Monument van Genghis Khan, Hohhot

Monument van Genghis Khan, Hohhot


Genghis Khan

(c.1162–1227) het aan bewind gekom deur baie van die nomadiese stamme van Noordoos -Asië te verenig. In 1206 neem hierdie hoofman, gebore Temüjin, die titel Genghis Khan en voer 'n reeks militêre veldtogte - bekend vir hul brutaliteit en wreedheid - deur 'n groot deel van Asië en vorm dit die Mongoolse Ryk, die grootste aangrensende landryk in die wêreldgeskiedenis.

Genghis Khan en sy onmiddellike opvolgers verower byna die hele Asië en Europese Rusland en stuur leërs so ver as Sentraal -Europa en Suidoos -Asië. Genghis Khan sterf in 1227 en is begrawe in 'n ongemerkte graf op 'n onbekende plek iewers in Mongolië. Sy afstammelinge het die Mongoolse Ryk oor die grootste deel van Eurasië uitgebrei deur vasalstate te verower of te skep. Baie van hierdie invalle herhaal die vroeëre grootskaalse slagting van plaaslike bevolkings. Die Mongoolse Ryk en die state wat daaruit ontstaan ​​het, het 'n groot rol gespeel in die geskiedenis van die dertiende en veertiende eeu.

Daar moet in gedagte gehou word dat Genghis Khan, bo sy militêre prestasies, ook die Mongoolse Ryk op ander maniere gevorder het. Hy verenig nie net die nomadiese stamme van Noordoos -Asië nie, maar bepaal ook die aanvaarding van die Uyghur -skrif as die skryfstelsel van die Mongoolse Ryk, beoefen meritokrasie en moedig godsdiensverdraagsaamheid aan in die Mongoolse Ryk. Genghis Khan word ook toegeskryf aan die feit dat hy die Silk Road onder een samehangende politieke omgewing gebring het. Dit het die kommunikasie en handel van Noordoos -Asië na Moslem -Suidwes -Asië en Christelike Europa verhoog, en sodoende die horisonne van al drie kulturele gebiede uitgebrei.
Hedendaagse Mongole beskou hom as die stigter van Mongolië.

Genghis Khan word gesien as 'n plaaslike held in Binne -Mongolië, waar hulle na Mongolië verwys as 'Buiten -Mongolië'. Die presiese plek waar die graf van Genghis Khan begrawe is, is nie bekend nie, maar is waarskynlik iewers in die binneste Mongolië. Rede genoeg om 'n paar ruiterstandbeelde van hom op te rig.


Inhoud

Tydens die Qing -dinastie (1644–1912) was Hulunbuir deel van die Heilongjiang -provinsie. Die 1858-verdrag van Aigun stel die geskatte Chinese-Russiese grens van vandag vas, met 'n groot verlies vir die gebied van Heilongjiang. In 1901 het die Chinese Eastern Railway Hulunbuir verbind met die res van Noordoos -China en met die Russiese Verre Ooste. Van 1912 tot 1949, gedurende die Republiek van China (ROC), was Hulunbuir deel van die provinsies Xing'an en Heilongjiang. 'N Verdrag tussen die Russiese Ryk en die ROC op 7 November/24 Oktober 1915 noem Hulunbuir 'n' spesiale 'streek onder direkte onderdanigheid aan die Chinese regering, maar in die praktyk het Rusland gedeeltelike beheer oor die daaglikse administrasie. In 1929 het die Sowjetunie hierdie ooreenkoms verbreek en Hulunbuir binnegeval. [2] Na die Japanse inval in China het Hulunbuir deel geword van die Japannese marionetstaat Manchukuo, wat nie deur die Chinese erken is nie. In die Chinese burgeroorlog het die Kommunistiese Party van China die steun van Binne -Mongoolse leiers soos Ulanhu verkry deur die irredentistiese uitbreiding van Binne -Mongolië te beloof na gebiede met meerderhede Han- en Mantsjoe -mense. [3]

Na die kommunistiese rewolusie van 1949 is Hulunbuir in die binneste Mongolië geannekseer, maar die streek het ekonomiese bande met die res van die noordooste gehou via die Chinese Eastern Railway. [4] Tydens die Kulturele Revolusie is die dele van die historiese Mantsjoerije binne -in die binneste Mongolië kort teruggekeer na hul oorspronklike provinsies Hulunbuir is van 1969 tot 1979 aan Heilongjiang teruggegee. [4] Hulunbuir is tot 10 Oktober 2001 as 'n bond bestuur. Die oppervlakte is 263,953 km2 en het 'n bevolking van 2,710 miljoen in 2004, terwyl die bruto binnelandse produk 21,326 miljard RMB was. Die jurisdiksiegebied van die stad is groter as almal behalwe 8 Chinese afdelings op provinsiale vlak (en 42 Amerikaanse state), hoewel die werklike stedelike agglomerasie slegs 'n baie klein deel van die streek is, en die gemiddelde bevolkingsdigtheid van die gebied baie laag is .

Die stad was eens tot 10 Oktober 2001 'n liga (盟) van Binne -Mongolië. Tydens die Qing -dinastie was dit in Mandaryns bekend as Hūlúnbùyǔ'ěr (vereenvoudigde Chinees: 呼 伦布 雨 尔 tradisionele Chinese: 呼 倫布 雨 爾).

Hulunbuir is verdeel in 13 verskillende jurisdiksies op provinsiale vlak: een distrik, vyf stede op provinsiale vlak, vier baniere en drie outonome baniere.


Inhoud

Die senotaaf is geleë op 'n hoogte van 1,350 m [4,430 voet] op die Gandeli [4] of Gande'er Prairie [5] [6] ongeveer 15 km (9,3 myl) suidoos van Xilian [5] en ongeveer 30 km (19 myl) suid van die landstoel van Ejin Horo Banner, Binne -Mongolië. [6] Dit is die naamgenoot van die omliggende vaandel, wie se naam uit Mongools vertaal word as "die Here se omhulsel". [7]

Die perseel is 115 km noord van Yulin [ aanhaling nodig ] 55 km (34 myl) suid van Dongsheng [ aanhaling nodig ] en 185 km (115 myl) van Baotou af. [6] Daar is 'n nuwe wisselaar op snelweg 210 wat direk na die terrein lei. [a]

Vroeë webwerwe Redigeer

Nadat Genghis Khan op 12 Julie AD 1227 in of om Gansu [8] gesterf het, is [9] sy oorskot vermoedelik teruggevoer na Sentraal -Mongolië en in die geheim begrawe en sonder merke, in ooreenstemming met sy persoonlike voorskrifte. Sy werklike begraafplaas is nog onbekend, maar was byna beslis nie in Ejin Horo, wat eers onlangs uit die Tangut -ryk verower is nie. [10] Sonder 'n liggaam eer die Mongole die khan se geheue en gees deur sy persoonlike besittings. Hierdie seremonies dateer na bewering uit dieselfde jaar as sy dood. [3] Kublai Khan het tempels gebou vir die kultus van sy oupa in Daidu en Shangdu. [11] Nege "paleise" vir rituele rakende sy kultus is onderhou deur 'n keiserlike amptenaar in Karakorum. [12]

Na die val van die Yuan in 1368, [11] is hierdie permanente strukture vervang deur draagbare mausoleums genaamd die "agt wit yurts" (naiman tsagaan ger). Dit was oorspronklik paleise waar die khan gewoon het, maar is deur Ögedei Khan in mausoleums verander. Hierdie yurts is die eerste keer opgeslaan op die Avraga -terrein aan die voet van die Khentii -berge in Delgerkhaan in die Khentii -provinsie in Mongolië.

Ordos Edit

Die heiligdom is toevertrou aan versorgers, bekend as die Darkhad. Hulle leier is gekies uit die Borjigin -stam en was bekend as die Jinong sedert die eerste, Kamala, as koning van Jin aangestel is. Die Darkhad het van die Kherlenrivier na die Ordos verhuis, wat sy naam (Mongools vir "paleise") gekry het van die mausoleum se teenwoordigheid daar. Die versorgers het toesig gehou oor herdenkings- en godsdienstige rituele en is deur pelgrims besoek. Mongoolse khans is ook by die yurts gekroon. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Onder die Qing is 500 Darkhad vrygestel van militêre diens en belasting. Die heiligdom het ook elke jaar 500 taels silwer ontvang (ongeveer 16-17 kg of 35-37 lb) om sy rituele te handhaaf. [13] Die rituele van die webwerf word meer plaaslik, meer oop vir mense uit die laer klas en meer Boeddhisties. [14]

Die Mongoolse prins Toghtakhutörü en die Darkhad het in 1864 'n permanente mausoleum in Setsen Khan Aimag gebou. [ aanhaling nodig ] Hierdie tradisionele Chinese struktuur is in 1875 deur 'n Belgiese sendeling beskryf [15], maar is op voorstel van die Panchen Lama vernietig om 'n plaag onder die Darkhad vroeg in die 20ste eeu te beëindig. [15]

Rond die val van die Qing het die mausoleum opvallend geword as 'n simbool vir Mongoolse nasionaliste. Die Buryat -geleerde Tsyben Zhamtsarano bepleit die verwydering van die heiligdom na Noord -Mongolië c. 1910. [ aanhaling nodig ] Na die Mongoolse rewolusie is 'n offerritueel gehou vir Genghis Khan om in 1912 'vrede en veiligheid vir mense en ander wesens' te bring en om 'bandiete, diewe, siektes en ander interne en eksterne wanfunksies' te verdryf. [ 16] Sommige Mongole het beplan om sommige van die rituele voorwerpe-veral die Swart Sülde, 'n beweerde magiese hemel gestuurde drietand [17]-na die onafhanklike noordelike Mongoolse gebied uit die Binne-Mongoolse heiligdom [18] in 1914 te verwyder, 'n brief van die Die kantoor van Beijing wat toesig hou oor Mongolië en Tibet, het Arbinbayar, die hoof van die Ihe Juu League, beveel dat

Aangesien die Black Sülde sedert die Yuan -dinastie 'n eerbied was wat met Genghis Khan verband hou en sedert duisend jaar in ons China aanbid word, is dit beslis nie toegelaat dat dit aan die dom Khalkha gegee word wat onbeskof misluk nie om die redenasie van die hemel te verstaan. [18]

In 1915 het Zhang Xiangwen (t 相 文, s 相 文, bl Zhāng Xiāngwén, w Chang Hsiang-wen) het die wetenskaplike twis oor die plek van die graf van Genghis Khan begin [19] deur 'n artikel te publiseer waarin beweer word dat dit in Ejin Horo was. [20]

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog beveel prins Demchugdongrub, die denkbeeldige leier van die Japannese marionetregering in Mongolië, dat die mobiele graf en die oorblyfsels daarvan verskuif moet word om 'n vermeende 'Chinese komplot om dit te plunder' te vermy. [21] Dit is afgeweer deur die plaaslike leier Shagdarjab, wat beweer het dat die heiligdomme nooit verskuif kon word nie en dat die plaaslike bevolking enige poging daartoe sou weerstaan. [21] Toe hy Japanse wapens aanvaar om dit te verdedig, het die nasionalistiese regering egter ontsteld geraak oor die moontlikheid dat Japan die kultus van Genghis Khan [21] sou gebruik om 'n Mongoolse separatistiese beweging te lei. Die yurts en hul oorblyfsels sou na gewapende aandrang of op uitnodiging van Shagdarjab na Qinghai verwyder word. (Rekeninge verskil) aanhaling nodig ] het 'n aparte mausoleum in Ulan Hot gebou, bestaande uit 3 hoofgeboue op 'n landgoed van 6 hektaar. [22]

Gansu Edit

As dit eers in Chinese hande was, het die oorblyfsels nie soos beplan na Qinghai gegaan nie. Op 17 Mei 1939 het [23] 200 spesiaal geselekteerde nasionalistiese troepe die oorblyfsels na Yan'an, destyds die belangrikste basis van die Chinese kommuniste, oorgedra. [21] By hul aankoms op 21 Junie 1939 het die Kommuniste 'n groot openbare opoffering aan Genghis Khan gehou met 'n skare van ongeveer tienduisend toeskouers wat die Sentrale Komitee gedenkranse aangebied het en Mao Zedong het 'n nuwe teken daarvoor in sy kalligrafie gelewer, met die lees van " Genghis Khan Memorial Hall "(t 紀念堂, s 纪念堂, Chéngjísī Hán Jìniàntáng). [21] As deel van die Tweede Verenigde Front is dit toegelaat om uit die kommunistiese beheerde gebied uit te gaan na Xi'an, waar die goewerneur van Shaanxi, Jiang Dingwen, op 25 Junie weer 'n ander godsdienstige ritueel beoefen het. (Rekeninge wissel van dertig tot 200 000.) [21] Li Yiyan, lid van die provinsiale komitee van die nasionaliste, het die boekie geskryf China se nasionale held Genghis Khan (t 中華民族 英雄 成吉思汗》, s 中华民族 英雄 成吉思汗》, Zhōnghuá Mínzú Yīngxióng Chéngjísī Hán) ter herdenking van die geleentheid, met die vermelding van die khan as 'n groot Chinese leier in die vorm van die eerste keiser, keiser Wu en keiser Taizong. [24] 'n Paar dae later het die goewerneur van Gansu, Zhu Shaoliang, 'n soortgelyke ritueel gehou [25] voordat hy die relikwieë van die khan by die Dongshan Dafo Dian [26] op die Xinglong -berg in Yuzhong County vasgelê het. [25] Die Gansu -regering het soldate en 'n hoofamptenaar vir die heiligdom gestuur en die oorblywende Darkhad op die betaalstaat van die provinsiale regering gebring [25] die oorspronklike 500 Darkhad is verminder tot slegs sewe of agt. [ aanhaling nodig ] Na hierdie reis van 900 km (560 myl) het [27] die heiligdom tien jaar daar gebly. [25]

Qinghai wysig

Aan die einde van die Chinese burgeroorlog het die nasionalistiese wag by die tempel gevlug voor die kommunistiese opmars in Gansu in die somer van 1949. [25] Planne is voorgestel om die khan se heiligdom na die Alxa -liga in die westelike binneland van Mongolië te verskuif of na Berg Emei in Sichuan. [25] Uiteindelik het Qinghai se plaaslike krygsheer Ma Pufang ingegryp [25] en dit 200 km (120 myl) wes beweeg [ aanhaling nodig ] na Kumbum -klooster naby sy hoofstad Xining, en dit ingewy met die hulp van plaaslike en Mongoolse lamas onder Ulaan Gegen. [25] Na die kommunistiese verowering van Xining 'n paar maande later, het die kommunistiese generaal He Banyan drie skape aan die khan geoffer en seremoniële serpe aangebied (hadag) en 'n banier met die titel "National Hero" (民族英雄, Mínzú Yīngxióng) na die tempel wat sy heiligdom huisves. [11]

Huidige mausoleum Edit

Ejin Horo het einde 1949 aan die kommuniste geval en is deur die Noordwes -buro beheer totdat die Suiyuan -provinsie die volgende jaar gestig is. [11] Die distrik se kommuniste het in die vroeë vyftigerjare rituele opgestel ter ere van Genghis Khan, maar het die tradisionele godsdienstige ampte rondom hulle soos die Jinong afgeskaf en die kultus beheer deur middel van plaaslike komitees met getroue partykaders. [11] Sonder die oorblyfsels het hulle grootliks op sang- en dansgroepe staatgemaak. [11] In 1953 keur die sentrale regering van die Volksrepubliek die onlangs gestigte Binne-Mongoolse provinsiale regering se versoek om 800 000 RMB om die huidige permanente strukture te skep, goed. [3] Begin die volgende jaar [16] het die sentrale regering toegelaat dat die voorwerpe by Kumbum teruggegee word na die terrein wat by Ejin Horo gebou word. [11] Die voorsitter van die streek, Ulanhu, was die eerste ritueel na hul terugkeer en het die nasionaliste vermaan omdat hulle hulle 'gesteel' het. [11] Na hierdie ritueel het hy onmiddellik 'n tweede seremonie gehou om grond te breek op 'n permanente tempel om die voorwerpe en die khan se kultus te huisves, wat weer deur die sentrale regering van China goedgekeur en betaal is. [11] Teen 1956 is hierdie nuwe tempel voltooi, wat die gebied van die oorspronklike heiligdom aansienlik uitgebrei het. [15] In plaas van agt afsonderlike heiligdomme in Ejin Horo vir die Groot Khan, sy vrouens en sy kinders te hê, is almal bymekaar geplaas. [15] Die regering het ook opdrag gegee dat die hoofritueel in die somer eerder as in die derde maanmaand gehou sou word, om dit makliker te maak vir die hoofde om hul lente -werkroosters te handhaaf. [15] Omdat die Darkhads nie meer aanspreeklik was vir persoonlik betaal vir die instandhouding van die heiligdom nie, het die meeste hierdie veranderinge aanvaar. [15] 'n Besondere groot viering is in 1962 gehou ter viering van die 800ste herdenking van Genghis Khan se geboorte. [16]

In 1968 vernietig die Rooi Wagte van die Kulturele Revolusie bykans alles van waarde by die heiligdom. [15] Vir tien jaar is die geboue self in 'n soutdepot verander as deel van die voorbereiding vir 'n moontlike oorlog met die Sowjetunie. [28]

Na aanleiding van die openingsbeleid van Deng Xiaoping, is die terrein teen 1982 [3] herstel en goedgekeur vir 'patriotiese opvoeding' [15] as 'n toeriste-aantreklikheid wat deur AAAA gegradeer is. [3] Daar is replika's van die voormalige oorblyfsels gemaak, en 'n groot marmerstandbeeld van Genghis is in 1989 voltooi. [29] Priesters in die museum beweer nou dat al die Rooi Wagte wat die graf ontheilig het, op abnormale maniere gesterf het. soort vloek. [30]

Binne -Mongole het bly kla oor die swak toestand van die mausoleum. [31] 'n Voorstel van 2001 vir die opknapping daarvan is uiteindelik in 2004 goedgekeur. [31] Onverwante huise, winkels en hotelle is uit die gebied van die mausoleum verwyder na 'n aparte gebied 3 km (1.9 mi) weg en vervang met nuwe strukture in dieselfde styl as die mausoleum. [31] Die verbeteringsplan van 150 miljoen RMB (ongeveer $ 20 miljoen) [32] is van 2005 tot 2006 uitgevoer, wat die infrastruktuur van die perseel verbeter, die binnehof uitbrei en die bestaande geboue en mure versier en herstel. [33] Die China National Tourism Administration noem die webwerf in 2011 'n toeriste-aantreklikheid wat deur AAAAA gegradeer is. [34]

Op 10 Julie 2015 is [35] 20 toeriste van 33 tot 74-10 Suid-Afrikaners, 9 Britte en 'n Indiër [36] —op Ordos Ejin Horo-lughawe aangehou, die volgende dag gearresteer op aanklagte van terrorisme, [37] en uiteindelik uit China gedeporteer [38] nadat hulle 'n BBC -dokumentêr oor Genghis Khan in hul hotelkamers gekyk het voor hulle die mausoleum besoek het. [39] Die owerhede het dit beskou as 'kyk en versprei gewelddadige terroristevideo's'. [38]

In 2017 was die Genghis Khan -mausoleum gemiddeld ongeveer 8000 besoekers per dag gedurende sy hoogseisoen en ongeveer 200 besoekers per dag op ander tye. [40]

Die webwerf word onder toesig van die Genghis Khan Mausoleum Administration Bureau. [41] Dit was aan die hoof van Chageder en daarna Mengkeduren in die vroeë 2000's. [31]


Hohhot geskiedenis

Nadat Hohhot uit die Huns herower is, is baie militêre vestings tydens die Westelike Han-dinastie (206BC-24AD) gebou. Die klei -stad van daardie tyd kan nog gevind word in die dorp Tabutuo, oos van Hohhot. Van toe tot die Noordelike (386-581) en Suidelike (420-589) dinastieë, was die stad bekend as Shengle. Dit was die vroeë hoofstad van die Tuoba -stam van die etniese groep Xianbei, wat gedurende daardie tydperk in Noord -China opgestaan ​​het.

Tydens die Sui (581-618) en Tang (618-907) dinastieë, was dit ingesluit in die bestek van Turkye, genaamd Baidao Chuan en Fengzhou. Dit was later onder die Liao-dinastie (916-1125) wat in die beginjare van die 10de eeu deur die Khitane gestig is.

Old Street, Hohhot
Gedurende die vroeë Ming-dinastie (1368-1644) het die Tumed (of Tumet) stam uit Mongolië ingetrek en baie huise gebou met die doel om hul nomadiese lewe te beëindig. Hulle het vreedsame beleid gevoer in die kommunikasie met die Ming en het ongeveer dertig jaar vrede gebring. Die stad met die naam Guihua wat deur die Tumed gebou is, is egter deur die leër van Qing (1644-1911) afgebrand. Tydens die bewind van keiser Kangxi het die Qing -hof die Mongoolse Junger -stam verslaan en 'n buitenste stad by die voormalige stad Guihua gevoeg. 'N Nuwe stad Suiyuan is in die noordooste van die ou stad gebou.

In 1928 word Suiyuan bevorder tot 'n provinsie en word die naam van Hohhot City genoem en val later in 1954 onder die jurisdiksie van die Outonome Streek Binne -Mongolië.


Inhoud

Afstamming

Genghis Khan was aan sy vader se kant verwant aan Khabul Khan, Ambaghai en Hotula Khan, wat aan die hoof was van die Khamag Mongoolse konfederasie en afstammelinge was van Bodonchar Munkhag (ongeveer 900). Toe die Jurchen Jin -dinastie in 1161 die steun van die Mongole na die Tatare verander, vernietig hulle Khabul Khan. [22] [23]

Genghis Khan se pa, Yesügei (leier van die Kiyat-Borjigin [10] -klan en neef van Ambaghai en Hotula Khan), het die hoof van die regerende Mongoolse stam geword. Hierdie posisie is betwis deur die mededinger Tayichi'ud -stam, wat direk van Ambaghai afstam. Toe die Tatare ná 1161 te sterk geword het, het die Jin hul steun oorgeskakel van die Tatare na die Keraïete. [24] [25]

Geboorte

Vanweë die gebrek aan kontemporêre geskrewe rekords is min bekend oor die vroeë lewe van Genghis Khan. Die paar bronne wat insig in hierdie tydperk gee, weerspreek dikwels.

Temüjin beteken "smid". [26] Volgens Rashid al-Din Hamadani, Chinos was die vertakking van die Mongole wat van Ergenekon bestaan ​​het deur die ysterbergkant te smelt. Daar bestaan ​​'n tradisie wat Genghis Khan as 'n smid beskou het. Genghis se voornaam was Temüjin, gelykgestel aan Turco-Mongool temürči (n), "smid". Paul Pelliot het gesien dat die tradisie waarvolgens Genghis 'n smid was, ongegrond was, maar wel teen die middel van die 13de eeu goed gevestig was. [27]

Genghis Khan is waarskynlik gebore in 1162 [nota 2] in Delüün Boldog, naby die berg Burkhan Khaldun en die riviere Onon en Kherlen in die hedendaagse Noord-Mongolië, naby die huidige hoofstad Ulaanbaatar. Die geheime geskiedenis van die Mongole berig dat Temüjin gebore is met 'n bloedklont in sy vuis, 'n tradisionele teken dat hy bestem was om 'n groot leier te word. Hy was die eerste seun van Hoelun, die tweede vrou van sy vader Yesügei, wat 'n hoof van Kiyad was wat prominent was in die Khamag Mongoolse konfederasie en 'n bondgenoot van Toghrul van die Keraïese stam. [28] Volgens die Geheime geskiedenis, Is Temüjin vernoem na die Tataarse hoof Temüjin-üge wat sy pa pas gevang het.

Die geslag van Yesukhei was Borjigin (Боржигин), en Hoelun was afkomstig van die onderafdeling Olkhunut van die Khongirad-stam. [29] [30] Soos ander stamme, was hulle nomades. Temüjin se edele agtergrond het dit vir hom makliker gemaak om hulp van die ander Mongoolse stamme te vra en uiteindelik te konsolideer. [31]

Vroeë lewe en familie

Temüjin het drie broers Hasar, Hachiun en Temüge, een suster Temülen, en twee halfbroers Begter en Belgutei gehad. Soos baie van die nomades van Mongolië, was die vroeë lewe van Temüjin moeilik. [32] Sy pa het vir hom 'n huwelik gereël en hom op negejarige ouderdom by die gesin van sy toekomstige vrou Börte uit die stam Khongirad oorgelewer. Temüjin sou daar woon tot by die huwelik van 12 jaar die hoof van die huishouding Dai Setsen.

Terwyl hy op pad huis toe was, loop sy pa die naburige Tatars raak, wat lank reeds Mongoolse vyande was, en hulle bied hom kos aan wat hom vergiftig het. Toe hy dit te wete gekom het, keer Temüjin terug huis toe om sy vader se pos as hoof te aanvaar. Maar die stam het dit geweier en die gesin verlaat en dit sonder beskerming gelaat. [35]

Die gesin het die volgende paar jaar in armoede geleef en het meestal oorleef van wilde vrugte, osse, karkasse, marmotte en ander klein wild wat deur Temüjin en sy broers gedood is. Temüjin se ouer halfbroer Begter het as die oudste man in die gesin mag begin uitoefen en sou uiteindelik die reg hê om Hoelun (wat nie sy eie moeder was nie) as 'n vrou te eis. [36] Temüjin se wrok het uitgebreek tydens een jaguitstappie toe Temüjin en sy broer Khasar Begter doodgemaak het. [36]

Tydens 'n aanval omstreeks 1177 is Temüjin deur die voormalige bondgenote van sy vader, die Tayichi'ud, gevange geneem en verslaaf, volgens berigte met 'n cangue ('n soort draagbare voorrade). Met die hulp van 'n simpatieke wag het hy snags uit die ger (yurt) ontsnap deur in 'n rivierspleet te skuil. [37] Die ontsnapping het Temüjin 'n reputasie besorg. Gou het Jelme en Bo'orchu met hom saamgespan. Hulle en die seun van die wagter Chilaun het uiteindelik generaals van Genghis Khan geword. [38]

Op die oomblik was geen van die stamkonfederasies van Mongolië polities verenig nie, en gereelde huwelike is dikwels gebruik om tydelike alliansies te versterk. Temüjin het grootgeword met die moeilike politieke klimaat, wat stamoorlogvoering, diefstal, strooptogte, korrupsie en wraak tussen konfederasies insluit, vererger deur inmenging uit die buiteland, soos van China na die suide. [39] Temüjin se ma, Hoelun, het hom baie lesse geleer, veral die behoefte aan sterk alliansies om stabiliteit in Mongolië te verseker. [40]

Soos algemeen by magtige Mongoolse mans, het Genghis Khan baie vroue en byvroue gehad. [41] [42] Hy het gereeld vroue en byvroue bekom van ryke en samelewings wat hy verower het; hierdie vroue was dikwels prinsesse of koninginne wat as gevange geneem is of aan hom geskenk is. [42] Genghis Khan het verskeie van sy vroue met 'n hoë status hul eie gegee ordos of kampe om in te woon en te bestuur. Elke kamp bevat ook junior vroue, byvroue en selfs kinders. Dit was die taak van die Kheshig (Mongoolse keiserlike wag) om die yurts van Genghis Khan se vroue te beskerm. Die wagte moes veral aandag skenk aan die individuele yurt en kamp waarin Genghis Khan slaap, wat elke aand kan verander terwyl hy verskillende vroue besoek. [43] Toe Genghis Khan met sy militêre verowerings begin, het hy gewoonlik een vrou saamgeneem en die res van sy vroue (en byvroue) verlaat om die ryk in sy afwesigheid te bestuur. [44]

Börte

Die huwelik tussen Börte en Genghis Khan (destyds bekend as Temüjin) is gereël deur haar pa en Yesügei, Temüjin se pa, toe sy 10 was en hy was 9 jaar oud. [45] [46] Temüjin het by haar en haar gesin gebly totdat hy teruggeroep is om vir sy ma en jonger broers en susters te sorg as gevolg van die vergiftiging van Yesügei deur Tataarse nomades. [47] In 1178, ongeveer 7 jaar later, het Temüjin stroomaf langs die Kelürenrivier gereis om Börte te vind. Toe Börte se pa sien dat Temüjin teruggekeer het om met Börte te trou, het hy die paartjie 'verenig as man en vrou'. Met die toestemming van haar pa het Temüjin vir Börte en haar ma geneem om in sy familie -yurt te woon. Börte se bruidskat was 'n fyn swart swartwitpense baadjie. [48] ​​[49] Kort nadat die huwelik tussen hulle plaasgevind het, val die Drie Merkiete hul familiekamp teen dagbreek aan en ontvoer Börte. [50] Sy is aan een van hul krygers gegee as 'n buit van die oorlog. Temüjin was diep ontsteld oor die ontvoering van sy vrou en het opgemerk dat sy 'bed leeggemaak' en 'bors geskeur' was. [51] Temüjin het haar etlike maande later gered met die hulp van sy bondgenote Wang Khan en Jamukha. [52] Baie geleerdes beskryf hierdie gebeurtenis as een van die belangrikste kruispunte in Temüjin se lewe, wat hom beweeg het om 'n veroweraar te word.

'Terwyl die plundery en plundery aangaan, beweeg Temüjin tussen die mense wat haastig ontsnap, en roep:' Börte, Börte! 'En so kom hy op haar af, want Lady Börte was een van die vlugtende mense. Sy hoor die stem van Temüjin, en toe sy dit herken, klim sy uit die kar en kom aangehardloop. Alhoewel dit nog nag was, het Lady Börte en Qo'aqčin albei die leisels van Temüjin herken en vasgemaak en dit gegryp. Dit was maanskyn wat hy na hulle kyk, Lady Börte herken, en hulle val in mekaar se arms. ” -Die geheime geskiedenis van die Mongole [51]

Börte was agt maande gevange gehou en het geboorte gegee aan Jochi kort nadat sy gered is. Dit het twyfel laat ontstaan ​​oor wie die vader van die kind was, omdat haar gevangene haar as 'n 'vrou' geneem het en haar moontlik kon bevrug het. [50] Ten spyte hiervan het Temüjin Jochi in die gesin laat bly en hom as sy eie seun geëis. Börte het nog drie seuns gehad, Chagatai (1183–1242), Ögedei (1186–1241) en Tolui (1191–1232). Temüjin het baie ander kinders by ander vroue gehad, maar hulle is uitgesluit van die opvolging; slegs Börte se seuns kan as sy erfgename beskou word. Börte was ook die moeder van verskeie dogters, Kua Ujin Bekhi, Alakhai Bekhi, Alaltun, Checheikhen, Tümelün en Tolai. Die swak voortbestaan ​​van Mongoolse rekords beteken egter dat dit onduidelik is of sy almal geboorte gegee het. [53]

Yesugen

Tydens sy militêre veldtog teen die Tatare het Temüjin verlief geraak op Yesugen en haar as vrou aangeneem. Sy was die dogter van 'n Tataarse leier met die naam Yeke Cheren wat die leër van Temüjin tydens die geveg doodgemaak het. Nadat die militêre veldtog teen die Tatare verby was, is Yesugen, een van die oorlewendes na Temüjin, wat by haar geslaap het. Volgens die geheime geskiedenis van die Mongole, het Yesugen vir Temüjin gevra om haar goed te behandel terwyl sy seks gehad het. Toe dit lyk asof Temüjin hiermee saamstem, beveel Yesugen aan dat hy ook met haar suster Yesui trou. [54]

Omdat hy deur hom geliefd was, het Yisügen Qatun gesê: 'As dit die Qa'an behaag, sal hy vir my sorg, my beskou as 'n mens en 'n waardige mens. Maar my oudste suster, wat Yisüi genoem word, is my beter: sy is inderdaad geskik vir 'n heerser. '

Beide die Tatar -susters, Yesugen en Yesui, het deel geword van Temüjin se belangrikste vroue en het hul eie kampe gekry om te bestuur. Temüjin het ook 'n derde vrou van die Tatare geneem, 'n onbekende byvrou. [56]

Yesui

Op aanbeveling van haar suster Yesugen het Temüjin sy manne laat opspoor en Yesui ontvoer. Toe sy na Temüjin gebring word, het hy haar net so aangenaam gevind as wat beloof is, en hy het met haar getrou. [57] Die ander vroue, moeders, susters en dogters van die Tatare is uitgedeel en aan Mongoolse mans gegee. [56] Die Tatar -susters, Yesugen en Yesui, was twee van Genghis Khan se invloedrykste vroue. Genghis Khan het Yesui saamgeneem toe hy op sy laaste ekspedisie teen die Tangut -ryk vertrek. [58]

Khulan

Khulan betree die Mongoolse geskiedenis toe haar pa, die Merkit -leier Dayir Usan, in die winter van 1203–04 aan Temüjin oorgegee het en dit vir hom gegee het. Maar ten minste volgens die geheime geskiedenis van die Mongole, is Khulan en haar pa aangehou deur Naya'a, een van Temüjin se offisiere, wat hulle blykbaar probeer beskerm het teen Mongoolse soldate wat daar naby was. Nadat hulle drie dae later as verwag aangekom het, vermoed Temüjin dat Naya'a gemotiveer is deur sy vleeslike gevoelens teenoor Khulan om haar en haar pa te help. Terwyl Temüjin Naya'a ondervra het, het Khulan in sy verdediging gepraat en Temüjin genooi om met haar seks te hê en haar maagdelikheid persoonlik te ondersoek, wat hom behaag het. [59]

Uiteindelik aanvaar Temüjin Dayir Usan se oorgawe en Khulan as sy nuwe vrou. Dayir Usan het egter later sy oorgawe ingetrek, maar hy en sy onderdane is uiteindelik bedwing, sy besittings geplunder en hy het self doodgemaak. Temüjin het voortgegaan om militêre veldtogte teen die Merkiete te voer tot hul laaste verspreiding in 1218. Khulan kon 'n betekenisvolle status verkry as een van Temüjin se vroue en bestuur een van die groot vrouekampe waarin ander vroue, byvroue, kinders en diere gewoon het. Sy het geboorte gegee aan 'n seun met die naam Gelejian, wat saam met Börte se seuns aan die vader se militêre veldtogte deelgeneem het. [60]

Möge Khatun

Möge Khatun was 'n byvrou van Genghis Khan en sy het later 'n vrou geword van sy seun Ögedei Khan. [61] Die Persiese historikus Ata-Malik Juvayni skryf dat Möge Khatun "deur 'n hoof van die Bakrin-stam aan Chinggis Khan gegee is, en hy was baie lief vir haar." Ögedei het haar ook bevoordeel en sy het hom vergesel op sy jag -ekspedisies. [62] Daar word nie aangeteken dat sy kinders het nie. [63]

Juerbiesu

Juerbiesu was 'n keiserin van Qara Khitai, Mongoolse Ryk en Naiman. Sy was 'n bekende skoonheid op die vlaktes. Sy was oorspronklik 'n begunstigde byvrou van Inanch Bilge khan, en na sy dood het sy die meisie van sy seun Tayang Khan geword. Aangesien Tayang Khan 'n nuttelose heerser was, was Juerbiesu in beheer van byna alle mag in die Naiman -politiek. [64]

Sy het 'n dogter gehad met die naam prinses Hunhu (渾 忽 公主) saam met Yelü Zhilugu, die heerser van Liao. Nadat Genghis Khan die Naiman -stam vernietig het en Tayang Khan vermoor is, het Juerbiesu verskeie aanstootlike opmerkings oor Mongole gemaak en hul klere as vuil en stinkend beskryf. Tog het sy haar bewerings skielik teruggetrek en alleen die tent van Genghis Khan besoek. Hy het haar uitgevra oor die opmerkings, maar was onmiddellik aangetrokke tot haar skoonheid. Nadat hy by hom oornag het, het Juerbiesu belowe om hom goed te dien en het hy haar as een van sy keiserinne beskou. Haar status was net minderwaardig as Khulan en Borte. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Ibaqa Beki

Ibaqa was die oudste dogter van die Kerait -leier Jakha Gambhu, wat in 1204 met Genghis Khan saamgespan het om die Naimans te verslaan. As deel van die alliansie is Ibaqa as vrou aan Genghis Khan gegee. [65] Sy was die suster van Begtütmish, wat met Genghis Khan se seun Jochi getroud was, en Sorghaghtani Beki, wat met Genghis Khan se seun Tolui getroud was. [65] [66] Na ongeveer twee jaar van kinderloos huwelik, skei Genghis Khan skielik van Ibaqa en gee haar aan die generaal Jürchedei, 'n lid van die Uru'ut -stam en wat Jakha Gambhu vermoor het nadat laasgenoemde hom teen Genghis Khan bekeer het. [65] [67] Die presiese rede vir hierdie hertrou is onbekend: Volgens Die geheime geskiedenis van die Mongole, Het Genghis Khan Ibaqa aan Jürchedei gegee as 'n beloning vir sy diens in die verwonding van Nilga Senggum in 1203 en later deur die dood van Jakha Gambhu. [65] Omgekeerd, Rashid al-Din in Jami 'al-tawarikh beweer dat Genghis Khan van Ibaqa geskei het weens 'n nagmerrie waarin God hom beveel het om haar onmiddellik weg te gee, en Jürchedei het toevallig die tent bewaak. [65] Regardless of the rationale, Genghis Khan allowed Ibaqa to keep her title as Khatun even in her remarriage, and asked that she would leave him a token of her dowry by which he could remember her. [65] [67] The sources also agree that Ibaqa was quite wealthy. [68]

In the early 12th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several prominent tribal confederations, including Naimans, Merkits, Tatars, Khamag Mongols, and Keraites, that were often unfriendly towards each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering.

Early attempts at power

Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally (or, according to other sources, a vassal) to his father's en (sworn brother or blood brother) Toghrul, who was Khan of the Keraites, and is better known by the Chinese title "Wang Khan", which the Jurchen Jin dynasty granted him in 1197. This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits. Temüjin turned to Toghrul for support, and Toghrul offered 20,000 of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha, who had himself become Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran. [69]

Although the campaign rescued Börte and utterly defeated the Merkits, it also paved the way for the split between Temüjin and Jamukha. Before this, they were blood brothers (en) vowing to remain eternally faithful.

Rift with Jamukha and defeat at Dalan Balzhut

As Jamukha and Temüjin drifted apart in their friendship, each began consolidating power, and they became rivals. Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy, while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers. [70] Following his earlier defeat of the Merkits, and a proclamation by the shaman Kokochu that the Eternal Blue Sky had set aside the world for Temüjin, Temüjin began rising to power. [71] In 1186, Temüjin was elected khan of the Mongols. Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in 1187 with an army of 30,000 troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut. [71] [72] However, Jamukha horrified and alienated potential followers by boiling 70 young male captives alive in cauldrons. [73] Toghrul, as Temüjin's patron, was exiled to the Qara Khitai. [74] The life of Temüjin for the next 10 years is unclear, as historical records are mostly silent on that period. [74]

Return to power

Around the year 1197, the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars, with help from the Keraites and Mongols. Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul were restored by the Jin to positions of power. [74] The Jin bestowed Toghrul with the honorable title of Ong Khan, and Temüjin with a lesser title of j'aut quri. [75]

Around 1200, the main rivals of the Mongol confederation (traditionally the "Mongols") were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south, and the Jin to the east.

In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol tradition in a few crucial ways. He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties. [76] As an incentive for absolute obedience and the Yassa code of law, Temüjin promised civilians and soldiers wealth from future war spoils. When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians. Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe. He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family. These political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory. [76]

Rift with Toghrul

Senggum, son of Toghrul (Wang Khan), envied Genghis Khan's growing power and affinity with his father. He allegedly planned to assassinate Genghis Khan. Although Toghrul was allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Genghis Khan, he gave in to his son [77] and became uncooperative with Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists.

One of the later ruptures between Genghis Khan and Toghrul was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi, Genghis Khan's first son. This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture and led to a war. Toghrul allied with Jamukha, who already opposed Genghis Khan's forces. However, the dispute between Toghrul and Jamukha, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Genghis Khan, led to Toghrul's defeat. Jamukha escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissolution of the Keraite tribe. [78]

After conquering his way steadily through the Alchi Tatars, Keraites, and Uhaz Merkits and acquiring at least one wife each time, Temüjin turned to the next threat on the steppe, the Turkic Naimans under the leadership of Tayang Khan with whom Jamukha and his followers took refuge. [60] The Naimans did not surrender, although enough sectors again voluntarily sided with Genghis Khan.

In 1201, a khuruldai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan, "universal ruler", a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai. Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Genghis Khan, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai, Jelme's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamukha was turned over to Genghis Khan by his own men in 1206. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Volgens die Geheime geskiedenis, Genghis Khan again offered his friendship to Jamukha. Genghis Khan had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army. Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death. The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken. Jamukha requested this form of death, although he was known to have boiled his opponents' generals alive. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Sole ruler of the Mongol plains (1206)

The part of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai, who was by then a member of Genghis Khan's personal guard and later became one of Genghis Khan's most successful commanders. The Naimans' defeat left Genghis Khan as the sole ruler of the Mongol steppe – all the prominent confederations fell or united under his Mongol confederation.

Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamukha (who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes) and Wang Khan (his and his father's ally), his son Jochi, and problems with the most important shaman, who allegedly tried to drive a wedge between him and his loyal brother Khasar. His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals, exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems. He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. He was also ruthless, demonstrated by his tactic of measuring against the linchpin, used against the tribes led by Jamukha.

As a result, by 1206, Genghis Khan had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Keraites, Tatars, Uyghurs, and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule. This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force. The union became known as the Mongols. By 'n Khuruldai, a council of Mongol chiefs, Genghis Khan was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan". The title Khagan was conferred posthumously by his son and successor Ögedei who took the title for himself (as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan dynasty).

According to the Secret History of the Mongols, the chieftains of the conquered tribes pledged to Genghis Khan by proclaiming:

"We will make you Khan you shall ride at our head, against our foes. We will throw ourselves like lightning on your enemies. We will bring you their finest women and girls, their rich tents like palaces." [79] [80]

Genghis Khan was a Tengrist, but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. He consulted Buddhist monks (including the Zen monk Haiyun), Muslims, Christian missionaries, and the Taoist monk Qiu Chuji. [81]

Volgens die Fozu Lidai Tongzai written by Nian Chang (b. 1282) Genghis Khan's viceroy Muqali was pacifying Shanxi in 1219, the homeland of Zen Buddhist monk Haiyun (海雲, 1203–1257), when one of Muqali's Chinese generals, impressed with Haiyun and his master Zhongguan's demeanor, recommended them to Muqali. Muqali then reported on the two to Genghis Khan who issued the following decree on their behalf: "They truly are men who pray to Heaven. I should like to support them with clothes and food and make them chiefs. I'm planning on gathering many of this kind of people. While praying to Heaven, they should not have difficulties imposed on them. To forbid any mistreatment, they will be authorized to act as darqan (possessor of immunity)." Genghis Khan had already met Haiyun in 1214 and been impressed by his reply refusing to grow his hair in the Mongol hairstyle and allowed him to keep his head shaven. [82] After the death of his master Zhongguan in 1220, Haiyun became the head of the Chan (Chinese Zen) school during Genghis Khan's rule and was repeatedly recognized as the chief monk in Chinese Buddhism by subsequent Khans until 1257 when he was succeeded as chief monk by another Chan master Xueting Fuyu the Mongol-appointed abbot of Shaolin monastery. [83]

Genghis Khan summoned and met the Daoist master Qiu Chuji (1148–1227) in Afghanistan in 1222. He thanked Qiu Chuji for accepting his invitation and asked if Qiu Chuji had brought the medicine of immortality with him. Qiu Chuji said there was no such thing as a medicine of immortality but that life can be extended through abstinence. Genghis Khan appreciated his honest reply and asked Qiu Chuji who it is that calls him eternal heavenly man, he himself or others. [84] After Qiu Chuji replied that others call him by that name Genghis Khan decreed that from thenceforth Qiu Chuji should be called "Immortal" and appointed him master of all monks in China, noting that heaven had sent Qiu Chuji to him. Qiu Chuji died in Beijing the same year as Genghis Khan and his shrine became the White Cloud Temple. Following Khans continued appointing Daoist masters of the Quanzhen School at White Cloud Temple. The Daoists lost their privilege in 1258 after the Great Debate organized by Genghis Khan's grandson Möngke Khan when Chinese Buddhists (led by the Mongol-appointed abbot or shaolim zhanglao of Shaolin monastery), Confucians and Tibetan Buddhists allied against the Daoists. Kublai Khan was appointed to preside over this debate (in Shangdu/Xanadu, the third meeting after two debates in Karakorum in 1255 and 1256) in which 700 dignitaries were present. Kublai Khan had already met Haiyun in 1242 and been swayed towards Buddhism. [85]

Genghis Khan's decree exempting Daoists (xiansheng), Buddhists (toyin), Christians (erke'üd) and Muslims (dashmad) from tax duties were continued by his successors until the end of the Yuan dynasty in 1368. All the decrees use the same formula and state that Genghis Khan first gave the decree of exemption. [86] Kublai Khan's 1261 decree in Mongolian appointing the elder of the Shaolin monastery uses the same formula and states "Činggis qan-u jrlg-tur toyid erkegü:d šingšingü:d dašmad aliba alba gubčiri ülü üjen tngri-yi jalbariju bidan-a irüge:r ögün atugai keme:gsen jrlg-un yosuga:r. ene Šaolim janglau-da bariju yabuga:i jrlg ögbei" (According to the decree of Genghis Khan which says may the Buddhists, Christians, Daoists and Muslims be exempt from all taxation and may they pray to God and continue offering us blessings. I have given this decree to the Shaolin elder to carry it). According to Juvaini, Genghis Khan allowed religious freedom to Muslims during his conquest of Khwarezmia "permitting the recitation of the takbir en die azan". However, Rashid-al-Din states there were occasions when Genghis Khan forbade Halal butchering. Kublai Khan revived the decree in 1280 after Muslims refused to eat at a banquet. He forbade Halal butchering and circumcision. The decree of Kublai Khan was revoked after a decade. Genghis Khan met Wahid-ud-Din in Afghanistan in 1221 and asked him if the prophet Muhammad predicted a Mongol conqueror. He was initially pleased with Wahid-ud-Din but then dismissed him from his service saying "I used to consider you a wise and prudent man, but from this speech of yours, it has become evident to me that you do not possess complete understanding and that your comprehension is but small". [87]


Genghis Khan the Mongolian Hero

Genghis Khan is a Mongolian hero. He reunified the chaotic Inner Mongolia prairie and led his people to be a great civilization. Genghis Khan made great contributions to the founding of the powerful Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) as well as the unification of China which enhanced greatly the interactions of the peoples of China.

Even today, Genghis Khan is still worshiped and remembered by his people.

While still a teenager, Genghis Khan united the separate, warring Mongol clans and together they began to conquer other nomadic tribes. Conquering these rivals was a struggle, but the young, charismatic leader’s ability to form alliances and motivate his warriors eventually led to victory. Genghis Khan’s battle skills grew. He incorporated defeated warriors into his own army, usually killing their leaders first. He rewarded loyalty rather than honoring bloodlines. After many years, he was able to unite the tribes, forming the first unified Mongol nation.

Genghis Khan led a series of major military campaigns, each one enlarging his territories beyond his homeland, south into China and west into Iran. The Mongol war machine featured a ruthless leader, loyal officers, and fierce warriors, coupled with tight organization, swift movement, and brilliantly coordinated tactics. It was nearly impossible to defeat. As a result of these conquests, unprecedented trade and cultural exchanges followed.

an artist impression of the Mongolian Hero, Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan History/Timeline :

  1. 1162: Temujin born in the Khentii Mountain.At the age of nine, Temujin’s father Yesugei poisoned by Tatars, leaving him and his family destitute
  2. 1184: Temujin’s wife Borte kidnapped by Merkits calls on blood brother Jamuka and Wang Khan for aid, and they rescue her.
  3. 1185: First son Jochi born, leading to doubt about his paternity later among Genghis’ children, because he was born shortly after Borte’s rescue from the Merkits.
  4. 1190: Temujin unites the Mongol tribes, becomes leader, and devises code of law called Yassa.
  5. 1201: Wins victory over Jamuka’s.
  6. 1202: Adopted as Wang Khan’s heir after successful campaigns against Tatars.
  7. 1203: Wins victory over Wang Khan’s Keraits. Wang Khan himself is killed by accident by allied Naimans.
  8. 1204: Wins victory over Naimans (all these confederations are united and become the Mongols).
  9. 1206: Jamuka is killed. Temujin given the title Genghis Khan by his followers in a Kurultai.
  10. 1207–1210: Genghis leads operations against the Western Xia, which comprises much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. Western Xia ruler submits to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghurs also submit peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire.
  11. 1211: After the Kurultai, Genghis leads his armies against the Jin Dynasty ruling northern China.
  12. 1215: Beijing falls, Genghis Khan turns to west and the Khara-Kitan Khanate.
  13. 1219–1222: Conquers Khwarezmid Empire.
  14. 1226: Starts the campaign against the Western Xia for forming coalition against the Mongols, the second battle with the Western Xia.
  15. 1227: Genghis Khan dies after conquering the Tangut people. Cause of death is uncertain, although legend states that he was thrown off his horse in the battle, and contracted a deadly fever soon after.

Achievements of Genghis Khan

In the history of the world rankings, what Genghis Khan‘s achievements are in the first row. He was called “一代天骄 yí dài tiān jiāo — a great son whom the sky is proud of”.

  1. Creates the largest empire of the world
  2. Establishes the first transporting net system
  3. Puts the military art to the peak of the cold weapons
  4. The most influential figures in the history of the world
  5. The first emperor of the implementation of political democracy
  6. The richest people in thousands of years
  7. Pursues the most extensive policy of freedom and religious belief
  8. First man proposes and practices the “globalization”

Genghis Khan is a national leader. He unites so many tribes of the Mongolian Plateau into a unified whole, which become a strong Mongolian nationality, undeniably, Mongolia national start its growth and development at the expense of the interests of other nations.

Genghis Khan and his successors led less than 200,000 troops, used just 25 years, perished more than 40 countries, conquered more than 720 nationalities, eradicated more than 10,000,000 armed forces, dominated over 600,000,000 national population and finally created a largest country in human history — the Mongol Empire. In the period of stability, the territory is more than 35,000,000 square kilometer and the largest period is more than 44,000,000, which represents more than four fifths of the whole world.

He set up his empire from Siberia directly to the border of India, Hungary directly to Vietnam, Korean Peninsula to Balkan Peninsula. Mongol empire re-sketched the map of the world, make the original isolated empire closely link each other. New world, new era was demarcated in his new order.

Family influence of Genghis Khan

Family is an important factor in the growth of children, in Genghis Khan’s growing up, family education gives him a far-reaching influence. And this nice education also fosters his descendants.

Father: Genghis Khan’s father Yesugei was one of a tribe leader in Mongolian Plateau, a real grassland hero. He helped his neighbor tribe resist the slaughter and made anda (sworn brother or blood brother) with this leader, Toghrul, who was the early guardian of Genghis Khan and helped Genghis Khan unite his alliance successful. He was the first strength for Mongol tribe conquering Eurasia.

Mother: Genghis Khan‘s mother, was delicate plundered by his father, was brave after his father’s death and in the days that their tribe abandoned them, she brought up their children and told them a lots of truth about how to be a real man and what would make them get real success. In the time of Genghis Khan conquering the Mongolian Plateau, her idea is reuse of the capable prisoners and adoption of the orphans after war.

Sons: Genghis Khan had four sons like four lionhearted dogs. As Napoleon said: I am inferior to Genghis Khan, he has four tiger sons clamoring for their effectiveness, I have no such luck. His success also reflected on his sons that built the first minority state power in Chinese history, Yuan Dynasty.

Daughter: Genghis Khan had only one daughter named Alahaibie, she was very proud for his father and the same for Mongol grassland. When her father and brother were wild about all kinds of wars, she became the housemistress of her tribe. Under her administer, everything went peaceful and prosperous, and his father was reassuring and unworried about conquest to where he wanted to conquer. She embodied a kind of spirit in Mongol grassland, wise, energetic, ambitious, dedicated girl.

Monuments of Genghis Khan

Some of his monuments being built in various parts of Mongolia after he died in 1227.

Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan in Erdene sum, Mongolia

A very huge bronze statue compared to the human size. Notice how small the tourist on the left bottom corner compares with it.

Genghis Khan Monument in Hohhot

A statue depicting Genghis Khan and his invincible army

Genghis Khan was your true ‘rags to riches’ story – a man who struggled in extreme hardship to survive in the chaotic ancient Mongolia and eventually rising to power to become one of the greatest warrior and ruler the world had seen.

And this is the story, history and the legend he left behind, still inspiring the people of Mongolia and the rest of the World even til this day – The Mongolian Hero, Genghis Khan.

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37 Responses to “Genghis Khan the Mongolian Hero”

this website is really helpful.

Gentlemen and Gentlewomen,

You write well. My only regret is that you do not explain why there is such a great difference between this very civilized man, who expanded a democratic order, and the bloodthirsty image, which the Western World sometimes imagines… As an Anglo sort of person, I wonder: Is this yet another case where white historians find themselves unable to admire a great man, simply because he is not Caucasian? I hope there is a kinder reason but confess I have doubts.

One last question: did he not, in Beijing, meet a very brainy thinker who helped him formulate a world plan for organization and conquest? if so, who?

I thank you for this fine site.

chengis khan is not inner mongolia. he dilike china.

the information abt his very less , not satisfactory.

do you believe I am a decendent of GENGHIS KHAN?

THE FILIPINO PEOPLE FROM COUNTRY PHILIPPINES ARE DECENDENTS OF THE CONQUEROR GENGHIS KHAN AND THE GREAT MONGOL EMPIRE. I BELIEVE WE DESERVE MORE RESPECT AND RECOGNITION IN WORLD HISTORY.

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I have nothing but respect for Khan. Unfortunately, most of us here in the western world see khan as a terror and warmonger as opposed to the Racially, Religiously and culturally open man he was. Khan never forced his culture on anyone and in my view saw himself as a protective umbrella if you will. “Stand by me and i will have your back”, much the same thing a best friend says. I have nothing but respect for Khan and his descendents.

i remember hearing that genghis khan and his sons so thoroughly conquered that half of the world that every 7th man on earth had dna of khan.

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Genghis Khan the Mongolian Hero « Historical Figures & Tales |

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Genghis Khan the Mongolian Hero « Historical Figures & Tales |

[…] Despite all those singular stories of him only being a fierce warrior and merciless conqueror, Genghis Khan was also a skillful ruler and administrator, creating the largest empire in history by ruling Eurasia from China to the Middle East and Russia. His many achievements during his rule were well received, and he was bequeathed a glorious description by the Chinese “一代天骄 yí dài tiān jiāo — a great son whom the sky is proud of”. […]

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“[. ]horse sculptures, horse statues, life size horse statues, bronze horse statues, bronze running forse staatues, bronze horse sculptures[. ]“


Genghis Khan Statue Complex

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To most of the world, Genghis Khan is known as a brutal and savage dictator, whose campaigns of terror and wholesale massacre of civilian populations may have resulted in the deaths of up to forty million people. But to the people of Mongolia, he is revered as a national hero, ruling over the largest contiguous empire in history and establishing the Mongols as a political and cultural force. Despite being represented on dozens of statues and appearing on everything from bottles of liquor to cigarette packets, it seems that the public’s appetite for more has not yet waned.

In 2008, a giant statue of Khan riding a horse was erected fifty-four kilometers from the capital Ulaanbaatar. At forty meters high, it is the world’s largest equestrian statue and stands more than double the height of the previous record holder in Uruguay. Made from two hundred and fifty tons of stainless steel, it reputedly cost $4.1 million to construct. At the base of the statue, visitors can visit an archaeological museum, try on traditional Mongolian costumes, tour the numerous portraits of the Khan lineage, or try the cuisine at the restaurant on the second floor before taking an elevator to to the top of the horse’s head, where they are greeted with a panoramic view over the surrounding landscape.

The foundation building, designed to look like European Gothic style architecture, symbolizes that Genghis Khan is standing on Europe after his successful military campaigns, and he is returning East, his home country. If you stretch your eyes to the East, you will see a small statue of his mother greeting him.

Weet voordat jy gaan

The statue is located 54 kilometers from the capital city Ulaanbaatar. This place is also famous for its photo spot with wild birds. Visitors can take a picture with a golden eagle or vulture on their hand.


Hometown of Genghis Khan, Beautiful Grassland and Inner Mongolian Culture Discovery

Day 1: Hohhot - Arriving in Hohhot early allows you to maximize your Hohhot discovery time. Your day starts with Five-Pagoda Temple, which got its name for the five stupas on a foundation tower. The exquisite stone inscriptions and sculptures will speak to Lamaism culture. Inner Mongolia Museum follows. It is a great place for you to discover Mongol national identity with tens of thousands of historical relics. After lunch at a local fine restaurant you’ll visit the Dazhao Temple. It was built in 1579 and is the Tibetan Buddhist center of Inner Mongolia. The silver Buddha, the inscriptions of dragons, and the murals are three highlights of the temple. Nearby is the Zhaojun Tomb, which is a place to learn about the history of intermarriage in the Han Dynasty that brought peace to two states.

Hotels recommended: luxury hotels - Shangri-La Hotel Hohhot, Shangri-La Hotel Hohhot or similar

Day 2: Hohhot - Today you will ride for about 2.5 hours to Huiteng Xile Grassland. It is a vast grassland combining the gentle elegance of clean water and green hills and the beauty of brutalism only found in Inner Mongolia. Riding a horse to embrace this area will allow you to see the horizon where the grassland and sky meet. After, lunch is arranged at a local yurt. Later in the afternoon, you’ll go back to the city and visit Islam Street. It is a street in the Muslim quarter where 70% of Hohhot’s Hui people live. You can experience Muslim culture and taste the halal food.

Day 3: Hohhot/Ordos - We will ride to Ordos, which will take about 3.5 hours to get to. En route you will bypass Sounding Sand Bay in the desert. There, you’ll find a sand bay of 500 meters long sitting on the west and east, the dune is as high as 110 meters with a slope of 40 degrees. The sands roar if one slides down from the top of the dune, giving it the name of Sounding Sand. You can ride a horse or slide on the sand to experience it up close.

Hotels recommended: luxury hotels - Howard Johnson Parkview Plaza Ordos, Crowne Plaza Ordos or similar

Day 4: Ordos/Baotou - After breakfast you’ll hear the Mausoleum of Genghis Khan. The Mausoleum houses the accessories and dresses but no bodies as Mongolians have “secret burials”. Inside the Mausoleum, there are huge murals displaying scenes of Genghis Khan’s e.g. birth, death, fights and union of Mongolia etc. The Historical and Cultural Museum inside the is also the only one in the world to collect, display and study Mongolian history and culture. After lunch, you will go westwards to Baotao and visit Wudangzhao Lamasery, a Tibetan Buddhism Palace. Its construction scale is larger than others because it holds political importance and has the greatest influence in all of Mongolia.

Hotels recommended: luxury hotels - Shangri-La Hotel Baotou or similar

Day 5: Baotou - With the knowledge you’ve gained on Genghis Khan you can wave goodbye . Your guide and driver will escort you to the airport for your next destination.

Meals: breakfast included in the hotel, fine local restaurants for lunch or dinner upon your request


Story Of Lost Tomb Of Genghis Khan

The world’s greatest conqueror was born and raised near the Onon River in Mongolia. Genghis Khan’s childhood name was Temüjin. He died on August 18, 1227. The location of his grave has been the subject of much speculation and investigation. The grave remains undiscovered.

Genghis Khan was ordered to be buried without signs or symbols. After his death, his body was returned to Mongolia and apparently returned to Henty Aimag’s hometown, where many believe that many were buried near the Onon River. Chinggis Khan’s Mausoleum is his monument, but not his burial place.

Legend has it that 2,000 people attended his funeral, after which they were killed by his troops. The soldier was then killed by his bodyguards, who killed people and things in their way to hide where he was buried. Finally, legend has it that they were committed when they arrived at their destination. Marco Polo related this, but does not appear in modern sources. Moreover, according to legend, after the tomb was completed, the slaves who built it were slaughtered, and the soldiers who killed them were also killed. Therefore, everyone who knew the location had died.

Folklore says the river passed through his grave and is no longer found (reflecting the burial method of King Gilgamesh of Uruk or the leader of the West Goat Aralick). Another story states that his tomb was destroyed by many horses, after which trees were planted there, and the permanently frozen ground also played a role in hiding the grave.

Erdeni Tobchi (1662) claims some important facts. One of them is that Genghis Khan’s coffin may have been empty when he arrived in Mongolia. Likewise, Altan Tobchi (1604) claims that only his shirt, tent and boots were buried in Ordos. Turnbull tells another legend that the tomb was rediscovered 30 years after Genghis Khan’s death. According to this story, a young camel was buried with Khan, and the camel’s mother was later found crying in the child’s grave.

Marco Polo writes that at the end of the 13th century, the Mongolians did not know the location of the tomb. Mongolia’s secret history includes the year Genghis Khan died, but there is no information on his burial. In “The Journey of Marco Polo”, he writes: “It is an unchanging practice that all the chiefs of the Grand Khan and Genghis Khan should be brought to be buried on a certain high mountain called Altay. Where might they die? Oh, it should be. a hundred days to go, but they’re still being told there. “

Other sources mention the area of ​​Mount Burkhan Khaldun as the burial site (about 48.5 degrees north latitude and 108.7 degrees east longitude). The area near Burkhan Khaldun is called Ikkorig or Tabu Besar. This 240 square kilometer area was blocked by Mongolians and the invasion was punishable by death. Only in the last 20 years has this area been opened to Western archaeologists.

According to the tradition of the former dynasty, which was part of the Mongolian empire that ruled China, all of Mongolia’s great kings were buried around the tomb of Genghis Khan. The site name in Chinese is the Qinian Valley. However, the specific location of the valley is not mentioned in any documents.

There are rumors of the standard, including hints as to where it was removed from a Buddhist monastery by the Soviet Union in 1937. On May 10, 1920, the French diplomat Saint John Press became part of the first expedition through Mongolia with the head of the Chinese post office, Henri Picard Destellan and Dr. Jean Augustin Busier, Chinggis Hahn. Follow the trail from.

On October 6, 2004, the Genghis Khan palace was discovered. This will allow you to find his grave.

Morley Krawitz, an amateur archaeologist, spent 40 years searching for the graves. In French Jezus’ records, he finds references to early battles in which Genghis Khan, still known as Temjin at the time, had a decisive victory. According to this source, he chose the confluence of the Hellen and “Burch” rivers with Burkhan Khaldun on his right shoulder, and after the victory, Temjin said the place would be his favorite forever. Krabitz believes that Temjin’s grave is near the battlefield and tries to find the river “Burch”, which the mapmaker turns out to be unknown. But he found the name of the place. The area in question, “Baruun Bruch” (“West Bruch”), was excavated about 100 km (62 miles) east of Burkhan Khaldun (48 degrees north latitude, 110 degrees east longitude, wider than Bayan Brag) in 2006. Maury Kravitz died in 2012 without finding a grave.

Albert Yumin Lin leads international cloud sourcing efforts. The Khan Valley Project is trying to find the tomb of Genghis Khan, who is believed to have used non-invasive technology in the area. His team uses technology platforms for ground, air and satellite based remote sensing. He was awarded the “2010 Readers Choice Adventurer of the Year” by National Geographic Adventure magazine for protecting Mongolia through research.

In January 2015, the University of California, San Diego launched a project to ask anyone interested to tag potential burial sites using images taken from outer space. In 2016, new searches using drones are underway.

In 2015 and 2016, two expeditions led by French archaeologist Pierre Henri Giscard, a Mongolian archaeologist, and Raphaël Hautefort, a scientific imaging expert, joined the Henty Mountains (northeastern Mongolia). ) Supports the theory of ancient burial mounds in the vicinity. The peak of Mount Burkhan Khaldun. Their non-invasive analysis using drones is based on a model of a 250 meter (820 ft) long human burial mound, possibly the tomb of a Chinese emperor in Xi’an. This shows that it is true.

In addition, the expedition noted that the mound was still the material for religious ceremonies and pilgrimages for the people around it. The expedition took place without permission and without notification to the local government, so it did not produce a scientific publication by the Pierre Henri Giscard. Indeed, apart from strictly controlled access to the area around Burkan Cardun, the sanctity of the tombs to the Mongolian government and its inhabitants made exploration impossible. Pierre-Henri Giscard said details about his work could be published after death.


Conclusion and Predictions for the Future

Time is the ocean that drowns out the sins of our ancestors. It washes away the blood and vomit and tears of obliterated souls it erodes the complexity of human affairs into a smooth list of simple, linear, easily-remembered events and finally, perhaps worst of all, it forgives evil and simply remembers action. I mean evil in the vague, undefinable sense that all Westerns know well: mass murder, torture, imperialism, despotism, etc,etc. I mean action in the way we all use in day-speak: something done, a deed, an act carried out. Hitler will be remembered for a number󈝷 million– and people will associate political failure with his name similar to how we now remember Genghis Khan for the number 40 million, and associate his name with political and militaristic success.

As the generations fly by, nations will rise and fall, taking all their systematized venom and socio-political narratives with them. Who will be around to hate Hitler when all the Allied Powers dissolve? As a Jew myself, I can’t help but wonder: will my people always be around to lament the Shoah? And while it’s a depressing thought, someday we will all be forgotten—a few slower than most.