P. Attius Varus, d.45 vC

P. Attius Varus, d.45 vC

P. Attius Varus, d.45 vC

P. Attius Varus was een van Pompeius se generaals tydens die Groot Romeinse Burgeroorlog en het Noord -Afrika in die eerste jaar van die oorlog teen Caesar se luitenante gekant, en sodoende verseker dat die Pompeiaanse leiers steeds 'n basis het na hul nederlaag in Pharsalia in die daaropvolgende jaar.

In die jare voor die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog het Varus gedien as praetor en daarna as propraetor van Afrika. Aan die begin van die burgeroorlog is hy in Picenum, aan die ooskus van Italië, aan die hoof van 'n aansienlike leër geplaas. Hy neem 'n pos in by Cingulum (moderne Cingoli), voordat hy na die kus by Auximum (moderne Osimo) verhuis. Caesar, wat aan die oostelike kus van Italië gevorder het, het besluit om na Auxiumum te gaan om hierdie bedreiging die hoof te bied.

Alhoewel dit 'n gebied was wat getrou aan Pompeius moes wees, het die burgers van Auximum dit vir Varus duidelik gemaak dat hulle die keiser nie sou weerstaan ​​nie. Varus moes sy posisie laat vaar en probeer om na die suide te ontsnap. Net nadat hulle die stad verlaat het, word die manne van Varus gevang deur die keiser se vooraf bewaker en gedwing om te draai en te veg. Op hierdie punt het die meeste van Varus se manne hom verlaat, en baie verkies om by Caesar aan te sluit.

Die nuus van hierdie terugslag veroorsaak paniek in Rome, en dit kom net soos Pompeius weg is om by sy leër in Apulië aan te gaan, aan die verre oostelike punt van Italië (die hak van die skoen). Intussen het Varus in die suidooste ontsnap en by Pompeius aangesluit. Toe Pompeius besluit het om Italië te verlaat en na Griekeland oor te gaan om 'n groter leër op te rig, besluit Varus om na Afrika te verhuis. Hy neem vinnig beheer oor die provinsie, wat toe beheer word deur 'n legaat van die huidige goewerneur, Considius Longus, en gebruik die kontakte wat hy gemaak het terwyl hy as propraetor gedien het, en kon twee legioene grootmaak.

Kort daarna stuur Pompeius en die senaat L. Aelius Tubero om as goewerneur van die provinsie oor te neem. Varus het geweier om hom toe te laat om te land, en het in beheer gebly.

Nadat hy die beheer oor Italië oorgeneem het, besluit Caesar om sy hoofleër na Spanje te lei, terwyl hy terselfdertyd ander leërs stuur om dele van die Ryk te beveilig. C. Curio het vier legioene gekry, waaronder twee wat tydens sy opmars na Italië na Caesar gekom het, en is beveel om die Pompeiërs uit Sicilië en Noord -Afrika te verwyder. Sicilië het hom vinnig te beurt geval, en hy het toe twee legioene na Noord -Afrika gelei.

Varus het besluit om buite die stad Utica standpunt in te neem, in die oortuiging dat Curio se twee legioene vir 'n tweede keer kan oorreed word. Dit was nie die geval nie, en Varus het 'n geringe nederlaag buite die stad gely (slag van Utica, 49 v.C.). Hy is gedwing om terug te trek in die stad, waar hy beleër is (beleg van Utica, 49 vC).

Die beleg is opgehef deur Juba I, koning van Numidia, wat Curio verslaan het tydens die slag van die Bagradasrivier (49 vC). Die meeste van Curio se mans is in hierdie geveg dood, maar die oorlewendes en die mans wat by sy kamp oorgebly het, het hulle aan Varus oorgegee. Kort hierna het Juba by Utica aangekom, die Romeinse gevangenes in beslag geneem en hulle almal vermoor. Varus was óf in staat óf wou dit nie voorkom nie.

Varus het in bevel in Noord -Afrika gebly tot ná Pompeius se nederlaag by Pharsalia (48 v.C.). Terwyl Pompeius na Egipte gevlug het en sy dood, het die meeste van sy oorlewende senior ondersteuners na Afrika gevlug. Scipio het die opperbevel oorgeneem, terwyl Varus die vloot beveel het. Hy het 'n mate van sukses in hierdie rol behaal en 'n paar van Caesar se skepe in Adrumentum vernietig, maar weereens is die belangrikste Pompeiaanse leër in die geveg verslaan (hierdie keer by Thapsus). Varus ontsnap aan hierdie ramp en vaar om by Pompeius se seun, Cn. Pompeius in Spanje.

Eers het Varus die bevel oor sy vloot behou, maar hy is deur C. Didius verslaan in 'n vlootgeveg by Carteia (46 v.C.) en moes noodgedwonge aan die kus beweeg om by die Pompeiaanse leër aan te sluit. Hy was dus teenwoordig in die laaste stryd van die burgeroorlog, die slag van Munda (17 Maart 45 vC). Hy is tydens die geveg doodgemaak, onthoof en sy kop na die keiser gebring.


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Inhoud

Toe Caesar die Rubicon in Januarie 49 vC oorsteek, het hy die Romeinse Republiek in 'n burgeroorlog gedompel met 'n kliek Romeinse senatore wat vasbeslote was om hom te vernietig onder die militêre leiding van Pompeius. [1] Nadat hy deur Italië gedruk het in 'n poging om Pompeius te bereik en hom los te maak van die Republikeinse leierskap, kon hy nie verhinder dat hulle by Brundisium skip neem en na Epirus vlug nie. [2] In plaas daarvan om hulle te agtervolg, besluit Caesar om die Pompeiaanse magte wat belangrike westelike provinsies besit, te hanteer. [3] In Maart 49 vC het hy, terwyl hy na Hispania opgeruk het, een-en-dertig kohorte (die optimum leër wat oorgegee het en by Corfinium [4] oorgegee het) na Afrika gestuur onder bevel van Gaius Scribonius Curio om te gaan die Pompeiaanse magte daar. Voor Curio se vertrek, is hierdie mag aangevul deur 'n ekstra legioen en 1000 Galliese kavallerie. [5] Aangesien Curio min ervaring in oorlog gehad het, [6] het hy 'n betroubare militêre ondergeskikte, Gaius Caninius Rebilus, as Curio se legaat aangestel. [7]

Op hierdie punt was Afrika in besit van Attius Varus, wat, nadat hy tydens die keiserstog deur Italië van Auximum gevlug het, [8] na Utica gegaan het. Hy het die provinsie in 'n geringe toestand gevind, aangesien die eienaar, Considius Longus, sy termyn as goewerneur voltooi het en na Italië teruggekeer het, en sy aangewese opvolger, Aelius Tubero, nog nie opgedaag het nie. [5] Varus was 'n paar jaar tevore voorheen die eienaar van Afrika en het nou besluit om die provinsie in naam van Pompey in besit te neem. [5] Met behulp van sy plaaslike kennis en die plaaslike verbindings wat deur hom opgebou is klientel, het hy daarin geslaag om twee legioene groot te maak. Toe Tubero uiteindelik by Utica verskyn om sy pos te beklee, jaag Varus hom weg en dwing hom om te vertrek. [5] Om sy posisie in Afrika verder te verstewig, het Varus staatgemaak op die steun van koning Juba van Numidia, 'n kliëntstaat, wie se vader sy posisie aan Pompeius te danke het, terwyl Juba self 'n persoonlike wrok teen Curio gehad het, [9] omdat, soos plebeiaanse tribune, het Curio eens 'n wet voorgestel wat Numidia in 'n Romeinse provinsie sou verander het. [5]

Intussen het Curio Sicilië binnegedring en 'n leidende Republikeinse senator, Marcus Porcius Cato, gedwing wat op 23 April 49 vC uit Syracuse gevlug het om by Pompeius in die ooste aan te sluit. [7] Omdat die opposisie op Sicilië sonder gevegte onderdruk is, [10] besluit Curio om daar te bly en wou hoor van die ontwikkelinge in Spanje voordat hy hom tot die Afrika -veldtog verbind het. [7] Eers vroeg in Augustus het Curio, wat die helfte van sy troepe in Sicilië agtergelaat het, van Lilybaeum af vertrek, en 'n vloot van honderd transporte en twaalf galeie het twee legioene en 500 kavalleries vervoer [11], en die patrolleerende gejaag. skepe van Lucius Caesar het by Thonarabaai aan boord van Cape Bon geland. [12]

Nadat hy sy vloot beveel het om na Utica te vaar, begin Curio sy opmars om die golf. Binne drie dae het hy die suidelike oewer van die Bagradas -rivier bereik. Hy het die infanterie saam met Rebilus daar gelaat, en hy het sy ruiters geneem en noordwaarts gery om 'n kamp naby Utica, die Castra Cornelia, [13] geleë op 'n heuwel wes van die stad. [14] Vanuit hierdie posisie kon hy die kamp van Varus, wat langs die stad geleë was, beoordeel, met sy ander kant beskerm deur die noordoostelike muur van Utica, terwyl sy naderkant deur die see en 'n buitelug-teater beskerm is, om te verseker dat sy kamp kon slegs deur 'n smal gang benader word. [14] Toe hy suidwaarts draai, sien hy 'n stroom vlugtelinge wat na die veiligheid van Utica se mure vlug, en hy besluit om die skare aan te val om paniek te veroorsaak. [15] Dit het Varus genoop om 1 000 Numidiaanse troepe (600 kavallerie en 400 soldate) tot hul redding te stuur. Die twee magte het gebots en die Numidiërs, wat nie gebruik is om te veg nie, is afgeweer en het 120 man in die proses verloor, terwyl die res van die troepe na die stad teruggetrek het. [15]

Vervolgens het Curio opgemerk dat ongeveer 200 skepe wat die voorraad vir Varus se leër bevat, onbeskermd in die hawe van Utica lê, en dat sy vloot reeds in posisie was, besluit om die voorraad in besit te neem. Hy beveel die kapteins van die vaartuie om hul vragte te verwyder en op die strand te plaas, langs waar Curio van plan was om sy kamp te maak. Nadat hulle gedreig het om hulle dood te maak, het hulle gehoor gegee en dadelik die seil gesteek nadat hulle hul ruimtes leeggemaak het. [15]

Nadat hy teruggekeer het na sy kamp op die Bagradas, het die legioene hom bekroon as Imperator. [15] Die volgende dag het hy sy magte beveel om na Utica te marsjeer, maar in plaas daarvan om na die Castra Cornelia te gaan, wat hy vir sy kamp opgespoor het, het hy besluit om die offensief aan te gaan en homself op 'n rant in die suidweste van die dorp. [15] Sy soldate was nog besig om hul kamp voor te berei toe patrollies berig dat hulle groot Numidiaanse versterkings onderweg sien, terwyl koning Juba hulle gestuur het om Varus se posisie te versterk. Toe hulle sien, het Curio, wat nie die moeite gedoen het om verkenners uit te stuur nie, tekens van senuweeagtigheid begin toon. [15] Hy stuur sy ruiters dringend uit om die Numidiaanse opmars te belemmer, terwyl hy ongeduldig sy legioenen uit die loopgrawe herroep en hulle in 'n gevegsvorming begin opstel. [15] Sy kavallerie het die Numidiërs betrek, wat op 'n ongeorganiseerde wyse nader gekom het en onverhoeds betrap is en met groot verliese versprei is. Voordat Curio sy legioene kon instuur, het die Numidiaanse kavallerie uit die slagting ontsnap en vinnig die stad binnegedring. [15]

Die volgende nag het twee hoofmanne, vergesel van twee-en-twintig mans, die kamp van Curio verlaat en na Varus gegaan. Hulle het vir hom gesê dat Curio se troepe baie ongelukkig was met hul bevelvoerder, en dat hy moes probeer om hulle voor die geveg te wen. [16] Varus stem saam met hierdie strategie en die volgende oggend vergader hy sy troepe en lei hulle uit hul kamp. Curio het sy voorbeeld gevolg. [16] Die twee leërs is geskei deur 'n vallei van ongeveer 70 meter (230 voet) breed, tussen die stad en 'n moeras, met die regterflank van Curio en die linkerkant van Varus deur die moeras. [16] Varus se broer, [17] Sextus Quintilius Varus, 'n senator, kom uit Varus se troepe en versoek Curio se troepe om nie vir hul bevelvoerder te veg nie, maar om by hul eie kant aan te sluit. Die troepe luister in stilte, en Varus keer terug na sy kamp, ​​met Curio wat weer dieselfde doen. [16] Daardie dag, terwyl Curio se manne oorweeg om hul bevelvoerder te laat vaar, het Curio sy offisiere ontbied om hul advies in te win. Sommige het Curio aangeraai om dadelik aan te val, voordat muitery kon uitbreek. Ander stel voor dat hy wag en laat Varus na hom toe kom, en gee sy soldate tyd om hulself te kalmeer. Curio het albei advies verwerp en besluit om direk met die mans te praat. [18] Toe hy sy troepe beveel om op te staan, herinner hy hulle aan hul eed aan die keiser en dat hulle hom as Imperator geprys het. Teen die tyd dat hy klaar was, was sy troepe om hom te ondersteun, en al die gemompel het bedaar. [19]

Die volgende dag was dit Curio wat sy manne na die geveg gelei het, met Varus agterna. Hulle het hul troepe in lyn gebring soos die vorige dag, weerskante van die vallei. Alhoewel die sye van die vallei slegs ongeveer sewe voet hoog was, was hulle redelik steil, [17], sodat elke leër vir die ander een gewag het om met sy operasies te begin en die vallei oor te steek. [19] Uiteindelik beveel Varus die Numidiaanse kavallerie, met ondersteuning van liggewapende hulpdienste, om die vallei oor te steek. Terwyl hulle voortgaan, stuur Curio sy kavallerie, ondersteun deur twee kohorte, in en stuur hulself af na Varus se opkomende troepe. Die Numidiaanse kavallerie, wat reeds twee dae tevore geslaan is, het omgedraai en gevlug. [19] Die hulpverleners is op hul beurt omring en geslag waar hulle gestaan ​​het. Op hierdie stadium wend Curio se legaat, Gaius Caninius Rebilus, hom na Curio en spoor hom aan om van die geleentheid gebruik te maak en sy voordeel te benut. [19] Om sy manne te herinner aan die ede wat hulle die vorige dag afgelê het, het Curio die aanklag gelei. Toe hy die vallei oorsteek en die vyandelike wal opskarrel, ontdek Curio dat Varus se manne gebreek en gehardloop het. [20] Baie van Varus se troepe het hulle agtervolg, deur hul eie mans doodgetrap in hul haas om te vlug, terwyl ander deur Curio se mans vermoor is. Baie het nooit opgehou totdat hulle die stad Utica bereik het nie. [20] Varus was so heeltemal gedemoraliseer dat hy byna sy hele leër na die stad teruggetrek het, en slegs 'n trompettist en 'n paar tente agtergelaat het om die voorkoms by te hou. [20] Die eindresultaat was dat Varus ongeveer 600 man verloor het, terwyl nog 1 000 gewond was. Curio se eie aantal beseerdes beloop 100. [20]

In die verwarring van die geveg is Curio aangemoedig om die stad in te neem voordat Varus kon hergroepeer, maar hy het homself teruggehou, aangesien hy nie die middele byderhand gehad het om 'n aanval op die stad te onderneem nie. [20] Die volgende dag begin hy egter 'n kontraval van Utica, met die doel om die stad onderdanig te maak. Die belangrikste burgers van die stad het Varus genader, wat hom gesmeek het om die gruwels van 'n beleg oor te gee en die stad te spaar. [20] Varus het egter pas verneem dat koning Juba met 'n groot mag onderweg was, en het hulle so gerusgestel dat met hulp van Juba Curio binnekort verslaan sou word. [20] Curio het soortgelyke berigte gehoor en die beleg laat vaar en na die Castra Cornelia gegaan. [21] Valse berigte uit Utica oor Juba se krag het veroorsaak dat hy sy wag laat val het, wat gelei het tot die Slag van die Bagradasrivier.


Namens Ligarius

pleit skuldig, maar skuldig daaraan dat jy aan dieselfde kant was as jy, Tubero, en as daardie baie waardevolle heer jou vader. U moet dus skuld beken op u eie oortreding, voordat u die van Ligarius kan verhoor.

Quintus Ligarius, toe daar nog geen sweem van oorlog was nie, vertrek na Afrika om as legaat te dien onder Gaius Considius, en in daardie hoedanigheid het hy so groot opgetree tot bevrediging van ons burgers en bondgenote, dat wanneer Considius die provinsie verlaat, die bevolking sou nie tevrede wees met die aanstelling van iemand anders as goewerneur nie. Na volgehoue, maar vrugtelose protesaksie, aanvaar Ligarius die provinsie teësinnig, en sy administrasie daarvan in vrede was so dat burgers en bondgenote verheug was oor sy onverganklikheid en eer. Die oorlog het so skielik uitgebreek 3 dat die inwoners van Afrika gehoor het dat dit gevoer word voordat hulle verneem dat dit voorberei word. Toe hulle dit hoor, deels met onnadenkende gretigheid, deels met 'n soort blinde vrees, soek hulle iemand wat eers die leiding kan neem om hul veiligheid te verseker en daarna ook hul begeertes te verwesenlik, terwyl Ligarius, met sy oog gevestig op die huis en gretig om terug te keer na sy geliefdes, het geweier om hom in enige moeilikheid te bemoei. Intussen het Publius Attius Varus, wat Afrika as prepraetor bestuur het, by Utica aangekom. Alle aandag trek hom onmiddellik oor. Hy het met 'n bedagtheid die regering in beslag geneem, as dit 'n regering genoem kan word wat sonder amptelike sanksie by hom berus, maar bloot in ooreenstemming met die onverantwoordelike opwinding van 'n onintelligente skare. Gevolglik was Ligarius, omdat hy 4 gretig was om al die verleenthede te vermy, by die aankoms van Varus 'n tyd lank heeltemal onaktief.


Germaanse stamme

Die Germaanse volk verskyn vir die eerste keer in die geskiedenis in die 2de eeu vC. Hulle is deur hul Keltiese bure beskryf as stamme wat uit die noorde en die ooste kom. Selfs die kennis van Caesar ten tyde van die "Galliese Oorlog" is gedeeltelik gebaseer op inligting wat deur 'n Keltiese Druid verskaf is.

Die naam, wat deel uitmaak van die naam van 'n Germaanse stam, is blykbaar deur die Galliërs en later deur die Romeine opgeneem en veralgemeen. Die Germaanse volk self het egter slegs die name van die spesifieke etniese groepe gebruik en hulself nie as 'n eenheid beskou nie. Hulle geskiedenis was altyd die geskiedenis van hul eie individuele stam.

In die tyd van die verowering van Gallië deur Caesar in die 1ste eeu vC het die Romeine herhaaldelik met die Germaanse stamme in aanraking gekom. Hulle het verskeie kere in die suide aangeval en bewys dat hulle ernstige teenstanders was. Caesar kon hulle herhaaldelik dwing om terug te trek. Hierdeur blyk die rivier die Ryn nie net 'n geografiese grens te wees nie, maar ook 'n toenemend belangrike politieke.

Kleiner Germaanse groepe het bestaan ​​in die gebied wes van die rivier die Ryn. Hulle is die 'germani cisrhenani' genoem. Die grootste groep was die Eburones. Die belangrikste Germaanse nedersettings was egter langs die gebied oos van die Ryn tot by die Noordsee, na Skandinawië, na die Oossee en uiteindelik tot Bohemen en Morawië. Die stamme wat hier woon, kan verdeel word in groter kulturele groepe, gebaseer op hul kulturele erfenis. Dit is byvoorbeeld die Noordsee-Germaanse volk, die Ryn-Weser-Germaanse volk of die Elbe-Germaanse volk. Binne die Germaanse stamme het daar dikwels oorlogsugtige konflikte ontstaan. Daar was geen tekens van kollektiewe, politieke samewerking of doelgerigte benaderings teenoor nie-Germaanse mense nie. Dit veroorsaak egter diffuse angs in die Romeinse Ryk in die 1ste eeu vC en nC omdat aanvalle van die noordelike stamme tot talle nederlae gelei het.

Voormalige inwoners van Kalkriese

Die gebied rondom Kalkriese was reeds sedert die Steentydperk, aan die einde van die derde millennium vC, bewoon deur dwalende jagters en later deur landbouers. Dit word bewys deur vondste van die jagters se kampeerplekke en veral uit grafte. Die aanduidings is taamlik yl en dit is nie bekend of die gebied permanent bewoon is nie.

Hier is egter spore gevind van residensiële geboue uit die voor-Romeinse ystertydperk en die vroeë Romeinse keiserstyd. Die oorblyfsels van die Germaanse nedersettings was op die heuwel geleë. Daar was die sanderige grond droog genoeg om huise te bou. Klein spruitjies en putte in die nabygeleë laagland het die nodige watertoevoer verskaf. Daar was genoeg vrugbare landbougrond. Die oorblyfsels van huise was in 'n ovaal en later in 'n reghoekige vorm. Hulle het 'n dubbel-span binnekant. Dit was hoofsaaklik die donker spore van die stutte in die ligte sandgrond wat oorgebly het. Soortgelyke huise het destyds bestaan ​​in die huidige Westfalen en Nederland. Klein reghoekige strukture van pilare dui aan dat daar moontlik pakhuise was wat aan die woonhuise behoort het.

Ten tyde van die Varus-geveg, aan die begin van die 1ste eeu nC, het die Germaanse stamme in die gebied tussen die riviere Elbe en Weser in los dorpsagtige nedersettings gewoon. Dit het bestaan ​​uit verspreide, enkele plaasopstalle. Hulle was baie anders as vandag se dig beboude dorpe.

'N Germaanse plaas het bestaan ​​uit 'n reghoekige woonhuis, soos hierbo genoem, waar mense en diere in afgesonderde gebiede gewoon het. Daarbenewens was daar verskillende pakhuise en aangrensende geboue. Die bewerkbare landbougrond, die gebiede wat gebruik word vir rommel en wintervoer, en die bosveld wat beide as 'n nabye weiveld gebruik is, was naby geleë. Gedurende die dag sou die beeste verder weg wei aan die rand van die bos.

Daar is nie baie vondste wat inligting kan verskaf oor die latere Romeinse keistydperk, die migrasietydperk en die vroeë Middeleeue nie. Dit is duidelik dat slegs 'n paar mense hulle in en om Kalkriese gedurende hierdie tyd gevestig het. Die gebied was moontlik selfs tydelik onbevolk. 'N Toenemende aantal vondste dui aan dat daar nog meer nedersettings in die hoë Middeleeue bestaan ​​het. Hulle word ook in bronmateriaal genoem en kenmerk die nedersetting op die noordelike hange van die Wiehenberge tot vandag toe.


Oorlogsraad

Pompeiaanse leër
• Leier: Varus
• 5 opdragkaarte
• Beweeg eers

Caesariese leër
• Leier: Curio
• 5 opdragkaarte

Spesiale reëls
• Julian Legions se reël geld vir beide kampe.
• 'n Pompeiaanse kavallerie -eenheid wat in die vallei beweeg en uit die een van die twee heksies gaan wat aan die teenoorgestelde kant aangedui word, versamel een Victory Banner vir sy dapperheid.
• 'n Caesariese eenheid wat die vyandelike kampvanger vang (beset), kry een Victory Banner. As die eenheid wegbeweeg of uitgeskakel word, tel dit nie meer nie.


Gebeurtenis #5565: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica: 'persoonlik veragtelik. polities reaksionêr 'oorlog met Caesar veroorsaak

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica (ongeveer 100/98 vC - 46 vC), in moderne geleerdheid dikwels as Metellus Scipio, was 'n Romeinse konsul en militêre bevelvoerder in die Laat Republiek. Tydens die burgeroorlog tussen Julius Caesar en die senatoriese faksie onder leiding van Pompeius Magnus ("Pompeius die Grote"), was hy 'n vaste optimum. Hy het troepe teen Caesar se magte gelei, hoofsaaklik in die gevegte van Pharsalus en Thapsus, waar hy verslaan is. Hy het later selfmoord gepleeg. Ronald Syme noem hom 'die laaste Scipio van enige gevolg in die Romeinse geskiedenis'.

Metellus Scipio is gebore Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. Sy oupa was die P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio wat konsul was in 111 vC. Sy vader Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica (gebore 128 v.C.) trou met Licinia Crassa, dogter van die L. Licinius Crassus wat in 95 vC konsul was. Die pa sterf nie lank na sy praetorskap nie (ongeveer 93 v.C.) en word oorleef deur twee seuns en twee dogters. Die broer is aangeneem deur hul oupa Crassus, maar het min spore in die geskiedenis gelaat.

Publius Scipio, soos vroeg in sy lewe in hedendaagse bronne verwys is, is op volwassenheid aangeneem deur die testament van Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, konsul in 80 vC en pontifex maximus. Hy het sy patrisiese status behou: 'Scipio se afkoms', merk Syme op, 'was ongeëwenaard vir glans'. Soos Jerzy Linderski breedvoerig getoon het, is hierdie regsproses slegs in 'n losse sin aanneming. Scipio word 'n naam van Caecilius Metellus terwyl hy die erf van Metellus Pius erf, maar was nooit sy 'seun' terwyl die pontifex maximus gelewe het nie. Hy is 'Metellus Scipio' genoem, maar soms ook 'Scipio', selfs nadat hy aangeneem is. Die amptelike vorm van sy naam, soos blyk uit 'n besluit van die senaat, was "Q. Caecilius Q. f. Fab. Metellus Scipio. ”

Scipio trou met Aemilia Lepida, dogter van Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (konsul 77 v.C.), maar was nie sonder mededinger in die wedstryd nie. Die maagdelike Cato wou ook met Aemilia trou en verloor in die verleiding:

'Toe [Cato] dink dat hy oud genoeg is om te trou - en tot op daardie tydstip het hy geen vrou gehad nie - verloof hy hom aan Lepida, wat vroeër verloof was met Metellus Scipio, maar nou vry was sedert Scipio het haar verwerp en die verlowing is verbreek. Voor die huwelik het Scipio egter weer van plan verander, en by elke poging het sy die diensmeisie gekry. Cato was baie ontsteld en ontstoke hieroor, en het probeer om daaroor te gaan, maar sy vriende het dit verhoed, en daarom het hy hom in sy woede en jeugdige ywer tot iambiese vers gewend en het hy baie spotterige mishandeling op Scipio opgehoop ... "

Die egpaar het een seun gehad, 'n Metellus Scipio wat blykbaar gesterf het toe hy slegs 18 was. [9] 'N Ander seun is moontlik omstreeks 70 gebore, of 'n seun is aangeneem. Die egpaar se baie meer bekende dogter is ook omstreeks daardie tyd gebore. [10] Scipio trou eers die gevierde Cornelia Metella met Publius Crassus, die seun van Marcus Licinius Crassus. Na Publius se voortydige dood in Carrhae, het Scipio besluit om Caesar op te volg as die skoonvader van Pompeius, wat minstens dertig jaar ouer was as Cornelia. Die huwelik is een van die dade waarmee Pompeius sy bondgenootskap aan Caesar verbreek het en homself die kampioen van die optimiste verklaar het. Hy en Scipio was saam konsuls in 52.

Cicero noem “P. Scipio ”onder die jong adellikes in sy verdedigingspan toe Sextus Roscius in 80 vC vervolg is. Hy word geplaas in die geselskap van M. Messalla en Metellus Celer, albei toekomstige konsuls.

Metellus Scipio is in 59 aangewys as die tribune van die volksgenote, maar sy status as patriciër argumenteer dat hy die amp beklee. Dit is moontlik dat Scipio se 'aanneming' tot 'n plebeiaanse gen hom moontlik gekwalifiseer het vir 'n tribunaat oor 'n tegniese aard. Hy was moontlik 'n leergierige in 57 vC, toe hy ses jaar tevore begrafniswedstryde aangebied het ter ere van die dood van sy aangenome vader. Hy was praetor, heel waarskynlik in 55 vC, tydens die tweede gesamentlike konsulskap van Pompeius en Marcus Crassus.

In 53 vC was hy interrex met M. Valerius Messalla. Hy word konsul by Pompeius in 52 vC, die jaar toe hy die huwelik van sy pas weduwee dogter met hom reël.

Ongetwyfeld aristokraties en konserwatief, was Metellus Scipio ten minste simbolies 'n teengewig teenoor die mag van die sogenaamde triumviraat voor die dood van Crassus in 53. "Opportune sterftes," merk Syme op, "het sy waarde verbeter, en daar bly nie een oor van die Metellan -konsuls. ”

Dit is bekend dat hy teen 57 vC lid van die College of Pontiffs was, en is waarskynlik genomineer by die dood van sy aanneemvader in 63 en daarna verkies.

In Januarie 49 vC oorreed Metellus Scipio die senaat om die ultimatum aan Caesar te stel wat oorlog onvermydelik gemaak het. In dieselfde jaar word hy prokonsul van die provinsie Sirië. In Sirië en in die provinsie Asië, waar hy winterkwartiere gebruik het, het hy dikwels onderdrukkende middele gebruik om skepe, troepe en geld bymekaar te maak:

'Hy het 'n belasting per capita op slawe en kinders gehef, en hy het kolomme, deure, graan, soldate, wapens, roeiers en masjinerie belas as 'n naam gevind kan word vir 'n ding, wat as voldoende beskou word om geld daaruit te verdien.

Scipio het Alexander van Judaea om die lewe gebring en is as Imperator geprys vir 'beweerde' oorwinnings in die Amanusberge - soos vernederend deur Caesar opgemerk.

In 48 vC het hy sy magte uit Asië na Griekeland gebring, waar hy teen Gn. Domitius Calvinus en L. Cassius tot die koms van Pompeius. In die Slag van Pharsalus het hy die sentrum beveel. Na die optimiste se nederlaag deur Caesar, het Metellus na Afrika gevlug. Met die steun van sy voormalige mededinger-in-romanse Cato, het hy die opperbevel oor Pompeius se magte van die getroue Attius Varus afgestoot, waarskynlik vroeg in 47. In 46 vC het hy die bevel by die Slag van Thapsus “sonder vaardigheid of sukses, ”En is saam met Cato verslaan. Na die nederlaag het hy probeer ontsnap na die Iberiese Skiereiland om die geveg voort te sit, maar is deur die vloot van Publius Sittius in 'n hoek geslaan. Hy het selfmoord gepleeg deur homself te steek sodat hy nie in die hande van sy vyande sou val nie.

Metellus Scipio het teenoor die dood 'n onkenmerkende waardigheid behaal, wat beroemd van sy soldate afwyk met 'n nonchalante Imperator se bene habet ('Jou generaal is goed'). Hierdie laaste woorde het sterk lof van die Stoïese morele filosoof Seneca ontlok:

'Neem byvoorbeeld Scipio, die skoonvader van Gnaeus Pompeius: hy is deur 'n stormwind op die Afrika-kus teruggedryf en het sy skip in die mag van die vyand gesien. Daarom het hy sy liggaam met 'n swaard deurboor, en toe hulle vra waar die bevelvoerder is, antwoord hy: 'Dit gaan goed met die bevelvoerder.' Scipios in Afrika om sy kontinuïteit te verloor. Dit was 'n groot daad om Kartago te verower, maar 'n groter daad om die dood te oorwin. 'Alles gaan goed met die bevelvoerder!' Moet 'n generaal anders sterf, veral een van Cato se generaals? [26]

Klassieke geleerde John H. Collins het die karakter en reputasie van Metellus Scipio opgesom:

'Uit alles wat van hierdie Scipio geleer kan word, was hy so persoonlik veragtelik en so polities reaksionêr soos hulle kom: 'n verdediger van C. Verres (In Ver. II. 4. 79–81), 'n losbandige van afsonderlike afstootlikheid (Valerius Maximus, 9.1.8 [27]), 'n onbevoegde en bevelvoerder met 'n bul (Plutarch, Cato Min. 58), 'n ongedissiplineerde tiran in besit van gesag (Bell. Afr. 44–46), [28] 'n afperser van die provinsies (3.31–33 v.C.), [29] 'n bankrotdorstige bankrot (Att. 9.11 [30]), 'n waardige agterkleinseun des hochmütigen, plebejerfeindlichen Junkers [31] (Münzer, RE 4.1502) wat die lynch van Tiberius Gracchus, en 'n onwaardige vader van die sagmoedige Cornelia. Slegs in die Imperator se bene habet waarmee hy die dood teëgekom het, is daar 'n spoor van die edeler karakter van sy groot voorvaders [32] (Seneca Rhet., Suas. 7.8 [33]). [34]

Linderski, Jerzy. “Q. Scipio Imperator. ” In Imperium sine fine: T. Robert S. Broughton en die Romeinse Republiek. Franz Steiner, 1996, pp. 144–185. Beperkte voorskou aanlyn.

Syme, Ronald. "Die laaste scipiones." In The Augustan Aristocracy. Oxford University Press, 1989

John H. Collins, "Caesar and the Corruption of Power", Historia 4 (1955), p. 457, noot 64.

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Random information on the term “ORCA”:

Quintus Valerius Orca (fl. 50s–40s BC) was a Roman praetor, a governor of the Roman province of Africa, and a commanding officer under Julius Caesar in the civil war against Pompeius Magnus and the senatorial elite. The main sources for Orca’s life are letters written to him by Cicero and passages in Caesar’s Bellum Civile.

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Orca is generally regarded as the son of Quintus Valerius Soranus, a partisan of Gaius Marius who was executed during the Sullan proscriptions of 82 BC, allegedly for violating a religious prohibition against revealing the secret name of Rome. The family came from the municipality of Sora, near Cicero’s native Arpinum. Cicero refers to the Valerii Sorani as his friends and neighbors.

Next to nothing is known of Orca’s early career. As praetor in 57 BC, he actively supported Cicero’s return from exile, and in 56, while governor in Africa, he was the recipient of two letters of recommendation from Cicero. Orca and Cicero had close enough relations that they had agreed upon the use of a sign or symbol to mark their correspondence as authentic and trustworthy. Orca then disappears from the historical record for several years. The length of his term in Africa is undetermined the next known governor, P. Attius Varus, was there in 52 and probably earlier. It has been conjectured, though the dating of his governorship might argue to the contrary, that he was among those attending the conference held April 56 BC in Luca by Julius Caesar, Pompeius Magnus, and Marcus Crassus in the company of a number of supporters the three worked out the strategic political alliance that led to the extension of Caesar’s command in Gaul and the joint election of Pompey and Crassus to their second consulship.


Inhoud

Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, which began with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. The political situation is discussed in depth in the ancient histories of Appian and Cassius Dio. It is also covered in the biographies of Plutarch. Julius Caesar's commentaries offer some political details but mainly narrate military manoeuvres of the civil war itself.

The First Triumvirate (so denominated by Cicero), comprising Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey, ascended to power with Caesar's election as consul in 59 BC. The First Triumvirate was an unofficial political alliance, the substance of which was Pompey's military might, Caesar's political influence and Crassus's money. The alliance was further consolidated by Pompey's marriage to Julia, the daughter of Caesar, in 59 BC. At the conclusion of Caesar's first consulship, the Senate, rather than granting him a provincial governorship, tasked him with watching over the Roman forests. Specially created by his Senate enemies, that position was meant to occupy him without giving him the command of armies or garnering him wealth and fame.

Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senate's decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies. The acts promoted Caesar to Roman governor of Illyricum and Cisalpine Gaul Transalpine Gaul (southern France) was added later. The various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of (initially) four legions. The term of his proconsulship, which allowed him immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year. His term was later extended for another five years. During the ten years, Caesar used his military forces to conquer Gaul and to invade Britain, which was popular with the people, however his enemies claimed it was without explicit authorization by the Senate. [5]

In 52 BC, at the end of the First Triumvirate, the Roman Senate supported Pompey as sole consul meanwhile, Caesar had become a military hero and champion of the people. Knowing that he hoped to become consul when his governorship expired, the Senate, politically fearful of him, ordered him to resign his command of his army. In December of 50 BC, Caesar wrote to the Senate that he agreed to resign his military command if Pompey followed suit. Offended, the Senate demanded for him to disband his army immediately, or he would be declared an enemy of the people. That was an illegal political act since he was entitled to keep his army until his term expired.

A secondary reason for Caesar's immediate desire for another consulship was that Caesar's 'imperium' or safety from prosecution was set to expire and his enemies in Rome had senatorial prosecutions awaiting him upon retirement as governor of Illyricum and Gaul. The potential prosecutions were clamored by his enemies for alleged irregularities that occurred in his consulship and war crimes claimed to have been committed during his Gallic campaigns. Moreover, Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinus, vetoed the bill and were quickly expelled from the Senate. They then joined Caesar, who had assembled his army, which he asked for military support against the Senate. Agreeing, his army called for action.

In 50 BC, at the expiry of his proconsular term, the Pompey-led Senate ordered Caesar's return to Rome and the disbanding of his army and forbade his standing for election in absentia for a second consulship. That made Caesar think that he would be prosecuted and rendered politically marginal if he entered Rome without consular immunity or his army. To wit, Pompey accused him of insubordination and treason.

Crossing the Rubicon Edit

In January, 49 BC, Caesar's opponents in the Senate, led by Lentulus, Cato and Scipio, tried to strip Caesar of his command (provinces and legions) and force him to return to Rome as a private citizen (liable to prosecution). Caesar's allies in the Senate, especially Mark Anthony, Curio, Cassius and Caelius Rufus, tried to defend their patron, but were threatened with violence. On 7 January the Senate passed the consultum ultimum (declaring a state of emergency) and charged the consuls, praetors, tribunes and proconsuls with the defence of the state. That night Anthony, Cassius, Curio and Caelius Rufus fled from Rome and headed north to join Caesar. [7]

On January 10, 49 BC, commanding the Legio XIII, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, the boundary between the province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south. As crossing the Rubicon with an army was prohibited, lest a returning general attempt a coup d'etat, that triggered the ensuing civil war between Caesar and Pompey.

The general population, which regarded Caesar as a hero, approved of his actions. The historical records differ about the decisive comment that Caesar made on crossing the Rubicon: one report is Alea iacta est (usually translated as "The die is cast").

Caesar's own account of the Civil War makes no mention of the river crossing but simply states that he marched to Rimini, a town south of the Rubicon, with his army. [8]

March on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign Edit

Within a week of passing the consultum ultimum (declaring a state of emergency and outlawing Caesar) news reached Rome that Caesar had crossed the Rubicon (10 January) and had taken the Italian town of Ariminum (12 January). [9] By January 17 Caesar had taken the next three towns along the Flaminian Way, and that Marcus Anthonius (Mark Anthony) had taken Arretium and controlled the Cassian Way. [9] The Senate, not knowing that Caesar possessed only a single legion, feared the worst and supported Pompey, who declared that Rome could not be defended. He escaped to Capua with those politicians who supported him, the aristocratic Optimates and the regnant consuls. Cicero later characterised Pompey's "outward sign of weakness" as allowing Caesar's consolidation of power.

Despite having retreated into central Italy, Pompey and the Senatorial forces actually vastly outnumbered Caesar's single legion, and were composed of at least 100 cohorts, or 10 legions. [10] These included 5 cohorts at Iguvium under Thermus, 10 cohorts under Lentulus Spinther, 6 cohorts under Lucilius Hirrus garrisoning Camerinum, 2 legions of Marsi and Peligni drawn from garrisons at Alba and the surrounding districts that were commanded by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, 9 further cohorts under praetors L. Manlius and Rutilius Lupus and 5 other legions. Cicero wrote [11] that from the outset Pompey had planned to abandon Rome. As Caesar progressed southwards, Pompey retreated towards Brundisium, initially ordering Domitius (engaged in raising troops in Etruria) to stop Caesar's movement on Rome from the direction of the Adriatic seaboard.

Belatedly, Pompey requested Domitius to retreat south to rendezvous with Pompey's forces. Domitius ignored Pompey's request believing he outnumbered Caesar three to one. Caesar, however, had been reinforced by two more legions from Gaul (the eighth and the twelfth) and twenty-two cohorts of recruits (recruited by Curio) and in fact outnumbered Domitius five to three. Domitius after being isolated and trapped near Corfinium, was forced to surrender his army of thirty-one cohorts (about three legions) following a brief siege. With deliberate clemency, Caesar released Domitius and the other senators with him and even returned 6,000,000 sesterces that Domitius had had to pay his troops. The thirty-one cohorts, however, were made to swear a new oath of allegiance to Caesar and were eventually sent to Sicily under the command of Asinius Pollio. [12] Caesar now had three veteran legions and fifty-three cohorts of recruits at Corfinium. The Caesarian army in Italy now outnumbered the republicans (8:5) and Pompey knew the peninsula was lost for the time being.

Pompey escaped to Brundisium, there awaiting sea transport for his legions, to Epirus, in the Republic's eastern Greek provinces, expecting his influence to yield money and armies for a maritime blockade of Italy proper. Meanwhile, the aristocrats, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, joined Pompey there and left a rear guard at Capua.

Caesar pursued Pompey to Brundisium, expecting restoration of their alliance of ten years earlier. Throughout the Great Roman Civil War's early stages, Caesar frequently proposed to Pompey for both generals to sheathe their swords. Pompey refused, legalistically arguing that Caesar was his subordinate and so was obligated to cease campaigning and dismiss his armies before any negotiation. As the Senate's chosen commander and with the backing of at least one of the current consuls, Pompey commanded legitimacy, but Caesar's military crossing of the Rubicon rendered him a de jure enemy of the Senate and the people of Rome. Caesar then tried to trap Pompey in Brundisium by blocking up the harbour mouth with earth moles from either side, joined across the deepest part by a string of rafts, each nine metres square, covered with a causeway of earth and protected with screens and towers. Pompey countered by constructing towers for heavy artillery on a number of merchant ships and used them to destroy the rafts as they were floated in position. Eventually, in March 49 BC, Pompey escaped and fled by sea to Epirus, leaving Caesar in complete command of Italy. [13]

Taking advantage of Pompey's absence from the Italian mainland, Caesar marched west to Hispania. Onroute he started the Siege of Massilia. Within 27 days after setting out he arrived on the Iberian peninsula. At Ilerda he defeated the politically-leaderless Pompeian army, commanded by the legates Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius. Afterwards pacifying Roman Hispania.

Returning to Rome in December of 49 BC, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse. Caesar kept his dictatorship for eleven days, a tenure sufficient to win him a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus as his colleague. Afterwards, Caesar renewed his pursuit of Pompey in Greece.

Greek, Illyrian and African campaigns Edit

From Brundisium, Caesar crossed the Strait of Otranto with seven legions to the Gulf of Valona (not Palaesta in Epirus [modern Palase/Dhermi, Albania], as reported by Lucan), [14] prompting Pompey to consider three courses of action: (i) to make an alliance with the King of Parthia, an erstwhile ally, far to the east (ii) to invade Italy with his superior navy and/or (iii) to force a decisive battle with Caesar. A Parthian alliance was not feasible since a Roman general fighting Roman legions with foreign troops was craven, and the military risk of an Italian invasion was politically unsavoury because the Italians, who thirty years earlier had rebelled against Rome, might rise against him. Thus, on the advice of his councillors, Pompey decided to engineer a decisive battle. [ aanhaling nodig ]

As it turned out, Pompey would have been obliged to take the third option anyway, as Caesar had forced his hand by pursuing him to Illyria and so on 10 July 48 BC, the two fought in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. With a loss of 1,000 veteran legionaries, Caesar was forced to retreat southwards. Refusing to believe that his army had bested Caesar's legions, Pompey misinterpreted the retreat as a feint into a trap and so did not give chase to deliver the decisive coup de grâce, thus losing the initiative and his chance to conclude the war quickly. Near Pharsalus, Caesar pitched a strategic bivouac. Pompey attacked but, despite his much larger army, was conclusively defeated by Caesar's troops. A major reason for Pompey's defeat was miscommunication among front cavalry horsemen.

Egyptian dynastic struggle Edit

Pompey fled to Ptolemaic Egypt, where he was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy XIII. Caesar pursued the Pompeian army to Alexandria, where he camped and became involved with the Alexandrine Civil War between Ptolemy and his sister, wife and co-regent, Cleopatra VII. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra and is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain, Pothinus, as a gift.

In any event, Caesar was besieged at Alexandria and after Mithridates relieved the city, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army and installed Cleopatra as ruler with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion". Caesar and Cleopatra never married because Roman law prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen.

War against Pharnaces Edit

After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to Syria and then to Pontus to deal with Pharnaces II, Pompey's client king who had taken advantage of the civil war to attack the Roman-friendly Deiotarus and to make himself the ruler of Colchis and lesser Armenia. At Nicopolis Pharnaces had defeated what little Roman opposition the governor of Asia, Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus, could muster. He had also taken the city of Amisus, which was a Roman ally made all the boys eunuchs and sold the inhabitants to slave traders. After the show of strength, Pharnaces drew back to pacify his new conquests.

Nevertheless, the extremely-rapid approach of Caesar in person forced Pharnaces to turn his attention back to the Romans. At first, recognising the threat, he made offers of submission with the sole object of gaining time until Caesar's attention fell elsewhere. It was to no avail since Caesar quickly routed Pharnaces at the Battle of Zela (modern Zile in Turkey) with just a small detachment of cavalry. Caesar's victory was so swift and complete that in a letter to a friend in Rome, he famously said of the short war, "Veni, vidi, vici" ("I came, I saw, I conquered"). Indeed, for his Pontic triumph, that may well have been the label displayed above the spoils.

Pharnaces himself fled quickly back to the Bosporus, where he managed to assemble a small force of Scythian and Sarmatian troops with which he was able to gain control of a few cities, but one of his former governors, Asandar, attacked his forces and killed him. The historian Appian states that Pharnaces died in battle, but Cassius Dio says that Pharnaces was captured and then killed.

Later campaign in Africa and the war on Cato Edit

While Caesar had been in Egypt and installed Cleopatra as sole ruler, four of his veteran legions encamped, under the command of Mark Antony. The legions were waiting for their discharges and the bonus pay that Caesar had promised them before the Battle of Pharsalus. As Caesar lingered in Egypt, the situation quickly deteriorated. Antony lost control of the troops, who began looting estates south of the capital. Several delegations of diplomats were dispatched to try to quell the mutiny.

Nothing worked, and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. After several months, Caesar finally arrived to address the legions in person. Caesar knew that he needed the legions to deal with Pompey's supporters in North Africa since the latter had mustered 14 legions. Caesar also knew that he did not have the funds to give the soldiers their back pay, much less the money needed to induce them to re-enlist for the North African campaign.

When Caesar approached the speaker's dais, a hush fell over the mutinous soldiers. Most were embarrassed by their role in the mutiny in Caesar's presence. He asked the troops what they wanted with his cold voice. Ashamed to demand money, the men began to call out for their discharge. Caesar bluntly addressed them as "citizens", instead of "soldiers," a tacit indication that they had already discharged themselves by virtue of their disloyalty.

He went on to tell them that they would all be discharged immediately. He said that he would pay them the money that he owed them after he won the North African campaign with other legions. The soldiers were shocked since they had been through 15 years of war with Caesar and they had become fiercely loyal to him in the process. It had never occurred to them that Caesar did not need them.

The soldiers' resistance collapsed. They crowded the dais and begged to be taken to North Africa. Caesar feigned indignation and then allowed himself to be won over. When he announced that he would allow them to join the campaign, a huge cheer arose from the assembled troops. Through that reverse psychology, Caesar re-enlisted four enthusiastic veteran legions to invade North Africa without spending a single sesterce.

Caesar quickly gained a significant victory at the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger and Juba, who all committed suicide.

Second Hispanian campaign and end of war Edit

Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore and second in command in the Gallic War), escaped to Hispania. Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. Meanwhile, Caesar had been elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (sine collega, without a colleague).

  • 49 BC
    • January 1: The Roman Senate receives a proposal from Julius Caesar that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. The Senate responds that Caesar must immediately surrender his command.
    • January 10: Julius Caesar leads his 13th Legionacross the Rubicon, which separates his jurisdiction (Cisalpine Gaul) from that of the Senate (Italy), and thus initiates a civil war.
    • February 15: Caesar begins the Siege of Corfinium against Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus who held the city against Pompey's orders.
    • February 21: Corfinium is surrendered to Caesar after a bloodless week in which Ahenobarbus is undermined by his officers.
    • February, Pompey's flight to Epirus (in Western Greece) with most of the Senate, despite Caesar's siege of Brundisium in March
    • March 9, Caesar's advance against Pompeian forces in Hispania
    • April 19, Caesar's siege of Massilia against the Pompeian Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, later the siege was conducted by Caesarian Gaius Trebonius
    • June, Caesar's arrival in Hispania, where he was able to seize the Pyrenees passes defended by the Pompeian L. Afranius and M. Petreius.
    • July 30, Caesar surrounded Afranius and Petreius's army in the Battle of Ilerda
    • August 2, Pompeians in Ilerda surrendered to Caesar
    • August 24: Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio, is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia (whom he defeated earlier in the Battle of Utica) in the Battle of the Bagradas River), and commits suicide.
    • September Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, a Caesarian, defeated the combined Pompeian-Massilian naval forces in the naval Battle of Massilia, while the Caesarian fleet in the Adriatic was defeated near Curicta (Krk)
    • September 6, Massilia surrendered to Caesar, coming back from Hispania
    • October, Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome presides over his own election as consul and resigns after eleven days
    • January 4, Caesar landed at Caesar's Beach in Palasë (Palaeste) [15]
    • March, Antony joined Caesar
    • July 10: Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia, he retreats to Thessaly.
    • August 9: Battle of Pharsalus: Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.
    • September 28, Caesar learned that Pompey was assassinated.
    • Siege of Alexandria
    • December, Pharnaces, King of Bosporus defeated the Caesarian Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus in the Battle of Nicopolis (or Nikopol)
    • December: Battle in Alexandria, Egypt between the forces of Caesar and his ally Cleopatra VII of Egypt and those of rival King Ptolemy XIII of Egypt and Queen Arsinoe IV. The latter two are defeated and flee the city Cleopatra becomes queen of Egypt. During the battle part of the Library of Alexandria catches fire and is partially burned down.
    • Caesar is named Dictator for one year.
    • February: Caesar and his ally Cleopatra defeat the forces of the rival Egyptian Queen Arsinoe IV in the Battle of the Nile, Ptolemy was killed, Caesar then relieved his besieged forces in Alexandria
    • May: Caesar defeated Pharnaces II of Pontus, king of the Bosporus in the Battle of Zela. (This is the war that Caesar tersely described veni, vidi, vici.) Cleopatra VII of Egypt promotes her younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt to co-ruler.
    • August, Caesar quelled a mutiny of his veterans in Rome.
    • October, Caesar's invasion of Africa, against Metellus Scipio and Labienus, Caesar's former lieutenant in Gaul
    • January 4: Caesar narrowly escapes defeat by his former second in command Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina nearly 1/3 of Caesar's army is killed.
    • February 6: Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio and Juba in the Battle of Thapsus. Cato commits suicide. Afterwards, he is accorded the office of Dictator for the next ten years.
    • November: Caesar leaves for Farther Hispania to deal with a fresh outbreak of resistance.
    • Caesar, in his role as Pontifex Maximus, reforms the Roman calendar to create the Julian calendar. The transitional year is extended to 445 days to synchronize the new calendar and the seasonal cycle. Die Julian Kalender would remain the standard in the western world for over 1600 years, until superseded by the Gregorian Calendar in 1582.
    • Caesar appoints his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his heir.
    • January 1: Julian calendar goes into effect
    • March 17: In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the younger in the Battle of Munda. Pompey the younger was executed, and Labienus died in battle, but Sextus Pompey escaped to take command of the remnants of the Pompeian fleet.
    • The veterans of Caesar's Legions Legio XIII Gemina en Legio X Equestris demobilized. The veterans of the 10th legion would be settled in Narbo, while those of the 13th would be given somewhat better lands in Italia itself.
    • Caesar probably writes the Commentaries in this year
    • Julius Caesar is named Dictator perpetuo ("dictator in perpetuity")
    • Julius Caesar plans an invasion of the Parthian Empire
    • Julius Caesar is assassinated on March 15, the Ides of March.

    Caesar was later proclaimed dictator first for ten years and then in perpetuity. The latter arrangement triggered the conspiracy leading to his assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC. Following this, Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavius would fight yet another civil war against remnants of the Optimates and Liberatores faction, ultimately resulting in the establishment of the Roman Empire.


    War Council

    Numidian Army
    • Leader: Saburra
    • No Command Cards
    Roll 2 dice to order units

    Caesarian Army
    • Leader: Curio’s cavalry lieutenant
    • 6 Command Cards
    • Move First

    Spesiale reëls
    • Utica - Delaying Action is best played as a solo engagement, where you are in command of both sides. Only the Roman side, however, will have a hand of Command cards. The Numidian Army, to order units, will roll 2 dice at the start of its side’s turn instead of playing a Command card. The dice roll will determine the type of units that are ordered. The Roman player has the freedom to determine which unit of each type is ordered or selected.
    ◊ Green circle, will order any one green unit to move and combat.
    ◊ Blue triangle, will order any one blue unit to move and combat.
    ◊ Red square, will order any one red unit to move and combat.
    ◊ Leader helmet, will order leader and if he is attached to a unit, the unit is also ordered to move and combat.
    ◊ Flag, one unit is selected to retreat a full move. The Roman player may freely select any one unit, even a unit that has its retreat path blocked, occupies a mapedge hex or will retreat into a mapedge hex with movement remaining.
    ◊ Crossed Swords, one block is removed from any one selected unit.
    As might be expected, the Numidians will be at a severe disadvantage in this battle. They will have none of the advantages conferred by the Command cards, and will be limited to movement, combat, retreat or block loss, depending on the dice rolls.


    Aftermath [ edit ]

    In the confusion of the battle, Curio was urged to take the town before Varus could regroup, but he held himself back, as he did not have the means at hand to undertake an assault of the town. ⎠] The next day however, he began to form a contravallation of Utica, with the intent of starving the town into submission. Varus was approached by the leading citizens of the town, who begged him to surrender and spare the town the horrors of a siege. ⎠] Varus, however, had just learned that King Juba was on his way with a large force, and so reassured them that with Juba's assistance, Curio would soon be defeated. ⎠] Curio heard similar reports and abandoned the siege, making his way to the Castra Cornelia. ⎡] False reports from Utica about Juba's strength caused him to drop his guard, leading to the Battle of the Bagradas River.