderkonge hulself kan verdedig. Hy verklaar dat 'alle onderkonge' voortaan outonomie sal kry. '




19 Maart 1812


Die Spaanse regering in Cadiz skep 'n grondwet met die bynaam "La Pepa". Die konstitusie is uiters liberaal en sommige punte stem ooreen met Charles IV se persoonlike idees en gedagtesveranderinge tydens sy tydperk in Amerika.




26 Augustus 1812


Die weermag wat in die Amerikas gewerf is, vaar na die skiereiland, verdeel in verskeie eskaders, om in Lissabon geland te word en na Madrid te marsjeer en die stad te verower. Koning Charles lei die eerste eskader.




12 Oktober 1812


Op dieselfde dag as Columbus Amerika ontdek het, land die Spaanse Amerikaanse leër in Lissabon en begin 'n opmars na Madrid. Die datum is gekies om die eenheid van twee kontinente in 'n enkele nasie te simboliseer.




27 Oktober 1812


Die Franse leër van Souham word in Tordesillas verpletter deur 'n verrassingsaanval deur die Spaanse Amerikaanse weermag. Franse magte word ten volle teruggetrek.




16 Januarie 1813


Spaanse troepe bestorm Noord -Spanje en dwing 'n Franse ontruiming na Frankryk self.


Charles vergader met verteenwoordigers van Cadiz en aanvaar dat hy die Constitutuon wat in Cadiz goedgekeur is, volg.




12 Augustus 1813


Bayonne word deur die Spaanse leër geneem. Prins Ferdinand word ook deur die weermag opgeneem en gestuur om sy pa in Madrid te ontmoet. Teen hierdie datum het die hof heeltemal van Madrid na Lima en Cadiz verhuis.




17 Desember 1813


Die eerste slag van Toulouse vind plaas, die Franse slaag daarin om die stad vas te hou, maar ly aan aaklige ongevalle.


As gevolg van sy poging om 'n staatsgreep te maak, ontken Charles IV op aanbeveling van Cisneros Ferdinand dat hy die troon inneem as Charles sterf, en die opvolging aan sy broer Charles oorlaat.




8 Januarie 1814


Die Tweede Slag van Toulouse vind plaas, wat hierdie keer 'n Spaanse oorwinning tot gevolg gehad het. Troepe onder Manuel Freire begin marsjeer na Parys.


Karel IV gee toestemming vir die verbranding en afdanking van Franse dorpe as wraak vir die aantogings wat die Franse in Spanje begaan het.




30 Maart 1814


Die koalisiemagte neem Parys. Die Spanjaarde kom kort daarna aan en begin huise in Parys ontslaan en brand. Die koalisietroepe is hieroor geskok, maar bevelvoerders soos Von Blucher laat dit toe, met die kennis van die gebeure in Spanje.


Parys sal gedurende 'n hele week brand.




Napoleon probeer weer tydens die oorlog van die Sewende Koalisie Europa oorneem, maar dit lei tot 'n ramp en eindig die Napoleontiese oorloë eens en vir altyd.


Spanje bly 'n stabiele, liberale en parlementêre monargie onder toestemming van koning Charles IV. Ten minste, vir eers ...


Inhoud

Oorsprong en skepping Redigeer

In 1680 het Manuel Lobo, Portugese goewerneur van Rio de Janeiro, die Departement van Colonia en het Colónia do Sacramento gestig. Die fort was aan die kus van die huidige Uruguay geleë en ontwikkel as die hoofstad van die departement. Lobo se hoofdoel was om die Portugese uitbreiding van Brasilië te beveilig buite die 1494 -Verdrag van Tordesillas, wat gebiede van invloed in die Amerikas tussen die Iberiese nasies gedefinieer het. Van 1580 tot 1640 het Spanje Portugal en dus al sy gebiede in Amerika beheer. In 1681 val José de Garro vinnig op en neem die nuwe fort vir Spanje in beslag. Op 7 Mei 1681, ingevolge die Voorlopige Verdrag van Lissabon, is dit aan Portugal afgestaan.

Die onderkoning van Peru het vereis dat alle handel deur die hawe van Lima, aan die Stille Oseaan, moes gaan. Hierdie beleid het nie die potensiaal van Buenos Aires as 'n Atlantiese hawe ontwikkel nie, wat maande bygedra het tot die vervoer van goedere en goedere in elke rigting. Dit het daartoe gelei dat wydverspreide smokkelaktiwiteite in die oostelike streek aangemoedig is, veral in Asunción, Buenos Aires en Montevideo.

Onder hierdie voorwaardes het onderkoning Manuel de Amat y Junyent 'n bevel uitgevaardig dat die voormalige goewerneur van die Río de la Plata Pedro Antonio de Cevallos die nuwe onderkoning in Augustus 1776 sou stig. Die uitspraak is weerstaan ​​deur die elite van Lima, maar dit is toegepas . Die Cabildo van die kapteinskap -generaal van Chili het die koning versoek om uitgesluit te word van die nuwe onderkoning, wat aanvaar is. [3] Die Cuyo -streek, met die belangrikste stad Mendoza, is geskei van die kapteinskap -generaal van Chili. Leiers in Santiago was ontsteld oor hierdie optrede, aangesien die Cuyo -streek oorspronklik deur Spaanse koloniste uit Chili gevestig is.

Die Portugese premier, markies van Pombal, moedig die besetting van gebied aan wat reeds in die Verdrag van Parys (1763) aan die Spanjaarde toegeken is, na die Britse nederlaag van Frankryk in die sewejarige oorlog. Koning Charles III reageer vinnig op die voordelige toestande: Frankryk sou 'n bondgenoot wees as borg van die verdrag, en Groot -Brittanje het vanweë sy eie koloniale probleme met revolusie in die dertien kolonies in Noord -Amerika neutraal gehandhaaf oor die kwessies tussen Portugal en Spanje.

Pedro de Cevallos verower Colonia del Sacramento en die Santa Catarina -eilande na 'n beleg van drie dae, en behaal die eerste verdrag van San Ildefonso. Daarmee het die Portugese van die Río de la Plata afgetree en die Banda Oriental na Spanje vertrek. In ruil daarvoor het Spanje hulle die gebied Rio Grande do Sul afgestaan, wat hulle as Brasilië ontwikkel het. Cevallos ended his military actions at this point and started working with government, but he was soon replaced by Juan José Vertiz y Salcedo. The viceroyalty was tasked with promoting local production of linen and hemp as export commodity crops, to supply the Spanish cloth industries that the Bourbons sought to favor. [3]

The early viceroyalty Edit

The conditions imposed by Spain on local commerce were high, but Charles III sought to lighten the burden. He allowed commerce through Buenos Aires on Spanish flag ships that were manned with Spanish naval officers. The ports of Buenos Aires and Montevideo were included in a list of Spanish ports allowed to trade with each other, certain Spanish American products were imported tax-free to Spain, and all the cities with ports were to be assigned Consulates or Tribunals of Commerce. This was not free trade, but a predecessor to what would develop. [4]

In the decade of 1778–1788, the commerce between Spain and Spanish America increased by nearly 700%. [4] Buenos Aires was given a customs office in 1778, and Montevideo in 1789. Spanish policy still was directed at restricting Argentina commerce the Empire banned the export of silver from Buenos Aires and tried to direct exports out of Potosí.

The system of corregimientos to mark the subdivisions of the territory was ended in 1782, and replaced with Intendencias by Charles III. The new system was intended to re-enforce the royal authority and promote centralization. Buenos Aires had the main intendencia, and the other cities provincial ones. In 1778 Cevallos reinstated the Real Audiencia of Buenos Aires, by creating a new one he maintained the Real Audiencia at Cochabamba. The Consulate of Commerce of Buenos Aires was authorized that year, but legal difficulties prevented its being established until 1794.

In 1766, Spain acquired the French colony on the Falkland Islands, called Port St. Louis after assuming effective control in 1767, it placed the islands under a governor subordinate to the Buenos Aires colonial administration. The expulsion of the British settlement in 1770 brought the two countries to the brink of war but a peace treaty allowed the British to return from 1771 until 1776, with neither side relinquishing sovereignty. [5]

Decline Edit

By the nineteenth century, Buenos Aires was becoming more self-sufficient, producing about 600,000 head of cattle annually (of which about one quarter was consumed locally). The area was rapidly developing. But wars with Great Britain meant a great setback for the region's economy, as maritime communications were practically paralyzed. The Alto Peru region started to show resistance to continued support of the administration and defense of the Río de la Plata estuary it provided the main support but its silver production at Potosí was declining. In the first years of the viceroyalty, around 75% of the expenses were covered with revenues from the north. The Alto Plata (mostly present-day Paraguay) also had problems with the Buenos Aires administration, particularly because of its keeping a monopoly on exports.

The Napoleonic Wars on the Continent preoccupied the Spanish government and, after its defeat, Napoleon placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. By 1805, Spain had to help France because of their 1795 alliance, and lost its navy to the British in the Battle of Trafalgar. The Spanish prime minister had warned the viceroyalty of the likelihood of a British invasion, saying it could not provide support to the city of Buenos Aires.

On 27 June 1806, a British force of around 1,500 men under Col. William Carr Beresford successfully invaded Buenos Aires. Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte had escaped to Córdoba. The British forces were thrown back by the criollos on December 1806, a militia force from Montevideo under the leadership of Santiago de Liniers. In February 1807, British reinforcements of about 8,000 men under Gen. Sir Samuel Auchmuty captured Montevideo after a fierce fight. In May Lt. Gen. John Whitelock arrived to take overall command and attacked Buenos Aires on 5 July 1807. After losing more than half his force, who were killed or captured, Whitelock signed a cease-fire and departed for Great Britain.

The local criollos achievements in the face of lack of support from Spain and defeating the forces of a world power added to their confidence and fueled their movement toward independence. As of 1814, Argentina had been self-governed for about four years, and Paraguay had already declared its independence. The viceroyalty was effectively dissolved when the rebel troops entered Montevideo after a two-year-long siege.

The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776 by Charles III of Spain. Although it functioned as a Spanish colony, Río de la Plata was technically a personal possession of the King of Spain. This allowed both European Spain and its overseas territories to have their own laws and regulations.

Dependencies Edit

    (Spanish: Intendencia) of Buenos Aires: cities of Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Santa Fe, Colonia and Carmen de Patagones. (Spanish: Gobernación) of Montevideo: city of Montevideo.
  • Government of Misiones: cities of San Ignacio, Yapeyú and Candelaria.
  • Intendency of Paraguay: city of Asunción
  • Intendency of Córdoba: cities of Rio Cuarto, Córdoba, La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza and San Luis
  • Intendency of Salta: cities of Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy
  • Government of Chiquitos
  • Intendency of Potosí: cities of Potosí and Oruro.
  • Intendency of La Paz: city of La Paz.
  • Intendency of Cochabamba: cities of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
  • Intendency of Charcas: city of Charcas (modern Sucre).
  • Government of Moxos

List of viceroys Edit

The King of Spain appointed viceroys to govern the Spanish viceroyalties in his name. In the beginning their terms had no fixed duration and could last for life. Later he established fixed terms of 3 to 5 years. [6] Because of the distances between Spain and South America, and with sailing as the chief means of transport, there were long delays between the designation of a viceroy and the viceroy's effectively taking power. In addition, regular communication between the Crown and the viceroyalty was equally delayed. The viceroyalties had to operate with considerable independence and self-reliance.


ChiFRA

On the 7th of February 1810, the French army entered Chiclana, which was known in those days as &ldquothe Villa of Chiclana&rdquo and settled down in it to establish part of their forces that would be blockading the city of Cádiz. The following morning the Chief magistrate dictated a decree &ldquoThat all inhabitants will open their doors to the French to admit they will gladly lodge them as friends and allies without causing them even the smallest molestation facilitating them with aid that is corresponding, avoiding everything controversial and displeasing them&rdquo.

On the 14th of the same month, the town council, the clergy and diverse personalities of the village made an oath of obedience to the King &ldquoJosé Bonaparte 1&rdquo who would visit the village on the 19th day of February. From then on, Chiclana becomes an immense military camp.

The battle of Chiclana, also well known as the battle of La Barrosa, was liberated on the 5th March 1811 confronting the French army headed by the Marshal Victor was the combined Anglo-Spanish forces with the Spanish forces controlled by General Lapeña, and General Graham controlling the English.

The confrontation of the 5th March at &ldquola Loma de la Cabeza del Puerco&rdquo (&ldquothe pig's head hill&rdquo - because of its shape when viewed from the sea) ended in a victory for the allied side, formed by the Spanish & English troops. Never the less, it wasn't possible to break the blockade of Cádiz or re-establish communication with the island of León. In fact, the French troops, despite their defeat suffered in the battle of Chiclana, remained in the village until 25th August 1812 a date in which they left Chiclana ruined & virtually uninhabited.


1810-1812
The French blockade of Cadiz and occupation of Chiclana

7th February 1810
Chiclana was occupied by a division of the French Cavalry

8th February 1810
At dawn, the chief magistrate made a decree that &ldquoBecause of yesterday afternoon&rsquos entrance of French troops into this village, everyone must promptly & diligently follow their orders for supplies that are urgent&rdquo. Within two days he had prepared that they surrender to the town council all types of weapons within the next 24 hours

14th February 1810
A town without weapons, with many escaped Chiclaneros, after the order received from Cádiz, had to swear obedience and fidelity to the new rulers and its king &ldquoJosé Bonaparte the First&rdquo.

19th February 1810
A visit to Chiclana by José Bonaparte 1, who was received by the Town council, the Clergy and personalities. He is the only king of Spain that has visited Chiclana.

10th April 1810
In the face of the possibility of some epidemic, the French staff dictated the order &ldquoEach neighbour every day must sweep and water the street in front of his house."

27 October 1810
The constant artillery barrage by the batteries of the Ángeles and Gallineras in San Fernando against the French besiegers caused today the death of the artillery general and commander Senarmont as well as that of Colonel Degennes, Captain Pinondelle and several soldiers that were in the battery of Villate, in front of the island. The bodies of the three officials were buried in the hermitage of Santa Ana, a place where the General Barracks of the French Artillery was located. They extracted the heart of General Senarmont and sent it to the Emperor Napoleon in Paris.

21 February 1811
The English troops leave of the port of Cádiz in a convoy of 20 large ships to disembark in Tarifa although they actually disembarked in the Bay of Algeciras due to bad weather.

27th February 1811
The second convoy arrives by sea at Tarifa, composed of 200 craft transporting the Spanish troops to the control of Lieutenant General Lapeña there were more than 6,000 men and 600 horses.
The British Army. In front of the British division is General Thomas Graham with between four and five thousand troops.
The Spanish Army. In front of the Spanish force is Lieutenant General Lapeña with around 6,000 troops.
The French Army. Made up of three divisions led by Villatte, Leval and Ruffin. An army of more than 15,000 troops.

Dawn on the 5th March 1811
The dawn before the battle. The allied forces arrive at the hill &ldquoLa cabeza del Puerco&rdquo (The Pig&rsquos Head).

5th March 1811
The Battle of Chiclana. After a hard and bloody confrontation, there were 1,350 allied troop casualties and 2,000 in the French Army.

18 March 1812
184 delegates signed the constitution in Cádiz.

19th March 1812
The constitution of 1812 is proclaimed and is popularly known as &ldquoLa Pepa&rdquo. Its birth is celebrated with respect and happiness.

24 August 1812
The blockade of Cádiz is lifted after 30 months and 20 days of seige.

25 August 1812
The French leave Chiclana it is ruined and almost uninhabited.

The author Carole Divall has written some interesting articles on the Siege of Cadiz and also about General Graham.


The Sons of Saint Louis

The 100,000 sons of Saint Louis – otherwise known as the Army of the Pyrenees, mobilized for the invasion – actually numbered around 60,000. The problem of ensuring soldiers’ loyalty without compromising their efficiency was dealt with by giving primary commands to former Napoleonic generals (who had the necessary experience) and secondary commands to royalists (who were unlikely to mutiny). Louis XVIII’s nephew, the Duke of Angoulême was made commander-in-chief, despite his lack of military experience. He was not keen on the appointment, but agreed to it as an honourary post, leaving the army’s actual military direction to General Armand Guilleminot, who had served under Napoleon.

The government hoped that victory over the revolutionary forces in Spain would break the spirit of those who were conspiring against the Bourbons in France. Many French political refugees, including some who had fled to the United States and participated in the Vine and Olive Colony or the Champ d’Asile, fought on the side of the Spanish constitutionalists. Among them was the indomitable Charles Lallemand, who organized a Legion of French Refugees in Spain.

At the beginning of February 1823, police spies reported they had heard that:

Before the end of the month, Spain will have organized an army of one hundred and eighty thousand men to oppose the French invasion this army will have for its vanguard a French legion, which will march under tri-coloured flags this legion will nominate a French regency with Prince Eugène Beauharnais at its head….

The French army will be the scorn of all Europe it can hope for no success when commanded by a prince…who has no claim on the confidence of true Frenchmen….

The first shot fired at the Pyrenees shall be the signal for the downfall of the Bourbons in France, Spain and Naples. Such are the hopes and prayers of the liberals in all countries. (2)

On April 6, 1823, the question of the army’s allegiance was answered. Just as happens in Napoleon in America, a group of insurgents led by Colonel Charles Fabvier tried to subvert the French forces at the Bidassoa River who were preparing to enter Spain. Fabvier’s group hoisted the tricolour flag, sang “La Marseillaise” and urged the soldiers to desert the Bourbons. Instead the French troops obeyed General Louis Vallin’s orders to open fire on Fabvier and his men.


  • Beachfront location
  • Luxury apartments
  • Facilities and services of a 5-star hotel
  • Some apartments with swimming pool and/or hot tub

The magnificent building that houses the Museum of the Cádiz Parliament was created by Juan Cabrera Latorre, the architect who designed the Neoclassical-inspired façade, with a row of balconies in the centre. Wrought iron architecture is used inside and for the imperial staircase that links the two main rooms.


Timeline of the War of 1812

The War of 1812 took place between 1812 and 1815. It was a conflict between Great Britain and the United States which was triggered by British interference in American trade.

The battles of the War of 1812 were fought on both land and sea. The land battles occurred in North America and the naval battles mostly occurred on the Atlantic ocean but a few also occurred on the Pacific.

The war officially came to an end when the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December of 1814 but news traveled slowly in those days so fighting continued into early 1815.

War of 1812 illustration, published in the Military Heroes of the War of 1812

The following is a timeline of the War of 1812:

1793:
♦ On February 1, 1799, France declares war on Great Britain in what comes to be known as the French Revolutionary Wars.

1803:
♦ Great Britain declares war on France in what comes to be known as the Napoleonic Wars.
♦ Great Britain begins to impress American sailors and force them to serve in the British Navy.
♦ Great Britain and France begin to block the United States from trading with the other to prevent supplies from getting into enemy hands.

1804:
♦ On December 2, 1804, Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France following a coup d’etat.

1806:
♦ In January of 1806, Secretary of State James Madison delivers a report discussing British interference in American trade and the impressment of American sailors, fueling anti-British sentiments.
♦ On April 18, 1806, the non-importation act is passed which placed restrictions on British imports.
♦ On November 21, 1806, Napoleon issues the Berlin Decree which forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent on France.

1807:
♦ On June 22, 1807, the British ship Leopold fires upon the American ship the Chesapeake, which escalates tensions between the two countries.
♦ On November 11, 1807, Great Britain passes the 1807 Orders in Council, blocking international trade with France.
♦ On December 22, 1807, Thomas Jefferson imposes an embargo on Great Britain and France by closing all U.S. ports to export shipping and places restrictions on British imports.

1809:
♦ President James Madison ends the embargo due its devastating effects on the economy.
♦ On March 1, 1809, the non-intercourse act is signed into law. The act prohibits trade with Great Britain and its allies and with France and the countries controlled by France.
♦ On March 4, 1809, James Madison is inaugurated President of the United States.

1810:
♦ On May 14, 1810, Macon’s Bill Number 2 goes into effect. The bill states that if either Britain or France ceased attacking American merchant ships, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well.

1811:
♦ On November 7, 1811, the Battle of Tippecanoe takes place, which is considered the first battle of the War of 1812.

1812:
♦ In early June of 1812, President James Madison sent a message to Congress in which he listed complaints about British impressment of American sailors, harassment of American merchant ships by British warships and British blockades of American merchant ships bound for European ports.
♦ On June 4, 1812, the House of Representatives voted 79 to 49 in favor of war with Great Britain.
♦ On June 16, 1812, Great Britain suspends the Orders in Council.
♦ On June 17, 1812, the U.S. Senate voted 19 to 13 in favor of war with Great Britain.
♦ On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war on Great Britain.
♦ June-August of 1812, riots break out in Baltimore in protest of the war.
♦ On July 12, 1812, U.S. forces under General Hull enter Canada in the first of three failed attempts to invade Canada.
♦ On July 17, 1812, the Siege of Fort Mackinac takes place in Michigan.
♦ On August 5, 1812, the Battle of Brownstown takes place in Michigan.
♦ On August 16, 1812, American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit to the British without a fight.
♦ On August 19, 1812, the USS Constitution defeats the HMS Guerriere.
♦ On October 13, 1812, British General Isaac Brock is killed during the Battle of Queenston Heights in Canada.
♦ On October 13, 1812, Great Britain issues another Order in Council authorizing British military forces to conduct general reprisals against the military forces, merchant shipping and people of the United States. The order is considered a declaration of war.
♦ On November 28, 1812, skirmish at Fort Erie in Canada.
♦ On December 29, 1812, the USS Constitution defeats the HMS Java.

1813:
♦ On January 9, 1813, Great Britain issues a declaration defending its reasons for going to war.
♦ January 18-23, 1813, the Battle of Frenchtown takes place in present-day Michigan.
♦ On January 23, 1813, the River Raisin Massacre takes place in Michigan during which 30 to 60 captured American soldiers are executed by the natives
♦ On February 22, 1813, the Battle of Ogdensburg takes place in New York.
♦ On March 4, 1813, President James Madison is inaugurated for his second term as President.
♦ On April 27, 1813, the Battle of York takes place in present-day Toronto, Canada. The British are defeated and American troops occupy the city for six days, looting homes and setting fire to the shipyard, Government house and the Parliament buildings.
♦ April 28-May 9 of 1813, the Siege of Fort Meigs takes place in northwestern Ohio.
♦ On September 10, 1813, the Battle Lake Erie takes place on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio.
♦ On October 5, 1813, the Battle of the Thames takes place in Ontario, Canada during which Shawnee Chief Tecumseh is killed.
♦ On November 11, 1813, the Battle of Crysler’s Farm takes place in Ontario, Canada.

1814:
♦ On April 4, 1814, Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba off the coast of Tuscany, which ends the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Great Britain now focuses all of its attention on the war in North America.
♦ On July 5, 1814, the Battle of Chippawa takes place in Ontario, Canada.
♦ On July 22, 1814, the Treaty of Greenville is signed which establishes peace between several native tribes (Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnoese, Senacas and the Miamies) and the United States. It also forms an alliance between these tribes and the Americans against the British in the War of 1812.
♦ On July 25, 1814, the Battle of Lundy’s Lane takes place at Niagra Falls in Ontario, Canada.
♦ In August, peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Beligum.
♦ On August 9, 1814, the Treaty of Fort Jackson is signed which establishes peace between the Creek nation and the United States in the Creek War.
♦ On August 24, 1814, the Battle of Bladensburg takes place in Maryland.
♦ On August 24-25, 1814, the British burn Washington D.C., including the White House and the U.S. Capitol building, in retaliation for the burning of York. President James Madison flees the capitol.
♦ On August 27, Fort Warburton, aka Fort Washington, is abandoned by American troops and destroyed to prevent its capture by the British.
♦ August 29-September 2, 1814, the Raid on Alexandria takes place in Virginia.
♦ On September 11, 1814, the British are defeated at the Battle of Plattsburg, aka Battle of Lake Champlain in New York.
♦ On September 12, 1814, the Battle of North Point takes place in Maryland.
♦ September 12-15, 1814, the Battle of Baltimore takes place in Maryland during which Fort McHenry is bombarded by the British.
♦ On September 14, Francis Scott Key writes the first lines of his famous poem, the Star-Spangled Banner after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry.
♦ On November 6, 1814, the Battle of Malcolm’s Mills takes place in Ontario, Canada.
♦ November 7-9, 1814, the Battle of Pensacola takes place in Florida.
♦ December 14-January 5, the Hartford Convention meets in Hartford, Connecticut to discuss the delegate’s grievances with the War of 1812 and political problems concerning the federal government’s increasing power.
♦ On Christmas Eve in 1814, the Treaty of Ghent is signed which officially brings the War of 1812 to an end.
♦ On December 28, the Treaty of Ghent is ratified by the British.

“Peace of Ghent 1814 and triumph of America,” engraving by Alexis Chataigner, circa 1815

1815:
♦ On January 8-18, 1815, the British are defeated in the Battle of New Orleans in Louisiana.
♦ On February 16, 1815, the Treaty of Ghent is ratified and President Madison declares the war over.
♦ On February 17, 1815, Secretary of State James Monroe presents the signed treaty to the British minister in Washington D.C.
♦ On February 20 – USS Constitution engages the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant, not knowing the war was over.
♦ On April 6, seven American imprisoned sailors are killed and 32 wounded in the “Dartmoor Massacre” at Dartmoor Prison in Devon, England.
♦ On May 24, 1815, the Battle of Sink Hole takes place in Missouri.

To learn more about the War of 1812, check out the following article on the Best Books About the War of 1812.


The origin of Spain’s Christmas lottery: buying bullets to fight Napoleon

Spain’s famous Christmas lottery, known popularly as ‘El Gordo’ (The Fat One) spreads fortune and joy, and bolsters the state’s coffers, but originally it was conceived for something else: to buy bullets and make cannons to fight the French troops attacking the Andalusian city of Cádiz, which in 1812 was Spain´s last line of defense against the Napoleonic invasion.

/>A still shot from the TV series ɼurro Jiménez,' about a highwayman who fought the French invaders.

Cádiz, which became the home of Spain´s government-in-exile in 1810, resorted to the lottery draw to cover the costs of the war against Napoleon’s troops, says Manuel Moreno Alonso, a professor of contemporary history at the University of Seville.

“It appears that it was Captain General of Cádiz, Gervasio Gasca who proposed to establish the lottery with the object of raising funds to alleviate the situation of displaced people and to reinforce the resistance,” explains Moreno.

Agustín de Argüelles, deputy

Although the special Christmas lottery did not exist at the time, the concept of national lotteries was not new. Evidence suggests that they already existed in the 18th century.

“There was already a lottery in 1809 in Seville, where the Spanish government, the Junta, was seated after Napoleon toppled Madrid,” said Moreno.

During the Spanish War of Independence, which began in 1808 and pitted Spain and its allies against the French, nearly all of Spain was under the control of the French empire. Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte, was made king of Spain.

At that time, the lottery was just one more way to handle the high costs of the war, but it did have its naysayers “because it was always looked on as morally questionable, especially when it was in private hands,” says Moreno.

/>The modern take on the Christmas Lottery. Efe

Moreno cites a speech given by Agustín de Argüelles, a deputy in the Spanish Congress, who said “it would be desirable to adopt more decent means than the lottery to sustain public necessities because the lottery, raffles and other games are resources that conspire with immorality and, as a consequence, are incompatible with the virtuous character that should be what distinguishes Spaniards in future.”

Despite the moral warnings, the need for cash won out. That’s why, in 1812, the government commissioned the production of 25,000 numbered wooden balls, to be handed in to authorities from December 15 to December 20, according to a document from the Historic Provincial Archives of Cádiz. Prior to this, according to the historical records, the winners of lotteries were not chosen with numbered balls, but instead with “rolled up documents” or papers that officials put in a sack and pulled out by hand.

The handcrafted balls were submitted, and Spain’s first national Christmas lottery took place on December 18, 1812. The lucky number was 03604 that first year, and the winners received 8,000 Spanish dollars (known as “reales de a ocho” in Spain) on an investment of 40 Spanish dollars.

Although the lottery was conceived of during the siege of Cádiz, by the time the lottery was celebrated the siege had already ended, having lasted from February 5, 1810 to August 25, 1812.

The war, however, was still raging, and the lottery spread from Andalusia to the rest of Spain as the Spanish troops defeated the French. In 1814, when the war was nearly over, the lottery headquarters moved from Cádiz to Madrid, and it has remained in the capital ever since.

Expats go crazy for the lottery

Spain"s famous Christmas lottery, which takes place every year on December 22, is one of the most popular draws in the world. While Spanish people can be spotted lining up for hours to buy a lucky number, a recent study suggests that foreigners are even more enthusiastic.

The study, conducted by online lottery company Ventura24 using 2015 data, found that overall, foreigners tend to spend more money on the lottery than Spaniards. While the average Spaniard drops €50 on Christmas lottery tickets, the average foreigner spends €72, according to the study.

The study also found that in 2015, foreigners represented 20% of lotto ticket buyers. The biggest spenders were Mexicans (spending an average €153), followed by the Swiss (€87), Venezuelans (€73), Russians (€67), Germans (€65), the French (€62) and the Brits (€53).


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