Kaart van Tarawa Atoll.

Kaart van Tarawa Atoll.

Kaart van Tarawa Atoll.


Gepubliseer: 17:06 BST, 26 November 2017 | Opgedateer: 17:47 BST, 26 November 2017

Hierdie voorheen ongesiene kleurfoto's toon die lengte waarheen Amerikaanse soldate gegaan het tydens Amerika se pogings om verskeie Stille Oseaan -eilande tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van die Japannese te verower.

Die beelde is vandag gepubliseer ter herdenking van die Amerikaanse reis deur die streek, met die suksesvolle aanval en vaslegging van die Tarawa -atol in November 1943.

Troepe is gefotografeer terwyl hulle in volle uniform deur die see gaan, terwyl 'n ander 'n groep soldate agter 'n tenk sien skuil.

Een van die beelde, herstel deur kleurmaker Royston Leonard, toon die sagter kant van soldate, met een wat langs 'n tenk hurk om 'n katjie water te gee.

Ander beelde wys hoe Amerikaanse troepe hul gewere swaai nadat hulle verskeie Japannese gevangenes gevange geneem het.

'N Gevange Japannese soldaat word omring deur Amerikaanse troepe in volle uniform en swaai met hul gewere. Die ongelooflike gekleurde foto's wys hoe lank Amerikaanse soldate gegaan het tydens Amerika se pogings om verskeie Stille Oseaan -eilande tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van die Japannese te verower

Kaptein Robert E Voorhees staan ​​terwyl hy voorrade dra tydens die Slag van Tarawa op Red Beach, Bieto, Tarawa. 'N Aantal ander Amerikaanse troepe lê op die strand terwyl ander sit en gesels. Die beelde is vandag gepubliseer ter herdenking van die Amerikaanse reis deur die streek

'N Groep vegters, onder leiding van 'n marinier met 'n gewonde hand, laai van die kus af om die ingewikkelde doringdraad te verstrengel om die stewige Japannese in pilkaste op Tarawa te beveg. Die foto's is herstel deur die kleurmaker Royston Leonard, van Cardiff

Amerikaanse mariniers probeer vordering maak teen Japannese posisies tydens die inval in Tarawa aan die einde van November 1943. Die troepe praat met mekaar en duik om dekking om te voorkom dat Japannese koeëls kom

As hulle van die oprit van 'n kuswag bemande landingsvaartuig af beweeg, beweeg mariniers aan wal na Tarawa. Amerika se swaar bombardement op die eiland het die weg gebaan vir die VSA om aansienlike winste in die gebied te maak en Japannese magte gedwing om een ​​eiland op 'n slag te vlug

Royston, 'n 55-jarige elektrisiën van Cardiff, het gesê: 'Hierdie beelde toon die tye toe waansin die wêreld oorgeneem het.

'Tarawa is die plek waar Marines die harde lesse geleer het wat hulle later in die oorlog sou help.

'Amerika het geweet dat die lewenskoste van elke eiland hoog sou wees, maar ek dink nie hulle het dit heeltemal verwag nie. En dit het net meer gestyg namate hulle nader aan die vasteland van Japan gekom het.

'Gevegte soos hierdie dien 'n herinnering aan die wêreld dat so iets nooit weer moet gebeur nie.

'Maar terselfdertyd toon beelde soos die seevaart wat die kat voed, dat daar hoop kan wees selfs in die hel van die geveg.'

Die veldtog Gilbert en Marshall -eilande, wat die slag van Tarawa 'n groot deel van was, was die naam wat gegee is aan die gevegte wat tussen November 1943 en Februarie 1944 tussen die VSA en Japan oor die Stille Oseaan plaasgevind het.

Amerikaanse mariniers waai deur branders van landingbote en vaartuie na die strand tydens die inval in Tarawa. Die VSA het die Tarawa -atol tussen 20 November en 23 November beleër en was Amerika se eerste offensief in die Stille Oseaan

Hierdie beeld toon die meer menslike kant van soldate wat kniel om 'n bang katjie wat uit 'n tenk se spoor loer, 'n drankie water te gee na Amerika se aanval op die Tarawa -atol

Aanvalparty van die Amerikaanse Marine Corps storm 'n Japannese vesting bo -op 'n heuwel. Japanse magte het tot die laaste man geveg, met slegs een offisier en 16 troepe van die 3500 plus aangewese mans wat oorgegee het

Marines langs 'n LVT-1 Alligator op Tarawa. Die eiland was een van die minder swaar verdedigde eilande, maar was deel van 'n taktiese truuk deur Japan, sodat hulle meer mans op ander eilande in die gebied kon posisioneer

Die VSA beleër die Tarawa -atol tussen 20 November en 23 November, en was Amerika se eerste offensief in die Stille Oseaan.

Tarawa was een van die minder swaar verdedigde eilande, maar was deel van 'n taktiese truuk deur Japan, sodat hulle meer mans op ander eilande in die gebied kon posisioneer.

Die Amerikaners het dit geweet en het die eilande met eilande gebombardeer met 'n stortvloed lugaanvalle, artillerie en 'n landinval. Dit het die weg gebaan vir die VSA om aansienlike winste in die gebied te behaal en Japanse magte gedwing om van een eiland op 'n slag te vlug.

Japanse magte het tot die laaste man geveg, met slegs een offisier en 16 troepe van die 3500 plus aangewese mans wat oorgegee het. Slegs 129 van die 1,2000 Koreaanse arbeiders het verdediging op die eiland opgerig. Die VSA het ook 'n duur prys betaal vir hul oorwinning, met meer as 1 000 dood en nog 2 000 gewondes.

Sulke gekleurde foto's verskyn in die nuwe fotoboek van die skrywer Michael D. Carroll, Retrographic, wat beskikbaar is by Amazon vir £ 16,85.

165ste Infanterie -aanvalsgolf wat Butaritari, Yellow Beach Two, aanval, vind dit stadig in die koraalbodem. Japannese vuurwapenvuur vanaf die regterflank maak dit vir hulle moeiliker. Die VSA het 'n duur prys betaal vir hul oorwinning in Tarawa, met meer as 1 000 dood en nog 2 000 gewondes.


Inhoud

Die uitspraak verskil: / ˌ k ɪr ɪ ˈ b æ s, - ˈ b ɑː t i /, Kiribass is die normale uitspraak as -ti in die Gilbertese verteenwoordig 'n s klank.

Die naam Kiribati is in 1979 by onafhanklikheid aangeneem. Dit is die Gilbertese weergawe van Gilberts, die meervoud van die Engelse naam van die land se belangrikste argipel, die Gilbert -eilande. [18] Dit is vernoem îles Gilbert (Frans vir Gilbert -eilande) in ongeveer 1820 deur die Russiese admiraal Adam von Krusenstern [19] en die Franse kaptein Louis Duperrey, [20] na die Britse kaptein Thomas Gilbert. Gilbert en kaptein John Marshall het in 1788 'n paar van die eilande gesien terwyl hulle die roete van die "buitenste gang" van Port Jackson na Canton oorgesteek het. [21] [22] [23] Beide von Krusenstern en Duperrey se kaarte, gepubliseer in 1824, is in Frans geskryf. In Engels word daar dikwels in die 19de eeu na die argipel, veral die suidelike deel, as die Kingsmills verwys, hoewel die naam Gilbert -eilande toenemend gebruik word, insluitend in die Westelike Stille Oseaan -orde in die Raad van 1877 en in die Stille Oseaan -orde van 1893. [24]

Die naam Gilbert, reeds in die naam van die Britse protektoraat sedert 1892, is vanaf 1916 in die naam van die hele Gilbert- en Ellice -eilandekolonie (GEIC) opgeneem en is behou nadat die Ellice -eilande in 1976 die aparte volk van Tuvalu geword het. spelling van Gilberts in die Gilbertese taal as Kiribati kan gevind word in boeke in Gilbertese wat deur sendelinge voorberei is, maar met die betekenis van Gilbertese (demoniem en taal) (sien bv. Hawaiian Board of Missionaries, 1895). [25] Die eerste vermelding as 'n woordeboekinskrywing van die woord Kiribati aangesien die inheemse naam van die land in 1952 deur Ernest Sabatier [fr] in sy omvattende opgeskryf is Woordeboek gilbertin-français.

Daar word dikwels gesuggereer dat die inheemse naam vir die regte Gilbert -eilande dit is Tungaru (sien bv. Ernest Sabatier [fr], 1952–1953, of Arthur Grimble, 1989 [26]). Die weergawe Kiribati vir Gilberts is egter gekies as die amptelike naam van die nuwe onafhanklike nasie deur die hoofminister, sir Ieremia Tabai en sy kabinet, op grond daarvan dat dit modern was, [27] en om die insluiting van die buitenste eilande te begryp ( byvoorbeeld die Phoenix Group en Line Islands), wat nie as deel van die Tungaru (of Gilberts) ketting beskou is nie. [28] [nota 1] [29]

Vroeë geskiedenis Redigeer

Die gebied wat nou Kiribati genoem word, hoofsaaklik die 16 Gilbert -eilande, is sedert die tyd tussen 3000 vC [27] en 1300 nC bewoon deur mense van Austronesië wat dieselfde Oseaniese taal spreek, van noord na suid, insluitend die mees suidelike Nui. [30] Die gebied is later nie heeltemal geïsoleer nie, en setlaars of reisigers van Samoa, Tonga en Fidji het onderskeidelik 'n paar Polinesiese en Melanesiese kulturele aspekte bekendgestel. Ondertrouery en intense navigasie tussen die eilande was geneig om kulturele verskille te vervaag en het gelei tot 'n aansienlike mate van kulturele homogenisering. [31] [32] Plaaslike mondelinge historici, hoofsaaklik in die vorm van leerders, dui daarop dat die gebied eers bewoon is deur 'n groep seevaarders uit Melanesië, wat beskryf is as donker vel, kroesig en kort van gestalte. Hierdie inheemse mense is toe besoek deur vroeë Austronesiese seevaarders uit die weste, 'n plek wat genoem word Matang, mondelings beskryf as lang en regverdig. Uiteindelik het albei groepe af en toe gebots en gemeng totdat hulle stadig 'n eenvormige bevolking geword het.

Omstreeks 1300 nC was daar 'n massa -uittog uit Samoa op dieselfde tyd dat kannibalisme daar met geweld afgeskaf is, [ aanhaling nodig ] wat gelei het tot die toevoeging van Polynesiese afkoms tot die mengsel van die meeste Gilbertese mense. Hierdie Samoane sou later sterk kenmerke van Polinesiese tale en kultuur bring, en skep stamme gebaseer op hul eie Samoaanse tradisies en verstrengel stadig met die inheemse stamme en magte wat reeds in Kiribati heers.

Rond die 15de eeu, met die sterk kontrasterende bestuurstelsels tussen die Noordelike Eilande, hoofsaaklik onder hoofregering (uea) en die Sentraal- en Suidelike Eilande, hoofsaaklik onder die bewind van hul raad van ouderlinge (unimwaane). Tabiteuea kan 'n uitsondering wees as die enigste eiland wat bekend staan ​​as die handhawing van 'n tradisionele egalitêre samelewing. Die naam Tabiteuea spruit uit die grondwoord Tabu-te-Uea wat beteken "hoofmanne is verbode". [33]

Burgeroorlog het gou op 'n manier 'n faktor geword, met die verkryging van grond die belangrikste vorm van verowering. Clans en hoofmanne het begin baklei oor hulpbronne, aangevuur deur haat en herontstigte bloedvetes, wat moontlik maande, jare of selfs dekades tevore begin het.

Die onrus het tot in die Europese besoek- en koloniale era voortgeduur, wat daartoe gelei het dat sekere eilande hul vyande met behulp van gewere en skepe wat met kanonne toegerus is, gedood het wat sommige Europeërs deur die meer listige en oortuigende onder die I-Kiribati-leiers gedwing het om te gebruik. [21]

Die tipiese militêre wapens van die I-Kiribati op hierdie tydstip was houtspiese, messe en swaarde met haai-tand ingebed, en pantserklere uit digte klappervesel. Hulle het dit hoofsaaklik gebruik in plaas van die kruit en destydse staalwapens, vanweë die sterk sentimentele waarde van die toerusting wat deur generasies oorgedra is. Gewapende wapens, soos boë, slingers en spies, is selde gebruik, hand-tot-hand-gevegte was 'n prominente vaardigheid wat vandag nog beoefen word, hoewel dit selde genoem word as gevolg van verskillende taboes wat daarmee gepaard gaan, en geheimhouding is die belangrikste.

Abemama se hoë hoof Tembinok 'was die laaste van die tientalle ekspansionistiese hoofde van die Gilbert -eilande van hierdie tydperk, ondanks die feit dat Abemama histories voldoen aan die bestuur van die tradisionele suidelike eiland van hul onderskeie "unimwaane". Hy is verewig in Robert Louis Stevenson se boek In die Suidsee, wat ingegaan het op die hoë opperhoof se karakter en metode van heerskappy tydens Stevenson se verblyf in Abemama. Die 90ste herdenking van sy aankoms op die Gilbert -eilande is gekies om die onafhanklikheid van Kiribati op 12 Julie 1979 te vier. [34]

Koloniale era Redigeer

Toevallige besoeke deur Europese skepe het in die 17de en 18de eeu plaasgevind, [35] [36], terwyl die skepe probeer het om die wêreld te vaar of seilroetes van die suide na die noordelike Stille Oseaan gesoek het. 'N Verbygaande handel, wat die On-The-Line-terrein, [37] [38] en arbeidskepe geassosieer het met swartvoël van Kanakas-werkers, het die eilande gedurende die 19de eeu in groot getalle besoek, met sosiale, ekonomiese, politieke, godsdienstige en kulturele gevolge. Meer as 9 000 werkers is van 1845 tot 1895 na die buiteland gestuur, waarvan die meeste nie teruggekeer het nie. [27] [39]

Die verbygaande handel het vanaf die 1830's aanleiding gegee tot Europese, Chinese, Samoaanse en ander inwoners: dit het onder meer strandjoggies, weggooiers, handelaars en sendelinge ingesluit.

In 1886 verdeel 'n Anglo-Duitse ooreenkoms die 'onopgeëiste' sentrale Stille Oseaan, wat Nauru in die Duitse invloedsfeer laat, terwyl Ocean Island en die toekomstige GEIC in die Britse invloedsfeer beland. In 1892 het die plaaslike Gilbertese owerhede ('n uea, 'n hoof van die Northern Gilbert Group, en atun te boti of hoof van clan [40]) op elk van die Gilbert -eilande ingestem het met kaptein E.H.M. Davis beveel HMS Royalist van die Royal Navy verklaar hulle deel van 'n Britse protektoraat, saam met die nabygeleë Ellice -eilande. Hulle is bestuur deur 'n inwonende kommissaris wat eers gebaseer was op die Makin -eilande (1893–1995), daarna in Betio, Tarawa (1896–1908) en Ocean Island (1908–1942), protektoraat wat onder die Westelike Stille Oseaan se hoë kommissie in Fidji was. [41] Banaba, wat onder Europeërs bekend staan ​​as Ocean Island, is in 1900 by die protektoraat gevoeg weens die fosfaatrots van die grond (ontdek in 1900). Hierdie ontdekking en die mynbou het die kontrak van Kanakas -werkers tot boerdery in Queensland, Duits Samoa of Sentraal -Amerika beëindig, met al die nodige werkers wat gebruik word by die ontginning van Ocean Island.

Die optrede van William Telfer Campbell, die tweede inwonende kommissaris van die Gilberts- en Ellice -eilande van 1896 tot 1908, is gekritiseer oor sy wetgewende, geregtelike en administratiewe bestuur (insluitend bewerings van dwangarbeid wat deur eilandbewoners geëis is) en het die onderwerp geword van die 1909 verslag deur Arthur Mahaffy. [42] In 1913 het 'n anonieme korrespondent aan Die New Age koerant beskryf die wanadministrasie van W. Telfer Campbell en bevraagteken die partydigheid van Arthur Mahaffy, omdat hy 'n voormalige koloniale amptenaar in die Gilberts was. [43] Die anonieme korrespondent het ook die bedrywighede van die Pacific Phosphate Company op Ocean Island gekritiseer. [43]

Die eilande het in 1916 die kroonkolonie van die Gilbert- en Ellice -eilande geword. die doel van 'n vestigingskema van die Phoenix -eilande. Op 12 Julie 1940 het Pan Am Airways ' Amerikaanse klipper het vir die eerste keer op Canton Island geland tydens 'n vlug van Honolulu na Auckland. [45]

Sir Arthur Grimble was 'n administratiewe beampte van kadette in Tarawa (1913–1919) en word in 1926 inwonende kommissaris van die kolonie Gilbert en Ellice -eilande. [46]

In 1902 het die Pacific Cable Board die eerste trans-Stille Oseaan-telegraafkabel van Bamfield, British Columbia na Fanning Island (Tabuaeran) op die Line-eilande en van Fidji na Fanning Island gelê, en sodoende die All Red Line, 'n reeks telegraaflyne, voltooi die wêreld heeltemal binne die Britse Ryk te omseil. Die ligging van Fanning Island, een van die formasies wat die naaste aan Hawaii was, het gelei tot die anneksasie daarvan deur die Britse Ryk in 1888. Kandidate in die omgewing, waaronder Palmyra Island, is nie bevoordeel nie weens die gebrek aan voldoende landingsplekke.

Die Verenigde State het uiteindelik die Northern Line -eilande in sy gebiede opgeneem en dieselfde gedoen met die Phoenix -eilande, wat tussen Gilberts en die Line -eilande lê, insluitend Howland, Jarvis en Baker -eilande, wat 'n territoriale geskil veroorsaak het. Dit is uiteindelik opgelos en hulle het uiteindelik deel geword van Kiribati onder die Verdrag van Tarawa. [47]

Na die aanval op Pearl Harbor, tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is Butaritari en Tarawa, en ander van die Noordelike Gilbert -groep, van 1941 tot 1943 deur Japan beset. Betio het 'n vliegveld en voorraadbasis geword. Die uitsetting van die Japannese weermag aan die einde van 1943 behels een van die bloedigste gevegte in die geskiedenis van die US Marine Corps. Marines het in November 1943 geland en die Slag van Tarawa het gevolg. Ocean Island, waar die hoofkwartier van die kolonie was, is in 1942 deur Japan gebombardeer, ontruim en beset en eers in 1945 bevry, na die slagting van almal behalwe een Banabans deur die Japannese magte. Funafuti was die gasheer van die voorlopige hoofkwartier van die kolonie van 1942 tot 1946, toe Tarawa terugkeer om die hoofkwartier aan te bied en Ocean Island te vervang.

Aan die einde van 1945 is die meeste van die oorblywende inwoners van Banaba, wat uit Kosrae, Nauru en Tarawa gerepatrieer is, verplaas na die eiland Rabi, 'n land van Fidji wat die Britse regering in 1942 vir hierdie doel bekom het. [48]

Op 1 Januarie 1953 is die Britse goewerneur van die kolonie oorgeplaas in die nuwe hoofstad Honiara, na die Britse Salomonseilande, met die Gilberts se inwonende kommissaris nog steeds in Tarawa.

Verdere militêre operasies in die kolonie het in die laat 1950's en vroeë 1960's plaasgevind toe Christmas Island deur die Verenigde State en die Verenigde Koninkryk gebruik is vir die toets van kernwapens, insluitend waterstofbomme.

Instellings vir interne selfregering is op Tarawa gestig vanaf ongeveer 1967. Die Ellice-eilande het in 1974 om skeiding van die res van die kolonie gevra en hul eie interne selfregeringsinstellings toegestaan. Die skeiding het op 1 Januarie 1976 in werking getree. In 1978 het die Ellice -eilande die onafhanklike nasie Tuvalu geword. [29]

Onafhanklikheid Redigeer

Die Gilbert -eilande het op 12 Julie 1979 onafhanklikheid gekry as die Republiek Kiribati. [49]

Toe, in September, gee die Verenigde State afstand van alle aansprake op die yl bewoonde Phoenix en Line Islands, in 'n vriendskapsverdrag van 1979 met Kiribati (bekragtig in 1983). [50]

Alhoewel die inheemse Gilbertese naam vir die regte Gilbert -eilande 'Tungaru' is, het die nuwe staat die naam 'Kiribati' gekies, die Gilbertese spelling van 'Gilberts', omdat dit meer modern was en as 'n ekwivalent van die voormalige kolonie om die insluiting te erken van Banaba, die Line -eilande en die Phoenix -eilande. Die laaste twee argipels was aanvanklik nooit deur Gilbertese beset totdat die Britse owerhede, en later die Republiek -regering, die Gilbertese daar hervestig het onder hervestigingskemas. [29] [51]

In 1982 is die eerste verkiesing sedert onafhanklikheid gehou. Die wantrouestem het die nuwe verkiesing in 1983 ontlok.

In die era na onafhanklikheid was oorbevolking 'n probleem, ten minste in die oë van die Britse en hulporganisasies. In 1988 is 'n aankondiging gemaak dat 4 700 inwoners van die belangrikste eilandgroep hervestig sal word op minderbevolkte eilande.

In September 1994 is Teburoro Tito van die opposisie tot president verkies.

In 1995 het Kiribati die internasionale datumlyn eensydig ver na die ooste verskuif om die Line Islands -groep te omvat, sodat die land nie meer gedeel sou word deur die datumlyn nie. Die stap, wat aan een van president Tito se veldtogbeloftes voldoen het, was bedoel om besighede in die uitgestrekte land toe te laat om dieselfde sakeweke te hou. Dit het Kiribati ook in staat gestel om die eerste land te word wat die aanbreek van die derde millennium beleef het, 'n gebeurtenis van betekenis vir toerisme. Tito is herkies in 1998. [52]

In 1999 word Kiribati 20 jaar na onafhanklikheid 'n volwaardige lid van die Verenigde Nasies.

In 2002 het Kiribati 'n omstrede wet aanvaar wat die regering in staat gestel het om koerantuitgewers te sluit. Die wetgewing het gevolg op die bekendstelling van Kiribati se eerste suksesvolle koerant wat nie deur die regering bestuur word nie. President Tito is in 2003 herkies, maar is in Maart 2003 uit sy amp onthef deur 'n wantrouestem en deur 'n Staatsraad vervang. Anote Tong van die opposisieparty Boutokaan Te Koaua is verkies om Tito op te volg in Julie 2003. Hy is herkies in 2007 en in 2011. [53]

In Junie 2008 het amptenare van Kiribati Australië en Nieu -Seeland gevra om Kiribati -burgers as permanente vlugtelinge te aanvaar.

Kiribati sal na verwagting die eerste land wees wat al sy grondgebied aan klimaatsverandering verloor. In Junie 2008 het die president van Kiribati, Anote Tong, gesê dat die land 'die punt van geen terugkeer' bereik het nie. Hy het bygevoeg: "Om te beplan vir die dag dat jy nie meer 'n land het nie, is inderdaad pynlik, maar ek dink ons ​​moet dit doen." [54] [55] [56] [57]

In Januarie 2012 is Anote Tong herkies vir 'n derde en laaste opeenvolgende termyn. Begin 2012 het die regering van Kiribati die Natoavatu-landgoed van 2 200 hektaar op die tweede grootste eiland van Fidji, Vanua Levu, gekoop. Destyds is wyd berig [58] [59] [60] dat die regering beplan om die hele bevolking van Kiribati na Fidji te ontruim. In April 2013 het president Tong begin om burgers aan te spoor om die eilande te ontruim en elders te migreer. [61] In Mei 2014 bevestig die kantoor van die president die aankoop van ongeveer 5,460 hektaar grond op Vanua Levu teen 'n koste van 9,3 miljoen Australiese dollar. [62]

In Maart 2016 is Taneti Maamau verkies as die nuwe president van Kiribati. Hy was die vyfde president sedert die land in 1979 onafhanklik geword het. [63] In Junie 2020 het president Maamau herverkiesing vir die tweede termyn van vier jaar gewen. President Maamau word as pro-China beskou en hy ondersteun nouer bande met Beijing. [64]

Die Grondwet van Kiribati, afgekondig op 12 Julie 1979, maak voorsiening vir vrye en oop verkiesings in 'n parlementêre demokratiese republiek.

Die uitvoerende gesag bestaan ​​uit 'n president (te Beretitenti), 'n visepresident en 'n kabinet. Die president, wat ook hoof van die kabinet is, word direk deur die burgers verkies, nadat die wetgewer drie of vier persone uit sy lede aangewys het om kandidate te wees tydens die daaropvolgende presidentsverkiesing. Die president is beperk tot drie termyne van vier jaar en bly 'n lid van die vergadering. Die kabinet bestaan ​​uit die president, vise-president en 13 ministers (aangestel deur die president) wat ook ministers van die parlement is. [65]

Die wetgewende tak is die eensamer Maneaba ni Maungatabu (Volksraad). Die lede word gekies, insluitend deur grondwetlike mandaat, 'n genomineerde verteenwoordiger van die Banaban -mense op die eiland Rabi, Fidji (Banaba, voormalige Oseaan -eiland), benewens tot 2016 die prokureur -generaal, wat as 'n ex officio lid van 1979 tot 2016. Wetgewers dien vir 'n termyn van vier jaar.

Die grondwetlike bepalings vir regspleging is soortgelyk aan dié in ander voormalige Britse besittings deurdat die regbank geen regeringsinmenging het nie. Die geregtelike tak bestaan ​​uit die hooggeregshof (in Betio) en die appèlhof. [65] Die president stel die voorsittende regters aan.

Plaaslike regering is deur middel van eilandrade met verkose lede. Plaaslike aangeleenthede word op soortgelyke wyse hanteer as gemeentevergaderings in koloniale Amerika. Eilandsrade maak hul eie ramings van inkomste en uitgawes [65] en is oor die algemeen vry van sentrale owerheidsbeheer. Daar is 'n totaal van 21 bewoonde eilande in Kiribati. Elke bewoonde eiland het sy eie raad. Sedert onafhanklikheid is Kiribati nie meer in distrikte verdeel nie (sien onderafdelings van Kiribati).

Kiribati het formele politieke partye, maar hul organisasie is redelik informeel. [66] Ad hoc -opposisiegroepe is geneig om oor spesifieke kwessies saam te werk. Daar is algemene stemreg op 18 -jarige ouderdom. [65] Vandag is die enigste herkenbare partye die Boutokaan Kiribati Moa Party, voormalige Boutokaan te Koaua, en Tobwaan Kiribati Party.

Buitelandse betrekkinge Redigeer

Kiribati het noue betrekkinge met sy buurlande in die Stille Oseaan, Australië, Nieu -Seeland, Japan en Fidji. Die eerste drie hiervan verskaf die grootste deel van die land se buitelandse hulp. Taiwan en Japan het ook lisensies vir 'n bepaalde tydperk om in Kiribati se waters te hengel. [65] Daar was drie inwonende diplomatieke missies met die hoofkwartier in Kiribati: die ambassades van die Republiek van China (Taiwan) tot 2019, vervang deur China in 2020 en die hoë kommissies van Australië en Nieu -Seeland. [ wanneer? ]

In November 1999 het Kiribati ingestem om Japan se National Space Development Agency toe te laat om 20 jaar lank grond op Kerseiland te huur, waarop 'n ruimtetuig gebou kan word. [67] Die ooreenkoms het bepaal dat Japan 840 000 dollar per jaar sou betaal en ook skade aan paaie en die omgewing sou betaal. [67] 'n Japanneesgeboude opsporingstasie vir afwaartse rangskikking werk op Kiritimati [68] en 'n verlate vliegveld op die eiland is aangewys as die landingsstrook vir 'n voorgestelde herbruikbare onbemande ruimtetuig genaamd HOPE-X. HOPE-X is egter uiteindelik in 2003 deur Japan gekanselleer. [69]

As een van die wêreld se mees kwesbare lande vir die gevolge van aardverwarming, was Kiribati 'n aktiewe deelnemer aan internasionale diplomatieke pogings rakende klimaatsverandering, veral die UNFCCC -konferensies van die partye (COP). Kiribati is lid van die Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), 'n tussenregeringsorganisasie van laagliggende kus- en klein eilandlande. Die hoofdoel van die alliansie, wat in 1990 gestig is, is om die stemme van Small Island Developing States (SIDS) te konsolideer om aardverwarming aan te spreek. AOSIS was sedert sy ontstaan ​​baie aktief en het die eerste konsepteks in die onderhandelinge oor die Kyoto -protokol reeds in 1994 voorgelê.

In 2009 het president Tong die Climate Vulnerable Forum (V11) in die Maledive bygewoon, saam met 10 ander lande wat kwesbaar is vir klimaatsverandering, en het hy op 10 November 2009 die Bandos -eilandverklaring onderteken om morele leierskap aan die dag te lê en hul ekonomie te vergroot deur vrywillig verbind tot die bereiking van koolstofneutraliteit.

In November 2010 het Kiribati die Tarawa -konferensie vir klimaatsverandering (TCCC) aangebied om die president van Kiribati se inisiatief om 'n konsultatiewe forum tussen kwesbare state en hul vennote te hou, te ondersteun. Die konferensie het daarna gestreef om 'n bemagtigende omgewing te skep vir veelparty-onderhandelinge onder die vaandel van die UNFCCC. Die konferensie was 'n opvolger van die Climate Vulnerable Forum. [70] Die uiteindelike doel van TCCC was om die aantal en intensiteit van foutlyne tussen partye in die COP -proses te verminder, elemente van ooreenkoms tussen die partye te ondersoek en sodoende die bydrae van Kiribati en ander partye tot COP16 in Cancun, Mexiko, te ondersteun, van 29 November tot 10 Desember 2010.

In 2013 het president Tong gepraat van klimaatsverandering wat veroorsaak dat die seevlak styg as 'onvermydelik'. "Vir ons mense om te oorleef, dan sal hulle moet migreer. Óf ons kan wag vir die tyd wanneer ons mense in massa moet skuif, óf ons kan hulle voorberei - van nou af." [71] In New York in 2014, per Die New Yorker, Het president Tong gesê Die New York Times dat "volgens die vooruitskattings, binne hierdie eeu, sal die water hoër wees as die hoogste punt in ons lande". [72] In 2014 het president Tong die aankoop van 'n stuk grond van 20 km2 (7,7 vierkante myl) afgehandel op Vanua Levu, een van die groter Fidji -eilande, 2 000 km daarvandaan. 'N Beweging wat deur Tong beskryf word as 'n' absolute noodsaaklikheid 'as die land heeltemal onder water was. [73]

In 2013 is die aandag gevestig op 'n bewering van 'n Kiribati -man dat hy 'n 'vlugteling teen klimaatsverandering' was ingevolge die konvensie met betrekking tot die status van vlugtelinge (1951). [74] Hierdie eis is egter deur die Nieu -Seelandse hooggeregshof as onhoudbaar bepaal. [75] Die appèlhof in Nieu -Seeland verwerp ook die eis in 'n besluit van 2014. By 'n verdere appèl het die Hooggeregshof in Nieu -Seeland die vroeëre ongunstige uitsprake teen die aansoek om status as vlugteling bevestig, maar verwerp die stelling dat 'agteruitgang van die omgewing as gevolg van klimaatsverandering of ander natuurrampe nooit 'n weg na die vlugtelingkonvensie of jurisdiksie van beskermde persone kan vorm nie ". [76] In 2017 het Kiribati die VN -verdrag oor die verbod op kernwapens onderteken. [77]

Op 20 September 2019 het die regering van Kiribati sy diplomatieke verhouding met die Volksrepubliek China herstel en terselfdertyd sy diplomatieke verhouding met Taiwan gestaak. [78] China het 'n 737 vliegtuig en veerbote na Kiribati aangebied vir die besluit, volgens die minister van buitelandse sake van Taiwan, Joseph Wu. [79]

Wetstoepassing en militêre Redigeer

Wetstoepassing in Kiribati word uitgevoer deur die Kiribati -polisiediens wat verantwoordelik is vir alle wetstoepassing en paramilitêre pligte vir die eilandnasie. Daar is polisiekoste op al die eilande. Die polisie het een patrollieboot, die Pacific-klas patrollieboot RKS Teanoai. [80] Kiribati het geen weermag nie en vertrou op sowel Australië as Nieu -Seeland vir sy verdediging.

Die hoofgevangenis in Kiribati is in Betio, genaamd die Walter Betio -gevangenis. Daar is ook 'n gevangenis in Londen op Kiritimati.

Manlike homoseksualiteit is onwettig in Kiribati, met 'n boete van tot 14 jaar gevangenisstraf, volgens 'n historiese Britse wet, maar hierdie wet word nie toegepas nie. Kiribati het nog nie die leiding van die Verenigde Koninkryk gevolg nie, na aanleiding van sy Wolfenden -verslag, om dade van manlike homoseksualiteit te dekriminaliseer, te begin met bepalings in die Britse Wet op Seksuele Misdrywe 1957. Vroulike homoseksualiteit is wettig, maar lesbiërs kan geweld en diskriminasie in die gesig staar. Werkdiskriminasie op grond van seksuele oriëntasie is egter verbode. [81] [82]


Die klimaat van Tarawa word gedefinieer as 'n tropiese reënwoudklimaat. Matige temperature oorheers die streek tussen April en Oktober, terwyl stormwinde wat uit die weste waai, tussen November en Maart bestendige, deurdringende reën en sterk wind na die streek bring.

Tarawa is die tuiste van 'n verskeidenheid flora en fauna, waaronder 'n magdom seelewe. Die see rondom Tarawa wemel van tropiese visse, skulpvisse en haaie. Kokospalms, piesangbome en papaja -bome is van die vegetatiewe spesies wat op die eiland groei.


Amerikaanse mariniers wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dood is, is uiteindelik huis toe

Rye Amerikaanse kiste wat met vlag bedek is, rus op sypaadjies wat gekraak word deur die meedoënlose hitte van 'n tropiese somerson. Die mariniers in die kiste word dekades lank as 'onherstelbaar' beskou, verlore gegaan oor tyd, geskiedenis en die gesinne wat dit nooit vergeet het nie.

Saterdag - na 10 jaar se navorsing en danksy die vasberadenheid van een man om die militêre tradisie te handhaaf om niemand agter te laat nie - het die oorblyfsels van byna 40 mariniers hul laaste reis huis toe begin.

Dit is die einde van 'n verhaal wat meer as 70 jaar gelede oor 'een vierkante myl van die hel' begin het. Dit is hoe mariniers wat op 20 November 1943 die klein, afgeleë Stille Oseaan -ketting van Tarawa bestorm het, die atol beskryf.

Toe die son daardie dag ondergaan op strande wat deur intense Amerikaanse lugaanvalle geteister is, het die manne van die 2de mariene afdeling in rubberbote en amfibiese trekkers aan wal gegaan, sonder om te verwag dat die Japannese magte die eiland sou verdedig.

Tarawa -atol, Kiribati, word op 'n 2004 -lêerfoto gesien. AP

Dit was 'n noodlottige fout. Die eiland was so sterk versterk met betonbunkers dat 'n Japannese bevelvoerder gespog het dat dit honderd jaar lank 'n miljoen mans sou neem. Marines het die taak in slegs drie dae voltooi, maar nie sonder groot verliese nie.

Meer as 1200 mariniers sterf op Tarawa, en word haastig in tydelike grafte begrawe terwyl die oorlogspoging opruk. Honderde is vandag nog daar begrawe in die huidige Republiek van Keera-Bass, onder erwe, asblikke, selfs varkhokke.

'Dit is nie regtig die konteks wat mense verwag het om vir ewig te rus nie, weet jy, as hulle in die plig van die land sou sterf,' het Mark Noah aan CBS News gesê toe ons die eiland saam met hom besoek het.

Veterane: Eer ons helde

Noah is die stigter van History Flight, 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie sonder winsbejag wat die oorskot van meer as 100 Amerikaanse dienslede wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gesterf het, teruggevind het. A commercial cargo pilot and antique plane enthusiast, Noah began raising money for the charity 10 years ago by offering rides on WWII airplanes in exchange for donations.

This summer, a History Flight recovery team led by archeologist Kristen Baker unearthed a long-forgotten cemetery in Tarawa containing the remains of almost 40 Marines -- possibly the largest single recovery of American military remains ever.

One set of remains has already been positively identified as 1st Lt. Alexander Bonnyman Jr., whose actions in the Battle of Tarawa earned him a posthumous Medal of Honor.

"These brave men made the ultimate sacrifice over 70 years ago," Baker said, "and they deserve the best possible repatriation that we can give them."

"I was very pleased to learn of the discovery of the remains of our Marines on the island of Tarawa -- one of our most significant and contested battles," Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Joseph Dunford, said in a statement. "The lessons learned at Tarawa paved the way for our success in the Pacific campaign and eventual end to the war. We look forward to their return home."

The Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA) took custody of the remains in a repatriation ceremony in Tarawa on Saturday before transporting them to a lab in Hawaii for identification. Once identification is complete, the remains will be returned to their families for burial with full military honors.

For Noah, it's the culmination of a process that has been a worthy, but challenging endeavor.

"There's a little bit of red tape involved in this business of repatriating Americans from battlefields. I say that kind of tongue-in-cheek, because there's a lot of red tape involved in this," Marine Maj. Gen. James W. Lukeman acknowledged during a ceremony honoring Noah's efforts.

At the National Museum of the Marine Corps outside Washington on Friday, just hours before his team repatriated 40 WWII Marines from Tarawa, Noah received special recognition for his work: He became a Marine.

"For bringing our fellow Marines home from the battlefield, it's my honor today to, on behalf of the Commandant, award you the title of honorary Marine," Maj. Gen. Lukeman said, presenting the honor on behalf of the Commandant of the Marine Corps.


Classifying Burials

Tarawa is an interesting case study for data visualization. The two tiny islands where the bulk of the fighting took place – Betio and Bauriki – were dotted with more than forty burial grounds, including single graves and groups of a hundred or more. Attempts to organize these haphazard burials into orderly cemeteries (all while building a functional air base) resulted in the inadvertent loss or destruction of hundreds of remains. Graves Registration troops arriving in 1946 were confounded by “memorial” graves which had little or no indication of who was buried beneath.

The 604th Quartermaster Graves Registration Company worked on Betio and Bauriki from March to May 1946, disinterring the original cemeteries and re-burying the dead in a new temporary location called Lone Palm Cemetery. “During the operation,” said Lt. Ira Eisensmith, “about fifty per cent of the bodies previously reported buried on that Atoll were found, and of that number only about 58% were identified.” (These remains are indicated by red map pins). The remainder were punted to the Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii “CILH” managed to figure out approximately 200 more between 1946 and 1952 (brick map pins).

After tabulating those known to be buried at sea (blue map pins), the rest were declared permanently non-recoverable (black map pins). No concerted effort was made to find those men for several decades, despite the fact that hundreds of families were suffering (and at least three major cemeteries were never found by the 604th QMGRC). But Betio is an inhabited island the locals who lived with the detritus of war frequently found bones while going about their daily lives. Erosion exposed some bones and construction crews found others in 1974, an entire LVT was unearthed and several American bodies removed from its rusted innards. However, these discoveries failed to spark interest.

Fortunately, in recent years non-profit agencies like Mark Noah’s History Flight have taken a serious scientific approach to finding the missing graves, with considerable success. The Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA), in conjunction with the Department of Veterans’ Affairs, has exhumed the remains which stumped CILH in the 1940s modern forensic and DNA testing is now solving decades-old mysteries. The number of missing Marines accounted for (yellow map pins) is growing by the year.


The Stamford Historical Society Presents

The Battles

The Battle of Tarawa

The Battle of Tarawa was fought on Tarawa Atoll from 20 November to 23 November 1943. It was the second offensive of the U.S. in the Pacific, the first being the Guadalcanal Campaign. It was the first battle of the Central Pacific campaign of island hopping to the Japanese mainland. It was also the first time U.S. amphibious landing that faced serious Japanese resistance. The United States forces totaled some 35,000 troops under Rear Admiral Howard F. Kingman and General Holland Smith. The Japanese commander, Rear Admiral Shibasaki Keiji, had 2600 troops, 1000 Japanese workers and 1200 Korean laborers. The reason for taking Tarawa was primarily to set up airbases where bombers could be stationed for the future campaigns against the Marshall and Mariana islands. The heavily garrisoned island of Betio of Tarawa Atoll was the key target. It was 3 miles long and 1/2 mile wide.

The Japanese were aware of the strategic location of the Gilbert Islands and had fortified Tarawa well, constructing redoubts and elaborate defenses for the garrison of 2600 Imperial Marines. Fourteen coastal defense guns, some eight inch guns in the mix, were in concrete bunkers around the island. A total of 500 pillboxes, log stockades and 40 artillery pieces were also on the island. An airfield had been constructed on the high point of the island as well. Trenches crisscrossed the island. Betio Island itself was shaped like a triangle with the point to the east, base to the west and the atoll&rsquos lagoon to the north and east. Deep waters off the ocean side precluded landing at this point. The Japanese built a huge wall just in from the high tide line on the lagoon side, which was reinforced by a series of machine gun posts and pillboxes.

The American invasion force consisted of 17 aircraft carriers, 12 battleships, eight heavy and four light cruisers, 66 destroyers and 36 transports. The force carried the 2nd Marine Division and part of the 27 Infantry Division, a total of 35,000 Marines and Soldiers. On 20 November the Naval forces commenced shelling while dive-bombers targeted positions on the shore. Most of the larger Japanese guns were destroyed, and given the narrowness of the island, at most places only a few hundred yards wide, the entire island was covered with craters. No one was thought to have survived the shelling. Landing points along the north shore beaches were designated Red 1 to 3, one being the westernmost and three to the east.

The first landing was disastrous as the assault boats got caught on a reef 500 yards off shore. Japanese guns fired at the Marines, who were forced to abandon their boats and wade ashore through sharp coral to the beach, where they were pinned down by enemy fire. A small number of amphibious tractors made it over the reef, but many were also knocked out. Subsequent landing attempts of tanks were unsuccessful. Although more men did land and an advance was made along the front, it was very costly. Out of 5,000 men landed the first day, some 1500 were dead and wounded. Japanese communication lines were down, so according to the Bushido Code each group of Japanese soldiers had to fight to the death, or suicide. Some enemy soldiers swam out to stranded Higgins Landing craft and fired on Marines from behind.

During 21 November the ocean side of the island was taken more easily by using Naval shelling to take out the Japanese gun emplacements. Operations along Red 2 and 3 continued to be difficult. By mid-afternoon the airstrip was taken, however. By 22 November the Japanese had been driven into small pockets. They attempted a counterattack in the evening with small groups attempting to infiltrate the U.S. area, but they were beaten and an assault never materialized. By 23 November a last ditch offensive by the Japanese was made and after a short, one hour long battle 200 of the 300 attackers were dead. The clean up operation on the other islet of Tarawa continued till 28 November.

American casualties totaled 1056 killed and 2200 wounded. Japanese forces suffered much greater losses with 4690 killed, 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed.

Inleiding
Veterans
Gevegte
Stamford Service Rolls
Tuis Front
Exhibit Photos
Openings dag


Tarawa atoll has three administrative subdivisions:

  • Teinainano Urban Council (or TUC), from Bairiki to Bonriki, known in English as South Tarawa, the capital of the Republic of Kiribati
  • Betio Town Council (or BTC), on Betio Islet
  • North Tarawa or Tarawa Ieta (all the islets on the east side north of Bonriki).

The main administrative centre for the Republic of Kiribati is located at Bairiki on South Tarawa. The Parliament meets on Ambo islet and some administration offices are on Betio Islet and in Bikenibeu and one is located on Kiritimati.


Remembering Bloody, Bloody Tarawa

“Casualties many percentage of dead not known combat efficiency: We are winning.” Seventy-seven years ago Colonel David Shoup’s report to General Julian Smith would enter Marine Corps lore on bloody, bloody Tarawa. The battle would conclude in an American victory, but at a steep cost. The attack on Betio, the largest and southernmost island in the Tarawa atoll, required a direct assault on the beachheads by U.S. Marines. Protected by coral reefs, the flat, small island was one of the most heavily fortified in the Pacific, and because of the island’s geography, the nearly 5,000 Marines would have no immediate room to maneuver. Landing on November 20, 1943, the Marines were met with withering fire, poured out by elite troops of the Imperial Navy’s Special Naval Landing Force, sometimes called “Japanese Marines.” The lethal hailstorm of mortars, machine gun and rifle fire threatened to halt the advance of the Marines. From this precarious position, General Smith radioed General Holland Smith midafternoon stating: “Successful landings on Beaches Red 2 and 3. Toehold on Red 1. The situation is in doubt.” By the end of the first day, the Marines had a tenuous hold on all three landing zones – designated Red 1, Red 2, and Red 3. Corralled onto the narrow beaches, no units had penetrated more than 70 yards inshore and by nightfall, being driven back into the sea was a legitimate threat.

However, by some stroke of luck, the commander of the Japanese garrison, Rear Admiral Keiji Shibakazi, frustrated with his inability to contact his men in the field, ordered his command post to move to the south side of the island. By a twist of fate, a fluke, or skill one of the U.S. destroyers managed to lob a 5-inch shell directly in the commander’s path as he left his concrete blockhouse – instantly killing him and several other senior officers. The death of Shibakazi essentially cut off the head of the Japanese command structure, which is seemingly why the Japanese could not coordinate an early banzai charge. If they had, it is likely that the Americans would have lost their fragile toehold on the beachheads.

Aware of their perilous position as a new day dawned, the Marines fought with extraordinary courage, many fighting despite being wounded several times. The fighting on day two is considered to be one of the toughest battles in Marine Corps history. However, by day three, Japanese resistance had largely collapsed, leaving only rogue snipers and small pockets of fanatical fighters. The Japanese had boasted that it would take a million men and 100 years to take the island. The Marines took it in three days.

Since then, it has become the mission of the non-profit organization History Flight to recover the remains of missing American service members on Tarawa. The organization has recovered the remains of 272 individuals since 2015, most recently finding the graves of more than 30 Marines and sailors this past March. History Flight, under contract with the Defense Department, estimates that there are still at least 270 remains to be found.


5 US Marines who went above & beyond the call of duty

Posted On April 29, 2020 15:59:32

The U.S. Marine Corps is rooted in tradition, discipline, and legacy — both on and off the battlefield. For their 244th birthday, we put together a short but noble list of badass Devil Dogs that you may not have heard of before!

From Marine Raiders in the Pacific to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officers in North Africa to a World Series champion and a Hollywood heartthrob — this list reminds us that Marines are some of the best the United States has to offer.

1. William A. Eddy

William A. Eddy was an enigmatic figure. He was well-traveled, well-spoken, and had knowledge that many Americans during World War II lacked: an immersion in Islamic culture. Eddy was the son of missionaries and spent his childhood in Sidon, Syria (now Lebanon). He later immigrated to the United States and received an education from Princeton University.

At Princeton, Eddy studied 18th-century literature and Islamic customs, and he developed a fascination with “Gulliver’s Travels” from author Jonathan Swift. During World War I, he exchanged academia for bravery when he was awarded the Navy Cross, the Distinguished Service Cross, two Silver Stars, two Purple Hearts, and the French Fourragère as an intelligence officer. The Battle of Belleau Wood left him severely wounded when an explosive shell peppered his hip, an injury that plagued him for life.

Following the war, Eddy took a job teaching English at American University in Cairo, Egypt, and taught basketball and tennis to students after hours. He wrote the first basketball rulebook in Arabic. In 1941, after professors resigned in protest because of his school curriculum, Eddy said, “College presidency is a job with which I am definitely out of love. I want to be a Marine.” A year later he was commissioned as a major in the Marine Corps, and William Donovan — the founder of the OSS — gave him a cover job as a naval attachè. This cover provided him the access needed to lead all Allied Intelligence across North Africa.

In 1944, he resigned from the Marines to pursue a career that would enhance his love for research, writing, and building relationships. President Franklin Roosevelt asked him to become minister plenipotentiary to Saudi Arabia. Since he spent much of his childhood in the Middle East, Eddy was proficient in the Arabic, French, and German languages. All three are spoken in North Africa, which was an asset in his diplomatic career. He once personally acted as a translator between Roosevelt and King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia on the deck of a naval destroyer in the Suez Canal. At the time, he was the only person who could speak both English and Arabic.

A year later, he served in Yemen to develop a U.S. treaty despite not being allies. From 1946 to 1947, he served as special assistant to the secretary of state and was in charge of research and intelligence. When Eddy wasn’t pioneering rapports with Middle Eastern leaders, he and his wife, Mary, enjoyed birdwatching, skiing in Switzerland, and aimlessly traveling the deserts of Lebanon and Beirut. In 1962, he died from a sudden illness at 66 years old. Eddy left behind a legacy as an Arabian Knight who secured the U.S.-Saudi alliance, as well as a war hero, intelligence officer, teacher, and diplomat.

2. Evans Carlson “Carlson’s Raiders”

Like many Marines, Evans Carlson gained his education and life experience through intense combat. Military historian John Wukovitz referred to Carlson as “an intellectual who loved combat a high school dropout who quoted Emerson a thin, almost fragile-looking man who relished fifty-mile hikes an officer in a military organization that touted equality among officers and enlisted a kindly individual with the capacity to kill the product of small New England towns who sought adventure in vast reaches of the world a man who believed in decency and love and fairness, but whose actions generated bitterness hatred and empathy.”

After running away from his Vermont home at age 14 and lying about his age at 16, Carlson enlisted in the Army in 1910 and matured as a man in a time of war. His duration in the Army was short, though worth noting because his service in the Pacific resulted in many promotions. He advanced to sergeant major and later was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant, deploying to Europe just in time for the armistice agreement to be approved. In 1919, he left the Army and mingled around the civilian world before enlisting in the Marine Corps with a reduced rank.

Evans Carlson in uniform with a chest full of medals from his time in 2nd Raider Battalion.

As an officer, Carlson proved himself in Nicaragua with a team of just 12 Marines. They repelled 100 bandits, and he was awarded his first Navy Cross. Later, between 1937 and 1939, he was a witness to the developments of the Chinese army. While living among their forces, Carlson traveled thousands of miles on horseback through difficult terrain. He jotted down his findings and studied the tactics of Japanese foot soldiers. As an author of two books — “The Chinese Army” and “Twin Stars of China” — Carlson was an advocate for the Chinese, who he thought could be an ally in the Pacific against the aggressive Japanese military.

In 1941, he led the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion and called his unit the “Kung-ho (Work Together)” or “Gung-ho Battalion.” Others called them Carlson’s Raiders. He valued each man by their merit, not by their title. Carlson utilized his past experiences from his three trips to China to build rapport with allied-native forces and hit the Japanese in shock-and-awe violence.

While aboard two submarines — the USS Nautilus SS-168 and the USS Argonaut SM-1 — traveling from Pearl Harbor, the Marine Raiders were tasked with a secret mission to attack the island of Butaritari (sometimes referred to as Makin Island). Although they trained for this mission using light rubber boats, Murphy’s Law always has a say in real-world operations. At 3:30 AM, the Raiders launched 20 boats from the submarine — 11 men each — into the heavy surf and rain. Some of the equipment, such as mortars and mission essential supplies, were lost at sea because they weren’t tied down.

Adding to the confusion, one soldier accidentally discharged his weapon, which erased the element of surprise. Carlson phoned the submarine on the radio with a SITREP and said, “Everything lousy.” Alongside legendary Chinese Marine Sergeant Victor Maghakian — who served in the famed Shanghai Municipal Police — the Raiders successfully deceived the Japanese into believing this amphibious landing was the main assault, thus drawing attention from Guadalcanal. For his decisive leadership, Carlson received a Gold Star for his second Navy Cross.

In November, the Carlson’s Raiders reached Guadalcanal and hiked 18 miles through dense jungle foliage. This hike was later called Carlson’s patrol or the long patrol and has since reached legendary battlefield status. Led by native scouts — and in just 29 days — 488 Japanese soldiers were killed, 16 Americans killed in action (KIA), and 18 Americans wounded. The success of the operation was largely due to the guerilla warfare tactics the unit employed, the understanding of the Japanese fight-to-the-death mantra, and the effectiveness of small units and their capabilities.

3. Merritt A. Edson

Merritt A. Edson’s path was similar to Evans Carlson’s. Both were commanders of a Marine Raider Battalion — Edson leading the 1st and Carlson leading the 2nd. Prior to World War II, Edson pursued an aviation career but made the transition as a grunt from 1928 to 1929. During that span, he fought 12 separate ground engagements against Nicaraguan bandits, which earned him his first Navy Cross. This is where his nickname, “Red Mike,” was born because he wore a long, red beard during the fighting. This is also where his platoon of specially trained Marines honed a capability they would use during World War II.

Edson is most notably remembered for his heroism on what was later described as “Edson’s Ridge” (Lunga Ridge) near the captured Japanese airfield later renamed Henderson Field on Guadalcanal on Sept. 13-14, 1942. Edson’s Raider Battalion, enforced with two companies from the 1st Parachute Regiment, were hunkered down to rest on a warm August evening. A numerically superior force of 2,500 heavily armed and determined Japanese launched an all-out ambush that initially overwhelmed the estimated 800 Marines. Edson called for his men to push back to avoid being overrun.

Merritt “Red Mike” Edson, Medal of Honor Recipient and Marine Raider during World War II.

Edson told his Marines to prepare for their final stand as they began mowing down the waves of charging Japanese soldiers. They effectively repelled the attack, and Edson’s fierce leadership was awarded with the Medal of Honor. After World War II, Edson was promoted to major general before retiring from the military in 1947. However, his service didn’t end there — he became the first commissioner of the Vermont State Police, the state in which he grew up. The state police uniform was modeled after the Marines, and the troopers were structured in a paramilitary-type ranking system. When Bennington College student Paula Weldon disappeared in 1946, Edson helped establish the Department of Public Safety. The case has remained unsolved, but it was a driving force in creating an organization to effectively solve crimes in a unified manner rather than allocating help from outside state and federal resources.

Edson’s practices and innovation in the police force encouraged other departments and agencies to follow suit. In 1948, the first state police radio system allowed stations and patrol cars to communicate with each other. And in 1949, an Identification and Records Division was established, which ultimately changed the future of policing. After four years of dedicated service, Edson retired in 1951. Four years later, he committed suicide by carbonmonoxide poisoning in the garage of his home in Washington, D.C. At the time, he was working for the National Rifle Association.

4. Sterling Hayden

To his fellow Marines, Hollywood heartthrob Sterling Hayden was known by his alias, John Hamilton. At age 22, Hayden had already secured a master’s certificate in sailing, and his passion was at sea. He used his acting career to fund his adventurous sea voyages. “I just laughed it off at the time,” he said in an interview in 1972. “But a year or so later, when I had finally managed to buy my own ship only to see her irreparably damaged on her first voyage, a few months in Hollywood seemed like a quick and easy way to get enough dough and buy another one.”

Hayden thought his acting chops were lacking and was waiting for someone to tap him on the shoulder and ask what he was doing there. Others, especially women, saw a 6-foot-4, blonde, and handsome character actor with a soft smile who was easy on the eyes. He married British actress Madeleine Carroll, who was known for her roles in Alfred Hitchcock’s 󈬗 Steps” and “Secret Agent.” The pair were a fair match as both had resentments about Hollywood, but for Hayden, who grew up idolizing World War I ace fighter pilot Eddie Rickenbacker, more adventures were waiting. He was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in the Marines during World War II as a secret intelligence and paramilitary organization was being created for which they were in search of Marines with advanced skills.

Sterling Hayden at the helm of the Wanderer.

(Photo courtesy of Sausalito Historical Society.)

In order to operate undercover at the OSS, he adopted an alias, which was common practice for OSS officers. As John Hamiliton, Hayden was sent to commando school in Britain to learn parachute skills and tradecraft from the Special Operations Executive (SOE). He then assumed his pastime as a sailor, except this time he was running guns through German-patrolled waters to Josip Broz Tito’s partisan forces in Yugoslavia. From Christmas Eve 1943 to Jan. 2, 1944, Captain Hamilton operated clandestine missions through hazardous waters and scouted enemy positions for reconnaissance. He was awarded the Silver Star for his actions.

When Hamilton first met OSS officers, he said it was “the first time since joining the OSS that I was associated with men who were actually doing a job.” Hamilton later sailed another mission carrying food and nourishment to the Yugoslav people, who were cut off from outside assistance. Captaining a 50-foot Italian fishing vessel, their crew crept through the Adriatic Sea off the Albanian coast completely unarmed. Between February and April, they made 10 trips. Hayden later commented: “By plunging through the Allied minefield late of an afternoon a schooner always had a fighting chance of reaching Vis at dawn—barely in time to be backed into a precipitous cove where she could be hastily camouflaged with pine boughs festooned in her rigging, unloaded the following night, the camouflage repeated, and then driven toward Italy as soon as the weather served.”

In the summer, he was tasked with transporting 40 tons of explosives near the shores of Croatia, but the mission was passed to the SOE at the last minute. When the war ended, Hayden returned to his old habits, sailing the world with legendary seafarer Spike Africa and his children, writing of his adventures in his popular autobiography “Wanderer” and his novel “Voyage,” and acting in popular movies. He appeared in “The Godfather” as the chief of police and in Stanley Kubrick’s “The Killing” and “Dr. Strangelove.” He died in 1986 at age 70.

5. Hank Bauer

Hank Bauer was a New York Yankees all-star who played on the same team as baseball icons Joe DiMaggio, Yogi Berra, and Mickey Mantle. One sportswriter described him as having “a face like a clenched fist.” Bauer holds the record for the longest hitting streak in World Series history, with at least one hit in 17 consecutive games. He is also a World Series Champion, both as a player and as a manager for the Baltimore Orioles.

Despite all his success as an athlete, Bauer said his brother, Herman, who was killed in action in France in 1944 during World War II, was the family’s best player. Like his brother, Bauer served during the war, but with the elite unit known as the Marine Raiders. While serving with the 4th Raider Battalion in the Pacific, Bauer’s immune system had a problem with malaria — or that’s what outsiders would tell you, since he contracted and fought the disease 23 times. This was largely due to his stubbornness as he refused to take atabrine pills to prevent it.

Bauer saw action on the islands of New Georgia, located north of Guadalcanal, and he recalled it as “indescribable — the worst [place he had] ever seen.” As the Marines island-hopped across the Pacific, Bauer was wounded by shrapnel on two separate occasions. During the Battle of Okinawa, Bauer was the platoon leader for 64 Marines. Only six of them survived the hellacious fighting. In 32 months of combat, he was awarded two Bronze Stars and two Purple Hearts.

Steve Fredericks, one of the Marines in Bauer’s platoon, said, “On Guadalcanal when things quieted down, he had a baseball glove and I’d go out and have a catch with him. You could tell he played, but it didn’t enter my mind [that he could be professional]. When I got back to the states I heard him on the radio and watched him on TV. But it didn’t surprise me he was built. He was all muscle. He was a strong man.”

This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.


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